Contents and rationale of Community and Communications

 

Contents of Community and Communications

Community and Communications presents a range of demographic and socio-economic data for 293 territories across the globe, also for the World as a whole. For specimen pages detailing the range of data covered, please see sample pages below for Finland and the US State of Kentucky. The purpose of Community and Communications is to enable comparisons over time and between territories across the globe. To facilitate  this, data is presented in a standardised format for all the 292 territories, which comprises the world’s countries, the States of Australia, Canada and the US, and the European Union, plus the World itself as a 293rd territory. In order to facilitate cross-time and cross-territory comparisons, not all the categories for e.g. religion or ethnicity are listed, but only the largest population segments. For some African and Asian countries, where many small ethnic or linguistic communities exist that are unique to that particular country, only the largest overall categories are given, e.g. total % Black population is given rather than a complete list of ethnic groups.

 

Time series coverage

The range of time covered by the data series varies according to what is available and the length of time the territory has existed. In most cases around 50 to 100 years of data up to the present day is given; in many cases data series are traced back much further, for several centuries. Please see Data Start Year file for the earliest data for any specific time series given in Community and Communications for any specific territory.

 

In several cases, countries have changed significantly over time, experiencing significant modifications in territory and population. Germany has evolved from the pre-World war One German Empire into the much smaller entity of West Germany, and from 1990 reunited with the territory of East Germany. Austria today is the successor-State to the much larger pre-World One Austro-Hungarian Empire. Russia has expanded significantly over the past millennium from a small territory around Moscow to become, as the USSR, the largest country on Earth; in 1991 it broke up into 15 separate States. Yugoslavia, after a bloody civil war in the 1990s, disintegrated into several ethnically-based States.

 

Community and Communications uses the ‘successor-State’ principle to trace the evolving demographics and socio-economic progress of such changing political entities. Austria today is the successor-State to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, whilst the States carved from its former territories, such as Hungary and Czechoslovakia, are listed from their date of creation. Today’s Czech Republic is the successor-State to Czechoslovakia, whilst Slovakia is listed as a newer State. Serbia is counted as the successor-State to the former Yugoslavia. States that have split and re-joined, such as East and West Germany are listed under one entry, for ‘Germany’. The Palestinian Territories have a separate entry from Israel, as they have achieved worldwide recognition as a political entity. South Korea is treated as the successor-State for pre-World War Two Korea, with a separate entry for North Korea.

 

 

 

Contents List of territories covered

 

Community & Communications section 1; North America

World, Canada & USA

 


World

Bahamas

Bermuda

Canada

Canada – Alberta

Canada – British Columbia

Canada – Manitoba

Canada – New Brunswick

Canada – Newfoundland

Canada – Northwest Territories

Canada – Nova Scotia

Canada – Nunavut

Canada – Ontario

Canada – Prince Edward Island

Canada – Quebec

Canada – Saskatchewan

Canada – Yukon Territory

United States of America Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

North Carolina

South Carolina

Colorado

Connecticut

North Dakota

South Dakota 

Delaware

District of Columbia

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York 

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island 

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming


 

 

 

 

 


 

Community & Communications section 2; South & Central America

South America, Central America, Caribbean

 


Antigua and Barbuda

Argentina

Aruba

Barbados

Belize

Bolivia

Brazil

Cayman Islands

Chile

Colombia

Costa Rica

Cuba

Dominica

Dominican Republic

Ecuador

El Salvador

Falkland Islands

French Guiana

Grenada

Guadeloupe

Guatemala

Guyana (formerly British Guiana)

Haiti

Honduras

Jamaica

Martinique

Mexico

Montserrat

Nicaragua

Panama

Paraguay

Peru

Puerto Rico

St Helena

St Kitts and Nevis

St Lucia

St Vincent & the Grenadines

Suriname

Trinidad & Tobago 

Uruguay

Venezuela

Virgin Islands (US)


 


 

Community & Communications section 3; Europe

EU & European countries (ex. former USSR)

 


European Union

Albania

Andorra

Austria

Belgium

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

Croatia

Cyprus

Czechia (Czechoslovakia)

Denmark

Estonia

Faroe Islands

Finland

France

Germany

Gibraltar

Greece

Greenland

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Kosovo

Latvia

Liechtenstein

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Macedonia

Malta

Monaco

Montenegro

(The) Netherlands

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Romania

San Marino

Serbia (Yugoslavia)

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

United Kingdom (UK)

Vatican City


 


 

Community & Communications section 4; North Africa, Middle East & former USSR

Mali, Morocco to Russia

 


Afghanistan

Algeria

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Bahrain

Belarus

Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)

Chad

Egypt

Georgia

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

Kazakhstan

Kuwait

Kyrgyzstan

Lebanon

Libya

Mali

Mauritania

Moldova

Morocco

Niger

Oman

Palestinian Territories

Qatar

Russia

Saudi Arabia

Sudan 

Syria

Tajikistan

Tunisia

Turkey

Turkmenistan

Ukraine

United Arab Emirates

Uzbekistan

Western Sahara

Yemen


 


 

Community & Communications section 5; Sub-Saharan Africa

Senegal, Nigeria, Eritrea to South Africa

 


Angola

Benin

Botswana

Burundi

Cameroon

Cape Verde

Central African Republic

Comoros

Congo (Democratic Republic)

Congo (Republic of)

Cote D’Ivoire

Djibouti

Equatorial Guinea

Eritrea

Ethiopia

Gabon

 (The) Gambia

Ghana

Guinea

Guinea Bissau

Kenya

Lesotho

Liberia

Madagascar

Malawi

Mauritius

Mozambique

Namibia

Nigeria

Reunion

Rwanda

Sao Tome & Principe

Senegal

Seychelles

Sierra Leone

Somalia

South Africa

South Sudan

Swaziland

Tanzania

Togo

Uganda

Zambia

Zimbabwe



 

 

Community & Communications section 6; South & East Asia, Oceania

Pakistan to Japan, Australia, Pacific islands

 


Australia

Australia – Capital Territory

Australia – New South Wales

Australia – Northern Territory

Australia – Queensland

Australia – South Australia

Australia – Tasmania

Australia – Victoria

Australia – Western Australia

Bangladesh

Bhutan

Brunei

Cambodia

China

Fiji

French Polynesia

Guam

Hong Kong

India

Indonesia

Japan

Kiribati

(North) Korea

(South) Korea

Laos

Macao

Malaysia

Maldives

Marshall Islands

Micronesia

Mongolia

Myanmar

Nauru

Nepal

New Caledonia

New Zealand

Pakistan

Palau

Papua New Guinea

Philippines

Samoa, (American)

Samoa

Singapore

Solomon Islands

Sri Lanka

Taiwan 

Thailand

Timor L’Este

Tonga

Tuvalu

Vanuatu

Vietnam


 


Notes on data and abbreviations used

 

Community

Area – The overall area and land area (area not covered by lakes, reservoirs) is given. Changed areas, for example where land reclamation has taken place (e.g. Singapore) are also noted.

Population – The total population at various years according to domestic census, or by estimate from the UN where census data is missing or unreliable.

Ethnicity – The percentages of the main ethnic groups within the country are given for various years.

NOTES:

1)     Hispanic is here used, as far as the data allows, only for persons of Latin American or Spanish/Portuguese heritage. Persons of Black or White-non-Spanish origin from Latin America are counted as Black or White respectively.

2)     Jewish ethnicity means descent primarily from Jewish-race ancestors. It is not the same as Jewish religion, as a number of persons with Jewish ancestry no longer actively practise Judaism.

3)     Mixed Race includes Mestizo and Mulatto

Religion – the percentages of adherents to the main religions are given for various years.

NOTES:

1)     Animist is used as a general term for all traditional indigenous pagan religions. This term does not include modern pagan worshippers.

2)     Christian = those professing the Christian faith. However (as with Jews), many Christians only nominally practise their faith, seldom attending Church.

3)     JW = Jehovah’s Witnesses.

4)     RC = Roman Catholic.

5)     Jewish religion = actively practising Jews. This may be a smaller group than those with primarily Jewish ancestry, as some Jews have become secularised, with no active religion.

6)     No religion includes atheists and agnostics, also those who say they do subscribe to any particular religion, even though they may believe in a deity of some kind.

Birth and death rates – essential demographic information on birth and death rates and population structure.

NOTES:

1)     Fertility rate is the total expected average number of children per woman. Figures below 2.1 are highlighted as 2.1 is the replacement population level, which allows for some females dying before they reach reproductive age. A figure below 2.1 may not mean the population is falling, as increasing longevity of immigration may still increase the total number of people.

2)     Birth and death rates are given as crude (not adjusted for population age structure) rates per 1,000 people. The crude death rate is subtracted from the crude death rate to give a measure of the natural growth of the population. Note that a negative natural growth rate 9deaths per thousand exceed births per thousand) may not mean a falling population, if there is immigration to increase the numbers of people.

3)     Infant mortality is given as the number of children who die before their first birthday, per thousand live births. The reduction in this number signifies progress in medical care or general nutrition.

4)     % population aged under 15 indicates earlier birth-rates and suggests the rate of possible future population growth (as this age cohort moves towards reproductive age). This figure also suggests the future size of the workforce.

5)     % population aged over 65 indicates the general longevity of the population, and its overall health, as more people survive into their 70s, 80s and beyond.

6)     % Urban indicates the proportion of people living in towns and cities; generally of population 20,000 or more. Higher urbanisation rates indicate rising prosperity, a shift from agriculture into manufacturing and services, and a falling birth-rate as more women work, and gain power to limit family size. For some small territorial units the entire population lives in urban areas, giving an urbanisation rate of 100%.

Life expectancy – the number of years a baby born in that year can expect to live. Figures are given for males and females separately where available.

NOTES:

1)     Life expectancy generally rises over time as wealth increase and healthcare improves. However increases in life expectancy may start to tail off as ages of 80+ are attained. In some wealthier countries rising obesity may actually cause a fall in life expectancy over time. More significantly, big temporary drops in life expectancy usually indicate a major long-term catastrophe such as war or famine.

Population of principal cities – the population of the territory’s major cities are given, as they have changed over time.

NOTES:

1)     M or MA = Metropolitan Area. As car ownership has enabled commuters to live further out of town in nicer greener areas, the original urban area has become ever less representative of the total city population. In many cases the original urban area is declining in population even as the wider area is rising, as surrounding towns and villages become suburbanised. In these cities, the metropolitan area figure is a better indicator of the overall urban population.

Gross Domestic Productthe total GDP, and GDP per capita, are given for selected years, also the % of each figure of that for the USA. Conversion from domestic currencies facilitates comparison both between countries and across years; the downside is that fluctuations in domestic currency exchange rates against the US Dollar can be larger than changes in GDP. In the long run such fluctuations should even out, as falling currencies generally correspond to higher inflation rates. Centrally-planned economies may have artificially-set exchange rates, which can distort Dollar-denominated GDP figures.

GDP by primary sector – The % of GDP derived from the three main economic sectors (primary = agriculture, secondary = manufacturing and industry, tertiary = services) is given, also the % of the workforce in each sector. As countries become wealthier they shift from agricultural production to industry, and then into services. The labour force in agriculture also shrinks, but less rapidly, followed by a  decline in industrial employment as automation and shift of factory production to lower-wage countries shifts work into the service sector. However some less affluent countries may see ‘premature deindustrialisation’, as their economies shift into the service sector without having developed a major industrial base first.

Communications

Language -  the % of population speaking different languages is given for selected years.

NOTES:

1)     MT = Mother Tongue. The language a person grew up speaking in the family setting may not be the one they customarily use in everyday work, if their mother tongue is a minority language within their country. Many of such people maintain bilingualism, retaining the use of their mother tongue within the family setting, often as a means of perpetuating their cultural heritage as a whole.

Literacy – the % of people functionally literate (able to read simple passages in their own language and write short letters) is given for selected years. Modern schooling has ensured almost-100% literacy in most developed countries for many decades now. In less-wealthy countries, where literacy rates in 2017 remain below 100%, boys generally receive a higher educational priority than girls, because the male will be the higher earner whilst females take on childcare duties at home. In a few countries, mainly in the Caribbean, female literacy rates slightly exceed male rates. Higher female literacy frequently goes with greater prosperity, a lower birth rate and increased urbanisation. Literacy figures for years in the 19th century or earlier have often been derived indirectly from those able to sign their name at wedding registries, military recruitment, or the completion of tax records.

Physical communication, road and rail – figures are given for road mileage, surfaced road mileage, the number of vehicles, of private passenger cars and commercial vehicles, the mileage of railway, and the % of railway electrified, are given. The change in route- length over time of major urban metro systems is also noted.

NOTES:

1)     Roads – includes all public rights of way where a motorised vehicle may legally be driven.

2)     Surfaced roads – includes all public rights of way for vehicles whose surface has been modified in any way, e.g. tarmac, concrete, gravel, to facilitate all-weather passage of cars and lorries. In developed countries almost all motor-vehicle public rights of way have been surfaced, and separate figures for ‘surfaced’ roads are not compiled.

3)     Motor vehicles, cars, commercial vehicles – national definitions have been used. In many less-affluent countries, ‘motor vehicles’ includes a large number of motorbikes (these are more affordable than cars) but this category of vehicle is not included in cars or commercial vehicles. ‘Cars’ includes only private passenger cars; taxis and hire cars are counted as commercial vehicles. As lorries increase in size, and companies consolidate, the number of commercial vehicles may decrease. In war-torn countries, the number of cars in use may even decrease also. Cars out of action due to disrepair or abandonment are not included.

4)     Railways - includes all lines actually in usage. In some less affluent countries, or war-torn countries, the status of large parts of the rail network may be dubious, with many lines seeing no traffic, but not officially abandoned. Lines for goods traffic only, tourist lines and light railways are included.

5)     Urban metro systems – route mileage rather than track mileage is given for selected years. Some cities have adopted multiple transport modes that are hard to distinguish, for example light rail services that also use national rail lines, or trams that have routes part-surface, part underground as in urban metro transit networks. Where possible, route mileages given have been restricted to rail-based local urban transport schemes, separate from long-distance rail routes.

Electronic communications – includes the main devices utilised to transmit information by electrical or electronic means. National populations of fixed line phones, mobile phones, radios, TVs, personal computers, and internet users are given for selected years.

NOTES:

1)     Telephone landlines – fixed telephones, in current usage, connected by a wire to the national telephone system. Since the advent of mobile phones, many people have abandoned the rental of a fixed line and the population of fixed landlines in use has declines sharply in many countries, even if the infrastructure for them remains in place.

2)     Mobile telephones – have seen very rapid uptake since the 1990s. Many people have more than one mobile phone, keeping one for business, one for friends etc. so the mobile phone population is coming to exceed the number of people in many territories.

3)     Radios – these were, before the advent of TV, a primary source of news for many people. The significance of the radio has declined markedly since the widespread adoption of devices such as the television and computer, and recent figures for radio populations are no longer compiled.

4)     Televisions – just as the TV displaced radio as a news medium, so computers and the Internet are starting to displace TV sets as a source of news and entertainment. A TV set may now be utilised more as an ancillary larger screen for viewing (family or alone) movies being streamed from the Internet via a computer, rather than for watching mass-broadcast TV channels. Meanwhile the latest TVs have become more computer-like, with information channels and access to Internet media such as Youtube. As households have become wealthier they have progressed from one single family TV set to having several, which are utilised differently. There may still be a family set in the living room, a less-used bedroom TV, a TV that is used more as a large screen computer monitor, and TVs in other rooms such as the kitchen. Latest figures tend to give TV-using households rather than numbers of individual sets in use.

5)     Personal Computers – as with televisions, a raft of innovations has blurred the definition of a ‘personal computer’. As well as laptops, we have ipads, mobile phones and Alexa that can access the Internet, as well as TVs themselves. Figures given here aim to include only laptop and desktop PCs with a keyboard and screen that can be utilised for the processing and storage of information as well as Internet access and email communications.

6)     Internet users – all persons who regularly use the Internet (at least once a month), whether on their own device or via an Internet café or other communally-owned device.

Tourism – all non-business arrivals from outside the territory who stay at least one night within the territory (for small island territories, e.g. Falkland Islands, includes cruise ship visitors even if they sleep on board ship). Includes religious pilgrims for e.g. Saudi Arabia.

NOTES:

1)     World tourism figure includes all non-business travellers who have stayed at least one night in a territory away from their home region.

Sample pages – Finland and Kentucky

 

Finland

Community

Area 338,145 square kilometres (land area 303,815 square kilometres).

Population,


350,000 (1600)

421,500 (1750)

832,700 (1800)

1,636,915 (1851)

2,250,000 (1890)

2,655,900 (1900)

3,611,791 (1930)

3,887,217 (1940)

4,029,800 (1950)

4,435,000 (1960)

4,612,000 (1970)

4,787,800 (1980)

4,996,000 (1990)

5,188,000 (2000)

5,366,000 (2010)

5,523,000 (2017)


Ethnicity

 

Estonian

Finnish

Roma

Russian

Sami

Swedish

1900

 

84.6

 

0.2

 

12.6

1940

 

90.0

 

0.2

 

9.6

1975

 

93.2

 

 

 

6.6

2009

0.3

93.4

0.1

0.5

0.1

5.6

Religion,

 

Christian

Greek Orthodox

Christian

Lutheran

None

1947

1.8

96.0

2.8

1990

1.1

87.8

10.2

2000

1.1

85.1

12.7

2010

1.1

78.3

19.2

2016

1.1

72.0

25.3

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1722

 

30.2 (+7.2)

 

23.0

 

 

 

1731

 

39.6 (+17.8)

 

21.8

 

 

 

1741

 

35.8 (+4.2)

 

31.6

 

 

 

1751

 

45.0 (+16.0)

 

29.0

 

 

 

1801

 

38.0 (+13.0)

 

25.0

 

 

5.6

1851

 

36.0 (+8.0)

 

28.0

 

 

 

1901

 

31.0 (+13.0)

 

18.0

 

 

12.5

1910

 

30.1 (+12.8)

 

17.3

 

 

 

1935

2.3

19.5 (+6.1)

72.0

13.4

 

 

 

1940

2.0

 

 

 

 

 

23.2

1944

 

 

69.0

 

 

 

 

1950

1.9

18.9 (+8.9)

34.0

10.0

30.0

6.7

41.5

1960

1.9

16.9 (+7.9)

21.9

9.0

30.4

7.3

55.3

1970

2.1

16.3 (+6.7)

13.2

9.6

24.6

9.2

63.7

1980

1.6

13.2 (+3.9)

7.2

9.3

20.3

12.0

71.7

1990

1.8

13.2 (+3.2)

5.7

10.0

19.3

13.4

79.4

2000

1.7

11.0 (+1.5)

3.5

9.5

18.1

15.0

81.2

2010

1.9

10.3 (+1.0)

2.5

9.3

16.5

17.2

83.6

2014

1.7

10.4 (+0.8)

2.0

9.6

16.4

19.7

84.1

2015

1.7

10.1 (+0.5)

2.0

9.6

16.4

20.3

84.2

2016

 

 

1.9

 

16.4

20.8

84.4

Life expectancy,


46.7 (1905); 45.3 (M), 48.1 (F)

56.3 (1933); 53.9 (M), 58.7 (F)

66.3 (1950); 63.0 (M), 70.0 (F)

68.8 (1960); 65.4 (M), 72.4 (F)

70.2 (1970); 66.2 (M), 74.4 (F)

73.4 (1980); 69.2 (M), 77.9 (F)

74.8 (1990); 70.9 (M), 78.9 (F)

77.5 (2000); 74.1 (M), 81.0 (F)

79.9 (2010); 76.7 (M), 83.2 (F)

81.4 (2015); 78.8 (M), 84.1 (F)


Population of principal cities, 1,000s M = Metropolitan Area

 

Aland

Islands1

Espoo

HELSINKI2

Tampere

Turku3

1700

 

 

2,000

 

 

1810

 

 

4,000

 

 

1850

9,500

 

14,160

 

 

1860

 

 

22,000

 

 

1890

 

 

29,000

 

 

1897

18,413

 

93,000

 

 

1940

 

 

319,939

80,995

75,419

1950

 

 

414,000

 

 

1960

 

 

625,000

213,707

123,000

1968

 

88,177

 

213,707

199,731

1980

22,783

137,409

901,118

243,918

240,927

1990

25,000

168,000

978,000

255,000

 

2000

26,000

213,271

 

 

 

2007

27,153

238,047

 

 

 

2009

 

 

1,107,000

 

 

2016

29,013

275,000

1,400,000 MA

225,000

310,000

1Originally belonging to Sweden, the Aland Islands were captured by Russia in 1809.  After World War One they were given to Finland, despite their inhabitants voting to be part of Sweden.

2Helsinki was founded by King Gustavus V Vasa in 1550, In 1812 the Tsar of Russia, as Grand Duke of Finland, decreed that Helsinki, originally called Helsingfors, should replace Turku as capital of Finland. The city’s name derives from the local Helsingi tribe, and the Swedish word fors, meaning ‘waterfall.

3Turku was the capital of Finland until 1812.

Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values)

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1948

2,276

1.02

569

37.31

1956

3,770

1.05

 

 

1960

5,224

0.96

1,180

39.24

1965

8,590

1.16

1,880

49.11

1970

11,110

1.07

2,470

47.07

1975

28,930

1.77

6,260

80.05

1980

52,350

1.87

11,200

88.90

1985

54,540

1.29

11,400

62.40

1990

136,790

2.36

28,380

118.47

1995

129,290

1.75

26,275

87.39

2000

121,980

1.22

24,250

66.53

2005

193,200

1.48

39,000

88.02

2010

238,000

1.59

46,200

95.51

2015

232,360

1.29

42,400

75.44

2016

236,785

1.28

43,090

74.98

GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1960

 

36.0

 

31.0

 

33.0

1970

 

20.0

 

 

 

 

1980

 

11.0

 

35.0

 

54.0

1990

6.6

10.2

33.9

31.0

59.5

57.9

2007

3.1

5.0

32.7

25.0

64.3

70.0

2010

2.6

4.9

29.1

 

68.2

 

2014

 

4.5

 

24.0

 

71.5

2016

2.7

 

27.1

 

70.2

 

Communications

Language Official; Finnish, Swedish.  Sami also spoken in Lapland

 

Finnish

Lappish (Sami)

Russian

Swedish

1947

90.0

 

 

10.0

1990

94.0

 

0.1

6.0

2007

91.2

3.3

 

5.5

2015

89.0

 

1.3

5.3

Literacy


91.0% (1900)

99.0% (1960)

99.9% (1980 and subsequent years)


Physical communications – roads and railways, First railway in Finland opened 1862; 108 kilometres between Helsinki and Hameenlina.

 

Roads (km)

Surfaced (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

Railways

(km)

%

electric

1862

 

 

 

 

 

108

 

1870

 

 

 

 

 

483

 

1880

 

 

 

 

 

886

 

1890

 

 

 

 

 

1,909

 

1900

 

 

 

 

 

2,933

 

1910

 

 

 

 

 

3,653

 

1920

 

 

 

 

 

4,287

 

1930

 

 

 

 

 

5,387

 

1940

 

 

 

 

 

4,848

 

1944

59,200

 

 

 

 

 

 

1947

 

 

 

12,907

28,059

 

 

1950

 

 

 

 

 

4,915

 

1955

 

 

168,900

102,400

 

5,100

0

1959

67,200

 

321,411

160,419

45,347

5,358

0

1964

 

 

473,800

 

 

5,363

 

1968

 

 

 

580,747

92,600

5,717

 

1980

74,684

34,368

 

1,225,931

150,000

 

 

1985

 

 

 

 

 

5,877

24.6

1990

77,200

45,000

2,100,000

1,820,000

240,000

5,880

28.3

2000

78,059

50,000

2,500,000

2,160,103

311,500

5,851

41.0

2005

 

 

2,800,000

2,430,345

363,000

 

 

2008

 

 

3,116,000

2,570,536

 

 

 

2010

78,144*

50,914

3,331,000

2,877,000

 

5,794

52.6

2013

 

 

3,642,000

3,127,000

 

 

 

2015

 

 

 

 

 

5,923

55.1

2016

 

 

 

4,996,000

 

 

 

*This total excludes 26,000 km suburban roads.  In addition, Finland had 350,000 km private roads, mainly forestry tracks, giving a grand total of 454,000 km roads.

Urban metro systems, kilometres

Helsinki Metro, (opened 1982)


17.0 (1992)

17.0 (2000)

21.2 (2003)

35.0 (2016)


Electronic communications,  In 2008, 69.0% of Finnish households had a mobile phone only, and no landline phone.

TV broadcasting began 1957 (colour from 1969)

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile Telephones

Radios

Televisions

PCs

Internet Users

1938

185,456

 

293,790

 

 

 

1946

264,231

 

542,198

 

 

 

1950

 

 

722,000

 

 

 

1957

 

 

 

8,000

 

 

1959

571,477

 

1,187,089

 

 

 

1960

 

 

1,228,000

 

 

 

1969

1,009,336

 

1,750,000

970,000

 

 

1980

1,739,954

23,482

 

1,538,259

 

 

1985

 

67,639

 

1,784,311

 

 

1990

2,669,697

257,870

4,960,000

2,470,000

500,000

 

1995

 

1,039,000

6,800,000

2,800,000

1,200,000

 

1998

 

 

 

 

 

1,430,000

2000

2,848,809

3,728,600

8,400,000

3,400,000

2,050,000

1,950,000

2003

 

 

 

3,540,000

 

2,850,000

2005

2,140,000

5,231,000

 

 

2,600,000

3,500,000

2009

1,430,000

 

 

 

 

4,393,000

2010

 

 

 

 

 

4,500,000

2012

890,000

 

 

 

 

 

2016

457,300

7,366,100

 

 

 

4,822,000

Tourism: Visitors to Finland,


436,000 (1987)

1,779,000 (1995)

1,971,000 (2000)

2,080,000 (2005)

2,319,000 (2010)

2,622,000 (2015)


 


Kentucky

Community

Area 102,895 square kilometres


Population,


15,700 (1770)

45,000 (1780)

73,677 (1790)

220,995 (1800)

406,511 (1810)

564,317 (1820)

687,917 (1830)

779,828 (1840)

982,405 (1850)

1,155,684 (1860)

1,321,011 (1870)

1,648,690 (1880)

1,858,635 (1890)

2,147,174 (1900)

2,289,905 (1910)

2,416,300 (1920)

2,614,589 (1930)

2,845,627 (1940)

2,944,806 (1950)

3,038,156 (1960)

3,218,706 (1970)

3,660,777 (1980)

3,685,296 (1990)

4,041,769 (2000)

4,339,367 (2010)

4,436,974 (2016)


Ethnicity, %

 

Amerindian

Asian

Black

Hispanic

Mixed race

White

1770

 

 

16.0

 

 

 

1780

 

 

16.0

 

 

 

1790

 

 

16.4*

 

 

 

1910

 

 

11.4

 

 

88.6

1930

 

 

8.6

 

 

91.3

1950

 

 

6.9

 

 

93.1

1960

 

 

7.1

 

 

92.8

1970

 

 

7.2

 

 

92.6

1980

 

 

7.1

 

 

92.3

1990

0.2

0.5

7.1

0.6

 

92.0

2000

0.2

0.7

7.3

1.5

1.0

90.1

2010

0.2

1.1

7.8

1.8

1.7

86.3

*99% of these were slaves

Birth and death rates

 

Fertility

rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Urban

1800

 

 

 

 

0.0

1810

 

 

 

 

1.1

1820

 

 

 

 

1.6

1830

 

 

 

 

2.4

1840

 

 

 

 

4.0

1850

 

 

 

 

7.5

1860

 

 

 

 

10.4

1870

 

 

 

 

14.8

1880

 

 

 

 

15.2

1890

 

 

 

 

19.2

1900

 

 

 

 

21.8

1910

 

 

 

 

24.3

1920

 

 

 

 

26.2

1930

 

 

 

 

30.6

1940

 

 

 

 

29.8

1950

 

 

 

 

36.8

1960

 

24.7 (+15.0)

29.4

9.7

44.5

1970

 

17.7 (+7.4)

21.8

10.3

52.3

1980

 

16.8 (+7.4)

11.5

9.4

50.9

1990

 

14.6 (+5.0)

8.3

9.6

55.8

2000

 

14.1 (+4.5)

6.9

9.6

55.8

2008

2.1

13.7 (+4.0)

 

9.7

 

2010

2.0

 

 

 

58.4

2014

 

12.6 (+2.4)

 

10.2

 

2015

2.0

 

6.7

 

 

Life Expectancy,

76.0 (2009);

 

Aged under 18 %

Aged over 65 %

2010

23.6

13.3

2015

 

14.8

Population of principal cities,

 

Covington

FRANKFORT1

Lexington

Louisville

Owensboro

1790

 

 

834

200

 

1800

 

628

1,795

359

 

1810

 

1,099

4,326

1,357

 

1820

 

1,679

5,270

4,012

 

1830

743

1,682

6,026

10,341

229

1840

2,026

1,917

6,997

21,210

 

1850

9,408

3,308

8,159

43,194

1,215

1860

16,471

3,702

9,321

68,033

2,308

1870

24,505

5,396

14,301

100,753

3,437

1880

29,720

6,958

16,656

123,758

6,231

1890

37,371

7,892

21,567

161,269

9,837

1900

42,938

9,487

26,369

204,731

13,139

1910

53,270

10,465

35,099

223,928

16,011

1920

57,121

9,805

41,534

234,891

17,424

1930

65,252

11,626

45,736

307,745

22,765

1940

62,018

11,492

49,304

319,077

30,245

1950

64,425

11,916

55,534

369,129

33,651

1960

60,376

18,365

62,810

390,639

42,471

1970

52,535

21,902

108,137

361,706

50,329

1980

49,585

25,973

204,165

298,694

54,450

1990

43,646

25,535

225,366

269,093

53,577

2000

43,370

27,741

260,512

256,231

54,067

2010

43,370

25,527

295,803

597,337

57,265

2016

40,797

27,885

318,449

616,261

59,723

1Frankfort was founded in 1786,


Wealth

Gross State Product,


US$ 120,266 million (2001)

US$ 122,282 million (2002)

US$ 136,446 million (2004)

US$ 140,501 million (2005)

US$ 145,959 million (2006)

US$ 154,184 million (2007)

US$ 156,436 million (2008)

US$ 156,553 million (2009)

US$ 196,681 million (2016)


Income per capita,


US$ 7,613 (1980)

US$ 16,534 (1992)

US$ 20,657 (1997)

US$ 24,923 (2001)

US$ 25,657 (2002)

US$ 27,151 (2004)

US$ 28,317 (2005)

US$ 29,719 (2006)

US$ 30,787 (2007)

US$ 32,076 (2008)

US£ 32,306 (2009)

US$ 44,409 (2016)


Communications

Religion, %

 

Christian

Protestant

Christian

R C

Jewish

Mormon

Muslim

No

religion

2010

42.0

8.3

0.3

0.7

0.3

48.0

Physical communications – roads,

 

Roads (km)

Motor vehicles

1944

 

 

1960

 

1,145,500

1969

 

1,750,000

1981

110,475

2,750,000

1992

112,800

3,300,000

2005

125,535

3,428,000

2010

127,486

 

2015

128,570

 


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