Chronography of Books Technology, production (also here alphabets, pens, paper, typewriters, public libraries
Page last modified 27/2/2021
For writing as an art, see written arts
8/5/2021, Spencer Silver, co-inventor of the Post It note (with Arthur Fry), died (born 6/2/1941).
16/3/1993, A patent was granted for ‘repositionable pressure-sensitive adhesive sheet material’, or Post-It Notes.
1968, The weak adhesive used on Post-It notes was first made by Spencer Silver at 3M Laboratories. Oit was heat resistant and left no residue, but was far too weak to have any practical use. In 1974 a fellow chemist, Arthur Fry, attended one of Silver’s seminars, but also failed to see a use fot the new weak adhesive, until later on in church Fry was struggling to keep his paper bookmarks from falling out of his hymnbook. In the late 1970s 3M targeted offices with free samples, using yellow paper borrowed from another laboratoiry, and in 1979 the Post It note (first sold from 1977) became a commercial success.
19/9/1968, Death of Chester Carlson, US inventor of the Xerox photocopier.
10/6/1943. The ball point pen was patented by its inventor, a Hungarian called Laszlo Biro. He had devised a prototype pen that would not blot in 1938, but fled to Paris and then Argentina in 1940, to escape the Nazis. In 1944 the RAF began using the pens as they were not affected by low air pressure in aircraft.
26/12/1931, Melvil Dewey, inventor of a classification system for library books, died.
1924, The spiral bound notebook was first produced.
12/1/1897, Sir Isaac Pitman, who invented phonetic shorthand in 1837, died in Somerset aged 84.
17/2/1890, Christopher Sholes, American inventor of the typewriter, died in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
30/10/1888, The first patent for a ball point pen was issued to the American, John H Loud.
7/6/1886, Richard Hoe, inventor of an improved printing press, died (born 12/9/1812).
24/1/1888, Jacob L Wortmann patented the typewriter ribbon
1873, Remington began producing typewriters. In 1878 he added a SHIFT key, so lower case and capital letters could be typed.
1843, The typewriter was invented by Thurber.
5/1/1873, Joseph Gillott, English pen maker, died (born 11/10/1799).
6/1/1852, Louis Braille, who invented the raised-dot system of writing used by the blind, died.
1842, Sir William Herschel, astronomer, patented the blueprinting process, or cyanotyping. A sheet of paper was coated in chemical, dyed to a bronze colour, then left in contact with the drawing to be copied under glasss in the sunlight. The paper turned blue with a white image of the drawing lines. The process was cheap, the prints lomg-lasting, and could be done by anybody.
10/12/1851, Melvil Dewey, US librarian who devised a system of library cataloguing, was born in Adams Centre, New York State.
27/5/1842, The first public library was opened, in Frederick Street, Salford, Manchester.
1709, Between 1558 and 1709 some 165 ‘parish libraries’ had been set up in England. They mostly contained ecclestiacal books though later ones oincreasingly hosted secular works also. They were not universally accessible to all, but had varied rules on who was entitles to use them. Some were for the use of the clergy only; others allowed non-clergy to visit, but only if they were of sufficient social standing. Some were located in churches )often on upper floors, (accessible only by steep narrow apiral stairs), where all could read the volujmes; however the volumes were chained to the shelves to prevent theft, making reading of them uncomfortable. The earliest libraries contained many works in Latin, but gradually English works became more common.
15/11/1837. Isaac Pitman’s stenographic shorthand, the first shorthand system, was published, price 4d.
27/9/1822, French linguist Jean Francois Champollion decipehered the Rosetts Stone, paving the way for translating Egyptian hieroglyphics.
14/2/1819. American inventor Christopher Latham Stokes, who invented an early typewriter, was born near Mooresburg, Pennsylvania.
4/1/1813, Isaac Pitman, who invented phonetic shorthand, was born in Trowbridge, Wiltshire.
12/9/1812, Richard Hoe, inventor of an improved printing press, was born (died 7/6/1886).
4/1/1809, Louis Braille, French benefactor of the blind, was born in Coupvray, near Paris.
7/10/1806. Ralph Wedgewood of London patented carbon paper. In the 1820s Wedgwood had a successful business selling his invention at 4 Rathbone Place, near Oxford Street, London.
1801, A machine for making a continuous roll of paper was patented by Francois Didot; his employee, Louis Robert, had produced the machine in 1799.
1799, The Rosetta Stone was discovered in Egypt.
11/10/1799, Joseph Gillott, English pan maker, was born (died 5/1/1873).
8/1/1775, John Baskerville, printer, died (born in Wolverley, Worcestershire 28/1/1706).
1737, Pierre Simon Fournier introduced the point system for measuring type font sizes.
28/1/1706, John Baskerville, printer, was born in Wolverley, Worcestershire (died 8/1/1775).
1660, A pencil factory was opened in Nuremberg, by Freidrich Stadtler.
1435, Moveable type was first used at Haarlem.
1417, Moveable type was first used at Antwerp.
1381, Moveable type was first used in Europe, at Limoges.
1320, Paper making began at Mainz, and soon thereafter also started at Cologne, Nuremberg, Ratisbon and Augsburg.
1293, Paper making began at Fabriano, in the Italian province of Ancona.
1289, Block printing began for the first time in Europe, at Ravenna.
1276, Paper making began at Montefano, Italy.
1189, A paper mill opened at Herault, France, the first such mill in Christian Europe. Earlier paper mills existed in Moslem Spain. However paper remained very rare with vellum parchment as virtually the only material available to write upon. The innovation of paper broke the monastic monopoly on manuscripts and other written communoications.
1144, Papermaking began in Xativah (now Sab Felipe), a small town near Valencia, Spain. First papermaking in Europe.
11/5/868, The world’s first printed book, the Diamond Sutra, was published in China. It was found in 1900.
768, Arabs in Samarkand learned the secret of paper production from Chinese prisoners of war. The technology then reached the West.
360, Scrolls began to be replaced by books.
250 BCE, Parchment was produced, at Pergamum.
1400 BCE, First alphabets in use, in the Middle East.