Chronography of events from 2137 BCE to 31 December 699

Page last modified 17/11//2022

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/700 click here

 

1/1/700, Thursday (-454,851)

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8/5/699, Thursday (-455,089)

23/3/699, Sunday (-455,135) Easter Sunday.

1/1/699, Wednesday (-455,216)

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8/5/698, Wednesday (-455,454)

Tuesday (-455,455)

7/4/698, Sunday (-455,485) Easter Sunday.

1/1/698, Tuesday (-455,581) week 65,083

8/5/697, Tuesday (-455,819)

15/4/697, Sunday (-455,842) Easter Sunday.

1/1/697, Monday (-455,946)

8/5/696, Monday (-456,184)

Tuesday (-456,456)

26/3/696, Sunday (-456,227) Easter Sunday.

1/1/696, Saturday (-456,312)

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8/5/695, Saturday (-456,550)

11/4/695, Sunday (-456,577) Easter Sunday.

1/1/695, Friday (-456,677)

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25/12/694, Friday (-456,684)

9/11/694, Monday (-456,730) Hispano-Visigothic king Egica accused the Jews of aiding the Muslims, and sentenced all Jews to slavery.

8/5/694, Friday (-456,915)

19/4/694, Sunday (-456,934) Easter Sunday.

1/1/694, Thursday (-457,042)

8/5/693, Thursday (-457,280)

30/3/693, Sunday (-457,319) Easter Sunday.

1/1/693, Wednesday (-457,407)

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Tuesday (-457,457)

8/5/692, Wednesday (-457,645)

14/4/692, Sunday (-457,669) Easter Sunday

1/1/692, Monday (-457,773)

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8/5/691, Monday (-458,011)

23/4/691, Sunday (-458,026) Easter Sunday.

1/1/691, Sunday (-458,138)

8/5/690, Sunday (-458,376)

3/4/690, Sunday (-458,411) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-458,458)

1/1/690, Saturday (-458,503)

8/5/689, Saturday (-458,741)

11/4/689, Sunday (-458,768) Easter Sunday.

1/1/689, Friday (-458,868)

8/5/688, Friday (-459,106)

29/3/688, Sunday (-459,146) Easter Sunday.

1/1/688, Wednesday (-459,234)

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Tuesday (-459,459)

8/5/687, Wednesday (-459,472)

7/4/687, Sunday (-459,503) Easter Sunday.

20/3/687, Wednesday (-459,521) Cuthbert died on Farne Island.

1/1/687, Tuesday (-459,599) week 65,657

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31/8/686, Friday (-459,722) King Eadric of Kent was deposed by Caedwalla King of Wessex, who installed his brother Mul as King. Mul was not accepted, being regarded as a usurper, and was burnt to death in 687 and then Kent was ruled by Sigehere of the East Saxons (Essex).

10/8/686, Friday (-459,743)

10/7/686, Tuesday (-459,774)

8/5/686, Tuesday (-459,837)

15/4/686, Sunday (-459,860) Easter Sunday.

1/1/686, Monday (-459,964)

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20/5/685, Saturday (-460,190) Ecgfrith, King of Northumbria, died at the Battle of Nechtansmere, north of the River Tay, fighting the Picts. Most of the Northumbrian army was killed and Northumbria was now in decline. English settlement was now restricted to south of the River Forth, with Edinburgh as a border fortress.

8/5/685, Monday (-460,202)

26/3/685, Sunday (-460,245) Easter Sunday.

6/2/685, Monday (-460,293) Death of King Hlothhere of Kent. Accession of King Eadric.

1/1/685, Sunday (-460,329)

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25/12/683, Sunday (-460,336)

26/11/684, Saturday (-460,365) A great earthquake struck Japan. 5,000 square kilometres of land were reputedly swallowed up by the sea at this event.

Tuesday (-460,460)

8/5/684, Sunday (-460,567)

10/4/684, Sunday (-460,595) Easter Sunday.

1/1/684, Friday (-460,695)

8/5/683, Friday (-460,933)

19/4/683, Sunday (-460,952) Easter Sunday.

1/1/683, Thursday (-461,060)

8/5/682, Thursday (-461,298)

30/3/682, Sunday (-461,337) Easter Sunday.

1/1/682, Wednesday (-461,425)

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Tuesday (-461,461)

8/5/681, Wednesday (-461,663)

14/4/681, Sunday (-461,687) Easter Sunday

1/1/681, Tuesday (-461,790)

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25/12/680, Tuesday (-461,797)

23/10/680, Tuesday (-461,860)

10/10/680. Wednesday (-461,873) Al-Husayn, son of Ali, was killed in battle at Kerbala. He was fighting a rival caliph (successor), Yazid, a Sunni Moslem of the Ummayad dynasty. His death gave birth to Shi�ism; a dissident group of Moslems who claimed that only the descendants of Mohammed can rightfully interpret the Koran. They saw Al-Husayn as a martyr.

8/5/680, Tuesday (-462,028)

25/3/680, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

1/1/680, Sunday (-462,156)

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8/5/679, Sunday (-462,394)

3/4/679, Sunday (-462,429) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-462,462)

1/1/679, Saturday (-462,521)

8/5/678, Saturday (-462,759)

18/4/678, Sunday (-462,779) Easter Sunday.

1/1/678, Friday (-462,886)

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8/5/677, Friday (-463,124)

29/3/677, Sunday (-463,164) Easter Sunday.

1/1/677, Thursday (-463,251)

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18/8/676, Monday (-463,387)

8/8/676, Sunday (-463,395) Death of St Colman, Bishop of Lindisfarne from 661. An Irish monk, he attended the Synod of Whitby in 664, where he supported the Celtic method of calculating Easter date against the Roman, but was overruled by King Oswy.

16/6/676, Monday (-463,450) Pope Adeodatus II (77th Pope) died, succeeded by Pope Donus (died 678)

Tuesday (-463,463)

8/5/676, Thursday (-463,489)

6/4/676, Sunday (-463,521) Easter Sunday

1/1/676, Tuesday (-463,617) week 66,231

8/5/675, Tuesday (-463,855)

22/4/675, Sunday (-463,871) Easter Sunday.

1/1/675, Monday (-463,982)

8/5/674, Monday (-464,220)

2/4/674, Sunday (-464,256) Easter Sunday.

1/1/674, Sunday (-464,347)

Tuesday (-464,464)

4/7/673, Saturday (-464,530) Egbert I, King of Kent, died. Accession of King Hlothhere (Clothaire).

8/6/673, Wednesday (-464,554)

8/5/673, Sunday (-464,585)

10/4/673, Sunday (-464,613) Easter Sunday.

1/1/673, Saturday (-464,712)

8/5/672, Saturday (-464,950)

25/4/672, Sunday (-464,963) Easter Sunday.

11/4/672, Sunday (-464,977) Pope Adeodatus II (77th Pope) acceded. He ruled until 676.

1/1/672, Thursday (-465,078)

8/5/671, Thursday (-465,316)

6/4/671, Sunday (-465,348) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-465,465)

8/5/670, Wednesday (-465,681)

14/4/670, Sunday (-465,705) Easter Sunday

15/2/670, Friday (-465,763) Death of King Oswy of Bernicia (northern England). Born ca. 612, son of King Aedilfrith of Bernicia,, he became king in 642. He attempted to gain control of the neighbouring Kingdom of Deira.

1/1/670, Tuesday (-465,808) week 66,544

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8/5/669, Tuesday (-466,046)

25/3/669, Sunday (-466,090) ) Easter Sunday.

23/3/669, Friday (-466,092)

2/1/669, Tuesday (-466,172)

1/1/669, Monday (-466,173)

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26/12/668, Tuesday (-466,179)

1/12/668, Friday (-466,204)

1/11/668, Wednesday (-466,234)

1/10/668, Sunday (-466,265)

1/8/668, Tuesday (-466,326)

15/7/668, Saturday (-466,343) Byzantine Emperor Constans was assassinated in his bath. He was succeeded by his sons Constantine IV Pogonatus, Heraclius, and Tiberius, whom he had named as co-emperors.

15/5/668, Monday (-466,404)

8/5/668, Monday (-466,411)

9/4/668, Sunday (-466,440) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-466,466)

1/1/668, Saturday (-466,539)

8/5/667, Saturday (-466,777)

18/4/667, Sunday (-466,797) Easter Sunday.

1/1/667, Friday (-466,904)

8/5/666, Friday (-467,142)

29/3/666, Sunday (-467,182)) Easter Sunday.

1/1/666, Thursday (-467,269)

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Tuesday (-467,467)

8/5/665, Thursday (-467,507)

6/4/665, Sunday (-467,539) Easter Sunday.

1/1/665, Wednesday (-467,634)

14/7/664, Sunday (-467,805) Death of King Earconbert of Kent. Accession of King Egbert.

10/7/664, Wednesday (-467,809)

8/5/664, Wednesday (-467,872)

21/4/664, Sunday (-467,889) Easter Sunday.

1/1/664, Monday (-468,000)

8/5/663, Monday (-468,238)

2/4/663, Sunday (-468,274) Easter Sunday.

1/1/663, Sunday (-468,365)

Tuesday (-468,468)

8/5/662, Sunday (-468,603)

10/4/662, Sunday (-468,631) Easter Sunday.

1/1/662, Saturday (-468,730)

8/5/661, Saturday (-468,968)

28/3/661, Sunday (-469,009) Easter Sunday.

24/1/661, Sunday (-469,072) (Islam) Caliph Ali was assassinated in Mesopotamia by a former follower. He was succeeded by Muawiyah, who moved the seat of government to Damascus and founded the Umayyad Dynasty, which ruled until 750. Supporters of the late Ali, and his son Husayn, became known as Shiites.

1/1/661, Friday (-469,095)

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8/5/660, Friday (-469,333)

5/4/660, Sunday (-469,366) Easter Sunday.

1/1/660, Wednesday (-469,461)

Tuesday (-469,469)

8/5/659, Wednesday (-469,699)

14/4/659, Sunday (-469,723) Easter Sunday

1/1/659, Tuesday (-469,826) week 67,118

8/5/658, Tuesday (-470,064)

25/3/658, Sunday (-470,108) Easter Sunday.

1/1/658, Monday (-470,191)

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8/5/657, Monday (-470,429)

Tuesday (-470,470)

9/4/657, Sunday (-470,458) Easter Sunday.

1/1/657, Sunday (-470,556)

1/11/656, Thursday (-470,615)

1/7/656, Friday (470,740)

17/6/656, Friday (-470,754) Uthman, the third Caliph (khalifa, meaning both �successor� and �deputy to God) was assassinated. Ali, Muhammed�s younger cousin and son-in-law, became Caliph.

13/5/656, Friday (-470,789)

8/5/656, Sunday (-470,794)

16/4/656, Sunday (-470,815) Easter Sunday.

1/3/656, Tuesday (-470,862)

1/2/656, Monday (-470,891)

1/1/656, Friday (-470,922)

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25/12/655, Friday (-470,929)

23/10/655, Friday (-470,992)

16/9/655, Wednesday (-471,029) Pope Martin I died.

8/5/655, Friday (-471,160)

29/3/655, Sunday (-471,200) Easter Sunday.

1/1/655, Thursday (-471,287)

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Tuesday (-471,471)

8/5/654, Thursday (-471,525)

13/4/654, Sunday (-471,550) Easter Sunday

1/1/652, Wednesday (-471,652)

8/5/653, Wednesday (-471,890)

21/4/653, Sunday (-471,907) Easter Sunday.

1/1/653, Tuesday (-472,017) week 67,431

8/5/652, Tuesday (-472,255)

1/5/652, Tuesday (-472,262)

1/4/652, Sunday (-472,292) Easter Sunday.

1/1/652, Sunday (-472,383)

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Tuesday (-472,472)

31/8/651, Wednesday (-472,506) Saint Aidan, missionary and first bishop of Lindisfarne, died.

10/7/651, Sunday (-472,558)

8/5/651, Sunday (-472,621)

16/4/651, Sunday (-472,642) Easter Sunday.

1/1/651, Saturday (-472,748)

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8/5/650, Saturday (-472,986)

28/3/650, Sunday (-473,027) Easter Sunday.

1/1/650, Friday (-473,113)

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8/5/649, Friday (-473,351)

5/4/649, Sunday (-473,384) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-473,473)

1/1/649, Thursday (-473,478)

8/5/648, Thursday (-473,716)

20/4/648, Sunday (-473,734) Easter Sunday.

1/1/648, Tuesday (-473,844) week 67,692

8/5/647, Tuesday (-474,082)

1/5/647, Tuesday (-474,089)

1/4/647, Sunday (-474,119) Easter Sunday.

1/1/647, Monday (-474,209)

8/5/646, Monday (-474,447)

Tuesday (-474,474)

9/4/646, Sunday (-474,476) Easter Sunday.

1/1/646, Sunday (-474,574)

8/5/645, Sunday (-474,812)

24/4/645, Sunday (-474,826) Easter Sunday.

1/1/645, Saturday (-474,939)

3/11/644, Wednesday (-474,998) Caliph Umar was assassinated. Uthman promoted the formal writing down of the Quran.

8/5/644, Saturday (-475,177)

4/4/644, Sunday (-475,211) Easter Sunday.

1/1/644, Thursday (-475,305)

Tuesday (-475,475)

8/5/643, Thursday (-475,543)

13/4/643, Sunday (-475,568) Easter Sunday

1/1/643, Wednesday (-475,670)

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17/9/642. Alexandria, Egypt, surrendered to the Arabs led by Amr Ibn Al-As. Amr invaded Syria in 633 and attacked Egypt in 639, taking Pelusium in January 640 and Heliopolis in June 640. In 646 Amr defeated a Greek attempt to retake Alexandria. Amr died, as governor of Egypt, on 6/1/664. The Arabs moved on south to conquer Nubia, also conquering Cyrenicia and Tripolitania in 643.

5/8/642. Death of the Christian King Oswald of Northumbria at the Battle of Maserfield, lost to the invading Kingdom of Mercia, under the pagan King Penda. King Oswald had succeeded to the Kingdom of Bernicia in 634 and in 635 reunited the whole of Northumbria under his rule Northumbria had previously been converted to Christianity by Paulinusbut had relapsed under the heathen successors to Edwin. Oswald was a Christian and sent for a new Bishop. Paulinus had been a member of the Roman Church but his successor was from the Celtic church, the monastery of Iona, which Oswald had visited during his exile. The first monk sent under Oswald failed to make any headway amongst the �uncouth Northumbrians� but a second, Aidan, was sent as Bishop of Northumbria. Aidan retained his See when the Mercians defeated and slew Oswald, and Aidan died at Bamburgh on 31/8/651.

8/5/642, Wednesday (-475,908)

24/3/642, Sunday (-476,5953) Easter Sunday.

1/1/642, Tuesday (-476,035) week 68,005

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8/5/641, Tuesday (-476,273)

8/4/641, Sunday (-476,303) Easter Sunday.

1/1/641, Monday (-476,400)

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Tuesday (-476,476)

10/7/640, Monday (-476,575)

6/7/640, Thursday (-476,579) The Battle of Heliopolis was fought between Arab Muslim armies and the Byzantine Empire.

8/5/640, Monday (-476,638)

16/4/640, Sunday (-476,660) Easter Sunday.

20/1/640, Thursday (-476,747) Eadbald, King of Kent, died and was succeeded by his son Earconberht.

1/1/640, Saturday (-476,766)

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8/5/639, Saturday (-477,004)

28/3/639, Sunday (-477,045) Easter Sunday.

9/1/639, Saturday (-477,123) Dagobert I, last Frankish King of the Merovingian Dynasty died (born 605, ruled from 629).

1/1/639, Friday (-477,131)

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8/5/638, Friday (-477,369)

5/4/638, Sunday (-477,402) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-477,477)

1/1/638, Thursday (-477,496)

1/6/637, Sunday (-477,710) Battle of Qadissiya. Islamic forces had to attack again to quell a Persian resurgence. After Islamic reinforcements arrived, the Sassanid Persians were finally defeated and the Persian capital Ctesiphon fell to the Arabs after a two-month siege.

8/5/637, Thursday (-477,734)

20/4/637, Sunday (-477,752) Easter Sunday.

1/1/637, Wednesday (-477,861)

1/11/636, Sunday (-477,920)

1/9/636, Thursday (-477,979)

15/8/636. Monday (-477,996) (Islam) The Byzantine army was crushed by the Moslem Arabs at the Battle of Yarmuk, on the River Yarmuk, east of the Sea of Galilee. The Arabs, who took Damascus in 635, now controlled all of Syria. In 637 the Arabs destroyed the Persian army at the Battle of Qadisiyya. Jerusalem was captured by the Arabs in 638 under Caliph Umar.

8/5/636, Wednesday (-478,099)

8/4/636, Monday (-478,129)

31/3/636, Sunday (-478,137) Easter Sunday.

1/1/636, Monday (-478,227)

8/5/635, Monday (-478,465)

Tuesday (-478,478)

9/4/635, Sunday (-478,494) Easter Sunday.

1/1/635, Sunday (-478,592)

1/11/634, Tuesday (-478,653)

1/9/634, Thursday (-478,714)

22/8/634, Monday (-478,724) (Islam) Caliph Abu Bakr died and was succeeded by Umar, an advisor of Muhammed. Umar reigned till 644, and during this time Islam spread to Syria, Persia and Egypt.

30/7/634, Saturday (-478,447) (Roman Empire) The Byzantine army of Emperor Heraclius, defending Damascus against an alliance of Arab raiders, was defeated by Khalid at the Battle of Ajnadayn in southern Palestine.

8/5/634, Sunday (-478,830)

24/4/634, Sunday (-478,844) Easter Sunday.

1/1/634, Saturday (-478,957)

8/5/633, Saturday (-479,195)

4/4/633, Sunday (-479,229)

1/1/633, Friday (-479,322)

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Tuesday (-479,479)

8/6/632. Monday (-479,529) Mohammed died, aged about 62.He was buried in Mecca.See 16/7/622.

8/5/632, Friday (-479,560)

12/4/632, Sunday (-479,586) Easter Sunday

1/1/632, Wednesday (-479,688)

8/5/631, Wednesday (-479,926)

24/3/631, Sunday (-479,971) Easter Sunday.

1/1/631, Tuesday (-480,053)

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8/5/630, Tuesday (-480,291)

8/4/630, Sunday (-480,321) Easter Sunday

1/1/630, Monday (-480,418)

Tuesday (-480,480)

10/8/629, Wednesday (-480,563) The Avars admitted defeat and called off their siege of Constantinople.

29/6/629, Thursday (-480,604) An Avar army with also many Germans, Slavs and Bulgars began a siege of Constantinople.

8/5/629, Monday (-480,656)

16/4/629, Sunday (-480,678) Easter Sunday.

1/1/629, Sunday (-480,783)

8/5/628, Sunday (-481,021)

3/4/628, Saturday (-481,057) Death of King Chosrau II �Parviz�, Sassanid King of Persia from 588. He was the grandson of Chosrau I. Chosrau II came close to defeating theByzantine Empire in 626, when his armies stood across the Bosphorus from Constantinople itself. However Emperor Hercaclius led a counter-attack and defeated Chosrau II at Nineveh in 627. Subsequently Chosrau II was deposed and executed by his son, Kavadh II. Meanwhwhile Heraclius entered Jerusalem and restored the �True Cross� to its rightful place in 630.

27/3/628, Sunday (-481,063) Easter Sunday.

1/1/628, Friday (481,149)

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8/5/627, Friday (-481,387)

12/4/627, Sunday (-481,413) Easter Sunday. Paulinus, last of the missionaries send by Pope Gregory I, built a wooden church in the old Roman legionary headquarters in York and baptised Edwin of Northumbria as the first Christian king in Northern England.

Tuesday (-481,481)

1/1/627, Thursday (-481,514)

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10/7/626, Thursday (-484,689) Persian ships had allied with Avar lad forcesin attacking Constantinople, but this day had to withdraw, the Persians unable to land and the Avars suffering food shortages. Avar migrations had steadily arrived in the Balkans since ca. 600, albeit briefly halted by Byzantine emperor Phocas in 604. In 617 the Avars had made an assault on Constantinople, whilst Byzantium was preoccupied with frothing Persia. However this day the Byzantine Navy managed to see off the combined attack.

12/6/626, Thursday (-481,717) Heraclius, Byzantium,had advanced far into Persian territory. He had crossed the Zab River, in what is now Kurdish Iraq, and was threatening Chosroe�s palace at Dastagird. At the Battle of Nineveh this day, Rhahzadh, the Sassanid commander, was killed. Chosroe II was killed by his two sons, and Byzantium and Persia agreed a truce advantageous to Byzantium, which gained territory. However the weakening of the Persian Empire created an opportunity for Islamic expansion, which was to be the next foe for Byzantium to contend with.

8/5/626, Thursday (-481,752)

1/1/626, Wednesday (-481,879)

8/5/625, Wednesday (-482,117)

31/3/625, Sunday (-482,155) Easter Sunday.

1/1/625, Tuesday (-482,244) week 68,892

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8/5/624, Tuesday (-482,482)

1/1/624, Sunday (-482,610)

25/9/623, Sunday (-482,708) St Finbar, Bishop of Cork, died at Cloyne, Ireland. Originally called Lochan, he was rechristened Fionnbarr, meaning �fairhead�, after the colour of his hair. He evangelised and founded several schools.

8/5/623, Sunday (-482,848)

27/3/623, Sunday (-482,790) Easter Sunday.

1/1/623, Saturday (-482,975)

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16/7/622. Friday (-483,144) The traditional starting day of the Islamic era, when Muhammad fled persecution in Mecca for the city of Medina, then known as Yattrib. This flight is called the Hejirah. In Arabia around 610, Mohammed had called for an end to the demons and idols of the Arab religion and to convert to monotheistic worship of Allah. Born around 570, Mohammed was of the Quraysh tribe, a Bedouin tribe in the Arabian peninsula. This tribe occupied Mecca, a wealthy caravan trading centre, and Mohammed was married to a wealthy widow. Arabs also came to Mecca to worship at the Kaaba, a black meteoric stone of which the Qurayshi are guardians. Mohammed denounced the idol worship associated with the Kaaba, and made enemies of some wealthy merchants, especially with his calls to help the poor. Mohammed died on 8/6/632. He saw himself as an instrument of God. His new religion was called Islam, meaning submission; its adherents were Moslems, or those who submit. In 630 the citizens of Mecca accepted his new religion; in return Mohammed agreed that the Kaaba should remain as a place of pilgrimage for Moslems.

12/6/622, Saturday (-483,178)

8/5/622, Saturday (-483,213)

4/4/622, Sunday (-483,247) Easter Sunday.

1/1/622, Friday (-483,340)

Tuesday (-483,483)

8/5/621, Friday (-483,578)

19/4/621, Sunday (-483,597) Easter Sunday.

1/1/621, Thursday (-483,705)

8/5/620, Thursday (-483,943)

8/4/620, Tuesday (-483,973)

30/3/620, Sunday (-483,982) Easter Sunday.

1/1/620, Tuesday (-484,071) week 69,153

8/5/619, Tuesday (-484,309)

8/4/619, Sunday (-484,339) Easter Sunday.

1/1/619, Monday (-484,436)

Tuesday (-484,484)

8/5/618, Monday (-484,674)

16/4/618, Sunday (-484,696) Easter Sunday.

1/1/618, Sunday (-484,801)

8/5/617, Sunday (-485,039)

3/4/617, Sunday (-485,074) Easter Sunday.

1/1/617, Saturday (-485,166)

8/5/616, Saturday (-485,404)

11/4/616, Sunday (-485,431) Easter Sunday.

24/2/616, Tuesday (-485,478) Accession of King Eadbald of Kent.

31/1/616, Saturday (-485,502)

1/1/616, Thursday (-485,532)

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615,

29/7/615,Tuesday (-485,688) Queen Sal K�uk was succeeded by her son Pacal the Great as ruler of the Maya city state Palenque (Mexico). He began a building program at his capital that produced some of Maya civilization's finest art and architecture.

10/7/615, Thursday (-485, 707)

8/5/615, Thursday (-485,770)

1/1/615, Wednesday (-485,897)

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614,

25/12/614, Wednesday (-485,904)

23/10/614, Wednesday (-485,967)

15/10/614. Tuesday (-485,975) Chlothar II, now sole ruler of the Franks after the execution of Queen Brunhild, issued the Edict of Paris, in an attempt to stamp out corruption in his dominions.

8/5/614,Wednesday (-486,135)

5/5/614. Sunday (-486,138) The Persians completed the conquest of Syria by capturing Jerusalem. They seized the �true cross�, the most holy relic of Christendom. However on 3/4/628 the Persian ruler Kavadh sued for peace with Byzantium. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, as well as the �true cross�. This cross was restored to Jerusalem by Heraclius on 21/3/630.

31/3/614, Sunday (-486,173) Easter Sunday.

1/1/614, Tuesday (-486,262) week 69,466

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Tuesday (-486,486)

8/5/613, Tuesday (-486,500)

15/4/613, Sunday (-486,523) Easter Sunday.

1/1/613, Monday (-486,627)

8/5/612, Monday (-486,865)

26/4/612, Wednesday (-486,877)

26/3/612, Sunday (-486,908) Easter Sunday.

1/1/612, Saturday (-486,993)

8/5/611, Saturday (-487,231)

4/4/611, Sunday (-487,265) Easter Sunday.

1/1/611, Friday (-487,358)

1/11/610, Sunday (-487,419)

5/10/610, Monday (-487,446) The son of the military garrison of Roman Africa, Heraclius, assassinated Phocas, who had proved inept at fending off threats from the Avars to the north and the Persians to the east, and made himself Emperor. Heraclius was a good military leader, and gained the advantage over the Persians.

Tuesday (-487,487)

8/5/610, Friday (-487,596)

19/4/610, Sunday (-487,615) Easter Sunday.

1/1/610, Thursday (-487,723)

13/5/609, Tuesday (-487,956) The Pantheon in Rome was consecrated as "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda") by Pope Boniface IV.

8/5/609, Thursday (-487,961)

30/4/609, Wednesday (-487,969)

1/4/609, Tuesday (-487,998)

30/3/609, Sunday (-488,000) Easter Sunday.

1/1/609, Wednesday (-488,088)

8/5/608, Wednesday (-488,326)

7/4/608, Sunday (-488,357)

Tuesday (-488,488)

1/1/608, Monday (-488,454)

8/5/607, Monday (-488,692)

23/4/607, Sunday (-488,707) Easter Sunday.

1/1/607, Sunday (-488,819)

8/5/606, Sunday (-489,057)

3/4/606, Sunday (-489,092) Easter Sunday

1/1/606, Saturday (-489,184)

11/4/605, Sunday (-489,449) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-489,489)

1/1/605, Friday (-489,549)

8/5/604, Friday (-489,787)

22/3/604, Sunday (-489,834) ) Easter Sunday.

12/3/604. Thursday (-489,844) Pope Gregory the Great died in Rome. Aged 64, he had been Pope for 14 years. He was the son of a Senator, and wealthy, but at the age of 33 sold off his property and gave the money to the poor. He founded severalmonasteries, and entered one himself. Pope Gregory had appointed Bishop Augustine of Hippo to begin the work of introducing Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons.

1/1/604, Wednesday (-489,915)

=============================================================================

8/5/603, Wednesday (-490,153)

7/4/603, Sunday (-490,184) Easter Sunday.

1/1/603, Tuesday (-490,280) week 70,400

Tuesday (-490,490)

8/5/602, Tuesday (-490,518)

15/4/602, Sunday (-490,541) Easter Sunday.

1/1/602, Monday (-490,645)

8/5/601, Monday (-490,883)

26/3/601, Sunday (-490,926) Easter Sunday.

1/1/601, Sunday (-491,010)

8/5/600, Sunday (-491,248)

10/4/600, Sunday (-491,276) Easter Sunday.

16/2/600, Tuesday (-491,330) Pope Gregory I decreed that a sneeze should be responded to by �God bless you�.

1/1/600, Friday (-491,376) The Law of Ethelbert, King of Kent 560-616, set out the following compensation payments for various injuries. Cutting off an ear, 12 shillings, or 25 shillings if the victim was also deaf in the other ear. Striking out an eye, 50 shillings. Breaking the chin bone, 20 shillings. Knocking out one front tooth, 6 shillings; for an additional tooth injured, 4 shillings; for a third tooth, 3 shillings, for each tooth injured beyond that, 1 shilling each.

===============================================================================

Tuesday (-491,491)

8/5/599, Friday (-491,614)

1/1/599, Thursday (-491,741)

============================================================================

4/8/598, Friday (-491,887) Emperor Wendi ordered his youngest son, Yang Liang, to conquer Korea during the rainy season, with a Chinese army (300,000 men).

10/7/598, Thursday (-491,916)

8/5/598, Thursday (-491,979)

30/3/598, Sunday (-492,018) Easter Sunday.

1/1/598, Wednesday (-492,106)

==============================================================================

25/12/597, Wednesday (-492,113) At Christmas, Christianity spread rapidly in Kent, Augustine and his fellow-labourers baptised more than 10,000 Anglo-Saxons.

9/6/597, Thursday (-492,343) Columba, Irish missionary, died in Iona (Inner Hebrides) and was buried by his monks in the abbey he created. He worked successfully towards the conversion of northern Britain.

8/5/597, Wednesday (-492,344)

14/4/597, Sunday (-492,368) Easter Sunday

1/1/597, Tuesday (-492,471) week 70,353

Tuesday (-492,492)

8/5/596, Tuesday (-492,709)

22/4/596, Sunday (-492,725) Easter Sunday.

1/1/596, Sunday (-492,837)

8/5/595, Sunday (-493,075)

3/4/595, Sunday (-493,110) Easter Sunday.

1/1/595, Saturday (-493,202)

8/5/594, Saturday (-493,440)

11/4/594, Sunday (-493,467) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-493,493)

1/1/594, Friday (-493,567)

8/5/593, Friday (-493,805)

29/3/593, Sunday (-493,845) Easter Sunday.

1/1/593, Thursday (-493,932)

===========================================================================

8/5/592, Thursday (-494,170)

6/4/592, Sunday (-494,202) Easter Sunday

1/1/592, Tuesday (-494,298) week 70,614

Tuesday (-494,494)

8/5/591, Tuesday (-494,536)

1/1/591, Monday (-494,663)

==========================================================================

11/9/590, Monday (-494,775)

3/9/590, Sunday (-494,783) Gregory the Great was consecrated Pope.

10/7/590, Monday (-494,838)

8/5/590, Monday (-494,901)

26/3/590, Sunday (-494,944) Easter Sunday.

7/2/590, Tuesday (-494,991) Pope Pelagius II fell victim to the plague that devastated Rome. After a 11-year reign he was succeeded by Gregory I, age 50, as the 64th Pope.

1/1/590, Sunday (-495,028)

============================================================================

8/5/589, Sunday (-495,266)

10/4/589, Sunday (-495,294) Easter Sunday.

1/1/589, Saturday (-495,393)

Tuesday (-495,495)

8/5/588, Saturday (-495,631)

18/4/588, Sunday (-495,651) Easter Sunday.

1/1/588, Thursday (-495,759)

8/5/587, Thursday (-495,997)

30/3/587, Sunday (-496,036) Easter Sunday.

1/1/587, Wednesday (-496,124)

=======================================================================

8/5/586, Wednesday (-496,362)

14/4/586, Sunday (-496,386) Easter Sunday

1/1/586, Tuesday (-496,489) week 70,927

Tuesday (-496,496)

8/5/585, Tuesday (-496,727)

25/3/585, Sunday (-496,771) Easter Sunday.

1/1/585, Monday (-496,854)

======================================================================

8/5/584, Monday (-497,092)

2/4/584, Sunday (-497,128) Easter Sunday.

1/1/584, Saturday (-497,220)

8/5/583, Saturday (-497,458)

18/4/583, Sunday (-497,478) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-497,497)

1/1/583, Friday (-497,585)

8/5/582, Friday (-497,823)

29/3/582, Sunday (-498,863 Easter Sunday.

1/1/582, Thursday (-498,950)

=====================================================================

8/5/581, Thursday (-498,188)

6/4/581, Sunday (-498,220) Easter Sunday.

1/1/581, Wednesday (-498,315)

Tuesday (-498,498)

8/5/580, Wednesday (-498,553)

21/4/580, Sunday (-498,570) Easter Sunday.

1/1/580, Monday (-498,681)

8/5/579, Monday (-498,919)

8/4/579, Saturday (-498,949)

2/4/579, Sunday (-498,955) Easter Sunday.

1/1/579, Sunday (-499,046)

8/5/578, Sunday (-499,284)

10/4/578, Sunday (-499,312) Easter Sunday.

1/1/578, Saturday (-499,411)

Tuesday (-499,499)

8/5/577, Saturday (-499,649)

25/4/577, Sunday (-499,662) Easter Sunday.

1/1/577, Friday (-499,776)

22/5/576, Friday (-500,000)

8/5/576, Friday (-500,014)

7/4/576, Tuesday (-500,045)

5/4/576, Sunday (-500,047) Easter Sunday

1/1/576, Wednesday (-500,142)

7/4/575, Sunday (-500,411)

Tuesday (-500,500)

1/1/575, Tuesday (-500,507) week 71,501

7/4/574, Saturday (-500,776)

25/3/574, Sunday (-500,789) Easter Sunday.

1/1/574, Monday (-500,872)

9/4/573, Sunday (-501,139) Easter Sunday.

7/4/573, Friday (-501,141)

1/1/573, Sunday (-501,237)

Tuesday (-501,501)

7/4/572, Thursday (-501,506)

1/1/572, Friday (-501,603)

7/4/571, Tuesday (-501,872)

29/3/571, Sunday (-501,881) Easter Sunday.

1/1/571, Thursday (-501,968)

20/4/570, Sunday (-502,224) Birth of prophet Mohammed, founder of Islam.

6/4/570, Sunday (-502,238) Easter Sunday.

1/1/570, Wednesday (-502,333)

Tuesday (-502,502)

21/4/569, Sunday (-502,588) Easter Sunday.

7/4/569, Sunday (-502,602)

1/1/569, Tuesday (-502,698) week 71,814

7/4/568, Saturday (-502,967)

1/4/568. Sunday (-502,973) Easter Sunday. King Albion of the Lombards (King since 565, died 573), a Germanic tribe, assembled an army that included his allies, 20,000 Saxons, in order to cross the Alps and form a settlement in Italy. The Lombards may have been invited to attack Italy by the Byzantine General Narses. Milan was occupied by the Lombards on 4/9/569 and Lombard rule established in northern Italy.

1/1/568, Sunday (-503,064)

10/4/567, Sunday (-503,330) Easter Sunday.

7/4/567, Thursday (-503,333)

1/1/567, Saturday (-503,429)

Tuesday (-503,503)

7/4/566, Wednesday (-503,698)

28/3/566, Sunday (-503,708) Easter Sunday.

1/1/566, Friday (-503,794)

==============================================================================

25/12/565, Friday (-503,801)

14/11/565, Saturday (-503,842) Byzantine Emperor Justinian I died after a 38-year reign (born 483); succeeded by his nephew, Justin II (died 578).

12/9/565, Saturday (-503,905)

22/8/565, Saturday (-503,926) First recorded sighting of the Loch Ness Monster, by St Columba.

7/4/565, Tuesday (-504,063)

5/4/565, Sunday (-504,065) Easter Sunday.

1/1/565, Thursday (-504,159)

13/4/564, Sunday (-504,422) Easter Sunday

7/4/564, Monday (-504,428)

Tuesday (-504,504)

1/1/564, Tuesday (-504,525) week 72,075

24/12/563, Monday (-504,533) The church of Hagia Sofia, Constantinople, was re-dedicated, after reconstruction (see 7/5/558).

7/4/563, Saturday (-504,794)

25/3/563, Sunday (-504,807) Easter Sunday.

1/1/563, Monday (-504,890)

9/4/562, Sunday (-505,157) Easter Sunday.

7/4/562, Friday (-505,159)

1/1/562, Sunday (-505,255)

===============================================================

25/12/561, Sunday (-505,262)

29/11/561, Tuesday (-505,288) King Chlothar I ("the Old"), son of Clovis I, died at Compeigne at age 64. The Merovingian Dynasty was continued by his four sons �Charibert I, Guntram, Sigbert I, and Chilperic I. Chlothar I had reunited the realms of his father Clovis but upon Chlothar�s death his lands were again divided amongst his four sons. Charibert ruled the Paris region, Guntram received Burgundy, Sigbert ruled Metz, and Chilperic ruled north of Soissons.

Tuesday (-505,505)

17/4/561, Sunday (-505,514) Easter Sunday.

7/4/561, Thursday (-505,524)

2/3/561, Wednesday (-565,560) Pope Pelagius I died.

1/1/561, Saturday (-505,620)

========================================================================

7/4/560, Wednesday (-505,889)

28/3/560, Sunday (-505,899) Easter Sunday.

1/1/560, Thursday (-505,986)

13/4/559, Sunday (-506,249) Easter Sunday

7/4/559, Monday (-506,255)

1/1/559, Wednesday (-506,351)

Tuesday (-506,506)

7/5/558, Friday (-506,594) In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapsed due to an earthquake. Emperor Justinian I ordered the dome to be rebuilt.

21/4/558, Sunday (-506,606) Easter Sunday.

7/4/558, Sunday (-506,620)

1/1/558, Tuesday (-506,716) week 72,388

7/4/557, Saturday (-506,985)

1/4/557, Sunday (-506,991) Easter Sunday.

1/1/557, Monday (-507,081)

16/4/556, Sunday (-507,341) Easter Sunday.

7/4/556, Friday (-507,350)

1/1/556, Saturday (-507,447)

Tuesday (-507,507)

7/4/555, Wednesday (-507,716)

28/3/555, Sunday (-507,726) Easter Sunday.

1/1/555, Friday (-507,812)

7/4/554, Tuesday (-508,081)

5/4/554, Sunday (-508,083) Easter Sunday.

1/1/554, Thursday (-508,177)

20/4/553, Sunday (-508,433) Easter Sunday.

7/4/553, Monday (-508,446)

Tuesday (-508,508)

1/1/553, Wednesday (-508,542)

7/4/552, Sunday (-508,811)

31/3/552, Sunday (-508,818) Easter Sunday.

1/1/552, Monday (-508,908)

9/4/551, Sunday (-509,175) Easter Sunday.

7/4/551, Friday (-509,177)

1/1/551, Sunday (-509,273)

Tuesday (-509,509)

24/4/550, Sunday (-509,525) Easter Sunday.

7/4/550, Thursday (-509,542)

1/1/550, Saturday (-509,638)

7/4/549, Wednesday (-509,907)

4/4/549, Sunday (-509,910) Easter Sunday.

1/1/549, Friday (-510,003)

12/4/548, Sunday (-510,267) Easter Sunday.

7/4/548, Tuesday (-510,272)

1/1/548, Wednesday (-510,369)

Tuesday (-510,510)

7/4/547, Sunday (-510,638)

24/3/547, Sunday (-510,652) Easter Sunday.

1/1/547, Tuesday (-510,734) week 72,962

=======================================================================

25/12/546, Tuesday (-510,741)

17/12/546. Monday (-510,749) Ostrogothic King Totila captured Rome after a years siege. The city had been deserted by all but 500 of its civilian inhabitants.However Byzantine commander Belisarius re-occupied the deserted city of Rome in 547 and rebuilt its defences.

8/4/546, Sunday (-511,002) Easter Sunday.

7/4/546, Saturday (-511,003)

1/1/546, Monday (-511,099)

16/4/545, Sunday (-511,359) Easter Sunday.

7/4/545, Friday (-511,368)

1/1/545, Sunday (-511,464)

Tuesday (-511,511)

7/4/544, Thursday (-511,733)

27/3/544, Sunday (-511,744) Easter Sunday.

1/1/544, Friday (-511,830)

7/4/543, Tuesday (-512,099)

5/4/543, Sunday (-512,101) Easter Sunday.

1/1/543, Thursday (-512,195)

20/4/542, Sunday (-512,451) Easter Sunday.

7/4/542, Monday (-512,464)

Tuesday (-512,512)

1/1/542, Wednesday (-512,560)

7/4/541, Sunday (-512,829)

31/3/541, Sunday (-512,836) Easter Sunday.

1/1/541, Tuesday (-512,925) week 73,275

8/4/540, Sunday (-513,193) Easter Sunday.

1/1/540, Sunday (-513,291)

========================================================================

25/12/539, Sunday (-513,298)

29/11/539, Tuesday (513,324) Antioch was struck by an earthquake.

Tuesday (-513,513)

24/4/539, Sunday (-513,543) Easter Sunday.

7/4/539, Thursday (-513,560)

1/1/539, Saturday (-513,656)

7/4/538, Wednesday (-513,925)

4/4/538, Sunday (-513,928) Easter Sunday.

12/3/538, Friday (-513,951) Vitiges realised that Rome was not being starved, and the arrival of a Byzantine fleet in the Tiber with 5,000 more man forced him to raise the siege. Vitiges then marched to Ravenna where he besieged John the Sanguinary in Rimini.

1/1/538, Friday (-514,021)

========================================================================

27/12/537. Sunday (-514,026) (Roman Empire) Emperor Justinian of Constantinople opened the Church of St Sophia, five years after building started. It was hailed as the finest church in Christendom. It replaced an original church to St Sophia built by Constantine in 330 but burnt down in the rebellion of 532. However this church collapsedon 7/5/558, severely weakened by an earthquake in December 557. A third St Sophia was built, and completed on 24/12/562. The dome was designed by the mathematician Anthemius of Tralles, who is also said to have invented a device that used steam power to produce artificial earthquakes.

12/4/537, Sunday (-514,285) Easter Sunday.

7/4/537, Tuesday (-514,290)

21/3/537, Saturday (-514,307) Defenders of Rome using arrows, catapults and ballistae inflicted heavy losses on the Goths under King Witgis besieging the city. The Goth forces were now too depleted to keep a continuous siege ring around the city.

2/3/537, Monday (-514,326) Vitiges, leader of the Goths, began laying siege to Rome.

1/1/537, Thursday (-514,386)

==========================================================================

25/12/536, Thursday (-514,393)

9/12/536. Tuesday (-514,409) Byzantine commander Belisarius, having captured Naples earlier in 536, now took Rome from the Ostrogoths In 534 Belisarius had defeated the Vandals in north Africa.

Tuesday (-514,514)

7/4/536, Monday (-514,655)

24/3/536, Monday (-514,669) (Roman Empire) Procopius, Cassiodorus and other Roman historians recorded that a heavy dust cloud spread across Europe from this day onwards. It was to stay put for 18 months, and in 539 another such cloud stayed in the sky for several months. There were summer frosts and snow showers as temperatures plummeted, and crops failed to ripen because of lack of light and the cold. Widespread food shortages led to the Justinian Plague (541-3), named after the Roman Emperor of the time, which wiped out a third of Europeans. The cause has been linked to a series of huge volcanic eruptions in North America in 535-6, and again in 539.

23/3/536, Sunday (-514,670) Easter Sunday.

1/1/536, Tuesday (-514,752) week 73,536

8/4/535, Sunday (-515,020) Easter Sunday.

7/4/535, Saturday (-515,021)

1/1/535, Monday (-515,117)

=========================================================================

25/12/534, Monday (-515,124)

23/10/534, Monday (-515,187)

2/10/534. Monday (-515,208) Death of Athalaric, King of the Ostrogoths in Italy. Grandson of Theodoric, he was born in 516 and became King in 526; aged ten, his mother Amalasuntha held the Regency.

16/4/534, Sunday (-515,377) Easter Sunday.

7/4/534, Friday (-515,386)

1/1/534, Sunday (-515,482)

===========================================================================

25/12/533, Sunday (-515,489)

23/10/533, Sunday (-515,552)

15/9/533, Thursday (-515,590) Byzantine forces under Belisarius occupied Carthage.

13/9/533, Tuesday (-515,592) At the Battle of Ad Decimum, near Carthage (Tunisia), Byzantine forces under Belisarius defeated the Vandal army under King Gelimer, and his brother Tzazo.

Tuesday (-515,515)

7/4/533, Thursday (-515,751)

27/3/533, Sunday (-515,762) Easter Sunday.

1/1/533, Saturday (-515,847)

=======================================================================

25/12/532, Saturday (-515,854)

8/5/532, Saturday (-516,085)

7/4/532, Wednesday (-516,116)

13/1/532, Tuesday (-516,201) Major riot in Constantinople against Emperor Justinian, caused by heavy taxes and corrupt government.

1/1/532, Thursday (-516,213)

7/4/531, Monday (-516,482)

1/1/531, Wednesday (-516,578)

Tuesday (-516,516)

7/4/530, Sunday (-516,847)

1/1/530, Tuesday (-516,943) week 73,849

7/4/529, Saturday (-517,212)

1/1/529, Monday (-517,308)

Tuesday (-517,517)

7/4/528, Friday (-517,577)

1/1/528, Saturday (-517,674)

============================================================================

25/12/527, Saturday (-517,681)

23/10/527, Saturday (-517,744)

21/8/527, Saturday (-517,807)

1/8/527, Sunday (-517,827) Byzantine Emperor Justin I died aged 77. He was succeeded by Justinian (Flavius Petrus) who began a 38-year reign, strongly influenced by his 19-year-old wife Theodora, until her death in 545.

7/4/527, Wednesday (-517,943)

1/1/527, Friday (-518,039)

==========================================================================

25/12/526, Friday (-518,046)

23/10/526, Friday (-518,109)

30/8/526, Sunday (-518,163) (Roman Empire) Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths, died. He was succeeded by his 10 year old grandson Athalaric, with his grandmother Amalasuntha as Regent.

21/8/526, Friday (-518,172)

7/4/526, Tuesday (-518,308)

1/1/526, Thursday (-518,404)

Tuesday (-518,518)

7/4/525, Monday (-518,673)

1/1/525, Wednesday (-518,769)

25/6/524, Tuesday (-518,959) Battle of Vezeronce. The four children of Clovis united against the Burgundians. Therewas a revenge motive for this action because their grandfather King Childperic I of Burgnndy had been killed by his brother Gundobad, whose son Sigismund was King of Burgundy in 524. Sigismund was captured and taken to Orleans by Choldomir. However Sigismund�s brother Godomar mustered a new Burgundian Army and drove the Franks out of Burgundy. Choldomir then ordered the execution of Sigismund, but later on Choldomir himself was killed in fighting against the Burgundians.Godomar remained as ruler of at least part of Burgundy until his overthrow and death in 534.

9/6/524, Sunday (-518,975)

7/4/524, Sunday (-519,038)

1/1/524, Monday (-519,135)

7/4/523, Friday (-519,404)

1/1/523, Sunday (-519,500)

Tuesday (-519,519)

7/4/522, Thursday (-519,769)

1/1/522, Saturday (-519,865)

7/12/521, St Columba was born at Gartan, Donegal, Ireland.

7/4/521, Wednesday (-520,134)

1/1/521, Friday (-520,230)

7/4/520, Tuesday (-520,499)

Tuesday (-520,520)

1/1/520, Wednesday (-520,596)

7/4/519, Sunday (-520,865)

1/1/519, Tuesday (-530,961) week 74,423

9/7/518. Tuesday (-521,136) Death of the Roman Emperor Anastasius I, in Constantinople. Born no later than 430, he became Emperor at the death of Zeno, 491. He reduced taxation but was so prudent financially he gained a reputation for avarice and became unpopular. He fought with Persia, 502 � 505; neither side gaining much by the time peace was made in 506. The Roman Balkan provinces were overrun by Slavs and Bulgars; to protect Constantinople Anastasius built the �Anastasian Wall� in 512. He also had to deal with a rebellion in the European provinces in 514-515, the rebels being assisted by the Huns.

9/6/518, Saturday (-521,167)

7/4/518, Saturday (-521,230)

1/1/518, Monday (-521,326)

Tuesday (-521,521)

7/4/517, Friday (-521,595)

1/1/517, Sunday (-531,691)

7/4/516, Thursday (-521,960)

1/1/516, Friday (-522,057)

7/4/515, Tuesday (-522,326)

1/1/515, Thursday (-522,422)

Tuesday (-522,522)

7/4/514, Monday (-522,691)

1/1/514, Wednesday (-522,787)

7/4/513, Sunday (-523,056)

1/1/513, Tuesday (-523,152) week 74,736

7/4/512, Saturday (-523,421)

1/1/512, Sunday (-523,518)

Tuesday (-523,523)

===============================================================================

25/12/511, Sunday (-523,530)

27/11/511. Sunday (-523,558) Clovis, King of the Franks, son of Childeric I, founder of the Merovingian Dynasty, died aged 45 in Paris. His kingdom was divided up amongst his four sons, Theuderic in Reims, Chlodomer in Orleans, Childebert in Paris, and Clothar in Soissons.

Clovis had been a pagan, one of the Franks, who unlike the other Germanic tribes, had not converted to Christianity. But he had married a Burgundian princess, Clotilda, who was Christian. She sought to convert her husband. During the Battle of Tolbiac (Zulpich, Germany), against the Alemanni, Clovis promised to convert if his wife�s God would grant him victory. Although Clovis� troops were on the verge of defeat, the Alemanni King was killed and his army surrendered. Clovis was then baptised by �Saint� Remigius in Reims Cathedral, perhaps on 25/12/496; although a later baptism date in 488 or 489 is also possible. Clovis failed to take the Burgundian Kingdom to the south-east. However he did defeat the Visigoths in southwest Gaul, in 507. In recognition of this victory, Clovis was granted an honorary consulship by the eastern Roman Emperor, Anastasius. This gave Clovis a status above other western kings, and legitimised his rulership among his Gallic-Roman citizens. When he died in 511, Clovis was sole ruler of three quarters of Gaul.

7/4/511, Thursday (-523,787)

1/1/511, Saturday (-523,883)

7/4/510, Wednesday (-524,152)

1/1/510, Friday (-524,248)

7/4/509, Tuesday (-524,517)

Tuesday (-524,524)

1/1/509, Thursday (-524,613)

7/4/508, Monday (-524,882)

1/1/508, Tuesday (-524,979)

7/4/507, Saturday (-525, 248)

1/1/507, Monday (-525,344)

Tuesday (-525,525)

7/4/506, Friday (-525,613)

1/1/506, Sunday (-525,709)

7/4/505, Thursday (-525,978)

1/1/505, Saturday (-526,074)

7/4/504, Wednesday (-526,343)

1/1/504, Thursday (-526,440)

Tuesday (-526,526)

7/4/503, Monday (-526,709)

1/1/503, Wednesday (-526,805)

7/4/502, Sunday (-527,074)

29/3/502, Friday (-527,083) Gundobad, King of Burgundy, issued a legal code at Lyons making Romans and Burgundians subject to the same legal code.

1/1/502, Tuesday (-527,170)

7/4/501, Saturday (-527,439)

Tuesday (-527,527)

1/1/501, Monday (-527,535)

1/7/500, Saturday (-527,719) One shilling was the value of a cow in Kent, or one sheep elsewhere in Britain. An Atheling (Prince) was worth 1,500 shillings. An Eorl (Nobleman, or Earl) was worth 300 shillings. A Ceorl (Churl, or Yeoman Farmer) was worth 100 shillings. A Laet, or Agricultural Serf, was worth between 40 and 80 shillings. A slave (on this system) was worthless. The family of a murdered man could be compensated for in cash. The ransom to be paid for lesser offences also varied on these terms; for example slandering am Atheling would cost the offender five times as much as slandering an Eorl.

9/6/500, Friday (-527,741)

7/4/500, Friday (-527,804)

1/1/500, Saturday (-527,901)

7/4/499, Wednesday (-528,170)

1/1/499, Friday (-528,266)

Tuesday (-528,528)

7/4/498, Tuesday (-528,535)

1/1/498, Thursday (-528,631)

7/4/497, Monday (-528,900)

1/1/497, Wednesday (-528,996)

25/12/496, Wednesday (-529,003) Clovis I was baptized into the Catholic faith at Rheims, by Saint Remigius. The conversion strengthened the bonds between his Gallo-Roman subjects, led by their Catholic bishops.

7/4/496, Sunday (-529,265)

1/1/496, Monday (-529,362)

Tuesday (-529,529)

7/4/495, Friday (-529,631)

1/1/495, Sunday (-529,727)

7/4/494, Thursday (-529,996)

1/1/494, Saturday (-530,092)

7/4/493, Wednesday (-530,361)

15/3/493, Monday (-530,384) Odoacer was killed by Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths.

26/2/493, Monday (-530,398) Ravenna capitulated to Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths.

1/1/493, Friday (-530,457)

Tuesday (-530,530)

7/4/492, Tuesday (-530,726)

3/1/492, Friday (-530,821) Pope Felix III died after a 9-year reign in which he excommunicated Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople, thus dividing the Western Church and Eastern Church (Acacian Schism). He was succeeded by Gelasius I as the 49th Pope.

1/1/492, Wednesday (-530,823)

7/4/491, Sunday (-531,092)

1/1/491, Tuesday (-531,188) week 75,884

28/8/490, Tuesday (-531,314)

11/8/490, Saturday (-531,331) Theodoric defeated Odoacer at the Battle of the Adda. Odoacer fled to Ravenna. Theodoric now laid siege to Ravenna until a naval blockade forced Odoacer to capitulate.

7/4/490, Saturday (-531,457)

Tuesday (-531,531)

1/1/490, Monday (-531,553)

=========================================================================

25/12/489, Monday (-531,560)

23/10/489, Monday (-531,623)

30/9/489, Saturday (-531,646) Theodoric conquered Verona.

28/8/489, Monday (-531,679) Odoacer was defeated by Theodoric at the Battle of the Sontius (now, Isonzo).

7/4/489, Friday (-531,822)

1/1/489, Sunday (-531,918)

7/4/488, Thursday (-532,187)

1/1/488, Friday (-532,284)

Tuesday (-532,532)

7/4/487, Tuesday (-532,553)

1/1/487, Thursday (-532,649)

7/4/486, Monday (-532,918)

1/1/486, Wednesday (-532,014)

17/4/485, Wednesday (-533,273) (Mathematics) Proclus, Greek mathematician, died in Athens.

7/4/485, Sunday (-533,283)

1/1/485, Tuesday (-533,379) week 76,197

Tuesday (-533,533)

2812/484. Friday (-533,383) Alaric II, eighth king of the Visigoths in Spain, succeeded his father Euric or Evaric. His dominions included all of Spain, except for the north-west, and also Aquitaine and much of Provence.

7/4/484, Saturday (-533,648)

1/1/484, Sunday (-533,745)

7/4/483, Thursday (-534,014)

13/3/483, Sunday (-524,039) Pope Felix III (II) (48th Pope), acceded. He ruled until 492.

10/3/483, Thursday (-524,042) Pope Simplicius died.

1/1/483, Saturday (-534,110)

===========================================================================

7/4/482, Wednesday (-534,379)

1/1/482, Friday (-534,475)

7/4/481, Tuesday (-534,744)

1/1/480, Thursday (-534,840)

7/4/480, Monday (-535,109)

1/1/480, Tuesday (-535,206) week 76,458

7/4/479, Saturday (-535,475)

1/1/479, Monday (-535,571)

7/4/478, Friday (-535,840)

1/1/478, Sunday (-535,936)

7/4/477, Thursday (-536,295)

25/1/477, Tuesday (-536,277) (Roman Empire) King Gaiseric of the Vandals died.

1/1/477, Saturday (-536,301)

=========================================================================

28/9/476, Tuesday (-536,458) German chieftain Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustulus, the last Western Roman Emperor.

11/8/476, Wednesday (-536,444)

9/6/476, Wednesday (-536,507)

7/4/476, Wednesday (-536,570)

1/1/476, Thursday (-536,667)

7/4/475, Monday (-536,936)

1/1/475, Wednesday (-536,032)

7/4/474, Sunday (-537,301)

1/1/474, Tuesday (-537,397) week 76,771

7/4/473, Saturday (-537,666)

1/1/473, Monday (-537,762)

2/11/472, (Roman Empire) Olybrius died.

19/8/472, (Roman Empire) Ricimer died.

7/4/472, Friday (-538,031)

1/1/472, Saturday (-538,128)

7/4/471, Wednesday (-530,397)

1/1/471, Friday (-538,493)

7/4/470, Tuesday (-538,762)

1/1/470, Thursday (-538,858)

7/4/469, Monday (-539,127)

1/1/469, Wednesday (-539,223)

7/4/468, Sunday (-539,492)

28/2/468, Wednesday (-539,531) Saint Hilary, Pope, died.

Tuesday (-539,539)

1/1/468, Monday (-539,589)

7/4/467, Friday (-539,858)

1/1/467, Sunday (-539,954)

7/4/466, Thursday (-540,223)

1/1/466, Saturday (-540,319)

Tuesday (-540,540)

7/4/465, Wednesday (-540,588)

1/1/465, Friday (-540,684)

7/4/464, Tuesday (-540,953)

1/1/464, Wednesday (-541,050)

7/4/463, Sunday (-541,319)

1/1/463, Tuesday (-541,415) week 77,345

Tuesday (-541,541)

7/4/462, Saturday (-541,684)

1/1/462, Monday (-541,780)

=============================================================================

25/12/461, Monday (-541,787)

10/11/461, Friday (-541,832) Pope Leo the Great died.

7/4/461, Friday (-542,049)

17/3/461. Friday (-542,070) Death of Saint Patrick, who pioneered the spread of Christianity in Ireland. He was born near Carlisle and captured by Irish raiders and sold as a slave at the age of 14. After 6 years he escaped and sailed to Gaul, a journey of 3 days in a small boat. Trained as a priest in Gaul and Britain, he had a vision in ca. 430 prompting him to return to Ireland and convert the inhabitants. He founded the Episcopal see of Armagh in ca. 450.

1/1/461, Sunday (-542,145)

7/4/460, Thursday (-542,414)

1/1/460, Friday (-542,511)

Tuesday (-542,542)

7/4/459, Tuesday (-542,780)

1/1/459, Thursday (-542,876)

7/4/458, Monday (-543,145)

1/1/458, Wednesday (-543,241)

7/4/457, Sunday (-543,510)

Tuesday (-543,543)

1/1/457, Tuesday (-543,606)

============================================================================

25/12/456, Tuesday (-543,613)

23/10/456, Tuesday (-545,676)

4/10/456, Thursday (-545,695) The Visigoths under king Theodoric II, acting on orders of Avitus, invaded Spain with an army of Burgundians,Franks and Goths, They defeated the Suebi; this shattered the power of the Suebi. During the battle Rechiar was captured and later executed.

7/4/456, Saturday (-543,875)

1/1/456, Sunday (-543,972)

16/6/455. Thursday (-544,171) Rome was sacked and plundered by the Vandals, just 45 years after it was conquered by the Visigoths.

9/6/455, Thursday (-544,178)

7/4/455, Thursday (-544,241)

1/1/455, Saturday (-544,337)

Tuesday (-544,544)

7/4/454, Wednesday (-544,606)

1/1/454, Friday (-544,702)

7/4/453, Tuesday (-544,971)

1/1/453, Thursday (-545,067) week 77,919

7/4/452, Monday (-545,336)

1/1/452, Tuesday (-545,433)

================================================================================

25/12/451, Tuesday (-545,440)

23/10/451, Tuesday (-545,503)

8/10/451, Monday (-545,518) The Fourth General Council of the Church opened, at Chalcedon.

Tuesday (-545,545)

20/6/451. Wednesday (-545,628) Having mounted an invasion of Gaul, Attila and the Huns were defeated in the Battle of the Cataulanian Fields by a combined force of Romans, Visigoths, and other barbarians, all under the command of Aetius.

9/6/451, Saturday (-545,639)

7/4/451, Saturday (-545,702) Attila's forces invaded Gaul and sacked Metz. The major cities Strasbourg, Worms, Mainz, Trier, Cologne, Reims, Tournai, Cambrai, Amiens and Beauvais were destroyed by the Huns.

1/1/451, Monday (-545,798)

28/7/450. Friday (-545,955) Death of Emperor Theodosius II, who fell off his horse, after ruling for 42 years. He left no direct heir.

9/6/450, Friday (-546,004)

7/4/450, Friday (-546,067)

1/1/450, Sunday (-546,163)

7/4/449, Thursday (-546,432)

1/1/449, Saturday (-546,528)

Tuesday (-546,546)

7/4/448, Wednesday (-546,797)

1/1/448, Thursday (-546,894)

========================================================================

25/12/447, Thursday (-546,901)

6/11/447, Thursday (-546,950) The Walls of Constantinople were severely damaged by an earthquake, destroying large parts of the wall, including 57 towers. The population was threatened by a plaque. Emperor Theodosius II orders Constantine, praetorian prefect of the East, to supervise the repairs. He employed the city's demoi ("Circus factions") in the work and rebuilt the walls within 60 days.

7/4/447, Monday (-547,163)

1/1/447, Wednesday (-547,259)

7/4/446, Sunday (-547,528)

Tuesday (-547,547)

1/1/446, Tuesday (-547,624) week 78,232

7/4/445, Saturday (-547,893)

1/1/445, Monday (-547.989)

7/4/444, Friday (-548,258)

1/1/444, Saturday (-548,355)

Tuesday (-548,548)

7/4/443, Wednesday (-548,624)

1/1/443, Friday (-548,720)

7/4/442, Tuesday (-548,989)

1/1/442, Thursday (-549,085)

7/4/441, Monday (-549,354)

1/1/441, Wednesday (-549,450)

25/12/440, Wednesday (-549,457) The Church officially decreed the birthday of Jesus to be 25 December, the pagan day of celebrating the winter solstice.

Tuesday (-549,549)

7/4/440, Sunday (-549,719)

1/1/440, Monday (-549,816)

=========================================================================

439,

25/12/439, Monday (-549,823)

23/10/439, Monday (-549,886)

19/10/439. Thursday (-549,890) The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, took Carthage. Gaiseric brought 80,000 people with him across the Straits of Gibraltar from Spain in 429, including 15,000 soldiers; he then marched east along the North African coast, looting the cites there. With the loss of its African territories Rome lost the fertile wheat lands on which the Empire depended for its bread. Local Roman administrators remained and Roman law was maintained, to the benefit of the Vandals, who lived in unaccustomed luxury in the Roman villas. The Vandals were Arians and persecuted the Catholic Christians. Gaiseric began to build a fleet of fast ships to dominate the western Mediterranean.

7/4/439, Friday (-550,085)

1/1/439, Sunday (-550,181)

7/4/438, Thursday (-550,450)

1/1/438, Saturday (-550,546)

Tuesday (-550,550)

7/4/437, Wednesday (-550,815)

1/1/437, Friday (-550,911)

7/4/436, Tuesday (-551,180)

1/1/436, Wednesday (-551,277)

Tuesday= 551,551

1/1/435, Tuesday (-551,642) week 78,806

1/1/434, Monday (-552,007)

1/1/433, Sunday (-552,372)

Tuesday = 552,552

8/5/432, Sunday (-552,610)

1/1/432, Friday (-552,738)

1/1/431, Thursday (-553,103)

28/8/430, Tuesday (-553,245) St Augustine died in the town of Hippo, then enduring its 3rd month of siege by the Vandals. His writings have had considerable influence on Church doctrine.

1/1/430, Wednesday (-553,468)

Tuesday = 553,553

1/1/429, Tuesday (-553,833) week 79,119

1/1/428, Sunday (-554,199)

Tuesday = 554,554

1/1/427, Saturday (-554,564)

1/1/426, Friday (-554,929)

27/2/425. Friday (-555,237) Emperor Theodosius II founded, in effect, the University of Constantinople. He gathered a group of professors and gave them a monopoly over higher education in the city.

1/1/425, Thursday (-555,294)

23/10/424, Thursday (-555,364) Emperor Theodosius II nominated his cousin Valentinian, aged 5, the imperial title nobilissimus Caesar ("most noble") of the Western Roman Empire.

Tuesday = 555,555

1/1/424, Tuesday (-555,660) week 79,380

1/1/423, Monday (-556,025)

1/1/422, Sunday (-556,390)

30/9/421, Friday (-556,483)

2/9/421, Friday (-556,511) Roman Emperor Constantius III died.

Tuesday = 556,556

25/3/421,Friday (-556,672) Venice was founded at twelve o'clock noon (according to legend) with the dedication of the first church, San Giacomo, at the islet of Rialto (Italy).

1/1/421, Saturday (-556,755)

===============================================================================

25/12/420, Saturday (-556,762)

23/10/420, Saturday (-556,825)

30/9/420, Thursday (-556,848) Saint Jerome, Church leader, died.

1/1/420, Thursday (-557,121)

1/1/419, Wednesday (-557,486)

Tuesday = 557.557)

1/1/418, Tuesday (-557,851) week 79,693

12/3/417, Pope Innocent I died.

1/1/417, Monday (-558,216)

Tuesday = 558,558

1/1/416, Saturday (-558,582)

1/1/415, Friday (-558,947)

1/1/414, Thursday (-559,312)

8/5/413, Thursday (-559,550) Honorius signed an edict providing tax relief for the Italian provinces Tuscia, Campania, Picenum, Samnium, Apulia, Lucania, and Calabria, who were plundered by the Visigoths.

Tuesday = 559,559

1/1/413, Wednesday (-559,677)

1/1/412, Monday (-560,043)

1/1/411, Sunday (-560,408)

=========================================================================

25/12/410, Sunday (-560,415)

23/10/410, Sunday (-560,478)

Tuesday = 560,560

23/8/410. Tuesday (-560,539) The Visigoths under Alaric I sacked Rome after a third siege. Slaves opened the Salarian Gate and Goths looted the city for three days. It was the first time since 390 BC that Rome had fallen to an enemy. This marked the decline of the Roman Empire.

1/1/410, Saturday (-560,773)

=============================================================================

25/12/409, Saturday (-560,780)

23/10/409, Saturday (-560,843)

13/10/409, Wednesday (-560,853) The Vandals, led by King Gunderic, crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula. They received land from the Romans, in southern Spain. The Alans occupied lands in Lusitania and the Suebi controlled parts of Gallaecia (modern Portugal).

1/1/409, Friday (-561,138)

==============================================================================

25/12/408, Friday (-561,145)

23/10/408, Friday (-561,208)

23/8/408, Sunday (-561,269) Flavius Stilicho, soldier, was assassinated.

1/1/408, Wednesday (-561,504)

=============================================================================

25/12/407, Wednesday (-561,511)

Tuesday =561,561

23/10/407, Wednesday (-561,574)

14/9/407, Saturday (-561,613) Saint John Chrysostom died.

1/1/407, Tuesday (-561,869) week 80,267

31/12/406. Monday (-561,870) The Rhine, for long the frontier of the Roman Empire, froze over in an exceptionally cold winter. A wave of tribes, the Vandals, Sueves, and Alans, moved across and into Gaul.

29/10/406, Monday (-561,933)

27/8/406, Monday (-561,996)

23/8/406, Thursday (-562,000) Radagaisus, King of the Goths, was executed by the Romans. He had attempted an invasion of Italy but was defeated by Stilicho.

1/1/406, Monday (-562,234)

Tuesday = 562,562

1/1/405 Sunday (-562,599)

1/1/404, Friday (-562,965) Last known gladiatorial combat in Rome.

1/1/403, Thursday (-563,330)

6/4/402, Sunday (-563,425) Stilicho led the Romans to victory over the Visigoths at the Battle of Pollentia.

Tuesday = 563,563

1/1/402, Wednesday (-563,695)

1/1/401, Tuesday (-564, 060) week 80,580

1/1/400, Sunday (-564,426)

=========================================================================

25/12/399, Sunday (-564,433)

26/11/399, Saturday (-564,462) Pope Siricius died at Rome after a 15-year reign in which he commanded celibacy for priests, asserted papal authority over the entire Western Church, and threatened to impose sanctions on those who did not follow his dictates.

Tuesday = 564,564)

1/1/399, Saturday (-564,791)

1/1/398, Friday (-565,156)

11/11/397, Wednesday (-565,207) Death of St Martin of Tours, France.

3/4/397. Friday (-565,429) Death of �Saint� Ambrose, bishop of Milan. Born a Roman citizen around 337-340, Ambrose was appointed as bishop of Milan in 374 when the previous incumbent, Auxentius, died.

1/1/397, Thursday (-565,521)

Tuesday = 565,565

1/1/396, Tuesday (-565,887) week 80,841

17/1/395. Wednesday (-566,236) Emperor Theodosius I died and was succeeded by his two sons. The Empire was once again divided; Arcadius, aged 17, husband of Eudoxia (the daughter of Frankish leader Bauto), controlled the east from Constantinople. MeanwhileHonorius, aged 10, ruled the west from Milan (under the regentship of his Vandal master of troops, Stilichio). The border between the east and west crossed the Libyan Desert and the Balkans. Stilichio�s daughter, Maria, married Honorius in 398.

1/1/395, Monday (-566,252)

==============================================================================

25/12/394, Monday (-566,259)

23/10/394, Monday (-566,322)

23/9/394, Saturday (-566,352)

6/9/394, Wednesday (-566,369) (Roman Empire) Eugenius was killed in battle against the barbarian legions of Emperor Theodosius. The Frankish general, Arbogast, escaped into the mountains butcommitted suicide two days later.

Tuesday = 566,566

1/1/394, Sunday (-566,617)

1/1/393, Saturday (-566,982)

=============================================================================

25/12/392, Saturday (-566,989)

3/11/392. Wednesday (-567,041) Emperor Theodosius passed a decree prohibiting all pagan worship in the Byzantine Empire.

15/5/392, Friday (-567,214) Roman Emperor Valentinian II was assassinated in Gaul, at the instigation of his Frankish General Arbogast, who then set up Eugenius as Emperor. Emperor Theodosius, enraged, marched against Eugenius.

1/1/392, Thursday (-567,348)

Tuesday = 567,567

1/1/391, Wednesday (-567,713)

1/1/390 , Tuesday (-568,078) week 81,154)

1/1/389, Monday (-568,443)

Tuesday = 568,568

28/7/388, Thursday (-568,601) Theodosius I, Byzantine Emperor, defeated the Roman Emperor Maximus near Aquileia.

1/7/388, Friday (-568,628)

1/1/388, Saturday (-568,809)

24/4/387, Saturday (-569,061) St Augustine of Hippo was baptised, along with his son, Adeodatus, by Ambrose at Milan.

1/1/387, Friday (-569,174)

1/1/386, Thursday (-569,539)

Tuesday = 569,569

1/1/385, Wednesday (-569,904)

=============================================================================

25/12/384, Wednesday (-569,911)

17/12/384,Tuesday (-569,919) Pope Siricius succeeded Damasus I as the 38th pope. He took the title Pontifex Maximus, after it was relinquished by late Emperor Gratian.

1/1/384, Monday (-570,270)

==============================================================================

25/12/383, Monday (-570,277)

23/10/383, Monday (-570,340)

21/8/383, Monday (-570,403)

15/8/383. Tuesday (-570,409) (Roman Empire) The Byzantine Emperor Theodosius signed an agreement with the Visigoths giving them land and political autonomy within the Empire, as foederati (non-Roman citizen allies of Rome)under King Alaric I in return for military service. They were allowed to settle south of the Danube. See 375.

30/5/383, Wednesday (-570,485) St Isaac of Dalmatia died in the monastery at Constantinople which he founded.

Tuesday = 570,570

1/1/383, Sunday (-570,635)

1/1/382, Saturday (-571,000)

1/1/381, Friday (-571,365)

Tuesday = 571,571

1/1/380, Wednesday (-571,731)

19/1/379, Saturday (-572,078) The Roman Emperor Theodosius assumed power at Sirmius.

1/1/379, Tuesday (-572,096) week 81,728

============================================================================

25/12/378, Tuesday (-572,103)

23/10/378, Tuesday (-572,166)

21/8/378, Tuesday (-572,229)

9/8/378. Thursday (-572,241) The Romans were defeated by the Visigoths at the Second Battle of Adrianople, Turkey. In 376 the Visigoths had been allowed to move into Roman territory to escape pressure from the Huns. In 377 the Visigoths revolted against Rome and the Roman Emperor Valens determined to subdue them. He attacked on 9/8/378 when the main body of the Goth�s cavalry was away foraging, but suddenly the Goth�s cavalry re-appeared on the battlefield. Two thirds of Valerian�s army was killed. That battle ushered in the supremacy, in the Roman army, of the cavalry over the legions.

1/1/378, Monday (-572,461)

Tuesday = 572,572

1/1/377, Sunday (-572,826)

1/1/376, Friday (-573,192)

=============================================================================

25/12/375, Friday (-573,199)

17/11/375, Tuesday (-573,237) Roman Emperor Valentinian died of apoplexy, aged 53, whilst attending a meeting on the Danube. He had concluded an enduring peace with the Alamanni in Germany, then marched into Illyrium to repel an invasion of the Quadi and the Sarmatians on the Danube frontier. While negotiating with the Quadi, Valentinian became so enraged that he died in a fit of apoplexy at Brigetio (Hungary). His reign had been cruel but he had also founded schools and provided physicians for the poor of Constantinople. His nominal successor was his 4-year-old son, Valentinian II. However the boy�s half-brother Flavius Gratianus, aged 17, became real Emperor and ruled as Emperor Gratian.

1/1/375, Thursday (-573,557)

Tuesday = 573,573

1/1/374, Wednesday (-573,922)

2/5/373. Thursday (-574,166) Athanasius, the patriarch who fiercely defended the Nicene Creed against Arianism, died at Alexandria, Egypt. He played an important role in the spread of monasticism.

1/1/373, Tuesday (-574,287) week 82,041

Tuesday = 574,574

1/1/372, Sunday (-574,653)

1/1/371, Saturday (-575,018)

1/1/370, Friday (-575,383)

Tuesday = 575,575

1/1/369, Thursday (-575,748)

1/1/368, Tuesday (-576,114) week 82,302

1/1/367, Monday (-576,479)

Tuesday = 576,576

24/9/366, Sunday (-576,578) Death of Pope Liberius

1/1/366, Sunday (-576,844)

21/7/365, Thursday (-577,008) An earthquake and tsunami devastated Crete and Alexandria and affected Italy, Greece, and Palestine.

1/1/365, Saturday (-577,209)

26/2/364. Thursday (-577,519) Valentinian became Roman Emperor, succeeding Jovian who surrendered the gains of Diocletian to the Persians. On 28/3/364 Valentinian appointed his brother Valens as governor of the eastern Empire. For the first time the division of empire is accompanied by a true division of resources and army between east and west.

1/1/364, Thursday (-577,575)

Tuesday = 577,577

26/6/363. Thursday (-577,764) (Christian, Roman Empire) Julian the Apostate, Roman Emperor, was killed fighting the Persians. The Emperor Julian was determined to reinstate the old Roman gods and eliminate Christianity. A cousin of Constantius II, he declared himself a pagan in November 361 when Constantius II died, leaving him as sole emperor. On 17/6/362 Julian forbadeChristians from teaching grammar or rhetoric. He was succeeded by the captain of his bodyguard, Flavius Jovianus, who ruled for 7 months as the Emperor Jovian.

1/1/363, Wednesday (-577,940)

1/1/362, Tuesday (-578,305) week 82,615

11/12/361, Tuesday (-578,326) Following the death of Constantius, his 30-year-old cousin Flavius Claudius Julianus was acknowledged by Constantinople as sole Emperor. He entered the city this day to begin an 18-month reign as Emperor Julian.

3/11/361, Saturday (-578,364) Emperor Constantius died near Tarsus, Cilicia, aged 44.

Tuesday = 578,578

1/1/361, Monday (-578,670)

1/1/360, Saturday (-579,036)

1/1/359, Friday (-579,401)

Tuesday = 579,579

1/1/358, Thursday (-579,766)

==============================================================================

25/12/357, Thursday (-579,773)

23/10/357, Thursday (-579,836)

25/8/357. Monday (-579,895) Julian, who was made Caesar by his cousin Constantius II on 6/11/355, defeated the Alemmani at Strasbourg and drove them back across the Rhine.

1/1/357, Wednesday (-580,131)

19/2/356. Monday (-580,448) Constantius II, ruler of all of Rome (see 22/5/337), ordered all pagan temples in the Roman Empire to be closed.

1/1/356, Monday (-580,497)

Tuesday = 580,580

1/1/355, Sunday (-580,862)

============================================================================

25/12/354, Sunday (-580,869)

13/11/354, Sunday (-580,911) Aurelius Augustinus, or St Augustine, was born at Tagaste, a town in Numidia.

1/1/354, Saturday (-581,227)

Tuesday = 581,581

1/1/353, Friday (-581,592)

1/1/352, Wednesday (-581,958)

1/1/351, Tuesday (-582,323) week 83,189

25/12/350, Tuesday (-582,330) The first officially-sanctioned Christmas Day celebrations.

Tuesday = 582,582

1/1/350, Monday (-582,688)

1/1/349, Sunday (-583,053)

1/1/348, Friday (-583,419)

Tuesday = 583,583

11/1/347, Sunday (-583,774) The Roman Emperor, Theodosius the Great, was born.

1/1/347, Thursday (-583,784)

25/12/346, Thursday (-583,791)

21/10/346. Tuesday (-583,856) Under heavy imperial pressure, a split between the eastern and western Churches was patched up at Alexandria, Egypt.

1/1/346, Wednesday (-584,149)

1/1/345, Tuesday (-584,514)

Tuesday = 584,584

1/1/344, Sunday (-584,880)

1/1/343, Saturday (-585,245)

15/2/342, Monday (-585,565) The original Hagia Sophia was dedicated in Constantinople

Tuesday = 585,585

1/1/342, Friday (-585,610)

1/1/341, Thursday (-585,975)

1/1/340, Tuesday (-586,341) week 83,763

Tuesday = 586,586

1/1/339, Monday (-586,706)

1/1/338, Sunday (-587,071)

22/5/337. Sunday (-587,295) Constantine, born 27/2/274, died after a baptism on his death bed at his villa near Ancyra in Nicomedia. His sons Augustus. Constantine II and Constans shared the west, whilst Constantius II. took control of the eastern Empire. In March 340 Constans killed his brother Constantine II. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. On 9/9/337 Constantine�s three Aquileia in northern Italy and becomes sole ruler of the west. However Constans was himself murdered by the military commander Magnentius in 350, and in turn Magnentius was defeated in Gaul by Constantius II, ruler of the eastern Empire, at Mursa in 351.Once again Magnentius was defeated by Constantius II in Gaul in 353, following which Magnentius committed suicide and Constantius II was ruler of both east and west.

1/1/337, Saturday (-587,436)

25/12/336, Saturday (-587,443) The first recorded celebration of �Christ�s birth� on what is now Christmas Day.

Tuesday = 587,587

1/1/336, Thursday (-587,802)

17/12/335. Wednesday (-587,817) The Emperor Constantine�s construction, the Holy Sepulchre, in Jerusalem, opened. �Christ�s tomb on Golgotha was discovered in 328� (?) and Constantine ordered the building of this place of worship here.

1/1/335, Wednesday (-588,167)

1/1/334, Tuesday (-588,532) week 84,076

Tuesday = 588,588

1/1/333, Monday (-588,897)

9/5/332, Tuesday (589,134)

1/1/332, Saturday (-589,263)

Tuesday = 589,589

1/1/331, Friday (-589,628)

11/5/330. Monday (-589,863) The Emperor Constantine made Byzantium the new capital of the Roman Empire, and renamed it Constantinople.

1/1/330, Thursday (-589,993)

1/1/329, Wednesday (-590,358)

Tuesday = 590,590

1/1/328, Monday (-590,724)

1/1/327, Sunday (-591,089)

1/1/326, Saturday (-591,454)

Tuesday = 591,591

25/7/325. Sunday (-591,614) Major celebrations were held at Nicomedia, Asia Minor, to mark the twentieth year of Constantine as Emperor. Also celebrated was Constantine�s victory over his former ally Licinius, ruler of the eastern half of the Roman Emperor. The rift came when Licinius broke a promise to Constantine to tolerate the Christian religion. Constantine defeated Licinius in 324 and captured Byzantium.The Council of Nicea closed this day.

22/7/325, Thursday (-591,617)

20/5/325. Thursday (-591,680) The Emperor Constantine, dressed in purple to mark the sacred nature of his power, opened the Council of Nicea. He has summoned bishops from all over the Empire to settle violent controversies raging within the Church, especially over Arianism. Arius, a priest in Alexandria, argued in 318 that Christ was not equal to God; if Christ was the Son of God, said Arius, he had a beginning so could not be eternal and was inferior to his Father. Constantine was acting as peacemaker and favoured equality of Christ with God. In fact the creed was worded so as to be ambiguous enough for most Arians to accept it.

1/1/325, Friday (-591,819)

1/1/324, Wednesday (-592,185)

18/9/323, Wednesday (-592,290) Battle of Chrysopolis. Licinius had gathered a new army of some 60,000, but was defeated by Constantine I. Licinius fled, but in 324 he surrendered, and was executed.

3/7/323, Wednesday (-592,367) First Battle of Adrianople. Constantine I, Western Roman Emperor, defeated Licinius, the eastern Emperor. Licinius fled to Byzantium, which was then besieged by Constantine.

1/1/323, Tuesday (-592,550) week 84,650

Tuesday = 592,592

1/1/322, Monday (-592,915)

3/12/321. Sunday (-592,944) Sunday was made a day of rest throughout the Roman Empire. Under the Edict of Milan, 3/2/313, Christianity was now tolerated in the Empire. Persecution of Christians had begun under Diocletian in 303 and peaked under his successors Galerius and Maximian. Constantine, born in Naissus in what is now Yugoslavia, was son of a Christian mother, Helena. When Constantine (born 274) became Emperor in 306 he followed the cult of Sol Invictis, the Unconquered Sun. However in 312, whilst fighting Maxentius the son of Maximian, he saw a cross of light superimposed on the sun. From then on Constantine identified the sun with the God of the Christians. He ordered his men to fight Maxentius with Christian symbols painted on their shields, and they won a famous victory at the Milvian Bridge just outside Rome, on 28/10/312. Constantine became ruler of the western Roman Empire.

1/1/321, Sunday (-593,280)

Tuesday = 593,593

1/1/320, Friday (-593,646)

1/1/319, Thursday (-594,011)

1/1/318, Wednesday (-594,376)

Tuesday = 594,594

1/1/317, Tuesday (-594,741) week 84,963

1/1/316, Sunday (-595,107)

1/1/315, Saturday (-595,472)

1/11/314, Monday (-595,533)

8/10/314, Friday (-595,557) Battle of Cibalae. Emperor Constantine defeated his co-emperor Licinus, who lost all the Balkans except for Thrace.

Tuesday = 595,595

1/1/314, Friday (-595,837)

1/1/313, Thursday (-596,202)

==============================================================================

312,

25/12/313, Thursday (-596,209)

28/10/312, Tuesday (-596,267) Battle of Milvian Bridge. Maxentius had been declared Emperor in Rome, with the backing of the Senate. However Constantine was marching down from Gaul to claim title as Emperor. Constantine�s army was smaller, and relied on cavalry, performing best on open ground. Maxentius had dismantled the Milvian Bridge over the Tiber to halt Constantine�s advance; Maxentius� troops had to ford the Tiber to attack Constantine, this move put them in the open, favouring Constantine�s cavalry. Maxentius fought in the name of Mars, the Roman God of War; Constantine saw a flaming cross in the sky and fought in the name of Christianity. Constantine�s cavalry charged, disrupting Maxentius� ranks; Maxentius was killed and his head paraded through Rome the next day on a spear.

23/10/313, Thursday (-596,272)

1/1/312, Tuesday (-596,568) week 85,224

3/12/311, Monday (-596,597) Roman Emperor Diocletian died. Born in Salona, he was Emperor 284 to 305. He defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between 285 and 299. He is perhaps best remembered for "The Diocletianic Persecution" (303�11), the empire's largest and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity.

1/1/311, Monday (-596,933)

1/1/310, Sunday (-597,298)

Tuesday = 597,597

1/1/309, Saturday (-597,663)

1/1/308, Thursday (-597,029)

1/1/307, Wednesday (598,394)

Tuesday = 598,598

25/7/306, Constantius died whilst quelling a rebellion in Britain. Constantine, son of Constantius, now made a bid for leadership of the Western Empire, from Britain;but he faced a rival in Rome, Maxentius.

1/1/306, Tuesday (-598,759) week 85,537

1/5/305. Tuesday (-599,004) Diocletian, Emperor since 284, became the first Roman Emperor to abdicate. He retired to a palace at Salona on the Adriatic. There was now a division of responsibility, one emperor for the east and one (Constantius, the former deputy of Diocletian) for the west of the Empire. Diocletian died in 313.

1/1/305, Monday (-599,124)

1/1/304, Saturday (-599,490)

===============================================================================

25/12/303, Saturday (-599,497)

28/11/303. Sunday (-599,524) Twenty years after coming to Power, the Emperor Diocletian made his first visit to Rome. There were festivals and games in his honour. After many years of disorder and danger, the Roman Empire was enjoying a period of peace. Diocletian made major administrative and economic reforms. He separated military and administrative departments, and fashioned a formal, unbroken, chain of command from the Emperor right down to the lowliest official in a distant province. His economic reforms were less successful. To tackle inflation he imposed price and wage controls. A wide range of goods were covered, including brandy, meat, fruit, vegetables, bread, leather, carpets, and clothes, in his edicts of 301. Maximum pay rates were also fixed, from labourer to lawyer; punishment for breaching these regulations was exile or even death. However these reforms collapsed under the impact of massive shortages and a rampant black market. Diocletian also simplified the tax system, but this effectively legalised the system of exacting contributions from the peasants in the form of labour and produce. This tied them to the land as serfs.

Diocletian�s price and wage list included the following. For wages, a labourer would get 25 denarii a day. Note that in 33 AD the days wage for a labourer was one denarius. Bakers would be paid 50 d a day, scribes 25 d per 100 lines, and teachers 50d per pupil permonth. Prices would be, 1d for an egg, 24d for a lemon, 30d for a chicken, 250d for a pheasant, 30,000d for a male slave, and 100,000d for a racehorse.

Tuesday = 599,599

24/3/303, Wednesday (-599,773) St George was executed in Palestine. He was a Roman soldier from Cappadocia (now, Turkey) who refused to persecute Christians.

4/3/303, Thursday (-599,793) St Adrian was martyred.

24/2/303, Wednesday (-599,801) Emperor Diocletian ordered a massive persecution of the Christians.. This was at the persuasion of, Thracian, Galerius Valerius Maximanus.

1/1/303, Friday (-599,855)

1/1/302, Thursday (-600,220)

==========================================================================

25/12/301, Thursday (-600,227)

23/10/301, Thursday (-600,290)

3/9/301, Wednesday (-600,340) The republic of San Marino was established (traditional date).

1/1/301, Wednesday (-600,585)

Tuesday = 600,600

1/1/300, Monday (-600,951)

1/1/299, Sunday (-601,316)

Tuesday = 601,601

1/1/298, Saturday (-601,681)

1/1/297, Friday (-602,046)

30/6/296, Monday (-602,232) Pope Marcellinus (29th Pope) acceded. He ruled until 304.

1/1/296, Wednesday (-602,412)

Tuesday = 602,602

1/1/295, Tuesday (-602,777) week 86,111

1/1/294, Monday (-603,142)

1/1/293, Sunday (-603,507)

Tuesday = 603,603

1/1/292, Friday (-603,873)

1/1/291, Thursday (-603,238)

1/1/290, Wednesday (-604,603)

Tuesday = 604,604

1/1/289, Tuesday (-603,968)

1/1/288, Sunday (-605,334)

Tuesday = 605,605

1/1/287, Saturday (-605,699)

1/1/286, Friday (-606,064)

21/7/285, Tuesday (-606,228) Roman Emperor Diocletian appointed Maximian as Caesar and co-ruler

1/1/285, Thursday (-606,429)

==============================================================================

25/12/284, Thursday (-606,436)

20/11/284, Thursday (-606,471) Roman soldier Diocletian was proclaimed Emperor by the army.

23/10/284, Thursday (-606,499)

29/8/284, Friday (-606,554) Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Numerius was assassinated. He was succeeded by General Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Jovius, a 39-year-old Illyrian. He began a 21-year despotic rule of the Eastern Roman Empire whilst Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius was to rule the West.

21/8/284, Thursday (-606,562)

Tuesday = 606,606)

1/1/284, Tuesday (-606,795) week 86,685

1/1/283, Monday (-607,160)

1/1/282, Sunday (-607,525)

Tuesday = 607,607

1/1/281, Saturday (-607,890)

1/1/280, Thursday (-608,256)

Tuesday = 608,608

1/1/279, Wednesday (-608,621)

1/1/278, Tuesday (-608,986) week 86,998

1/1/277, Monday (-609,351)

Tuesday = 609,609

1/1/276, Saturday (-609,717)

1/1/275, Friday (-610,082)

1/1/274, Thursday (-610,447)

Tuesday = 610,610

1/1/273, Wednesday (-610,812)

27/2/272, Tuesday (-611,121) Roman Emperor Constantine was born in Naissus.

1/1/272, Monday (-611,178)

1/1/271, Sunday (-611,543)

Tuesday = 611,611

1/1/270, Saturday (-611,908)

1/1/269, Friday (-612,273)

Tuesday = 612,612

1/1/268, Wednesday (-612,639)

1/1/267, Tuesday (-613,004) week 87,572

1/1/266, Monday (-613,369)

Tuesday = 613,613

1/1/265, Sunday (-613,734)

1/1/264, Friday (-614,100)

1/1/263, Thursday (-614,465)

Tuesday = 614,614

1/1/262, Wednesday (-614,830)

1/1/261, Tuesday (-615,195) week 87,885

1/1/260, Sunday (-615,561)

Tuesday = 615,615

1/1/259, Saturday (-615,926)

=======================================================================

25/12/258, Saturday (-615,933)

23/10/258, Saturday (-615,996)

14/9/258, Tuesday (-616,035) Saint Cyprian (born ca. 200) was martyred.

6/8/258, Friday (-616,074) Pope Sixtus II martyred.

1/1/258, Friday (-616,291)

Tuesday = 616,616

1/1/257, Thursday (-616,656)

1/1/256, Tuesday (-617,022) week 88,146

1/1/255, Monday (-617,387)

Tuesday = 617,617

1/1/254, Sunday (-617,752)

1/1/253, Saturday (-618,117)

1/1/252, Thursday (-618,483)

Tuesday = 618,618

5/2/251, Wednesday (-618,813) Saint Agatha was martyred.

1/1/251, Wednesday (-618,848)

31/3/250, Sunday (-619,124) Constantius, Western Roman Emperor, was born in Illyricum.

27/2/250, Wednesday (-619,156)

1/1/250, Tuesday (-619,213) week 88,459

1/1/249, Monday (-619,578)

Tuesday = 619,619

1/1/248, Saturday (-619,944)

1/1/247, Friday (-620,309)

Tuesday = 620,620

1/1/246, Thursday (-620,674)

1/1/245, Wednesday (-620,039)

1/1/244, Monday (-621,405)

Tuesday = 621,621

1/1/243, Sunday (-621,770)

1/1/242, Saturday (-622,135)

1/1/241, Friday (-622,500)

Tuesday = 622,622

1/1/240, Wednesday (-622,866)

1/1/239, Tuesday (-623,231) week 89,033

1/1/238, Monday (-623,596)

Tuesday = 623,623

1/1/237, Sunday (-623,961)

1/1/236, Friday (-624,327)

20/3/235, Friday (-624,614) Maximinius Thrax, aged 62, was proclaimed emperor. He had a Gothic father and an Alan mother. Maximinus, a Thracian, was the first foreigner to hold the Roman throne.

18/3/235. Wednesday (-624,616) Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander, was killed in a battle against German invaders in Gaul. Born on 1/10/208 at Arca Caesarea, Phoenicia, Alexander was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. In the early 230s he fought against the Persians, returning to Rome in triumph in 233. He improved the Empire economically; luxury and extravagance at the Roman Court were reduced, the standard of the coinage was raised, taxes were lightened, the lot of the soldiers was improved, and literature, science, and art were encouraged,. He instituted loan offices to lend money to the people at a reasonable rate of interest.

Tuesday = 624,624

28/2/235, Saturday (-624,634) Pope Pontianus resigned. He had been Pope from 230, but in 235 was exiled by Emperor Maximinus to Sardinia, and so had to resign the Papacy this day.

1/1/235, Thursday (-624,692)

1/1/234, Wednesday (-625,057)

1/1/233, Tuesday (-625,422) week 89,346

Tuesday = 625,625

8/5/232, Tuesday (-625,660)

1/1/232, Sunday (-625,788)

1/1/231, Saturday (-626,153)

1/1/230, Friday (-626,518)

Tuesday = 626,626

1/1/229, Thursday (-626,883)

1/1/228, Tuesday (-627,249) week 89,607

1/1/227, Monday (-627,614)

Tuesday = 627,627

1/1/226, Sunday (-627,979)

1/1/225, Saturday (-628,344)

Tuesday = 628,628

1/1/224, Thursday (-628,710)

1/1/223, Wednesday (-629,075)

1/1/222, Tuesday (-629,440) week 89,920

27/6/221. Wednesday (-629,628) 19 year old Emperor Elagabalus was assassinated by a member of the Praetorian Guard. Alexander Severus became emperor.

1/1/221, Monday (-629,805)

1/1/220, Saturday (-630,171)

1/1/219, Friday (-630,536)

Tuesday = 630,630

8/6/218, Monday (-630,743) Emperor Macrinus was assassinated near Antioch after he tried to reduce the pay of the Roman soldiers. He was succeeded by Variua Avitus Bassianus, a 14-year-old from Syria, a grandnephew by marriage of the late Septimus Severus. He claimed to be a son of Caracalla, and named himself Heliogabalus, or Elagabalus, from the name of the Syrian Sun King.

1/1/218, Thursday (-630,901)

8/4/217, Tuesday (-631,169) Roman Emperor Caracalla was assassinated after a bloody reign. He was succeeded by Opellius Severus Macrinus, a 53-year-old from Mauretania, as Emperor Macrinus.

1/1/217, Wednesday (-631,266)

Tuesday = 631,631

1/1/216, Monday (-631,632)

1/1/215, Sunday (-631,997)

1/1/214, Saturday (-632,362)

Tuesday = 632,632

1/1/213, Friday (-632,727)

1/1/212, Wednesday (-633,093)

4/2/211. Monday (-633,424) Emperor Septimus Severus died at York whilst fighting the Caledonian tribes.

1/1/211, Tuesday (-633,458) week 90,494

Tuesday = 633,633

1/1/210, Monday (-633,823)

1/1/209, Sunday (-634,188)

1/1/208, Friday (-634,554)

Tuesday = 634,634

1/1/207, Thursday (-634,919)

1/1/206, Wednesday (-635,284)

Tuesday = 635,635

1/1/205, Tuesday (-635,649) week 90,807

1/1/204, Sunday (636,015)

1/1/203, Saturday (-636,380)

Tuesday = 636,636

1/1/202, Friday (-636,745)

1/1/201, Thursday (-637,110)

1/1/200, Tuesday (-637,476) week 91,068

Tuesday = 637,637

1/1/199, Monday (-637,841)

1/1/198, Sunday (-638,206)

19/2/197, Saturday (-638,522) The Battle of Lugdunum (Lyons, France). The Romans under Septimus Severus defeated Clodius Albinus.

1/1/197, Saturday (-638,571)

Tuesday = 638,638

1/1/196, Thursday (-638,937)

1/1/195, Wednesday (-639,302)

Tuesday = 639,639

14/4/194, Sunday (-639,564) Lucius Septimus Severus was crowned Emperor of Rome.

9/4/194, Tuesday (-639,569) Septimus Severus was proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illiricum.

1/1/194, Tuesday (-639,667) week 91,381

28/3/193, Wednesday (-639,946) Roman Emperor Pertinax was assassinated.

1/1/193, Monday (-640,032)

31/12/192, Sunday (-640,033) Emperor Commodus was assassinated, see 27/3/180.

1/1/192, Saturday (-640,398)

Tuesday = 640,640

1/1/191, Friday (-640,763)

1/1/190, Thursday (-641,168)

1/1/189, Wednesday (-641,493)

Tuesday = 641,641

4/4/188, Wednesday (-641,766) Roman Emperor Caracalla (211-17) was born at Lyons in Gaul.

1/1/188, Monday (-641,859)

1/1/187, Sunday (-642,224)

1/1/186, Saturday (-642,589)

Tuesday = 642,642

1/1/185, Friday (-642,954)

1/1/184, Wednesday (-643,320)

Tuesday = 643,643

1/1/183, Tuesday (-643,685) week 91,955

1/1/182, Monday (-644,050)

1/1/181, Sunday (-644,415)

Tuesday = 644,644

17/3/180. Wednesday (-644,706) Marcus Aurelius died of the plague. He was succeeded by his son Commodus. However Commodus fell prey to insanity due to excessive power. He attempted to rename Rome as Colonia Aurelia Nova Commodiana; also renaming the fleet, wheat, the legions, and the months of the year. On 31/12/192 Commodus, who saw himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, planned to sacrifice the new consuls on 1/1/193; the consul had an athlete called Narcissus strangle Commodus in his bath. His death ended the Antonine dynasty.

1/1/180, Friday (-644,781)

1/1/179, Thursday (-645,146)

1/1/178, Wednesday (-645,511)

Tuesday = 645,645

1/1/177, Tuesday (-645,876) week 92,268

1/1/176, Sunday (-646,242)

1/1/175, Saturday (-646,607)

Tuesday = 646,646

1/1/174, Friday (-646,972)

1/1/173, Thursday (-647,337)

Tuesday = 647,647

1/1/172, Tuesday (-647,703) week 92,529

1/1/171, Monday (-648,068)

1/1/170, Sunday (-648,433)

Tuesday = 648,648

1/1/169, Saturday (-648,798)

1/1/168, Thursday (-649,164)

1/1/167, Wednesday (-649,529)

Tuesday = 649,649

1/1/166, Tuesday (-649,894) week 92,842

1/1/165, Monday (-650,259)

1/1/164, Saturday (-650,625)

Tuesday = 650,650

1/1/163, Friday (-650,990)

1/1/162, Thursday (-651,355)

Tuesday = 651,651

7/3/161. Friday (-651,655) Emperor Antoninus died at Lorium and was replaced by Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

1/1/161, Wednesday (-651,720)

1/1/160, Monday (-652,086)

1/1/159, Sunday (-652,451)

Tuesday = 652,652

1/1/158, Saturday (-652,816)

1/1/157, Friday (-653,181)

1/1/156, Wednesday (-653,547)

Tuesday = 653,653

1/1/155, Tuesday (-653,912) week 93,416

1/1/154, Monday (-653,277)

1/1/153, Sunday (-654,642)

Tuesday = 654,654)

1/1/152, Friday (-655,008)

1/1/151, Thursday (-655,373)

Tuesday = 655,655

1/1/150, Wednesday (-655,738)

1/1/149, Tuesday (-656,103) week 93,729

1/1/148, Sunday (-656,469)

Tuesday = 656,656

21/4/147. Thursday (-656,724) Emperor Antoninus celebrated the 900th anniversary of Rome� s foundation.

1/1/147, Saturday (-656,834)

11/4/146, Sunday (-657,099) Birth of Roman Emperor Septimus Severis.

1/1/146, Friday (-657,199)

1/1/145, Thursday (-657,564)

Tuesday = 657,657

1/1/144, Tuesday (-657,930) week 93,990

1/1/143,Monday (-658,295)

Tuesday = 658,658

1/1/142, Sunday (-658,660)

1/1/141, Saturday (-659,025)

1/1/140, Thursday (-659,391)

Tuesday = 659,659

1/1/139, Wednesday (-659,756)

10/7/138. Wednesday (-659,931) Hadrian, who became Emperor of Rome on 8/8/117, died at his villa on the Bay of Naples. See 8/8/117.

1/1/138, Tuesday (-660,121) week 94,303

1/1/137, Monday (-660,486)

Tuesday = 660,660

1/1/136, Saturday (-660,852)

1/1/135, Friday (-661,217)

1/1/134, Thursday (-661,582)

Tuesday = 661,661

1/1/133, Wednesday (-661,947)

1/1/132, Monday (-662,313)

Tuesday = 662,662

1/1/131, Sunday (-662,678)

1/1/130, Saturday (-663,043)

1/1/129, Friday (-663,408)

Tuesday = 663,663

1/1/128, Wednesday (-663,774)

1/1/127, Tuesday (-664,139) week 94,877

1/1/126, Monday (-664,504)

Tuesday = 664,664

1/1/125, Sunday (-664,869)

1/1/124, Friday (-665,235)

1/1/123, Thursday (-665,600)

Tuesday = 665,665

13/9/122, Saturday (-665,710) Construction of Hadrian�s Wall in Britain began (completed 127).

1/1/122, Wednesday (-665,965)

26/4/121, Friday (-666,215) Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor, was born.

1/1/121, Tuesday (-666,330) week 95,190

Tuesday = 666,666

1/1/120, Sunday (-666,696)

1/1/119, Saturday (-667,061)

1/1/118, Friday (-667,426)

===========================================================================

25/12/117, Friday (-667,433)

23/10/117, Friday (-667,496)

21/8/117, Friday (-667,559)

8/8/117. Saturday (-667,572) Emperor Trajan died, and was succeeded by Hadrian. See 24/1/76, and 10/7/138. Hadrian abandoned the expansionist policy of Trajan and earlier emperors and sought to stabilise the frontiers of Rome. To achieve defensible frontiers the provinces of Assyria and Mesopotamia were abandoned, although there was as yet no thought of giving up Britain. Instead, Hadrian built a wall from the Solway Firth to the Tyne to keep out the Picts. Work on building this wall began in 122, and was completed in 130.

1/1/117, Thursday (-667,791)

1/1/116, Tuesday (-668,157) week 95,451

1/1/115, Monday (-668,522)

1/1/114, Sunday (-668,887)

1/1/113, Saturday (-669,252)

1/1/112, Thursday (-669,618)

1/1/111, Wednesday (-669,983)

1/1/110, Tuesday (-670,348) week 95,764

1/1/109, Monday (-670,713)

1/1/108, Saturday (-671,079)

1/1/107, Friday (-671,444)

1/1/106, Thursday (-671,809)

1/1/105, Wednesday (-672,174)

1/1/104, Monday (-672,540)

1/1/103, Sunday (-672,905)

1/1/102, Saturday (-673,270)

1/1/101, Friday (-673,635)

1/1/100, Wednesday (-674,001)

1/1/99, Tuesday (-674,366) week 96,338

25/1/98,Thursday (-674,707) Nerva, Emperor of Rome, died.He was succeeded by his son Trajan, with whom he had ruled jointly for the last three months of his life.

1/1/98, Monday (-674,731)

1/1/97, Sunday (-675,096)

==================================================================================

25/12/96, Sunday (-675,103)

23/10/96, Sunday (-675,166)

18/9/96, Sunday (-675,201) Nerva (35 � 98) became Emperor of Rome.He purchased large areas of agricultural land in Italy and gave these to the poor.�� He also reformed the tax system and streamlined the Roman bureaucracy.On this day Emperor Domitian was murdered, by assassins in the pay of his wife, Domitia. See 25/1/98.

1/1/96, Friday (-675,462)

1/1/95, Thursday (-675,827)

1/1/94, Wednesday (-676,192)

===============================================================================

25/12/93, Wednesday (-676,199)

23/10/93, Wednesday (-676,262)

23/8/93, Friday (-676,323) Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman general renowned for his conquests, died in Rome. In 83 AD he had won a decisive victory against Caledonian tribes at the Battle of Mons Graupius, probably the Killiecrankie Pass. Had he been able to follow up this victory Rome might have conquered the whole of Britain up to the northern end of Scotland. However to Rome, Caledonia (Scotland) and the raids from its unsubdued tribes was a minor issue; the main problem then was the Germanic threat from east of the Rhine and north of the Danube. Agricola was recalled to Rome with Caledonia unconquered.

1/1/93, Tuesday (-676,557) week 96,651

1/1/92, Sunday (-676,923)

1/1/91, Saturday (-677,288)

1/1/90, Friday (-677,653)

1/1/89, Thursday (-678,018)

1/1/88, Tuesday (-678,384) week 96,912

1/1/87, Monday (-678,749)

1/1/86, Sunday (-679,114)

1/1/85, Saturday (679,479)

1/1/84, Thursday (-679,845)

1/1/83, Wednesday (-680,210)

1/1/82, Tuesday (-680,575) week 97,225

====================================================================

25/12/81, Tuesday (-680,582)

23/10/81, Tuesday (-680,645)

13/9/81, Thursday (-680,685) Roman Emperor Titus died, aged 40, after a 2-year reign. He was succeeded by his 29-year old brother, Titus Flavius Domitianus, who ruled until 96 as Emperor Domitian.

1/1/81, Monday (-680,940)

1/1/80, Saturday (-681,306)

==========================================================================

25/12/79, Saturday (-681,313)

23/10/79, Saturday (-681,376)

25/8/79, Wednesday (-681,435) Pliny the Elder, naturalist, died, in the eruption of Vesuvius.

24/8/79. Tuesday (-681,436) (Roman Empire, Earthquake) Vesuvius erupted, destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and killing 2,000 people.

23/6/79, Wednesday (681,498) Death of the Roman Emperor Vespasian died, aged 69, after a 10-year reign. He was succeeded by his 38-year-old son, Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus Titus. He ruled as Emperor Titus until 81.

1/1/79, Friday (-681,671)

1/1/78, Thursday (-682,036)

1/1/77, Wednesday (-682,401)

24/1/76. Wednesday (-682,744) Birth of the Roman Emperor Hadrian. See 8/8/117.

1/1/76, Monday (-682,767)

1/1/75, Sunday (-683,132)

1/1/74, Saturday (-683,497)

15/4/73, Thursday (-683,758) To escape enslavement the male Jewish defenders of Masada, about to be overwhelmed by the Romans, killed the women and children and then committed suicide.

1/1/73, Friday (-683,862)

1/1/72, Wednesday (-684,228)

1/1/71, Tuesday (-684,593) week 97,799

=============================================================================

25/12/70, Tuesday (-684,600)

23/10/70, Tuesday (-684,663)

8/9/70. Saturday (-684,708) Jerusalem was stormedby the Romans. This ended a revolt by the Jews that began in 66. Only in Masada did the Jews still hold out for a while.

1/1/70, Monday (-684,958)

===============================================================================

20/12/69, Wednesday (-684,970) Aulus Vitellius, former Emperor of Rome, was dragged from his hiding place and assassinated. Vespasian now ruled unchallenged, and held post until 79.

1/7/69, Saturday (-685,142) Vespasian was proclaimed Emperor of Rome by the prefect of Egypt; this was supported by the Legate of Syria and the Danubian legions. Vitellus gathered forces to oppose Vespasian�s supporters. Vitellus was defeated by Vespasian in the Second Battle of Bedriacum, late October 69.

19/4/69, Wednesday (-685,215) Aulus Vitellus sent two legions to the Po Valley where they defeated supporters of Otho in the Battle of Bedriacum, near Cremona. The Roman Emperor Otto then committed suicide. Vitellus now faced a challenge from Titus Flavianus Sabinus Vespasianus, 59, Legate of Judea.

15/1/69, Sunday (-685,309) The RomaEmperor Galba was assassinated by Marcus Salvius Otho, 36, a friend of the late Nero. Eight legions on the Rhine had denied their allegiance to Galba and claimed legate Aulus Vitellus, 54, as Emperor instead. The Senate recognised Otho as Emperor.

1/1/69, Sunday (-685,323)

9/6/68. Wednesday (-685,530) Nero committed suicide, having been deserted by the Praetorian Guard and lost favour with the Senate. His death ended the Julio-Claudian line of Emperors that had ruled Rome for 128 years; he was succeeded by Galba, who ruled for less than 6 months before facing challenges to his leadership.

1/1/68, Friday (-685,689)

1/1/67, Thursday (-686,054)

1/1/66, Wednesday (-686,419)

1/1/65, Tuesday (-686,784) week 98,112

18/7/64. Tuesday (-686,952) The great fire of Rome took place during the reign of Nero (born 15/12/37, became emperor 13/10/54). He played the lyre and was 50 miles away at his villa in Antium when he heard the news. The fire destroyed 10 of the 14 districts of Rome and burned for 6 days. Nero was blamed for starting the fire, and to divert blame he said the Christians had started it, putting them to death in cruel ways.

1/1/64, Sunday (-687,150)

1/1/63, Saturday (-687,515)

1/1/62, Friday (-687,880)

1/1/61, Thursday (-688,245)

1/1/60, Tuesday (-688,611) week 98,373

1/1/59, Monday (-688,976)

1/1/58, Sunday (-689,341)

1/1/57, Saturday (-689,706)

1/1/56, Thursday (-690,072)

1/1/55, Wednesday (-690,437)

================================================================================

25/12/54, Wednesday (-690,444)

23/10/54, Wednesday (-690,507)

13/10/54, Sunday (-690,517) Roman Emperor Claudius I died, aged 64, possibly after being poisoned by Agrippina, his wife and niece, and was succeeded by Nero, Agrippina�s son by another marriage.

1/1/54, Tuesday (-690,802) week 98,686

==================================================================================

25/12/53, Tuesday (-690,809)

23/10/53, Tuesday (-690,872)

15/9/53, Thursday (-690,940) Marcus Ulpius Traianus, the Emperor Trajan, was born near Seville, Spain. He was the first Roman Emperor to be born in the provinces.

1/1/53, Monday (-691,167)

1/1/52, Saturday (-691,533)

==============================================================================

25/12/51, Saturday (-691,540)

24/10/51, Sunday (-691,602)Domitian, Emperor of Rome, was born.

1/1/51, Friday (-691,898)

1/1/50, Thursday (-692,263)

1/1/49, Wednesday (-692,628)

1/1/48, Monday (-692,994)

1/1/47, Sunday (-693,359)

1/1/46, Saturday (-693,724)

1/1/45, Friday (-694,089)

1/1/44, Wednesday (-694,455)

7/12/43, Saturday (-694,480) Death of Cicero, Roman statesman and writer.

1/1/43, Tuesday (-694,820) week 99,260

1/1/42, Monday (-695,185)

25/1/41, Wednesday (-695,526) After a night of negotiation, Claudius was accepted as Emperor by the Senate.

24/1/41, Tuesday (-695,527) Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, was assassinated, aged 28, by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards.

1/1/41, Sunday (-695,550)

1/1/40, Friday (-695,916)

1/1/39, Thursday (-696,281)

1/1/38, Wednesday (-696,646)

================================================================================

25/12/37, Wednesday (-696,653)

15/12/37, Sunday (-696,663) Roman Emperor Nero was born.

18/3/37, Monday (-696,935) The Roman Senate annulledTiberius's will and proclaimed Caligula Roman Emperor.

16/3/37, Saturday (-696,937) Emperor Tiberius died.

1/1/37, Tuesday (-697,011) week 99,573

1/1/36, Sunday (-697,377)

1/1/35, Saturday (-697,742)

1/1/34, Friday (-698,107)

3/4/33, Friday (-698,380) Jesus was put to death. This was to become the Church festival of Easter, with chocolate bunnies and Easter Eggs. Not really much to do with Jesus� death, but everything to do with the old Pagan festival of rebirth, as spring life returned to the land. Even the name �Easter� derives from the old fertility goddess, Astarte, from which we derive fertility-related words like Oestrogen and East, the direction the (lifegiving) sun rises from.

1/1/33, Thursday (-698,472)

6/5/32, Tuesday (-698,712)

28/4/32, Monday (-698,720) The Roman Emperor Otto was born.

1/1/32, Tuesday (-698,838) week 99,834

=================================================================================

25/12/31, Tuesday (-698,845)

23/10/31, Tuesday (-698,908)

18/10/31, Thursday (-698,913) Lucius Aelius Sejanus, plotter against Emperor Tiberius, was executed in Rome.

1/1/31, Monday (-699,203)

1/1/30, Sunday (-699,568)

1/1/29, Saturday (-699,933)

1/1/28, Thursday (-700,299)

1/1/27, Wednesday (-700,664)

1/1/26, Tuesday (-701,029) week 100,147

1/1/25, Monday (-701,394)

1/1/24, Saturday (-701,760)

==============================================================================

25/12/23, Saturday (-701,767)

23/10/23, Saturday (-701,830)

4/10/23, Monday (-701,849) After disastrous floods in China as the Yellow River changed course several times between 2AD and 11 AD, causing famine, starving rebel peasants stormed the Chinese Imperial Palace. Emperor Wang Mang attempted to marshal magical forces in defence, in vain, and he was killed in fighting on 6/10/23.

1/1/23, Friday (-702,125)

1/1/22, Thursday (-702,490)

1/1/21, Wednesday (-702,855)

1/1/20, Monday (-703,221)

1/1/19, Sunday (-703,586)

1/1/18, Saturday (-703,951)

26/5/17. Wednesday (704,171) The Romans won a major victory over Arminius, avenging their defeat of Autumn 9 in the Teutoberg Forest.

2/1/17, Saturday, (-704,315) Historian and poet Livy died in Rome.

1/1/17, Friday (-704,316)

1/1/16, Wednesday (-704,682)

================================================================================

25/12/15, Wednesday (-704,689)

23/10/15, Wednesday (-704,752)

24/9/15, Tuesday (-704,781) The Roman Emperor Aulus Vitellius was born.

1/1/15, Tuesday (-705,047) week 100,721

=============================================================================

25/12/14, Tuesday (-705,054)

23/10/14, Tuesday (-705,117)

21/8/14, Tuesday (-705,180)

19/8/14. Sunday (-705,182) Death of the Roman Emperor Augustus. He was born in Rome on 23/9/63 BC. He was succeeded by Tiberius.

1/1/14, Monday (-705,412)

1/1/13, Sunday (-705,777)

==============================================================================

25/12/12, Sunday (-705,784)

23/10/12, Sunday (-705,847)

31/8/12, Wednesday (-705,900) Birth of Emperor Caligula.

21/8/12, Sunday (-705,910)

1/1/12, Friday (-706,143)

1/1/11, Thursday (-706,508)

1/1/10, Wednesday (-706,873)

==============================================================================

25/12/9, Wednesday (-706,880)

18/11/9, Monday (-706,917) Birth of Roman Emperor Vespasian.

Autumn 9. Three entire Roman legions under General Quintinius Varus were defeated by the Germanic tribes under Arminius in the Teutoberg Forest. Varus had set out from his base at Minden but was ambushed by Arminius�s forces, who caught the Romans out of battle formation whilst marching in the forest. Half the Roman force survived this ambush and marched south, only to find the route blocked by German forces at Kalkreise. The Romans fled in disarray; a few were sacrificed to German gods, most of the rest enslaved. A few Romans reached the Roman fort at Aliso, where they held out until winter, the German tribes then went home, allowing the Romans to march back to Roman territory, bringing news of the disaster. The Romans had hoped to push as far east as the Elbe; eliminating a salient into their territory created by the Rhine-Danube boundary. The Rhine was then settled on by the Romans as the boundary of their empire. See 26/5/17.

10/1/9, Thursday (-707,229) Wang Mang assumed the title of Emperor of China, replacing the Han Dynasty by the new H�sin Dynasty.

1/1/9, Tuesday (-707,238) week 101,034

27/11/8, Tuesday (-707,273) Death of Horace, Roman poet.

1/1/8, Sunday (-707,604)

1/1/7, Saturday (-707,969)

3/2/6, Wednesday (-708,301) Chinese Emperor P�ing suddenly died; some suspected Wang Mang of poisoning him. Wang Mang arranged for the youngest of some 50 possible successors, a 1 year old baby, to be the new Emperor; Wang Mang became effective Emperor.

1/1/6, Friday (-708,334)

1/1/5, Thursday (-708,699)

1/1/4, Tuesday (-709,065) week 101,295

1/1/3, Monday (-709,430)

1/1/2, Sunday (-709,795)

28/12/1. Wednesday (-709,799) Herod ordered the slaughter of all the infants in Bethlehem to ensure the death of Jesus Christ, whom he saw as a possible future rival King.

1/7/1, Friday (-709,979) A teacher got paid 60 denarii a day; enough to buy 3kg of pork, or 5 litres of cheap wine.

1/1/1, Saturday (-710,160)

25/12/1 BCE, Saturday (-710,167)

23/10/1 BCE, Saturday (-710,230)

21/8/1 BCE, Saturday (-710,293)

15/8/1 BCE, Sunday (-710,299) Emperor Ai of China died. Wang Mang became Regent once more, at the behest of Wang Mang;s aunt, the Empress Dowager. Wang Mang quickly arranged for his 14 year old daughter to be the Empress of the new Chinese Emperor, P�ing.

1/1/1 BCE, Thursday (-710,526)

1/1/2 BCE, Wednesday (-710,891)

1/1/3 BCE, Tuesday (-711,256) week 101,608

1/1/4 BCE, Sunday (-711,622)

1/1/5 BCE, Saturday (-711,987)

1/1/6 BCE, Friday (-712,352)

===============================================================================

25/12/7 BCE, Friday (-712,359)

23/10/7 BCE, Friday (-712,422)

27/8/7 BCE, Thursday (-719,479) Under the rule of Emperor Ai of China, Wang Mang resigned the regency. Ai disliked Wang Mang, and he was sent to his country estates.

21/8/7 BCE, Friday (-719,485)

17/4/7 BCE, Friday (-712,611) Emperor Ch�eng of China died, without an heir.

1/1/7 BCE, Thursday (-712,717)

================================================================================

25/12/8 BCE, Thursday (-712,724)

28/11/8 BCE, Friday (-712,751) Wang Mang became Regent of China.

1/1/8, BCE, Tuesday (-713,083) week 101,869

1/1/9 BCE, Monday (-713,448)

1/8/10 BCE. Tuesday (-713,601) Roman Emperor Claudius I was born in Lyons.

1/1/10 BCE, Sunday (-713,813)

1/1/11 BCE, Saturday (-714,178)

1/1/12 BCE, Thursday (-714,544)

1/1/13 BCE, Wednesday (-714,909)

1/1/14 BCE, Tuesday (-715,274) week 102,182

1/1/15 BCE, Monday (-715,639)

1/1/16, BCE, Saturday (-716,005)

1/1/17 BCE, Friday (-716,370)

1/1/18 BCE, Thursday (-716,735)

=================================================================================

25/12/19 BCE, Thursday (-716.742)

23/10,19 BCE, Thursday (-716,805)

21/9/19 BCE. Sunday (-716,837) The Roman poet Virgil, born 15/10/70 BC, died, after falling ill with sunstroke whilst on a journey to Greece. His tomb in Naples became a shrine.

21/8/19 BCE, Thursday (716,868)

1/8/19 BCE, Friday (-716,888) Claudius I, Roman Emperor who invaded Britain in 43 AD, was born.

1/1/19 BCE, Wednesday (-717,100)

1/1/20 BCE, Monday (-717,466)

1/1/21 BCE, Sunday (-717,831)

1/1/22 BCE, Saturday (-718,196)

=================================================================================

25/12/23 BCE, Saturday (-718,203)

23/10/23 BCE, Saturday (-718,266)

8/9/23 BCE. Wednesday (-718,311) The first recorded ritual Sumo wrestling bout took place. Each year a priest still officiates for the Ceremony of the Crows at the Kamo shrine, Kyoto, Japan.

1/1/23 BCE, Friday (-718,561)

1/1/24 BCE, Wednesday (-718,927)

1/1/25 BCE, Tuesday (-719,292) week 102,756

1/1/26 BCE, Monday (-719,657)

1/1/27 BCE, Sunday (-720,022)

1/1/28 BCE, Friday (-720,388)

1/1/29 BCE, Thursday (-720,753)

12/8/30 BCE, Tuesday (-720,895) Cleopatra died.

1/8/30 BCE,Friday (-720,906) Octavian Caesar captured Alexandria. This marked the official annexation of Ancient Egypt to the Roman Republic.

1/1/30 BCE, Wednesday (-721,118)

=================================================================================

25/12/31 BCE, Wednesday (-721,125)

23/10/31 BCE, Wednesday (-721,188)

2/9/31 BCE. Monday (-721,239) Octavian and his General, Agrippa, defeated Mark Anthony and Cleopatra�s fleet off Actium. Anthony followed Cleopatra to Egypt, to which she had escaped with 60 ships. There, pursued by his enemies and deserted by his troops, Anthony, aged 52, committed suicide in the mistaken belief that Cleopatra had already done likewise.

1/1/31 BCE, Tuesday (-721,483) week 103,069

1/1/32 BCE, Sunday (-721,849)

1/1/33 BCE, Saturday (-722,214)

1/1/34 BCE, Friday (-722,579)

1/1/35 BCE, Thursday (-722,944)

1/1/36 BCE, Tuesday (-722,310) week 103,330

1/1/37 BCE, Monday (-723,675)

1/1/38 BCE, Sunday (-724,040)

1/1/39 BCE, Saturday (-724,405)

1/1/40 BCE, Thursday (-724,771)

1/1/41 BCE, Wednesday (-725,136)

================================================================================

25/12/42 BCE, Wednesday (-725,143)

16/11/42 BCE. Saturday (-725,182) (1) Second Battle of Philippi. Antony again attacked Brutus� camp, whilst Octavian mounted a distraction attack. The Republicans were routed; Brutus escaped with 4 legions but committed suicide soon after, bringing the Second Triumvirate Wars to a close. Octavian and Lepidus resumed governing the West whilst Antony ruled over the East. Antony met Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, in Cilicia, starting a love affair.

(2) Tiberius, the second Emperor of Rome, whose rule was marked by cruelty and debauchery, was born in Rome. He was the son of the High Priest Tiberius Claudius Nero, and of Livia Drusilla, her husband�s cousin.

26/10/42 BCE, Saturday (-725,203) First Battle of Philppi. Antony mounted a suprose attack on the Republicans, Brutus and Cassius, through a swamp.Antony successfully destroyed the camp but Brutus did much damage to Antony�s forces. Meanwhile Cassius committed suicide, beleaving the Republicans hed been defeated.

1/1/42 BCE, Tuesday (-725,501) week 103,643

7/12/43 BCE. Friday (-725,526) Cicero (Marcus Tullus), the great Roman orator, was killed by a soldier, Herennius, as he attempted to flee by ship to Macedonia. He had fallen into disfavour for writing The Philippics, a series of attacks on Mark Anthony. In 44 BC he had been in a powerful position, when Julius Caesar was assassinated, but Cicero then opposed Caesar�s successor, Octavian.

10/10/43 BCE, Wednesday (-725,584) The city of Lyons was founded by Lucius Plancus.

5/10/43 BCE, Friday (-725,589)

21/4/43 BCE, Saturday (-725,756) Battle of Mutina. Antony�s forces were again defeated by Hirtius, although Hirtius himself was killed. Antony retreated west into Transalpine Gaul to join with Lepidus, a supporter of Julius Caesar. Decimus, meanwhile, was killed by brigands.

14/4/43 BCE, Saturday (-725,763) At the Battle of Forum Gallorum, Mark Anthony, besieging Juluis Caesar�s assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Mutina, defeated the forces of Consul Pansa, who was killed this day. However whilst celebrating victory, Antony�s forces were subject to a surprise attack and routed by Hirtius. Antony rallied his forces and regrouped at Mutina.

20/3/43 BCE, Tuesday (-725,788) The poet Ovid was born.

1/1/43 BCE, Monday (-725,866)

15/3/44 BCE. Wednesday (-726,158) Julius Caesar murdered. He was born on 12/7/100 BC, but not by Caesarean section as often claimed, although his surname does derive from the Latin �to cut�. He made major conquests in his lifetime, and put down civil wars in Asia and Spain; he was honoured like a god. But he was slain by his close associates when he began claiming in name power he held in fact, and planning grand projects such as the invasion of Parthia.

15/2/44 BCE, Tuesday (-726,187) Julius Caesar was appointed dictator for life.

1/1/44 BCE, Saturday (-726,232) (Roman Empire) Julius Caesar introduced the Julian Calendar. For more details of the Roman Calendar see Metrology

The Julian Calendar was in use, in Britain, until 1752; and then replaced by the more accurate Gregorian Calendar. The Gregorian Calendar omitted leap days for century years unless divisible by 400, whereas the Julian Calendar had all years divisible by 4 as leap years. By 1752 the Julian Calendar was 11 days ahead of the true date. Years of conversion from Julian to Gregorian varied between countries.

Due to many different date/week calendars operating in various world regions before this date, 1/1/44 BCE, all day/dates back before 1/1/45 BCE,are calculated on a notional Gregorian Calendar.

17/3/45 BCE, Wednesday (-726,522) Caesar defeated an army assembled by Pompey�s sons at the Battle of Munda, near Montilla, Spain.

1/1/45 BCE, Friday (-726,597)

8/4/46 BCE, Wednesday(-726,865) Julius Caesar defeated Scipio�s Republican army at Thapsus in Africa.

1/1/46 BCE, Thursday (-726,962)

23/6/47 BCE, Monday(727,154) Queen Cleopatra gave birth to Caesarion, who was probably the son of Julius Caesar.

1/1/47 BCE, Wednesday (-727,327)

=================================================================================

25/12/48 BCE, Wednesday (-727,334)

23/10/48 BCE, Wednesday (-727,397)

21/8/48 BCE, Wednesday (-727,460)

9/8/48 BCE. Friday (-727,472) Battle of Pharsalus. Pompey finally decided to use his numerical superiority to move against Caesar�s troops. Caesar got ready to fight. Caesar�s left flank was secure against the steep bank of the Enipeus River but he was vulnerable to the right, which he took care to reinforce as he advanced against Pompey. In a decisive bold action, Caesar charged into Pompey�s lines, then attacked the flanks of Pompey�s cavalry to his right, scattering them. Pompey fled, his army routed, escaping to Egypt with just 30 horsemen. Caesar�s losses were 230 killed and 2,000 wounded; however Pompey�s forces suffered 15,000 dead and wounded, and 24,000 were taken prisoner. Greece and Asia now declared loyalty to Caesar, leaving Egypt, north Africa and Spain still supporting Pompey.However on landing in Egypt on 28/9/48 BC, Pompey was murdered on the orders of Ptolemy XII. Caesar�s forces continued to hunt down Pompey�s forces under his sons, finally defeating them in Spain on 15/3/45 BC.

20/5/48 BCE, Sunday (-727,554) The Battle of Dyrrachium. Pompey in Dyrrachium, now running short of water and fodder for his horses, broke out of Caesar�s siege without difficulty, with his numerically-superior army. Caesar withdrew into Thessaly (central Greece). However Pompey failed to follow up this victory, but acted cautiously, leaving a strong garrison in Dyrrachium. Caesar now regrouped in Thessaly, and now had 30,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry, against Pompey�s 60,000 infantry and 7,000 cavalry. Both sides now faced each other across the Plain of Pharsalus (Farsala, Thessaly); Caesar attempted to lure Pompey into battle, but Pompey did not move.

1/1/48 BCE, Monday (-727,693)

===============================================================================

25/12/49 BCE, Monday (-727,700)

28/11/49 BCE, Tuesday (-727,727) Caesar mustered every ship available, and took 7 legions and a few cavalry, some 25,000 men in total. Avoiding contact with Pompey�s fleet, he sailed south of Pompey�s main base at Dyrrachium (Durres, Albania). Caesar mow sailed back across the Adriatic to Brundisium (Brindisi, southern Italy) to pick up Mark Antony, however Pompey was now alerted to Caesar�s movements, and blockaded Antony in Brundisium. Pompey now mustered an army of 100,000 and moved north from Epirus (NW Greece) to Dyrrachium. However Pompey�s troops were of inferior quality to Caesar�s soldiers, and he made noeffort (January 48 BCE)to exploit his 4:1 numerical advantage by forcing a battle. In fact Caesar took the initiative, manoeuvring around Dyrrachium.

23/10/49 BCE, Monday (-727,763)

6/9/49 BCE, Wednesday (-727,810) Caesar landed at Massilia (Marseilles) from Spain, and the city surrendered to him. Domitius escaped by sea. Caesar went to Rome and discovered his small fleet at Curicta (Krk, Croatia) had been defeated.

21/8/49 BCE, Monday (-727,826)

24/7/49 BCE, Monday (-727,854) Caesar�s legate, Gaius Curio, had established Caeasar�s authority in Sicily without trouble. However this day he was defeated by Pompey�s forces under Attius Varius, allied with Juba, King of Numidia. Pompey consolidated his hold over Africa. Curio committed suicide rather than surrender.

2/7/49 BCE. Sunday (-727,876) Caesar, having left Marcus Antonius in charge of Italy and marched to Spain, defeats Pompey�s generals Afranius and Petreius at Lerida north of the Ebro River.

9/3/49 BCE, Thursday (-727,991) Caesar left Rome to fight Pompey�s supporters in Spain.

10/1/49 BCE. Tuesday (-728,049) Caesar crossed the Rubicon, a small river marking the boundary between Gaul and Italy, as he marched on Rome to fight his former ally Pompey. Pompey, fearing Caesar�s large army, fled Italy for Greece along with most of the Senate.

7/1/49 BCE. Saturday (-728,052) The Senate said it would declare Caesar a public enemy if he did not disband his army.

1/1/49 BCE, Sunday (-728,058)

1/1/50 BCE, Saturday (-728,423)

1/1/51 BCE, Friday (-728,788)

==============================================================================

25/12/52 BCE, Friday (-728,795)

23/10/52 BCE, Friday (-728,858)

3/10/52 BCE, Saturday (-728,878) Battle of Alesia: Caesar defeated the Gauls led by Vercingetorix (who surrendered on October 3), breaking the back of the Gallic insurrection. The final pacification of Gaul was completed the following year.

1/1/52 BCE, Wednesday (-729,154)

1/1/53 BCE, Tuesday (-729,519) week 104,217)

1/1/54 BCE, Monday (-729,884)

===============================================================================

25/12/55 BCE, Monday (-729,891)

23/10/55 BCE, Monday (-729,954)

26/8/55 BCE, Saturday (-729,012) Julius Caesar landed in Britain. He was attempting to deter the Britons from giving military aid to the Gauls.

21/8/55 BCE, Monday (-730,017)

1/1/55 BCE, Sunday (-730,149)

1/1/56 BCE, Friday (-730,615)

1/1/57 BCE, Thursday (-730,980)

1/1/58 BCE, Wednesday (-731,345)

1/1/59 BCE, Tuesday (-731,710) week 104,530

1/1/60 BCE, Sunday (-732,076)

===============================================================================

25/12/61 BCE, Sunday (-732,083)

23/10/61 BCE, Sunday (-732,146)

29/9/61 BCE, Thursday (-732,170) Pompey the Great celebrated his third triumph for victories over the pirates and the end of the Mithridatic Wars.

1/1/61 BCE, Saturday (-732,441)

5/1/62 BCE, Tuesday (-732,802) The forces of the conspirator Catiline were defeated by the loyal Roman armies of Antonius Hybrida led by Gaius Antonius in the Battle of Pistoria.

1/1/62 BCE, Friday (-732,806)

================================================================================

25/12/63 BCE, Friday (-732,813)

3/12/63 BCE, Thursday (-732,835) In Rome the conspirators in the failed Catiline revolt were executed. Lucius Sergius Catiline himself has already fled but died in battle a month later. The episode exposed the discontent in Rome with an oligarchic ruling elite.

23/10/63 BCE, Friday (-732,876)

23/9/63 BCE. Wednesday (-732,906) Birth of the first Roman Emperor, Gaius Octavius Caesar, adopted son and heir of Julius Caesar.

1/1/63 BCE, Thursday (-733,171)

1/1/64 BCE, Tuesday (-733,537) week 104,791

8/12/65 BCE. Saturday (-733,561) Horace, Roman poet, was born in Venusian Apulia.

1/1/65 BCE, Monday (-733,902)

1/1/66 BCE, Sunday (-734,267)

1/1/67 BCE, Saturday (-734,632)

1/1/68 BCE, Thursday (-734,998)

12/5/69 BCE, Tuesday (-735,231)

1/1/69 BCE, Wednesday (-735,363)

==============================================================================

25/12/70 BCE, Wednesday (-735,370)

23/10/70 BCE, Wednesday (-735,433)

15/10/70 BCE, Tuesday (-735,441) Virgil, Roman poet, was born.

1/1/70 BCE, Tuesday (-735,728) week 105,104

1/1/71 BCE, Monday (-736,093)

1/1/72 BCE, Saturday (-736,459)

1/1/73 BCE, Friday (-736,824)

1/1/74 BCE, Thursday (-737,189)

1/1/75 BCE, Wednesday (-737,554)

1/1/76 BCE, Monday (-737,920)

1/1/77 BCE, Sunday (-738,285)

1/1/78 BCE, Saturday (-738,650)

1/1/79 BCE, Friday (-739,015)

1/1/80 BCE, Wednesday (-739,381)

1/1/81 BCE, Tuesday (-739,746) week 105,678

==============================================================================

25/12/82 BCE, Tuesday (-739,753)

1/11/82 BCE, Thursday (-739,807) Conflict in Rome between democratic reformist populares and wealthier anti-reformist optimates. This dispute had begun in 83 BC; in Autumn 82 BC an army of Samnites, under King Pontius Telesinus, who favoured democratic reform, was laying siege to Rome itself. Sulla outflanked the Samnites, and Telesinus was killed; the Samnites then fled in disarray. Sulla then became Dictator of Rome.

23/10/82 BCE, Tuesday (-739,816)

1/1/82 BCE, Monday (-740,111)

1/1/83 BCE, Sunday (-740,476)

1/1/84 BCE, Friday (-740,842)

1/1/85 BCE, Thursday (-741,207)

13/1/86 BCE, Monday (-741,560) Gaius Marius, Roman soldier and politician, died.

1/1/86 BCE, Wednesday (-741,572)

1/1/87 BCE, Tuesday (-741,937) week 105,991

1/1/88 BCE, Sunday (-742,303)

1/1/89 BCE, Saturday (-742,668)

1/1/90 BCE, Friday (-743,033)

1/1/91 BCE, Thursday (-743,398)

1/1/92 BCE, Tuesday (-743,764) week 106,252

1/1/93 BCE, Monday (-744,129)

1/1/94 BCE, Sunday (-744,494)

1/1/95 BCE, Saturday (-744,859)

1/1/96 BCE, Thursday (-745,225)

1/1/97 BCE, Wednesday (-745,590)

1/1/98 BCE, Tuesday (-745,955) week 106,565

1/1/99 BCE, Monday (-746,320)

12/7/100 BC. Wednesday (-746,493) Roman Emperor Julius Caesar was born, but not by Caesarean section, though his name does derive from the Latin �to cut�.

1/1/100 BCE, Sunday (-746,685)

1/1/101 BCE, Saturday (-747,050)

1/1/102 BCE, Friday (-747,415)

1/1/103 BCE, Thursday (-747,780)

1/1/104 BCE, Tuesday (-748,146) week 106,878

1/1/105 BCE, Monday (-748,511)

3/1/106 BCE, Tuesday (-748,874) Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman statesman, was born.

1/1/106 BCE, Sunday (-748,876)

1/1/107 BCE, Saturday (-749,241)

1/1/108 BCE, Thursday (-749,607)

1/1/109 BCE, Wednesday (-749,972)

1/1/110 BCE, Tuesday (-750,337) week 107,191

1/1/111 BCE, Monday (-750,702)

1/1/112 BCE, Saturday (-751,068)

1/1/113 BCE, Friday (-751,433)

1/1/114 BCE, Thursday (-751,798)

1/1/115 BCE, Wednesday (-752,163)

1/1/116 BCE, Monday (-752,529)

1/1/117 BCE, Sunday (-752,894)

1/1/118 BCE, Saturday (-753,259)

1/1/119 BCE, Friday (-753,624)

1/1/120 BCE, Wednesday (-753,990)

1/1/121 BCE, Tuesday (-754,355) week 107,765

1/1/122 BCE, Monday (-754,720)

1/1/123 BCE, Sunday (-755,085)

1/1/124 BCE, Friday (-755,451)

1/1/125 BCE, Thursday (-755,816)

1/1/126 BCE, Wednesday (-755,181)

1/1/127 BCE, Tuesday (-756,546) week 108,078

1/1/128 BCE, Sunday (-756,912)

1/1/129 BCE, Saturday (-757,277)

1/1/130 BCE, Friday (-757,642)

1/1/131 BCE, Thursday (-758,007)

1/1/132 BCE, Tuesday (-758,373) week 108,339

1/1/133 BCE, Monday (-758,738)

1/1/134 BCE, Sunday (-759,103)

1/1/135 BCE, Saturday (-759,468)

1/1/136 BCE, Thursday (-759,834)

1/1/137 BCE, Wednesday (-760,199)

1/1/138 BCE, Tuesday (-760,564) week 108,652

1/1/139 BCE, Monday (-760,929)

1/1/140 BCE, Saturday (-761,295)

1/1/141 BCE, Friday (-761,660)

1/1/142 BCE, Thursday (-762,025)

1/1/143 BCE, Wednesday (-762,390)

1/1/144 BCE, Monday (-762,756)

1/1/145 BCE, Sunday (-763,121)

1/1/146 BCE, Saturday (-763,486)

1/1/147 BCE, Friday (-763,851)

1/1/148 BCE, Wednesday (-764,217)

1/1/149 BCE, Tuesday (-764,582)

1/1/150 BCE, Monday (-764,947)

1/1/151 BCE, Sunday (-765,312)

1/1/152 BCE, Friday (-765,678)

1/1/153 BCE, Thursday (-766,043) 1st January became the start of the civil year in Rome, rather than the traditional 15 March; a revolt in Spain had forced the earlier accession of the Roman Consuls.

1/1/154 BCE, Wednesday (-766,408)

1/1/155 BCE, Tuesday (-766,773) week 109,539

1/1/156 BCE, Sunday (-767,139)

1/1/157 BCE, Saturday (-767,504)

1/1/158 BCE, Friday (-767,869)

1/1/159 BCE, Thursday (-768,234)

1/1/160 BCE, Tuesday (-768,600) week 109,800

1/1/161 BCE, Monday (-768,965)

1/1/162 BCE, Sunday (-769,330)

1/1/163 BCE, Saturday (-769,695)

1/1/164 BCE, Thursday (-770,061)

1/1/165 BCE, Wednesday (-770,426)

1/1/166 BCE, Tuesday (-770,791) week 110,113

1/1/167 BCE, Monday (-771,156)

22/6/168 BCE, Wednesday (-771,350)The Romans defeated the Macedonians, under Perseus, at Pydna.

1/1/168 BCE, Saturday (-771,522)

11/5/169 BCE, Tuesday (-771,757)

1/1/169 BCE, Friday (-771,887)

1/1/170 BCE, Thursday (-772,252)

1/1/171 BCE, Wednesday (-772,617)

1/1/172 BCE, Monday (-772,983)

1/1/173 BCE, Sunday (-773,348)

1/1/174 BCE, Saturday (-773,713)

1/1/175 BCE, Friday (-774,178)

1/1/176 BCE, Wednesday (-774,444)

1/1/177 BCE, Tuesday (-774,809) week 110,687

1/1/178 BCE, Monday (-775,174)

1/1/179 BCE, Sunday (-775,539)

1/1/180 BCE, Friday (-775,905)

1/1/181 BCE, Thursday (-776,270)

1/1/182 BCE, Wednesday (-776,635)

1/1/183 BCE, Tuesday (-777,000) week 111,000

1/1/184 BCE, Sunday (-777,366)

1/1/185 BCE, Saturday (-777,731)

1/1/186 BCE, Friday (-778,096)

1/1/187 BCE, Thursday (-778,461)

1/1/188 BCE, Tuesday (-778,827) week 111,261

1/1/189 BCE, Monday (-779,192)

1/1/190 BCE, Sunday (-779,557)

1/1/191 BCE, Saturday (-779,922)

1/1/192 BCE, Thursday (-780,288)

1/1/193 BCE, Wednesday (-780,653)

1/1/194 BCE, Tuesday (-781,018) week 111,574

1/1/195 BCE, Monday (-781,383)

1/1/196 BCE, Saturday (-781,749)

1/1/197 BCE, Friday (-782,114)

1/1/198 BCE, Thursday (-782,479)

1/1/199 BCE, Wednesday (-782,844)

1/1/200 BCE, Tuesday (-783,209) week 111,887

1/1/201 BCE, Monday (-783,574)

19/10/202 BCE, Battle of Zama, end of the Second Punic War. The Romans under Scipio defeated a combined force of Carthaginians and Numidians under Hannibal, Carthage capitulated.

1/1/202 BCE, Sunday (-783,939)

1/1/203 BCE, Saturday (-784,304)

1/1/204 BCE, Thursday (-784,670)

1/1/205 BCE, Wednesday (-785,035)

1/1/206 BCE, Tuesday (-785,400) week 112,200

1/1/207 BCE, Monday (-785,765)

1/1/208 BCE, Saturday (-786,131)

1/1/209 BCE, Friday (-786,496)

1/1/210 BCE, Thursday (-786,861)

1/1/211 BCE, Wednesday (-787,226)

1/1/212 BCE, Monday (-787,592)

1/1/213 BCE, Sunday (-787,957)

1/1/214 BCE, Saturday (-788,322)

1/1/215 BCE, Friday (-788,687)

2/8/216 BCE. Sunday (-788,819) Hannibal defeated the Romans at the Battle of Cannae. The Phoenicians originated in modern day Lebanon but grew rich on trade and expanded throughout the western Mediterranean. Their original city was Sidon in Lebanon, which was a wealthy trading entrepot by 1500 BC. From Sidon came the colony of Tyre, 20 miles further south; Tyre came to eclipse Sidon. From Tyre trading colonies were sent out across the Mediterranean, trading as far as �Tarshish�, perhaps southern Spain or even Cornwall; Tarshish had many valuable metal mines. Carthage was the foremost Phoenician colony of Tyre.

Carthage, in Tunisia, was founded around 814 BC. By 480 BC, when the Carthaginian Himilco landed in tin-rich Cornwall, Carthage was a major power. Other Carthaginians sailed around west Africa perhaps as far as Cameroon. There was conflict with Greece and in 535 BC the Carthaginians, helped by their Etruscan allies, drove the Greeks out of Corsica and Sardinia. A dispute for control of Sicily continued. Meanwhile Rome was rising in power. In 246 BC Rome started the first Punic War in an effort to gain Sicily and in 241 BC Rome gained Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia. The Carthaginians moved into Spain and set up Cartagena or New Carthage. Carthage again grew rich and there was further conflict with Rome in 218 BC. Hannibal set off from Cartegana in Spain and marched through Spain Gaul and Italy with nearly 40 elephants, defeating the Romans at Cannae in 216 BC. Hannibal�s army wiped out a Roman force nearly twice its size, killing 70,000 Romans whilst losing only 6,000 of its own men.

However Rome continued to harass Hannibal for the next 13 years, and when Rome invaded Carthage it was abandoned by its allies; Rome occupied Spain and Sicily. Hannibal was defeated by Rome in 202 BC at Zama, south west of Carthage, and Hannibal himself fled, committing suicide in about 183 BC.

Carthage again prospered under peace and once again became a threat to Rome. In 150 BC Rome found an excuse to attack Carthage and besieged it for three years, capturing it in 146 BC. The city was totally destroyed but a century later Julius Caesar established a Roman colony there. In 439 the city was razed by the Vandals as Roman power waned. The Byzantine conquest revived Carthage but in 698 the city fell to the Arabs, who demolished it and used the stone to build Tunis. Some of Carthage�s granite and marble was exported to build cathedrals in Pisa, Genoa, and perhaps even Canterbury.

1/1/216 BCE, Wednesday (-789,053)

24/6/217 BCE, Wednesday (-789,207) Carthaginian forces, allied with Gauls, under Hannibal defeated the Romans at Lake Trasimene, 10 miles north west of Perusia. Some 16,000 Romans, including their commander Flaminius were killed, the lake turned red with their blood.

22/6/217 BCE, Monday (-789,209) Egyptian native hoplites under Ptolemy IV crushed the Seleucid army under Antiochus III at Raphia near Gaza.

1/1/217 BCE, Tuesday (-789,418) week 112,774

1/1/218 BCE, Monday (-789,783)

1/1/219 BCE, Sunday (-790,148)

1/1/220 BCE, Friday (-790,514)

1/1/221 BCE, Thursday (-790,879)

1/1/222 BCE, Wednesday (-791,244)

1/1/223 BCE, Tuesday (-791,609) week 113,087

1/1/224 BCE, Sunday (-791,975)

1/1/225 BCE, Saturday (-792,340)

1/1/226 BCE, Friday (-792,705)

1/1/227 BCE, Thursday (-793,070)

1/1/228 BCE, Tuesday (-793,436) week 113,348

1/1/229 BCE, Monday (-793,801)

1/1/230 BCE, Sunday (-794,166)

1/1/231 BCE, Saturday (-794,531)

1/1/232 BCE, Thursday (-794,897)

1/1/233 BCE, Wednesday (-794,262)

1/1/234 BCE, Tuesday (-795,627) week 113,661

1/1/235 BCE, Monday (-795,992)

1/1/236 BCE, Saturday (-796,358)

1/1/237 BCE, Friday (-796,723)

1/1/238 BCE, Thursday (-797,088)

1/1/239 BCE, Wednesday (-797,453)

1/1/240 BCE, Monday (-797,819)

10/3/241 BCE, Friday (-798,116) (Roman Empire) End of the First Punic War; Hamilcar made peace with Rome. Carthage was forced to cede all of Sicily to Rome.

1/1/241 BCE, Sunday (798,184)

1/1/242 BCE, Saturday (-798,549)

1/1/243 BCE, Friday (-798,914)

1/1/244 BCE, Wednesday (-799,280)

1/1/245 BCE, Tuesday (-799,645) week 114,235

1/1/246 BCE, Monday (-800,010)

1/1/247 BCE, Sunday (-800,375)

1/1/248 BCE, Friday (-800,741)

1/1/249 BCE, Thursday (-801,106)

1/1/250 BCE, Wednesday (-801,471)

1/1/251 BCE, Tuesday (-801,836) week 114,548

1/1/252 BCE, Sunday (-802,202)

1/1/253 BCE, Saturday (-802,567)

1/1/254 BCE, Friday (802,932)

1/1/255 BCE, Thursday (-803,297)

1/1/256 BCE, Tuesday (-803,663)

1/1/257 BCE, Monday (-804,028)

1/1/258 BCE, Sunday (-804,393)

1/1/259 BCE, Saturday (-804,758)

1/1/260 BCE, Thursday (-805,124)

1/1/261 BCE, Wednesday (-805,489)

1/1/262 BCE, Tuesday (-805,854) week 115,122

1/1/263 BCE, Monday (-806,219)

1/1/264 BCE, Saturday (-806,585)

1/1/265 BCE, Friday (-806,950)

1/1/266 BCE, Thursday (-807,315)

1/1/267 BCE, Wednesday (-807,680)

1/1/268 BCE, Monday (-808,046)

17/7/268 BCE, (Greece) Death of Arsinoe II, Queen of Macedonia and Thebes, in Egypt.

1/1?269 BCE, Sunday (-808,411)

1/1/270 BCE, Saturday (-808,776)

1/1/271 BCE, Friday (-809,141)

1/1/272 BCE, Wednesday (-809,507)

1/1/273 BCE, Tuesday (-809,872) week 115,696

1/1/274 BCE, Monday (-810,237)

1/1/275 BCE, Sunday (-810,602)

1/1/276 BCE, Friday (-810,968)

1/1/277 BCE, Thursday (-811,333)

1/1/278 BCE, Wednesday (-811,698)

1/1/279 BCE, Tuesday (-812,063) week 116,009

1/1/280 BCE, Sunday (-812,429)

1/1/281 BCE, Saturday (-812,794)

1/1/282 BCE, Friday (-813,159)

1/1/283 BCE, Thursday (-813,524)

1/1/284 BCE, Tuesday (-813,890) week 116,270)

26/6/285 BCE, Tuesday (-814,058)

1/1/285 BCE, Monday (-814,255)

1/1/286 BCE, Sunday (-814,620)

1/1/287 BCE, Saturday (-814,985)

1/1/288 BCE, Thursday (-815,351)

1/1/298 BCE, Wednesday (-815,716)

1/1/290 BCE, Tuesday (-816,081) week 116,583

1/1/291 BCE, Monday (-816,446)

1/1/292 BCE, Saturday (-816,812)

1/1/293 BCE, Friday (-817,177)

1/1/294 BCE, Thursday (-817,542)

1/1/295 BCE, Wednesday (-817,907)

1/1/296 BCE, Monday (-818,273)

1/1/297 BCE, Sunday (-818,638)

1/1/298 BCE, Saturday (-819,003)

1/1/299 BCE, Friday (-819,368)

1/1/300 BCE, Thursday (-819,733)

1/1/301 BCE, Wednesday (-820,098)

1/1/302 BCE, Tuesday (-820,403) week 117,209

1/1/303 BCE, Monday (-820,828)

1/1/304 BCE, Saturday (-821,194)

1/1/305 BCE, Friday (-821,559)

1/1/306 BCE, Thursday (-821,924)

1/1/307 BCE, Wednesday (-822,289)

1/1/308 BCE, Monday (-822,655)

1/1/309 BCE, Sunday (-823,020)

1/1/310 BCE, Saturday (-823,385)

1/1/311 BCE, Friday (-823,750)

1/1/312 BCE, Wednesday (-824,116)

1/1/313 BCE, Tuesday (-824,481) week 117,783

1/1/314 BCE, Monday (-824,846)

1/1/315 BCE, Sunday (-825,211)

1/1/316 BCE, Friday (-825,577)

1/1/317 BCE, Thursday (-825,942)

1/1/318 BCE, Wednesday (-826,307)

1/1/319 BCE, Tuesday (-826,672) week 118,096

1/1/320 BCE, Sunday (-827,038)

1/1/321 BCE, Saturday (-827,403)

1/12/322 BCE, Wednesday (-827,434)

1/11/322 BCE, Monday (-827,464)

2/10/322.BCE. Saturday (-827,494) Death of Aristotle, born 384 BC, after a stomach illness.

1/1/322 BCE, Friday (-827,768)

13/6/323 BCE. Saturday (-827,970) Alexander the Great died, of a fever, at Babylon; he was just 32 years old.. His body was taken to Alexandria, but the location of his grave is unknown. His son, born to Alexander�s wife Roxana in August 332 BCE, was killed in 310 BCE by one of the Generals competing for Alexander�s Empire.

1/1/323 BCE, Thursday (-828,133)

1/1/324 BCE, Tuesday (-828,499) week 118,357

1/1/325 BCE, Monday (-828,854)

1/1/326 BCE, Sunday (-829,229)

1/1/327 BCE, Saturday (-829,594)

1/1/328 BCE, Thursday (-829,960)

1/1/329 BCE, Wednesday (-830,325)

17/7/330 BCE, Wednesday (-830,493) King Darius III was deposed and killed by Bessus, the satrap of Bactria. Bessus assumed the kingship as Artaxerxes IV.

30/1/330 BCE, Wednesday (-830,661) After gaining the Pass of the Persian Gates, Alexander entered Persepolis. There he ceremonially burnt down the palace of Xerxes I, as a symbol that the Panhellenic war of revenge was at an end.

20/1/330 BCE, Sunday (-830,671) Alexander the Great defeated the Persians, led by satrap Ariobarzanes.

1/1/330 BCE, Tuesday (-830,690) week 118,670

1/10/331 BCE, Monday (-830,782) Alexander the Great defeated the Persians under Darius III at the Battle of Gaugamela (Arbela).

20/9/331 BCE, Thursday (-830,793) The Macedonian army under Alexander the Great crossed the Tigris River.

1/1/331 BCE, Monday (-831,055)

7/332 BCE. Alexander the Great sacked Tyre, a trading city in present-day Lebanon.

1/1/332 BCE, Saturday (831,421)

1/1/333 BCE, Friday (-831,786)

1/1/334 BCE, Thursday (-832,151)

1/1/335 BCE, Wednesday (-832,516)

1/1/336 BCE, Monday (-832,882)

1/1/337 BCE, Sunday (-833,247)

2/8/338 BCE, Tuesday (-833,399) week 119,057 Philip of Macedon defeated an Athenian-Theban alliance at the Battle of Chaeronea, so ending the last Greek struggle for independence.

1/1338 BCE, Saturday (-833,612)

1/1/339 BCE, Friday (-833,977)

1/1/340 BCE, Wednesday (-834,343)

1/1/341 BCE, Tuesday (-834,708) week 119,244

1/1/342 BCE, Monday (-835,073)

1/1/343 BCE, Sunday (-835,438)

1/1/344 BCE, Friday (-835,034)

1/1/345 BCE, Thursday (-836,169)

1/1/346 BCE, Wednesday (-836,534)

1/1/347 BCE, Tuesday (-836,899) week 119,557

1/1/348 BCE, Sunday (-837,265)

1/1/349 BCE, Saturday (-837,630)

1/1/350 BCE, Friday (-837,995)

1/1/351 BCE, Thursday (-838,360)

1/1/352 BCE, Tuesday (-838,726) week 119.818

1/1/353 BCE, Monday 839,091)

l/1/354 BCE, Sunday (-839,456)

1/1/355 BCE, Saturday (-839,821)

1/1/356 BCE, Thursday (-840,187)

1/1/357 BCE, Wednesday (-840,552)

1/1/358 BCE, Tuesday (-840,917) week 120,131

1/1/359 BCE, Monday (-841,282)

1/1/360 BCE, Saturday (-841,648)

1/1/361 BCE, Friday (-842,013)

4/7/362 BCE, (Greece) Battle of Mantinea. The Thebans, having been victorious at Leuctra, were now faced by an alliance of other Greek city states, including Sparta and Athens. The Theban leader Epaminondas took the offensive to Sparta�s ally, the city of Mantinea. Epaminondas decided on arepeat of the flank attack that had worked well at Leuctra,371 BCE. He did indeed rout the army of Mantinea, but in the fighting Epaminondas himself was killed. This caused the Thebans, now leaderless, to withdraw as if they had been defeated. Greece was now open to the assertive Philip II of Macedon, and 27 years later Thebes itself was devastated by Philip II�s son, Alexander the Great.

1/1/362 BCE, Thursday (-842,378)

1/1/363 BCE, Wednesday (-842,743)

1/1/364 BCE, Monday (-843,109)

1/1/365 BCE, Sunday (-843,474)

1/1/366 BCE, Saturday (-843,839)

1/1/367 BCE, Friday (-844,2