lHistorical events from 1 January 1930 to 31 December 1939

 

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(-9999 / +9999) = Days before / after end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/1940 click here

 

31/12/1939, Sunday (-1,955) In France, the battle lines had been quiet up to the end of 1939; bored cold soldiers dug more trenches, and the odd shot was fired between the Maginot and Siegfried Lines. In contrast to the rapid invasion of Poland, German forces hesitated as Hitler and his generals argued over the best invasion plan, and the Allies remained under-prepared. This ‘phoney war’ or ‘sitskrieg’ as the French termed it, led to some evacuees in Britain returning to the cities. Only at sea was the War being fought. All this changed in 1940.

26/12/1939, Tuesday (-1,960) 40,000 killed in Erzincan, Turkey, by a magnitude 8.0 quake.

23/12/1939. Saturday (-1,963) Stalin sacked General Meretzkof, as Finnish successes against Russia continued.

17/12/1939, Sunday (-1,969) The Graf Spee was scuttled in the River Plate, see 13/12/1939.  The Uruguayan Government had refused to give her sanctuary.  Her captain, Hans Landsdorf, shot himself, in the mistaken belief that a large British naval force was waiting for her to put to sea. Hitler sent an ultimatum, scuttle or fight; Landsdorf chose not to send his crew out to their deaths.

14/12/1939. Thursday (-1,972) The USSR was expelled from the League of Nations, for its aggression against Finland, see 30/11/1939.

13/12/1939. Wednesday (-1,973) The Battle of the River Plate began with British warships, Exeter, Ajax, and Achilles, attacking the German battleship Graf Spee. On 17/12/1939 the Graf Spee was scuttled in the River Plate.

12/12/1939, Tuesday (-1,974) Hollywood actor Douglas Fairbanks died this day.

10/12/1939, Sunday (-1,976)

4/12/1939, Monday (-1,982) Passenger services were withdrawn on the Stafford to Uttoxeter line.

3/12/1939, Sunday (-1,983) RAF raids on warships at Heligoland.

30/11/1939. Thursday (-1,986) The USSR attacked Finland. Finland had earlier refused Soviet demands to use bases on its territory against Germany. See 12/3/1940.

28/11/1939. Tuesday (-1,988) Stalin renounced the Finno-Soviet non-aggression pact. On 30/11/1939 the USSR bombed Helsinki and Vipuri, as it invaded Finland.

23/11/1939, Thursday (-1,993) The deadline for British households to register for their ration books for bacon, butter and sugar rations. Delays were caused at shops because many customers had failed to write their name and address in the ration book.

22/11/1939, Wednesday (-1,994) German attacks on The Shetlands began; lasted until 24/11/1939.

21/11/1939, Tuesday (-1,995) The Rawalpindi, an auxiliary cruiser, was sunk in the Atlantic.

20/11/1939, Monday (-1,996) (1) Bakerloo Line trains began through running to Stanmore from Baker Street.

(2) The first German aircraft to approach London ventured up the Thames estuary. It was repelled with heavy ant-aircraft fire and retreated without causing any damage.

13/11/1939. Monday (-2,003) The first German bombs fell on Britain, on the Shetlands. There were no casualties.

8/11/1939. Wednesday (-2,008) Hitler narrowly avoided an assassination attempt at a Munich beer cellar. The Nazi leader was making a speech on the anniversary of the failed 1923 beer-hall putsch, in which he had tried to seize the city. Hitler left straight after his speech, which was much shorter than usual. Eight minutes later a bomb exploded behind the pillar where he was speaking, killing 7 people and injuring 60. It was planted by the anti-war activist and Communist Johann Georg Elser, who was sent to a concentration camp. He was shot on 9 April1945, on Hitler’s orders, to prevent his release by the advancing Russians.

4/11/1939. Saturday (-2,012) President Roosevelt announced he would amend the Neutrality Act to allow Britain and France to buy arms from the USA. Roosevelt hoped this would avoid direct US involvement in the war.

31/10/1939, Tuesday (+2,016) First dogfight between British and German aircraft over France.

30/10/1939. Monday (-2,017) London published the horrors of the German concentration camps.

29/10/1939, Sunday (-2,018) Albert, Duke of Wurttemberg, German military commander (born 23/12/1865) died.

28/10/1939. Saturday (-2,019) All German Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David.

27/10/1939, Friday (-2,020) John Cleese, English comedy actor, was born in Weston Super Mare.

26/10/1939, Thursday (-2,021) The Republic of Slovakia was established as a German protectorate with Tiso as President, see 14/3/1939 and 22/5/1945.

24/10/1939, Tuesday (2,023)

18/10/1939, Wednesday (-2,029) Lee Harvey Oswald, American assassin, was born in New Orleans.

17/10/1939, Tuesday (-2,030) Evel Kneivel, American stuntman , was born.

16/10/1939, Monday (-2,031) German air raid on the Firth of Forth, causing naval casualties.

15/10/1939, Sunday (-2,032)

14/10/1939, Saturday (-2,033) The Royal Navy battleship Royal Oak was torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat in Scapa Flow, with the loss of 810 lives.

13/10/1939, Friday (-2,034) Hitler made an unsuccessful attempt to persuade US President Roosevelt to mediate a peace between Germany, France and Britain.

12/10/1939. Thursday (-2,035) Hitler made a peace proposal to Britain, which was rejected.

11/10/1939. Wednesday (-2,036) The USSR signed a pact ceding the former Polish city of Vilna to Lithuania.

10/10/1939. Tuesday (-2,037) Nazis deported Polish Jews to the Lublin ghetto.

9/10/1939, Monday (-2,038)

8/10/1939. Sunday (-2,039) Hitler made western Poland part of the Third Reich.

7/10/1939, Saturday (-2,040) Clive James, TV broadcaster, was born in Sydney.

6/10/1939. Friday (-2,041) Britain and France rejected Hitler's peace bid. Hitler claimed to be satisfied with his occupation of western Poland, as Russia took the eastern half, and maintained he had no wish to fight Britain.

5/10/1939, Thursday (-2,042) German troops held a victory parade in Warsaw in front of Hitler.

3/10/1939, Tuesday (-2,044)

1/10/1939, Sunday (-2,046) Hitler entered Warsaw. The RAF dropped propaganda leaflets on Berlin.

30/9/1939. Saturday (-2,047) (1) Identity cards were issued in Britain.

(2) Germany and the USSR signed a pact agreeing on the partition of Poland.

27/9/1939. Wednesday (-2,050) (1) German forces occupied Warsaw; the city capitulated from the siege (see 8/9/1939), having run out of food, water, and ammunition.

(2) In the UK, Sir John Simon’s budget raised Income Tax from 25% to 27.5%. there was also a 6pm curfew on most shops, except tobacconists, confectioners and newsagents, which hit small grocers that had done much of their trade in the evening as customers retuned from work.

25/9/1939, Monday (-2,052) French artillery began bombarding German fortifications on the Rhine.

24/9/1939, Sunday (-2,053) All-day German air raids on Warsaw.

23/9/1939. Saturday (-2,054) (1) All wireless sets owned by Jews in Germany were confiscated.

(2) Sigmund Freud, Austrian psychiatrist, born 6/5/1856, died in Hampstead aged 83.  He had moved to London in 1938 following Hitler’s annexation of Austria.

22/9/1939, Friday (-2,055) Russian forces took Lvov, Poland.

21/9/1939, Thursday (-2,056) Germany and Russia declared that Poland no longer existed.

20/9/1939, Wednesday (-2,057) The first German aircraft, a Messerschmitt, was shot down, by gunner Sergeant Letchford.

19/9/1939. Tuesday (-2,058) Britain's RAF began leaflet raids on Germany.

18/9/1939, Monday (-2,059) The city of Lublin fell to the Germans.

17/9/1939. Sunday (-2,060) Soviet troops invaded Poland. The German army reached Brest Litovsk in Poland. De Valera said Ireland would remain neutral in the War. Australia and New Zealand took sides with Britain straightaway. The Canadian debated the issue for three days then voted to join the War with one vote against. In South Africa the prime Minister General Hertzog wanted to stay out of the war; he was forced to resign and replaced by General Smuts who immediately took Britain’s side.

15/9/1939, Friday (-2,062) Bulgaria declared its neutrality and attempted to remain out of the Second World War.

14/9/1939, Thursday (-2,063) The Germans entered Gdynia.

13/9/1939, Wednesday (-2,064) (1) German troops crossed the Vistula at Annopol.

(2) French War cabinet formed under Daladier (see 20/3/1940).

12/9/1939  Tuesday (-2,065) German troops reached Lvov.

11/9/1939, Monday, (-2,066) The Battle of Jarosław ended with a successful Polish delaying action.

10/9/1939. Sunday (-2,067) (1) The British Expeditionary force arrived in Cherbourg, France. Four divisions, comprising 158,000 men and 25,000 vehicles crossed the Channel with no interference from U-boats or the Luftwaffe.

The Dunkirk evacuation was completed on 4/6/1940.

(2) Canada declared war on Germany.

9/9/1939  Saturday (-2,068) In response to the War, Britain re-established a Ministry of Food.

8/9/1939, Friday (-2,069) The Germans began a siege of Warsaw (see 27/9/1939).

7/9/1939  Thursday (-2,070) Saar Offensive: the French Army began a ground operation in the Saarland against light German defences.

6/9/1939. Wednesday (-2,071) (1) Cracow fell to the Germans.

(2) South Africa declared war on Germany.

5/9/1939. Tuesday (-2,072) President Roosevelt declared the USA neutral.

4/9/1939. Monday (-2,073) (1) French troops crossed the German border into Saarland.

(2) The British liner Athenia sank the day after being torpedoed by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland. 93 lives were lost. She had sailed from Liverpool on 2/9/1939 on her way to Montreal, and was informed about the outbreak of war at 11.am on the 3rd. She sank with the loss of 19 crew and 93 passengers. This was the start of the Battle of the Atlantic. The last ship sunk was the British Avondale Park on 7/5/1945. The German fleet was attacked by the RAF.

(3) Romania, alarmed by the German invasion of Poland and unable to help the Poles, declared its neutrality.

(4) The RAF dropped 6 million leaflets over Germany. It also bombed Wilhelmshaven.

3/9/1939. Sunday (-2,074) The Polish town of Bydgoszcz (German, Bromberg), fell to the Nazis.

2/9/1939. Saturday (-2,075) Men aged 18-41 were conscripted in Britain under the National Service Bill.

1/9/1939. Friday (-2,076) (1) Germany invaded Poland. Without a declaration of war, 1.25 million German troops invaded Poland under Operation Fall Weiss (White Plan) as the Luftwaffe destroyed the Polish rail system and its airforce. Some 60,000 Poles were killed, 200,000 wounded, and 700,000 taken prisoner. Germany here eschewed the static trench warfare of World War One, and the English language acquired a new word – blitzkrieg, meaning lightning war. Warsaw was bombed at 6.am. On 11.am. 3/9/1939 Britain declared war on Germany because of this invasion. For the first time in history the King went to Downing Street rather than the Prime Minister going to the Palace, because Neville Chamberlain needed to stay near his phone. On the same day, 3/9, New Zealand, Australia, and France, at 5.pm. also declared war on Germany. See 28/3/1939.

(2) In Germany, Jews were put under a curfew from 8pm in winter and 9pm in summer.

(3) The BBC Home Service, later to become Radio 4, began broadcasting.

31/8/1939, Thursday (-2,077) (1) In Gleiwitz, a small German town close to the border with Poland, a small force of Nazi agents, dressed in Polish Army uniforms, took over the local radio station and broadcast anti-German propaganda in Polish. They then took bodies from Dachau concentration camp, dressed these in Polish Army uniforms, and mutilated the corpses to make identification impossible. Within a few hours Adolf Hitler was denouncing the ‘Gleiwitz Incident’ in the German Reichstag and using it as a pretext to invade Poland.

(2) The branch railway from Denham to Uxbridge High street (opened 1/5/1907) was closed to passengers.  It closed to freight on 25/9/1939 but handled coal until 2/4/1962.

30/8/1939. Wednesday (-2,078) The great evacuation of children from British cities began, to avoid anticipated German bombing. In September 1939, 827,000 children and 535,000 pregnant women were sent to rural areas. ‘Billeters’ were paid 10s 6d for the first child and 8s 6d for each subsequent child, per week.

29/8/1939, Tuesday (-2,079) Jozef Tiso declared martial law in Slovakia. Articles were posted ordering Slovaks to accept German currency and furnish food to the German soldiers "here to protect our young state against the threatening Polish danger.

28/8/1939, Monday (-2,080) The Tarnow rail station bomb attack was carried out in southern Poland. A time bomb left by a German agent exploded, killing 20 and wounding 35.

27/8/1939, Sunday (-2,081) The world’s first jet-propelled aeroplane, the Heinkel 178, engines designed by Dr Von Ohain, made its first flight at Marienehe, northern Germany.

26/8/1939, Saturday (-2,082) Daladier and Chamberlain attempted to negotiate with Hitler, but nothing was achieved.

25/8/1939, Friday (-2,083) (1) Moveable treasures from London’s art galleries and museums were taken away for safety.

(2) (France-Germany) Britain signed an assistance pact with Poland, the Anglo-Polish Alliance. Britain had seen Hitler seize Czechoslovakia, in breach of the Munich Agreement; Hitler was now demanding the return of Gdansk (Danzig) and the coastal strip of land linking Germany to East Prussia (depriving Poland of its Baltic coast).  Britain therefore abandoned its policy of appeasement with Germany.

(3) An IRA bomb exploded without warning in the centre of Coventry, killing 5 and injuring 25.

24/8/1939, Thursday (-2,084) Germany tested the first turbojet aircraft, at Rostock. A longer flight took place on 27/8/1939.

23/8/1939. Wednesday (-2,085) (1) Hitler and the USSR concluded a 20 year non-aggression pact, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. This left Hitler free to invade Poland.  Hitler believed the German-Soviet pact would lead France and Britain to withdraw their guarantees of assistance to Poland.  When instead Britain reaffirmed its support for Poland on 25/8/1939, Hitler postponed the attack on Poland, originally scheduled for the night of 25-26/8/1939.   Diplomatic moves with Britain failed to dislodge UK support for Poland, and Hitler invaded on 1/9/1939.

(2) John Cobb, British motorist, set a new speed record of 368.85 mph at Bonneville salt flats, Utah, USA.

22/8/1939, Tuesday (-2,086) Hitler gave the Obersalzberg Speech to commanders of the Wehrmacht, detailing the pending invasion of Poland and plans for extermination of the Poles.

21/8/1939. Monday (-2,087) Civil Defence started in Britain.

11/8/1939, Friday (-2,097) The Axis Conference opened at Salzburg.

9/8/1939,  Wednesday (-2,099) Romano Prodi, Prime Minister of Italy, was born.

8/8/1939, Tuesday (-2,100)

4/8/1939, Friday (-2,104) A British transatlantic air mail service was inaugurated by BOAC between Southampton and Montreal / New York.  Two flying boats maintained a weekly service.

2/8/1939, Wednesday (-2,106) Albert Einstein wrote to US President Franklin D Roosevelt urging him to commit to research into the possibility of atomic bombs.

29/7/1939. Saturday (-2,110) Britain began a big round-up of IRA suspects as new anti-terrorist laws came into force.

28/7/1939, Friday (-2,111) William James Mayo, US surgeon and co-founder of the Mayo Clinic, died aged 78.

13/7/1939. Thursday (-2,126) Frank Sinatra made his first record, ‘From the Bottom of my Heart’ with the Harry James band.

8/7/1939. Saturday (-2,131) Birmingham Airport was officially opened by the Duke of Kent. In 1929 Birmingham City Council decided the city should have an airport, and in 1933 a site at Elmdon, 8 miles from the city centre, was chosen. After the opening in 1939 services to Croydon, Glasgow, Liverpool, Ryde, Manchester, and Southampton began. However just 2 months after opening the airport was requisitioned by the Air Ministry as World War Two began. In July 1946 civilian flights resumed from Birmingham and 1949 saw its first overseas flight, to Paris. In the 1950s flights began to Zurich, Dusseldorf, Palma, and Amsterdam. By the early 1970s the terminal was suffering from congestion as over one million passengers used the airport each year. The main runway was extended, and there was further expansion when the National Exhibition Centre opened in 1974. Concorde landed there in 1981 and the Queen opened a new passenger terminal in 1984. In 1999, 7 million passengers used the airport.

30/6/1939, Friday (-2,139) The Mersey Ferry, between Liverpool and Rock ferry, was discontinued.

27/6/1939, Tuesday (-2,142) The first transatlantic air service began.  Pan American Airways flying boat Yankee Clipper flew between Botwood, Newfoundland, and Southampton, UK, seating 19 passengers on the 18 ¾ hour flight. The fare was £140 return, for luxurious accommodation including separate passenger cabins, ladies dressing rooms, a recreation lounge, sleeping berths and a bridal suite.

26/6/1939. Monday (-2,143) The first National Serviceman, Private Rupert Alexander, number 10000001, signed up with the Middlesex Regiment. The Military Training (Conscription) Act had received Royal Assent on 26/5/1939.

25/6/1939, Sunday (-2,144)

24/6/1939, Saturday (-2,145) Turkey concluded a pact of mutual assistance with France, see 12/5/1939.  Turkey endeavoured to remain neutral in the unfolding conflict.  Its army was poorly equipped.

23/6/1939. Friday (-2,146) Hatay, formerly the Syrian town of Alexandretta, was incorporated into Turkey. It had been part of Ottoman territory until 1919, and had been the subject of a Franco-Turkish dispute which was settled at the League of Nations in 1937. This said that Alexandretta was to be its own entity controlling its own internal affairs, with Syria controlling its foreign policy. Iskenderun is the Turkish name; a city near this site was established by Alexander the Great in 333 BC to commemorate his victory over the Persians at Issus.

17/6/1939. Saturday (-2,152) The last public execution in France. The German multiple-murderer, Eugen Wiedman, was publicly guillotined outside Versailles gaol, near Paris. See 25/4/1739 and 10/9/1977.

7/6/1939, Wednesday (-2,162) HM King George V1, along with Queen Elizabeth,  crossed the border from Canada into the USA at Niagara Falls, on his way to visit the World Fair in New York.  He was the first British monarch to visit the USA.  He and Queen Elizabeth also became the first British monarch to eat hot dogs.

1/6/1939, Thursday (-2,168) The British naval submarine Thetis sank whilst on trials in Liverpool Bay, with the loss of 99 lives. She was later raised and put back into service as HMS Thunderbolt.

31/5/1939, Wednesday (-2,169) (1) Britain interned Oswald Moseley and other fascists as the Government consolidated emergency powers.

(2) Terry Waite, envoy of the Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.

28/5/1939, Sunday (-2,172) (2) The railway from Tolworth, south west London, was extended to Chessington South, see 29/5/1938.  This line was to have gone on to Leatherhead but the Green Belt made this redundant.

25/5/1939, Thursday (-2,175) (1) An Anglo-Polish treaty was signed in London.

(2) Sir Frank Dyson, British astronomer and director of Greenwich Observatory, died.

23/5/1939. Tuesday (-2,177) The British Parliament agreed a plan for the independence of Palestine by 1949. This plan was denounced by both Arabs and Jews.

22/5/1939. Monday (-2,178) Hitler and Mussolini signed the 'Pact of Steel' in Berlin.

19/5/1939, Friday (-2,181) The TUC decided not to oppose the UK Government’s conscription plans.

17/5/1939. Wednesday (-2,183) (1) In the UK government, MacDonald attempted to limit Jewish migration to Palestine. Jewish numbers were to be limited to 10,000 a year for five years, with an additional 25,000 in the first year; 75,000 in all. No further migration was to be allowed without Arab consent. A year earlier MacDonald had talked of Jewish migration of 400,000 but the UK Foreign Office had steadily reduced the number. Britain knew that in a war with Germany, UK Jews were bound to side with Britain but the Arabs had to be persuaded.

(2) George VI and Queen Elizabeth began a short visit to North America to strengthen Anglo-Saxon solidarity.

12/5/1939, Friday (-2,188) Turkey concluded a pact of mutual assistance with Britain.  See 24/6/1939.

8/5/1939. Monday (-2,192) Spain left the League of Nations.

4/5/1939, Thursday (-2,196) Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov succeeded Litvinov as Soviet Foreign Minister.

3/5/1939, Wednesday (-2,197) British farmers were urged to plough up grassland to increase food production.

2/5/1939, Tuesday (-2,198)

30/4/1939, Sunday (-2,200) (USA, Comms)The World Fair in New York opened. It was opened by President Franklin D Roosevelt, who became the first US President to appear on TV, as NBC began their TV news service this day.

27/4/1939. Thursday (-2,203) Britain announced that men aged 20 would be conscripted. This was the first time conscription had been used since World War One. 6 months military service was required from men reaching age 20.

24/4/1939, Monday (-2,206) John Menzies became Prime Minister of Australia (United Australia Party).

21/4/1939, Friday (-2,209) Edna Savage, UK singer, was born (died 31/12/2000).

15/4/1939, Saturday (-2,215) US President Roosevelt asked Hitler and Mussolini for assurances that they would not attack 31 named States.

14/4/1939, Friday (-2,216) John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath was published.

13/4/1939, Thursday (-2,217) Britain and France guaranteed the independence of Romania and Greece.

12/4/1939, Wednesday (-2,218) Alan Ayckbourn, English playwright, was born.

11/4/1939. Tuesday (-2,219) Hungary left the League of Nations.

10/4/1939, Monday (-2,220) Glen Miller recorded Little Brown Jug.

9/4/1939, Sunday (-2,221) Easter Sunday.

7/4/1939. Friday (-2,223) (1) Italy mounted a surprise invasion of Albania, seeing it as a bridgehead for an invasion of the Balkans. King Zog fled the country. They began an invasion of Greece from Albania on 28/10/1940. They were driven back by the Greeks who occupied most of southern Albania. However the Greeks were beaten back in April 1941 when the Germans occupied Yugoslavia, Albania, and Greece. From 1944 on local partisans, aided by the British, drove Axis forces from much of Albania, also eliminating anti-communist forces. See 11/1/1946.

(2) David Frost, TV presenter, was born in Tenterden, Kent.

4/4/1939, Tuesday (-2,226) (1) Hungary annexed further territory in eastern Slovakia, giving it a common frontier with Poland.

(2) King Ghazi of Iraq died in a motorcycle accident, leaving his four old son to become King Faisal II.

3/4/1939, Monday (-2,227) Hitler ordered his generals to prepare plans for invading Poland.

2/4/1939, Sunday (-2,228) Marvin Gaye, soul singer, was born.

1/4/1939, Saturday (-2,229) The USA recognised Franco’s government in Spain.

31/3/1939. Friday (-2,230) The British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, pledged to defend Poland, if attacked by Germany; so did France. 

30/3/1939, Thursday (-2,231)

29/3/1939, Wednesday (-2,232) Franco was named ‘Caudillo’, or ‘Leader of the Nation’.

28/3/1939. Tuesday (-2,233) (1) Spanish Civil War ended. Franco entered Madrid, after a siege of almost three years.

(2) Hitler’s deputy Von Ribbentrop signed an agreement with the USSR that they would both invade Poland. See 31/3/1939 and 1/9/1939.

22/3/1939. Wednesday (-2,239) Memel, part of Lithuania, was ceded to Germany, see 20/3/1939.

20/3/1939, Monday (-2,241) Germany issued an ultimatum to Lithuania demanding the return of Memel, ceded by Germany in 1919.

17/3/1939, Friday (-2,244) The French Parliament granted Edouard Daladier extensive powers to accelerate rearmament/

16/3/1939, Thursday (-2,245) Slovakia became a German protectorate.  Hungary annexed Ruthenia, another part of Czechoslovakia.

15/3/1939. Wednesday (-2,246) Germany occupied the remainder of Czechoslovakia (Bohemia and Moravia). The Sudetenland had already been occupied by Germany. Hitler described this as his last territorial claim in Europe. See 6/6/1938.

14/3/1939, Tuesday (-2,247) Josef Tiso proclaimed the independent people’s republic of Slovakia, see 26/10/1939.

11/3/1939, Saturday (-2,250)

9/3/1939. Thursday (-2,252) President Hacha of Czechoslovakia sacked his pro-German prime Minister. Germany invaded a week later.

8/3/1939, Wednesday (-2,253) London Transport collected four million used tickets, which were then analysed manually to see which were the most and least used routes, in order to plan for future development.

5/3/1939, Sunday (-2,256)

2/3/1939, Thursday (-2,259) Pope Pius XII took office.

1/3/1939. Wednesday (-2,260) The US recognised Franco’s government in Spain.

28/2/1939. Tuesday (-2,261) Britain and France recognised Franco’s regime in Spain.

27/2/1939, Monday (-2,262) Borley Rectory, reputed to be Britain’s most haunted house, burnt down this day.

26/2/1939, Sunday (-2,263)

25/2/1939. Saturday (-2,264) The first Anderson bomb shelter was erected in Britain, in a garden in Islington.

24/2/1939, Friday (-2,265) Hungary joined the Anti-Comintern Pact.

23/2/1939. Thursday (-2,266) The Nazis confiscated jewels and precious metals from the Jews.

21/2/1939, Tuesday (-2,268)

20/2/1939. Monday (-2,269) The first washing machine went on show in London at the British Industries Fair.

19/2/1939, Sunday (-2,270) Batman was first drawn by Bob Kane for a ‘Detective Comic’ to be issued in May 1939.

14/2/1939.Tuesday (-2,275)  The German battleship Bismarck was launched.

10/2/1939. Friday (-2,279) Death of Pope Pius XI. Pope Pius XII was crowned on 2/3/1939.

3/2/1939, Friday (-2,286) The UK police hunted IRA extremists after bombs exploded at London tube stations.

29/1/1939, Sunday (-2,291) Germaine Greer, Australian writer, was born in Melbourne.

28/1/1939, Saturday (-2,292) W B (William Butler) Yeats, Irish poet, playwright, and Nobel Prize winner in 1923, died in the south of France.

27/1/1939, Friday (-2,293) Hitler approved Plan Z, an ambitious naval construction program that would give the Kriegsmarine some 800 ships by 1948.

26/1/1939. Thursday (-2,294) Barcelona fell without resistance to the Nationalists under Franco, with help from Italy. This doomed the Republican cause, which finally surrendered on 28/3/1939. Barcelona had been the seat of an autonomous Catalan government, established on 2/8/1936.

25/1/1939, Wednesday (-2,295) The Juan Negrín government fled Barcelona. Another capital was set up in Figueres the following day.

24/1/1939. Tuesday (-2,296) In Chile, a major earthquake killed 30,000 in two cities.

20/1/1939, Friday (-2,300)

17/1/1939. Tuesday (-2,303) In Germany, Jews were banned from driving.

16/1/1939, Monday (-2,304) Lithuania and Germany signed a non-aggression pact. However in March 1939 Germany seized the Lithuanian territory of Memel-Klaipeda, where many ethnic Germans lived.

11/1/1939. Wednesday (-2,309) Neville Chamberlain visited Mussolini to discuss recognition of the Franco regime in Spain.

4/1/1939. Wednesday (-2,316) The fascist Baron Hiranuma became Prime Minister of Japan.

3/1/1939, Tuesday (-2,317) The Battle of the Segre ended in Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War.

2/1/1939, Monday (-2,318) Howard Carter, British Egyptologist who discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922, died.

1/1/1939, Sunday (-2,319) Hewlett-Packard was founded in Palo Alto, California.

31/12/1938. Saturday (-2,320) In Indianapolis, police began breath-testing drivers.

30/12/1938, Friday (-2,321) The Spens Committee, in a report to the Board of Education, advocated raising the school leaving age to 16. See 17/2/1944.

26/12/1938, Monday (-2,325) The Lima Declaration was issued.  A Pan-American conference in Peru issued a declaration of solidarity and adherence to democratic ideals, in the face of rising totalitarianism and tension in Europe and Asia.

22/12/1938. Thursday (-2,329) The coelacanth, a fish though to have been extinct for 65 million years, was caught off the coast of South Africa.

21/12/1938, Wednesday (-2,330) The UK Government allocated £200,000 to the building of air-raid shelters.

20/12/1938, Tuesday (-2,331)

18/12/1938, Sunday (-2,333) Nuclear fission first achieved. German chemist Otto Hahn succeeded in splitting the uranium atom, releasing energy.

17/12/1938, Saturday (-2,334) Italy denounced the Franco-Italian agreement of 1935.

16/12/1938, Friday (-2,335) The foundation stone of the Voortrekker Memorial was laid in Pretoria, see 16/12/1949.

14/12/1938, Wednesday (-2,337) The Italian Parliament was replaced by a Fascist Chamber.

2/12/1938, Friday (-2,349) 206 German-Jewish schoolchildren arrived in Britain as refugees. This was the so-called Kindertransport: by the end of August 1939 9,354 such children had arrived by boat-train at Harwich from Germany and Austria. For many, their adult families remained. probably to die in the concentration camps. A few adults did manage to obtain visas for England or the USA.

1/12/1938, Thursday (-2,350) Britain started a National Register for war service.

30/11/1938, Wednesday (-2,351) Speeches in the Italian Chamber claimed Nice and Corsica for Italy.

18/11/1938, Friday (-2,363) Twenty people were trampled to death at the funeral of Kemal Ataturk.

14/11/1938. Monday (-2,367) In Germany, Jews were expelled from colleges.

12/11/1938, Saturday (-2,369) The Jewish community was ordered to pay a collective fine of 1,250 million Marks, and in addition pay for all the damage resulting from the Kristallnacht of a few days earlier.

11/11/1938. Friday (-2,370) Ismet Inonu succeeded Kemal Ataturk, who died the day before, as President of Turkey.

10/11/1938. Thursday (-2,371) (1) Anti-Semitic laws passed in Italy.

(2) Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Turkish Republic in 1923, died aged 57. Ismet Inonu, 54, was elected to succeed him.

9/11/1938, Wednesday (-2,372) The British Government called a conference on the future of Palestine.

8/11/1938, Tuesday (-2,373)  Kristallnacht in Germany, when the Nazis burned 267 synagogues and destroyed 7,000 Jewish homes and businesses.  35,000 Jews were arrested throughout Germany, and 36 people killed. The Nazis prohibited insurance payments to the affected premises; however the glass had to be repaired, and much was sourced from abroad, draining German foreign currency reserves.

7/11/1938, Monday (-2,374) A half-crazed young Jew whose parents of Polish origin had just been deported from Germany fatally shot the Third Secretary of the German Embassy in Paris. This provided Germany with a pretext to further mistreat the Jews.

5/11/1938, Friday (-2,376)

2/11/1938. Wednesday (-2,379) The First Vienna Award returned 12,000 square kilometres of Slovakia, a strip along the Hungarian-Slovakian frontier, to Hungarian rule (see 20/9/1938). There was, however, disappointment in Hungary that a common frontier with Poland had not been attained.

1/11/1938, Tuesday (-2,380) (Britain, Germany) In Britain, Balloon Command was formed, under Fighter Command, to establish barrage balloon protection for 12 cities including Bristol and Cardiff. Experiments with barrage balloons had been carried out by the Germans back in 1917; the Allies also used them to protect Venice in 1918. The idea was to hoist a ‘barrage’ of cables to prevent bomber aircraft diving low, so their accuracy was impaired. With the balloons, they could still dive but could not pull out afterwards without hitting a cable and crashing. The balloon wincher faced danger from lightning bolts, and from the static electric charge built up on the wincher, especially in wet weather. An operator had to jump away from the winch when leaving to avoid electrical conductance between his body and the winch and earth.

31/10/1938. Monday (-2,381) A radio broadcast of H G Well’s War of the Worlds caused widespread panic because of its vivid realism. The adaptation of the play carried a warning that it was not for real but this warning was not broadcast until 40 minutes after the play had begun. Terrified Americans packed the roads, hid in cellars, loaded guns, and wrapped their heads in wet towels to protect themselves against Martian poison gas. The event proved both the power of mass media and the American capacity for hysteria.

30/10/1938, Sunday (-2,382) The Mitteland Canal in Germany, linking the Rhine to the Elbe, was opened.

29/10/1938, Saturday (-2,383) Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, President of Liberia, was born.

28/10/1938. Friday (-2,384) 17,000 Polish Jews domiciled in Germany were expelled.

27/10/1938, Thursday (-2,385)

25/10/1938. Tuesday (-2,387) Libya was incorporated into Italy.

24/10/1938, Monday (-2,388) Hitler demanded the return from Poland to Germany of Danzig.  Poland refused.

23/10/1938, Sunday (-2,389)

22/10/1938, Saturday (-2,390) Chester F Carlson made the first photocopy image.

21/10/1938. Friday (-2,391) The Japanese occupied Canton.

20/10/1938, Thursday (-2,392)

19/10/1938, Wednesday (-2,393) British troops stormed Old Jerusalem, evicting the Arabs who had been occupying it. The UK abandoned plans to partition Palestine between Jews and Arabs.

18/10/1938, Tuesday (-2,394) As terrorist violence escalated in Palestine, British troops imposed martial law. 

17/10/1938, Monday (-2,395) Evel Kneivel, US stunt motorcyclist, was born in Butte, Montana.

12/10/1938, Wednesday (-2,400) Japanese troops landed in force on the Chinese mainland, and advanced swiftly on Canton.

10/10/1938, Monday (-2,402) A meeting of Latin American Presidents awarded most of the Chaco Boreal to Paraguay, whilst providing that Bolivia should have a trade route to the Atlantic via the Paraguay River.

8/10/1938. Saturday (-2,404) Ruthenia granted autonomy.

7/10/1938, Friday (-2,405) BBC Radio began its first soap opera, the English Family Robinson.

6/10/1938. Thursday (-2,406) Slovakia granted autonomy. In Britain 30 Tory MPs protested at Chamberlain’s appeasement, uneasy that one country had been allowed to win by force against another.

5/10/1938, Wednesday (-2,407) (1) President Benes of Czechoslovakia resigned.

(2) In Germany, passports held by Jews had to have the letter J stamped in them.

4/10/1938, Tuesday (-2,408)

2/10/1938, Sunday (-2,410) Poland annexed Trans-Olza, taking over from Czechoslovakia that portion of Austrian Silesia to which Poland had laid claim since 1920.

1/10/1938. Saturday (-2,411) Germany annexed the Sudetenland, see 6/6/1938.

30/9/1938, Friday (-2,412)  Chamberlain told a crowd “I believe it is peace in our time and waved the agreement he had made with Hitler at Munich, bearing Hitler’s signature.  Chamberlain said “How horrible, fantastic, incredible, it is that we should be digging trenches and trying on gas masks here because of a quarrel in a far-away country between people of whom we know nothing”.

29/9/1938. Thursday (-2,413) In Munich, Chamberlain appeased Hitler over Sudetenland.  Under the Munich Agreement, an agreement between Germany, Britain, France, and Italy, the Sudetenland was surrendered to Nazi Germany.  No Czech representative was present.

28/9/1938, Wednesday (-2,414) The British navy was mobilised.

27/9/1938. Tuesday (-2,415) (1) The League of Nations denounced Japanese aggression in China.

(2) The 80,000 ton liner Queen Elizabeth, the largest passenger vessel ever built, was launched at John Brown’s yard at Clydebank, Glasgow.

26/9/1938, Monday (-2,416) The Ditton Priors branch closed to passengers.

24/9/1938, Saturday (-2,418)

21/9/1938, Wednesday (-2,421) A hurricane hit New England, killing 682 and injuring over 1,500.

20/9/1938, Tuesday (-2,422) The Hungarian leaders, Imredy and Kanya, were summoned to Germany. Hitler told them he had no objections to Hungary’s desires to regain Slovakia and Ruthenis, so long as Hungary actively took part in the destruction of Czechoslovakia.

18/9/1938, Sunday (-2,424)

15/9/1938. Thursday (-2,427) Neville Chamberlain visited Hitler at the Berchtesgarten, over the Czech crisis. Hitler declared he only wanted the Sudetenland.

14/9/1938, Wednesday (-2,428) The largest rigid airship ever built, the 803 foot German Graf Zeppelin II, made her maiden flight.  She was dismantled in April 1940.

13/9/1938, Tuesday (-2,429) John Smith, leader of the UK Labour Party 1992-94, was born in Dalmally, Argyllshire.

11/9/1938, Sunday (-2,431)

10/9/1938. Saturday (-2,432) Death of the dog show founder Charles Cruft.

9/9/1938, Friday (-2,433) The Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS), the women’s branch of the Army, was formed by Royal Warrant.

7/9/1938. Wednesday (-2,435) Sudetenland gained autonomy from Czechoslovakia, see 6/6/1938.

22/8/1938. Monday (-2,451) In the UK, the first ‘automatic’ car was tested.

15/8/1938. Monday (-2,458) Chamberlain visited Hitler for crisis talks.

12/8/1938. Friday (-2,461) Germany mobilised its forces.

10/8/1938, Wednesday (-2,463) The synagogue in Nuremberg was destroyed.

9/8/1938, Tuesday (-2,464) Rod Laver, Australian tennis player, was born.

6/8/1938, Saturday (-2,467)

4/8/1939, Thursday (-2,469) BOAC began a weekly airmail service between Southampton and Montreal, New York. War halted the service in September 1939.

3/8/1938, Wednesday (-2,470) Terry Wogan, TV broadcaster, was born in Limerick, Ireland.

2/8/1938, Tuesday (-2,471)

1/8/1938, Monday (-2,472) The 1938 Holidays With Pay Act increased the number of British workers entitled to paid holiday from 3 million to 11 million. Holiday entitlement was usually one week. Resorts such as Blackpool had boomed with charabancs bringing in crowds of vacationers, and in 1937 a Butlin’s holiday camp opened at Skegness.

31/7/1938. Sunday (-2,473) Bulgaria signed a non-aggression pact with Greece.

29/7/1938. Friday (-2,475) The first edition of The Beano comic was published.

19/7/1938, Tuesday (-2,485) King George VI of Britain visited Paris.

18/7/1938, Monday (-2,486) Marie, Queen of Romania, died.

16/7/1938, Saturday (-2,488)

15/7/1938, Friday (-2,489) The UK Government ordered 1,000 Spitfire fighters.

14/7/1938. Thursday (-2,490) Italy officially adopted anti-Semitism.

11//7/1938. Monday (-2,493) (1) The last British troops left Spike Island, Ireland, and handed the base over to the Dublin Government, in a friendly ceremony. See 25/4/1938.

(2) Soviet and Japanese troops clashed on the Manchukuo border.

9/7/1938. Saturday (-2,495) Gas masks were issued to the British population, in anticipation of war with Germany. 35 million of them were ordered by the British Government.

5/7/1938, Tuesday (-2,499)

3/7/1938, Sunday (-2,501) (1) The Mallard achieved a world record speed for a steam locomotive, 126 mph, southbound between Grantham and Peterborough at Stoke Bank.

(2) By agreement with France, the district of Alexandretta was established as an autonomous part of Syria, but with a legal system conforming mainly to Turkey.  It was called Hatay, after the Hittites, which Turkey considered its ancestors.  Within a  year, Hatay was ceded to Turkey.

2/7/1938, Saturday (-2,502) David Owen, British politician and first leader of the Social Democratic Party, was born in Plympton, Devon.

29/6/1938, Wednesday (-2,505)

27/6/1938. Monday (-2,507) All Austrian-Jewish employees given 2 weeks notice to quit by their employers.

26/6/1938, Sunday (-2,508) James Weldon Johnson, Black civil rights leader, died.

9/6/1938, Thursday (-2,525) (1) The British Government ordered 400 warplanes from the USA.

(2) The synagogue in Munich was destroyed.

6/6/1938. Monday (-2,528) President Benes of Czechoslovakia offered self-government to the Sudetenland. However on 27/9/1938 Hitler stated his intention to annex the Sudetenland. On 21/9/1938 Prague agreed to Anglo-French proposals to cede the Sudetenland to Germany. Czechs protested. German troops entered the Sudetenland on 1/10/1938, as Teschen, in Czech Silesia, was annexed by Poland. On 5/10/1938 President Benes of Czechoslovakia resigned.

2/6/1938. Thursday (-2,532) Robert and Edward Kennedy, youngest sons of the American Ambassador to London, opened the Children’s Zoo at Regents Park. Children were charged 6d to watch the chimp’s tea party.

1/6/1938, Wednesday (-2,533) Khawar Rizvi, poet, was born in the Punjab, British India.

29/5/1938, Sunday (-2,536) The railway from Motspur Park to Tolworth opened, in south west London, see 28/5/1939.

26/5/1938, Thursday (-2,539) (1) The Dies Committee was established by the US House of Representatives. Named after its Chairman, Martin Dies, its remit was to investigate ‘Un-American’ activities by Nazis and Communists within the USA. See 3/1/1945.

(2) The first Volkswagen came off the assembly line at the factory at Wolfsburg, Germany.

25/5/1938, Wednesday (-2,540) Alicante was bombed by General Franco’s aircraft in the Spanish Civil War.

20/5/1938. Friday (-2,545) Czechoslovakia ordered 400,000 troops to the Austro-German border.

16/5/1938, Monday (-2,549) The WVS (Women’s Voluntary Service) was started in Britain by the Marchioness of Reading. It became ‘Royal’ in 1966.

10/5/1938. Tuesday (-2,555) Thomas Cook, (see 5/7/1841), travel agents, introduced 8 day packages to the French Riviera from Britain for £8 7s 6d.

9/5/1938, Monday (-2,556) Scotland Yard announced they were to use police dogs.

5/5/1938, Thursday (-2,560)

4/5/1938. Wednesday (-2,561) The Vatican recognised Franco as leader of Spain.

3/5/1938. Tuesday (-2,562) (1) King George VI opened the Glasgow exhibition.

(2) Hitler and Mussolini met in Rome.

2/5/1938, Monday (-2,563) King Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho was born.

30/4/1938, Saturday (-2,565) In Britain, the FA Cup Final was televised for the first time.

28/4/1938. Thursday (-2,567) Anglo-French talks on the Sudeten question. President Benes was urged to make concessions.

27/4/1938. Wednesday (-2,568) A friendship treaty was signed between Greece and Turkey.

25/4/1938, Monday (-2,570) (1) De Valera persuaded Britain to return the naval bases they had retained under the 1921 Treaty, at Berehaven, Cobh, Lough Swilly, Haulbowline and Rathmullen (see 6/12/1921). Neville Chamberlain saw this as an act of reconciliation, believing the bases could be used by Britain again if war broke out (see 11/7/1938). De Valera saw the move as reinforcing Irish neutrality. Winston Churchill was furious, Other matters were settled; the land annuities were consolidated into a single lump sum ;payment, and import duties against each other were reduced. This was important for Ireland, given that 96% of its exports went to Britain. De Valera’s reputation soared.

(2) Postal workers, tradesmen and Baptists joined forces against the growing popularity of football pools. Baptists disapproved of them on moral grounds, as a form of gambling. Post offices wanted extra payments for handling the rapidly growing volume of pools traffic. Meanwhile a butcher in Worthing claimed his customers were buying cheaper cuts of meat to save up for the pools.

23/4/1938. Saturday (-2,572) Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia demanded total self-government.

19/4/1938, Tuesday (-2,576) Henry Newbolt, English poet, died aged 75.

18/4/1938, Monday (-2,577) The Superman hero first appeared in print in the US.

17/4/1938, Sunday (-2,578) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1938, Saturday (-2,579) Chamberlain, British PM, sought to dissuade Italy from allying with Germany.

15/4/1938, Friday (-2,580) In Spain, Nationalist forces took the Mediterranean coastal town of Vinaroz, splitting the Republican forces in Catalonia from those in south east Spain.

10/4/1938. Sunday (-2,585) A plebiscite in Austria indicated that 99.75% were in favour of Hitler’s annexation of Austria.

8/4/1938,  Friday (-2,587) Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-General, was born.

7/4/1938. Thursday (-2,588) The Nazis seized Baron Rothschild’s bank, and arrested him.

6/4/1938. Wednesday (-2,589) (1) Teflon was accidentally invented by US lab assistant Jack Rebok. He opened a gas cylinder of freon (tetra-fluoro-ethylene) and no gas came out; however the cylinder was still heavy. Upon inspection, the gas had polymerised into a greasy white powder. During World war Two, Teflon, being extremely inert, was found to be the only material that would resist the corrosive effects of uranium hexafluoride, a key chemical in the construction of the atom bomb; hence Teflon became a military secret. In 1960 it began to be used on non-stick pans, although initial problems with the non-stick coating not adhering to the pan had to be overcome. It now has uses in coating buildings to prevent corrosion, as electrical insulation, a flame retardant, and in artificial body joints.

(2) Leading Jewish figures in Austria were sent to Dachau concentration camp.

3/4/1938. Sunday (-2,592) Franco took Lerida, a key town in Catalonia.

31/3/1938, Thursday (-2,595) David Steel, Liberal Party leader, was born.

30/3/1938, Wednesday (-2,596) The UK Government announced it was to spend £11 million on new RAF airfields.

29/3/1938, Tuesday (-2,597) The BBC began foreign language broadcasts in German.

24/3/1938. Thursday (-2,602) The British Prime Minister, Chamberlain, announced that Britain would not oppose the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, in the interests of peace. However Britain would fight for France and Belgium.

17/3/1938. Thursday (-2,609) Russian dancer Rudolf Nureyev born in Irkutsk, Siberia.

16/3/1938, Wednesday (-2,610) The Aviazione Legionaria began bombing Barcelona.

15/3/1938, Tuesday (-2,611) Stalin’s purges reached a crescendo with the execution of 18 senior statesmen, many of them friends of Lenin. Amongst those confessing, at Lubyanka Prison, to improbable plots to overthrow the Soviet State was Nikolai Bukharin.

14/3/1938, Monday (-2,612) British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain made a speech in the House of Commons on the Austrian situation, saying the government "emphatically" disapproved of Germany's deed but that "nothing could have prevented this action by Germany unless we and others with us had been prepared to use force to prevent it."

13/3/1938 Sunday (-2,613) Austria was declared to be part of the German Third Reich (the Anschluss, or ‘joining’); a province of Germany called Ostmark.  A Nazi-controlled referendum gave a ‘vote’ of 99.75% in favour of unification. The Anschluss had been expressly forbidden by the Treaties of Versailles and St Germain, 1919, and a proposed customs union between the two countries in 1931 had been vetoed by France and Czechoslovakia. However after Austrian Chancellor von Schuschnigg was forced to resign in early 1938, the Germans occupied Austria and formally declared a union anyway.

12/3/1938. Saturday (-2,614) Germany invaded Austria.  This was 24 hours before an Austrian plebiscite was to have been held concerning closer relations with Germany.  At 10.00 am German troops crossed into Austria, thereby tearing up Article 88 of the Treaty of Versailles, which forbade union of Germany and Austria.

11/3/1938, Friday (-2,615) Hitler demanded the resignation of Chancellor Kurt von Schusnigg, after Schusnigg tried to forestall Hitler’s demands for unification with Germany by a referendum.

10/3/1938, Thursday (-2,616) In France, the Chautemps Government collapsed, weakening the French administration.

9/3/1938, Wednesday (-2,217)

7/3/1938, Monday (-2,619) David Baltimore, US biologist, was born.

6/3/1938, Sunday (-2,620) The Japanese advanced along the Hangchow Railway through Shansi Province towards the Yellow River.

4/3/1938, Friday (-2,622)

24/2/1938, Thursday (-2,630) Manufacture began of the first commercially produced nylon product, toothbrush bristles, by DuPont in their Arlington, New Jersey, plant.

23/2/1938, Wednesday (-2,631) Oil was discovered in Kuwait.

22/2/1938, Tuesday (-2,632) In Spain, Nationalist forces recaptured Teruel.

21/2/1938. Monday (-2,633) Churchill led a protest against Chamberlain’s policy of appeasement.

20/2/1938. Sunday (-2,634) Anthony Eden resigned as British Foreign Secretary. He was unable to support the policy of appeasement of the Prime Minister Chamberlain, who had held talks with Mussolini.

19/2/1938, Saturday (-2,635)

17/2/1938, Thursday (-2,637) John Logie Baird demonstrated a prototype colour television.

16/2/1938, Wednesday (-2,638) John Corigliano, US composer, was born.

14/2/1938, Monday (-2,640) The British Naval base at Singapore opened.

12/2/1938. Saturday (-2,642) Hitler insisted that Austria released Nazi prisoners.

7/2/1938, Monday (-2,647) Harvey Firestone, tyre manufacturer, died in Miami, Florida.

4/2/1938. Friday (-2,650) Hitler took over as War Minister in Germany. Joachim Von Ribbentrop became Foreign Minister.

31/1/1938. Monday (-2,654) Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands born. She was the eldest daughter of Queen Juliana.

25/1/1938. Tuesday (-2,660) The aurora borealis, or northern lights, were seen as far south as London’s West End and throughout Western Europe. It was due to intense sunspot activity.

14/1/1938, Friday (-2,671) Walt Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first full length colour and sound animated cartoon, went on general release across the USA.

11/1/1938, Tuesday (-2,674) Arthur Scargill, President of the National Union of Mineworkers, was born.

10/1/1938, Monday (-2,675) Japan captured the Chinese port of Qingdao.

7/1/1938, Friday (-2,678)

6/1/1938. Thursday (-2,679) Sigmund Freud arrived in London, fleeing Nazi persecution.

5/1/1938. Wednesday (-2,680) King Juan Carlos I of Spain, who succeeded General Franco as Head of State, born.

4/1/1938. Tuesday (-2,681) Britain postponed plans to partition Palestine.

3/1/1938. Monday (-2,682) (1) The BBC began its first foreign language service, in Arabic.

(2) In the UK, the government announced that all schoolchildren would be issued with gas masks.

24/12/1937. Friday (-2,692) Japanese troops captured Hankow, China.

22/12/1937, Wednesday (-2,694) Britain protested to Japan about attacks on Royal Navy ships on the Yangtse River.

21/12/1937. Tuesday (-2,695) (1) Republicans captured Franco’s stronghold of Teruel.

(2) Walt Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first full length colour and sound animated cartoon was premiered in Los Angeles, USA.

20/12/1937, Monday (-2,696) Erich Ludendorff, German general who helped formulate strategy in World War One, died.

16/12/1937, Thursday (-2,700)

12/12/1937, Sunday (-2,704) Japan captured Nanjing, China, see 7/12/1937.

11/12/1937. Saturday (-2,705) Italy left the League of Nations.

7/12/1937. Tuesday (-2,709) Japan attacked Nanjing, bitter fighting followed. Japan occupied Nanjing on 12/12/1937. Defeated Chinese soldiers who surrendered were nevertheless killed, and women and children were raped and murdered.

4/12/1937. Saturday (-2,712) The Dandy was first published, featuring Desperate Dan.

29/11/1937, Monday (-2,717) Sudeten Germans walked out of the Czech Parliament following a ban on political meetings.

28/11/1937. Sunday (-2,718) Franco ordered the Spanish Republican government forces to surrender by 12/12/1937 or face a massive offensive.

26/11/1937, Friday (-2,720)

25/11/1937, Thursday (-2,721) The first British quiz programme, an inter-regional spelling competition, was broadcast.

24/11/1937, Wednesday (-2,722) In Germany, Walter Funk replaced Dr Schacht as Minister of Economics.

22/11/1937, Monday (-2,724)

19/11/1937, Friday (-2,727) George Eyston set a new world land speed record of 311 mph.

18/11/1937, Thursday (-2,728) A Fascist plot was discovered in Paris.

17/11/1937, Wednesday (-2,729) Lord Halifax arrived in Berlin for talks with Hitler on the Sudetenland; this was the first step in the process of appeasement.

16/11/1937, Tuesday (-2,730) MPs in Westminster voted in favour of constructing air-raid shelters in towns and cities.

15/11/1937, Monday (-2,731)

10/11/1937, Wednesday (-2,736) The Senzan rail tunnel, Japan, 5.4 km long, opened.

9/11/1937. Tuesday (-2,737) Ramsay MacDonald, British Labour Prime Minister in 1924, died at sea whilst on a cruise for his health.

8/11/1937, Monday (-2,738) Japan captured Shanghai.

7/11/1937, Sunday (-2,739)

6/11/1937. Saturday (-2,740) Italy joined the anti-Communist pact between Germany and Japan.  See 25/11/1936.

5/11/1937. Friday (-2,741) The Air Raid Precautions Bill was introduced in the Commons. Passed on 16/11/1937, it allowed the construction of air raid shelters in UK towns and cities. Winston Churchill said they were ‘indispensable’ but Labour opposed them, saying they would mean a big increase in the rates.

2/11/1937, Tuesday (-2,744)

30/10/1937. Saturday (-2,747) The 500,000 ton asteroid Hermes missed the earth by 485,000 miles.

29/10/1937, Friday (-2,748) The first truly national electricity grid was created in Britain. Before 1926 private generating companies supplied power, all at different standards and voltages. A standard national system would have been better, but the Conservative Government pf the time was against ‘socialist’ nationalisation, so a compromise was reached. A ‘National Gridiron’ of power lines was to be created, connecting up the most reliable power companies; in fact several regional ‘grids’ were established, with emergency connections if needed. This ‘gridiron’ was set up under the Electricity Supply Act of 1926, and the regional Grids were completed by September 1933. On this day in October 1937 electricity engineers, without authorisation, connected up all the Grids to make one national grid. Everything worked fine, and the Grid has remained National ever since.

28/10/1937. Thursday (-2,749) The Spanish Government moved from Valencia to Barcelona.

26/10/1937, Tuesday (-2,751)

24/10/1937, Sunday (-2,753) New Zealand aviator Jean Batten broke the record for flying from Australia to Britain, taking 5 days 18 hours and 18 minutes.

23/10/1937, Saturday (-2,754) In Australia, Labour lost in general elections to the United Australia and Country Parties.

22/10/1937. Friday (-2,755) The Duke and Duchess of Windsor arrived in Berlin to meet Hitler, study housing conditions, and hear a concert by the Nazi District Orchestra. The Duke had been advised not to go to Germany, but, having abdicated as King, he wanted to show he still had influence.

21/10/1937. Thursday (-2,756) (1) Gijon, the last Republican stronghold in northern Spain, fell to Franco’s forces.

(2) Stalin killed a further 62 in his purges.

20/10/1937. Wednesday (-2,757) The British tried to limit Jewish migration into Palestine.

19/10/1937. Tuesday (-2,758) The New Zealand born physicist Lord Rutherford died in Cambridge, England.. He is regarded as the founder of atomic energy.  He won the Nobel Prize in 1908.

18/10/1937, Monday (-2,759) Rheims Cathedral was re-consecrated.

17/10/1937. Sunday (-2,760) Sudeten Nazis rioted in Czechoslovakia.

16/10/1937. Saturday (-2,761) Fascists formed a Nazi party in Hungary.

15/10/1937, Friday (-2,762)

14/10/1937, Thursday (-2,763) The first Motor Show opened at Earls Court, London.

13/10/1937. Wednesday (-2,764) The integrity of Belgium was guaranteed by Germany.

5/10/1937, Monday (-2,772)

29/9/1937. Wednesday (-2,778) In the face of a full-scale Japanese invasion of China, Chiang Kai Shek, the Chinese leader, came to an agreement with his Communist rival, Mao Zedong.

28/9/1937. Tuesday (-2,779) The League of Nations condemned the Japanese invasion of China.

27/9/1937, Monday (-2,780)

26/9/1937. Sunday (-2,781) The British Commissioner for Galilee was murdered by Arabs.

25/9/1937. Saturday (-2,782) The Japanese bombed the Chinese Nationalist capital of Nanjing.

14/9/1937, Tuesday (-2,793) Thomas Masaryk, the first president of Czechoslovakia when that country was formed in 1918, died aged 87.

10/9/1937, Friday (-2,797) The TUC voted in favour of re-armament.

8/9/1937. Wednesday (-2,799) A Pan-Arab conference rejected the British Peel plan to partition Palestine.

5/9/1937. Sunday (-2,802) A huge rally marked the start of the Nazi congress in Nuremberg.

2/9/1937, Thursday (-2,805) Baron Pierre de Coubertin, reviver of the modern Olympics in 1896, died.

25/8/1937, Sunday (-2,823) Franco’s forces captured Santander.

14/8/1937. Saturday (-2,824) Hundreds were killed in a Chinese air raid on Shanghai.  1,000 died as Chinese aircraft, intending to bomb Japanese warships in the harbour, in fact bombed the International Concession; their bombs fell short of the target.  Many Chinese refugees were killed, and foreign powers made urgent plans to evacuate their nationals as Japanese land forces closed in.

11/8/1937, Wednesday (-2,827) General Bake Sidiqi, dictatorial ruler of Iraq, was killed by a Kurdish assassin.

10/8/1937, Tuesday (-2,828) In the Spanish Civil War, the Regional Defence Council of Aragon was dissolved.

9/8/1937, Monday (-2,829) The Lusse rail tunnel, France, 7 km long, opened.

8/8/1937, Sunday (-2,830) Actor Dustin Hoffman was born.

5/8/1937, Thursday (-2,833)

2/8/1937. Monday (-2,836) The Zionists endorsed the British Peel plan to partition Palestine.

1/8/1937. Sunday (-2,837) Germany opened a new concentration camp at Buchenwald. Over the next 8 years, 56,500 were to die there.

29/7/1937. Thursday (-2,840) Japanese troops took Beijing, see 9/7/1937.

21/7/1937. Wednesday (-2,848) Eamon De Valera was re-elected President of Eire.

20/7/1937, Tuesday (-2,849) Guglielmo Marconi, Italian scientist who pioneered the use of radio communications, died in Rome, aged 63.

16/7/1937, Friday (-2,853) The Buchenwald concentration camp opened in Germany, on a plateau overlooking Weimar. The first inmates were mainly political prisoners, but most of the 238,980 prisoners ultimately sent there were Jews, of whom 56,545 died in the gas chambers.

12/7/1937, Monday (-2,857) Lionel Jospin, Prime Minister of France, was born.

11/7/1937, Sunday (-2,858) The US composer George Gershwin died, aged 38.

10/7/1937, Saturday (-2,859) In China, Chiang Kai-shek made a radio address to millions announcing the Kuomintang's policy of resistance against Japan.

9/7/1937, Friday (-2,860) Japan, just two days after the outbreak of war with China, introduced a system of universal healthcare, to supplement the existing scheme which covered industrial employees only. Between end-1938 and end-1944 the number of citizens covered by this universal health insurance rose from 500,000 to 40 million. The aim was to ensure a healthy population, ready to fight in war.

8/7/1937, Thursday (-2,861) Iraq, Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan signed a non-aggression pact in Tehran.

7/7/1937. Wednesday (-2,862) ) (1) The Marco Polo Bridge Incident. Japanese soldiers were exercising near the Marco Polo Bridge, south-west of Beijing, under the Boxer Protocol of 1901 which permitted foreign troops to be stationed in the Beijing area. However they were attacked by Chinese forces. A ceasefire was arranged on 11/7/1937, however the Japanese Foreign Minister, Konoe, nevertheless announced plans to mobilise five divisions in northern China. In response Chiang Kai Shek, reversing his previous appeasement policy which he had followed in response to Japan’s efforts to remove northern China from Chinese control, now reinforced Chinese forces. Japanese forces then took control of Beijing, on 29/7/1937, starting the 1937-45 War.

(2) Britain published a plan issued by the Peel Commission to partition Palestine between Jews and Arabs. Two-thirds was to be Arab, the rest Jewish, but the cities of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth were to be under permanent British control. Trans Jordan would receive a £2million grant and Arab landowners would be compensated.  Most Arabs and Jews rejected the idea.

5/7/1937, Monday (-2,864)

4/7/1937, Sunday (-2,865) The line to Farnham was electrified.

3/7/1937, Saturday (-2,866) Tom Stoppard, Czech-born British playwright, was born.

2/7/1937, Friday (-2,867) The aviatrix Amelia Earhart disappeared on a flight from New Guinea to Howland Island.

1/7/1937. Thursday (-2,868) The 999 emergency service came into operation in Britain, the first such service in the world. The idea of setting up a joint number for the emergency services came after five people died in a fire in Wimpole Street, London. The fireman came late as the witness to the fire could not get through to the switchboard; at that time a call to the emergency services received no more priority than any other call. With the new system a light lit up on a map showing where the call had been made from and a klaxon sounded at the operator centre. The number 111 was suggested but rejected at it might have led to many false calls. The first 999 call was made seven days after the system was set up and resulted in police arresting a burglar at the house of a Mr Stanley Beard in Hampstead.

30/6/1937, Wednesday (-2,869) Portugal stopped co-operating with the Non-Intervention Committee patrol agreement and ordered British observers off its soil.

29/6/1937, Tuesday (-2,870) Italy and Germany opposed Anglo-French patrols around the coast of Spain.

28/6/1937, Monday (-2,871) In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin had 36 ‘confessed’ German spies shot.

24/6/1937, Thursday (-2,875)

21/6/1937, Monday (-2,878) Lawn tennis at Wimbledon was televised for the first time.

20/6/1937, Sunday (-2,879) All Catholic schools in Bavaria were closed by the Nazis.

19/6/1937. Saturday (-2,880) Franco’s forces captured Bilbao.

16/6/1937, Wednesday (-2,883)

14/6/1937, Monday (-2,885) The Irish Free State changed its name to Eire, with a directly-elected President.

13/6/1937, Sunday (-2,886) The Nationalists came within two miles of Bilbao, capturing a range of hills east of the city.

12/6/1937. Saturday (-2,887) Stalin’s purge extended to the Red Army; 12 top generals were executed.

10/6/1937, Thursday (-2,889)

4/6/1937. Friday (-2,895) The first supermarket trolleys were wheeled out at a Standard Supermarket in Oklahoma, USA.

3/6/1937, Thursday (-2,896) The Duke of Windsor, the abdicated King Edward VIII, married Mrs Wallis Warfield Simpson in Mondis, France. Mrs Simpson was an American divorcee and the marriage both upset the Royal Family and outraged the Church of England. A constitutional solution – for King Edward to marry Mrs Simpson but for her not to attain the title of Queen – might have become acceptable to the country, but was forestalled by massive media coverage of the affair, forcing Edward to choose between romance and title.

2/6/1937, Wednesday (-2,897) (Germany, Italy) German War Minister Werner von Blomberg began a three-day visit to Italy to discuss German-Italian military ties.

1/6/1937, Tuesday (-2,898) Morgan Freeman, US actor, was born.

31/5/1937. Monday (-2,899) The German fleet bombarded the Spanish port of Almeria.

30/5/1937, Sunday (-2,900)

29/5/1937, Saturday (-2,901) Southern railways electrification reached Portsmouth, from Waterloo.

28/5/1937. Friday (-2,902) Mr Stanley Baldwin resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded by Mr Chamberlain. A government of National Unity was formed in Britain. Born on 3/8/1867, Mr Baldwin was the son of a west Midlands industrialist and was elected Conservative MP for Bewdley in 1906. He became Prime Minister in May 1923. He faced many crises, such as the 1926 General Strike. In 1935 he replaced Ramsay MacDonald as Prime Minister, and faced criticism over his foreign policy. Mr Baldwin appeared to belittle the growing threat of Nazi Germany and he failed to intervene in the Spanish Civil War. After the abdication crisis and subsequent coronation of George VI in May 1937, Baldwin retired and was granted the title 1st Earl of Bewdley. His last act as Prime Minister was to raise the salaries of MPs from £400 a year to £600 and to give the Leader of the Opposition a salary.

27/5/1937. Thursday (-2,903) The world’s longest suspension bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, was opened. The centre span was 4,200 feet long and with the approaches the bridge was over 8 miles long. The project cost US$ 77.2 million.

26/5/1937. Wednesday (-2,904) Egypt joined the League of Nations.

23/5/1937, Sunday (-2,907) John D Rockefeller, American philanthropist and founder of the Standard Oil Company, died in Florida aged 97.

12/5/1937. Wednesday (-2,918) King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (the mother of Queen Elizabeth II) were crowned.

10/5/1937, Monday (-2,920) Britain’s first frozen food, asparagus, went on sale. It was produced by Smedleys of Wisbech, Cambridgeshire.

7/5/1937, Friday (-2,923) The first practical pressurised aircraft cabin was used, by Lockheed.

6/5/1937. Thursday (-2,924) In Lakehurst, New Jersey, the German Zeppelin airship Hindenburg exploded in a ball of flame as it came in to land. 13 of 36 passengers and 22 of the 61 crew died, out of the 97 aboard.  Survivors jumped out of the airship as it plunged 20 metres to ground from its mooring tower. The official cause of the explosion was St Elmos Fire, but the flammable silver paint used to coat the airship also contributed. Fire devoured the canvas skin of the aircraft in just over 30 seconds as the 16 bags of hydrogen gas inside ignited. The Hindenburg had first flown in March 1936. Travelling twice as fast as an ocean liner, airships were considered the height of luxury.

1/5/1937, Saturday (-2,929)

29/4/1937, Thursday (-2,931) American chemist Wallace Hume Carothers committed suicide just two months after he patented nylon.

28/4/1937. Wednesday (-2,932) Saddam Hussein was born in Al Awja village, near Tikrit, Iraq.

27/4/1937, Tuesday (-2,933) The National Maritime Museum, beside the Thames at Greenwich, was opened by King George VI.

26/4/1937. Monday (-2,934) The German air force destroyed the Basque city and cultural centre of Guernica, Spain. Thousands of civilians died. It was market day in Guernica when the Germans raided, in support of Franco’s Nationalists. The town was a communications centre with a munitions factory, but the bombing with incendiaries was random; aircraft also raked the town with machine gun fire. 1,000, mainly civilians, died.  43 aircraft from the German Condor Legion, under Colonel Wolfgang von Richtofen, carried out the raid.  This became the scene of one of Picasso’s most famous paintings.

22/4/1937. Thursday (-2,938) The Austrian Chancellor, Schuschnigg, met Mussolini.

17/4/1937, Saturday (-2,943) A record attendance at a UK football match was set when England played Scotland at Hampden Park, Glasgow; 149,547 were present.

12/4/1937, Monday (-2,948) A test-bed run of the world’s first aircraft jet engine took place, at Cranwell, UK.

1/4/1937, Thursday (-2,959) Aden, administered by the British Government in India since 16/1/1839, became a Crown Colony.  Aden was useful to Britain as a coaling station on the way to India, and there was an oil refinery there.

28/3/1937, Sunday (-2,963) Easter Sunday.

26/3/1937. Friday (-2,965) Spinach growers in Crystal City, Texas, erected a statue of Popeye.

16/3/1937, Tuesday (-2,875) British statesman Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain died.

15/3/1937. Monday (-2,976) Bernard Faustus set up America’s first blood bank at Cook County Hospital, Chicago.

12/3/1937, Friday (-2,979)

9/3/1937, Tuesday (-2,982) George Orwell’s book, The Road to Wigan Pier, was published. It was about the effects of the Depression on northern England.

8/3/1937, Monday (-2,983) Juvenal Habyarimana, President of Rwanda, was born.

7/3/1937, Sunday (-2,984) Parliamentary elections were held in Chile. The Liberal Party won a slim majority in the Senate and tied with the Conservative Party in the Chamber of Deputies.

6/3/1937, Saturday (-2,985) Valentino Tereshkova, Russian astronaut and first woman in space in 1963, was born.

4/3/1937, Thursday (-2,987)

3/3/1937, Wednesday (-2,988) Britain now had 842 millionaires, and 85,449 people earning over £2,000 a week.

2/3/1937, Tuesday (-2,989) Mexico nationalised the oil industry.

25/2/1937, Thursday (-2,994)

20/2/1937. Saturday (-2,999) Paraguay left the League of Nations.

19/2/1937, Friday (-3,000) Italian forces pillaged Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia.

18/2/1937, Thursday (-3,001)

16/2/1937. Tuesday (-3,003) Nylon was patented by the American chemical company E.I.Du Pont, having been developed under the direction of Dr Carothers. The material was first produced in Britain in Coventry on 23/1/1941. It was used for military needs only, mainly for parachute fabric; nylon stockings were made from December 1946.

15/2/1937, Monday (-3,004) The Balkan Entente Conference was held at Athens.

8/2/1937. Monday (-3,011) Malaga fell to Franco’s forces, helped by 15,000 Italians.

4/2/1937, Thursday (-3,015) The German Ambassador gave King George VI a Nazi salute.

31/1/1937, Sunday (-3,019) Philip Glass, US composer, was born.

30/1/1937, Saturday (-3,020) Hitler made a speech on the 4th anniversary of the beginning of the Nazi Revolution.  He spoke of having friendly relations with other European powers but also spoke of the need for ‘lebensraum’ – living space – stating that Germany needed colonies for economic expansion. He also promised to respect the neutrality of Belgium and The Netherlands.

23/1/1937, Saturday (-3,027) More ‘show trials’ in Moscow as Stalin purged party members deemed to be disloyal.

20/1/1937, Wednesday (-3,030) President Franklin Delano Roosevelt won an overwhelming victory, gaining every US State except Maine and Vermont. His victory was due to his New Deal Campaign of relief from the effects of the Great Depression.

17/1/1937. Sunday (-3,033) The USSR refused to stop helping the Republican forces in Spain.

15/1/1937. Friday (-3,035) Austria announced an amnesty for Nazis.

14/1/1937. Thursday (-3,036) First ever Gallup opinion poll in Britain, conducted by Sir Henry Durant.

10/1/1937, Sunday (-3,040) The UK Government banned volunteers from fighting for the anti-Franco forces in Spain, introducing a two-year prison sentence for the offence.

8/1/1937, Friday (-3,042) Shirley Bassey, British singer and entertainer, was born in Cardiff, Wales.

7/1/1937, Thursday (-3,043) Juliana, Queen of The Netherlands from 1948, married Prince Bernhard.

6/1/1937, Wednesday (-3,044) In the USA, President Roosevelt forbade shipments of arms to either side in Spain.

5/1/1937, Tuesday (-3,045)

3/1/1937, Sunday (-3,047) The lines from Surbiton to Guildford and Farnham were electrified.

2/1/1937, Saturday (-3,048) The UK and Italian governments made an agreement, to curb dangerous levels of friction between the two in the Mediterranean.

1/1/1937. Friday (-3,049) (1) Britain banned political uniforms under the Public Order Act, so sounding the death-knell for Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists.

(2) Safety glass became compulsory in UK car windscreens.

30/12/1936, Wednesday (-3,051) Striking workers in the USA closed 7 General Motors plants.

17/12/1936, Thursday (-3,064) Pope Francis I was born.

13/12/1936. Sunday (-3,068) Aga Khan born.

12/12/1936, Saturday (-3,069) The Irish Free State amended its constitution to remove the King from membership of its Parliament,

11/12/1936. Friday (-3,070) Abdication of King Edward VIII, after a reign of just 325 days. See 20/1/1936. Accession of his brother, Prince Albert, the Duke of York, who became King George VI to the British throne. The coronation of George VI (born 14/12/1895) was on 12/5/1937. King Edward VIII had abdicated because of his love for Mrs Simpson (who became the Duchess of Windsor), otherwise known as Bessie Walls Warfield. She had been born in Baltimore on 19/6/1896. See 13/11/1936. Edward VIII, as the Duke of Windsor, married Mrs Simpson on 3/6/1937 at Monts in France.

10/12/1936, Thursday (-3,071) Luigi Pirandello, Italian author, died aged 69.

2/12/1936, Wednesday (-3,079)

1/12/1936. Tuesday (-3,080) (1) In Germany the Hitler Youth Law was ratified, making membership of the Hitler Youth compulsory for children aged 10 to 18.

(2) German forces landed at Cadiz to help Franco’s nationalist rebels.

30/11/1936. Monday (-3,081) The Crystal Palace, in south London, was destroyed by fire. The blaze was seen as far away as Brighton. Wooden floorboards had been dried to tinder by the heating system, and 20,000 wooden chairs were stored under the (wooden) orchestra pit. Flames reached 500 feet, and drove swarms of rats out of the building. 438 firemen from all over London could do nothing to put out the fire.

25/11/1936. Wednesday (-3,086) Germany and Japan agreed to protect world civilization from the Bolshevik menace, and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, organised by Ribbentrop.  Germany recognised the Japanese puppet state in Manchuria.  See 6/11/1937.

23/11/1936, Monday (-3,088) The first edition of Life magazine appeared.

21/11/1936. Saturday (-3,090) The first gardening programme was broadcast by the BBC. It was called “In your garden with Mr Middleton”.

18/11/1936, Wednesday (-3,093) (1) King Edward VIII visited south Wales, saw several thousand unemployed, and declared ‘something must be done’.

(2)  Hitler and Mussolini recognised Franco’s provisional government in Burgos.

14/11/1936, Saturday (-3,097) Germany denounced the clauses of the Versailles Treaty internationalising its waterways.

13/11/1936. Friday (-3,098) King Edward VIII told Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin he intended to abdicate because of his intention to marry twice-divorced Mrs Simpson. See 11/12/1936.

11/11/1936, Wednesday (-3,100) Baldwin refused to meet the Jarrow Marchers.

7/11/1936. Saturday (-3,104) The Spanish Government fled to Valencia.

6/11/1936, Friday (-3,105) Franco’s forces were besieging Madrid.

5/11/1936, Thursday (-3,106)

3/11/1936. Tuesday (-3,108) President Roosevelt, Democrat, was re-elected.

2/11/1936. Monday (-3,109) The first daily high definition TV broadcasts in Britain were transmitted from the BBC’s aerial at Alexandra Palace, London. Only around 280 homes had TV sets, which were on sale at the Olympia Exhibition for £110.

1/11/1936. Sunday (-3,110) Mussolini announced an anti-Communist ‘axis’ with Germany, and urged France and Britain to join.

30/10/1936, Friday (-3,112)

29/10/1936. Thursday (-3,113) Republican troops south of Madrid were holding back Franco’s Nationalist forces.

28/10/1936, Friday (3,114) In the Republican-controlled areas of Spain, agriculture was nationalised and Christian worship banned,

27/10/1936. Tuesday (-3,115) Mrs Wallace Simpson divorced her second husband Ernest, becoming free to marry King Edward VIII, see 13/11/1936.

25/10/1936 Sunday (-3,117) A radio station in Berlin played the first request programme, called ‘You ask – We play’.

23/10/1936, Friday (-3,119) Germany sent the ‘Condor’ legion to Spain to assist Franco’s forces.

22/10/1936. Thursday (-3,120) Martial law was imposed in Belgium to control the Fascists.

20/10/1936, Tuesday (-3,122) Hitler established closer relations with Mussolini, using the Spanish Civil war as a pretext.

12/10/1936, Monday (-3,130) A London to Paris through train service began.

11/10/1936. Sunday (-3,131) In London, 100,000 people barricaded east London streets to prevent a march of Oswald Moseley’s Fascists. During violent clashes, 80 people were injured.

8/10/1936, Thursday (-3,134)

7/10/1936, Wednesday (-3,135) Aguirre was elected President of the Basque Republic (Euskadi), honouring a promise for autonomy within Spain.

6/10/1936. Tuesday (-3,136) The British Labour Party refused to affiliate with the Communists.

5/10/1936. Monday (-3,137) (1) Vaclav Havel, Czech playwright, human rights campaigner, and President, was born.

(2) The Jarrow March, of 200 unemployed ship workers, started from Jarrow, Tyneside, towards London; their petition had 11,000 signatures.  The march was led by Labour MP Ellen Wilkinson. Jarrow had an unemployment rate of 67%.

30/9/1936, Wednesday (-3,142) Pinewood Film Studios opened.

28/9/1936. Monday (-3,144) General Franco, 44, was made head of the rebel Nationalist forces in Spain.

27/9/1936. Sunday (-3,145) Switzerland, France, and Holland came off the Gold Standard.

17/9/1936. Thursday (-3,155) Franco’s troops took Maqueda, between Madrid and Toledo.

31/8/1936. Monday (-3,172) Elizabeth Cowell, Britain’s first woman TV announcer, made her debut at Alexandra Palace.

26/8/1936. Wednesday (-3,177) A treaty (The Anglo-Egyptian Alliance) ended the British protectorate over Egypt and gave Britain control over the Suez Canal for the next 20 years.

25/8/1936, Tuesday (-3,178) Stalin executed 16 senior Communists.

24/8/1936, Monday (-3,179) Germany extended conscription from one year to two.

16/8/1936. Sunday (-3,187) Hitler’s dreams of the proof of Aryan supremacy at the Berlin Olympics were shattered when the Black athlete, Jesse Owens, won four gold medals in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres relay, and the long jump. After Owens’s second win, Hitler stormed out of the stadium in disgust.

11/8/1936, Tuesday (-3,192) (1) Chiang Kai Shek entered Canton, China.

(2) Joachim von Ribbentrop was appointed German Ambassador to London.

5/8/1936, Wednesday (-3,198) The Greek Communist party attempted to call a General Strike.  However this precipitated a Right Wing dictatorship which broke up the Communist Party.

4/8/1936. Tuesday (-3, 199) Badajoz was captured by the Spanish Nationalists under Franco as they fought northwards. This cut off the Republicans from the route to Portugal, and prepared the way for a nationalist advance on Madrid from the north and west.

3/8/1936, Monday (-3,200)

2/8/1936. Sunday (-3,201) (1) Death of the aviation pioneer Louis Bleriot.  He was the first to fly across the English Channel, in 1909.

(2) An autonomous Catalan government was established in Barcelona. See 26/1/1939.

1/8/1936. Saturday (-3,202) (1) Adolf Hitler opened the 11th Olympic Games in Berlin.  The Olympic flame was carried to the venue from Greece for the first time.  See 16/8/1936.

(2) The French designer Yves St Laurent was born in Oran, Algeria.

31/7/1936, Friday (-3,203) In Britain, the Education Act raised the school leaving age from 14 to 15. However this provision was not implemented until 1944.

24/7/1936. Friday (-3,210) (1) The Spanish government appealed for foreign help in the Civil War.

(2) The Speaking Clock was introduced by the GPO at the suggestion of Eugene Wender of Hampstead, London.  It was known as TIM from the phone dial letters.

19/7/1936, Sunday (-3,215) Herbert Boyer, biotechnologist, was born.

18/7/1936, Saturday (-3,216) The Spanish Civil War began when the army, under Generals Francisco Franco and Emilio Mola, revolted against the Republican Government. The army wanted to preserve traditional values and religion. Other mutinies began across Spain. The conflict lasted three years.

17/7/1936, Friday (-3,217) France nationalised its munitions industry.

16/7/1936, Thursday (-3,218)

15/7/1936, Wednesday (-3,219) The League of Nations raised sanctions against Italy.

14/7/1936, Tuesday (-3,220) Britain started producing gas masks.

11/7/1936, Saturday (-3,223) Austria and Germany entered closer relations.  Hitler forbade the Austrian Nazis from mounting another uprising to preserve a face of legality.

 (2) Passenger services between Quainton Road and Verney Junction, Buckinghamshire, were withdrawn.

30/6/1936, Tuesday (-3,234) (1) The Fascist Party in France was suppressed.

(2) The German zeppelin Hindenburg set out on its Atlantic crossing, reaching Lakehurst in new Jersey on 2/7/1936.

21/6/1936. Sunday (-3,243) British planes hit Palestinian Arabs who had ambushed British troops.

18/6/1936, Thursday (-3,246) In the Irish Free State, the IRA was declared illegal.

14/6/1936, Sunday (-3,250) G K Chesterton, British poet and novelist, died.

13/6/1936, Saturday (-3,251) Shoreham Airport opened.

11/6/1936. Thursday (-3,253) Leslie Mitchell became the BBC’s first television announcer.

6/6/1936. Saturday (-3,258) (1) Gatwick Airport opened. It was reopened as an international airport on 9/6/1958.

(2) The German airship Hindenburg crossed the Atlantic in 46 hours.

4/6/1936, Thursday (-3,260) In France, Leon Blum formed a Leftist Popular Front government.

3/6/1936, Wednesday (-3,261) Emperor Haile Selassie arrived in London in exile, after the Italian invasion.

2/6/1936, Tuesday (-3,260) General Somoza, in Nicaragua, led a coup that deposed President Sacasa.

27/5/1936. Wednesday (-3,268) (1) Aer Lingus made its first commercial flight, from Dublin to Bristol.

(2) The first open prison in Britain was opened at New Hall, near Wakefield, Yorkshire.

24/5/1936. Sunday (-3,271) Rexists, Belgian Fascists, won 21 seats in the General Election.

22/5/1936, Friday (-3,273) In Britain, J H Thomas, Colonial Secretary, resigned over his leakage of Budget information.

21/5/1936, Thursday (-3,274) In Austria, Kurt Schusnigg was made leader of the Fatherland Front, the only permitted Party.

18/5/1936, Monday (-3,277) Jasmine Bligh and Elizabeth Cowell became the BBC’s first women announcers.

15/5/1936. Friday (-3,280) Amy Johnson arrived in England after a record-breaking 12 day, 15 hour flight from London to Cape Town and back.

14/5/1936, Thursday (-3,281) Viscount Allenby, British Army Commander in Palestine in World War One, died.

12/5/1936, Tuesday (-3,283)

10/5/1936, Sunday (-3,285) Manuel Azana was elected President of Spain.

9/5/1936. Saturday (-3,286) Italy annexed Abyssinia (now Ethiopia), having completed the invasion begun on 3/10/1935.

8/5/1936, Friday (-3,287) Oswald Spengler, German historian, died aged 55.

5/5/1936. Tuesday (-3,290) The Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa fell to Italian troops under General Badoglio.  The League of Nations had signally failed in its efforts to prevent the war.

3/5/1936, Sunday (-3,292) The Left won in French elections.

2/5/1936, Saturday (-3,293) (1) General election in Egypt, victory for the Wafd Nationalists. Nahas Pasha formed a Wafd Government.

(2) Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie fled Addis Ababa as Italian troops closed in, bombing Ethiopian villages with mustard gas. 100,000 Italian troops under Mussolini began an invasion of Ethiopia in October 1935, in revenge for an Ethiopian defeat of Italian forces at Adawa in 1896. Ethiopia has asked the League of Nations to apply sanctions to Italy but the UK and France wavered on denying oil to Italy; the League of Nations lost all credibility.

30/4/1936, Thursday (-3,295) The UK Government announced plans to build 38 warships.

28/4/1936, Tuesday (-3,297) Farouk, aged 16, became King of Egypt on the death of his father, King Fuad (aged 68). Fuad had become monarch in 1922 when Britain granted limited independence to Egypt.

13/4/1936, Monday (-3,312) After the inconclusive Greek general elections of 26/1/1936, a period of uncertainty, and the death of Prime Minister Demerdjis, General John Metaxas became Greek Prime Minister.

12/4/1936, Sunday (-3,313) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1936, Friday (-3,315) The Spanish Parliament dismissed President Zamora.

1/4/1936. Wednesday (-3,324) Austria introduced conscription.

29/3/1936. Sunday (-3,327) Hitler won 99% of the vote in German 'elections'.

26/3/1936, Thursday (-3,330) New Zealand began radio broadcasts of its Parliamentary sessions.

18/3/1936, Wednesday (-3,338) Eleutherios Venizelos, Greek politician, died.

14/3/1936, Saturday (-3,342) An air service from London to Hong Kong was inaugurated.

13/3/1936, Friday (-3,343) Sir Francis Bell, who was Prime Minister of New Zealand for only 16 days, died aged 84.

12/3/1936, Thursday (-3,344) Germany threatened to enter a state of "honourable isolation" and increase its military presence in the Rhineland if France and Belgium continued to mass troops on their eastern borders.

11/3/1936. Wednesday (-3,345) Paraguay set up America’s first Fascist regime.

9/3/1936, Monday (-3,347)

7/3/1936. Saturday (-3,349) The German Army re-entered the Rhineland, supposedly a demilitarised area. A token force of 22,000 troops marched into the 50-kilometre wide strip of territory bordering the Rhine, goose-stepping through Essen, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt and Cologne. France wanted action but Britain did not object. This was in breach of the Treaties of Versailles and Locarno. Germany justified its move by saying the French-Soviet pact, concluded in 1934 and ratified by the French government in early 1936, was against the Locarno Treaty.

6/3/1936, Friday (-3,350) Yugoslavian Prime Minister Milan Stojadinović survived an assassination attempt when a Macedonian deputy shot at him on the floor of the Chamber. Stojadinović was unhurt as another deputy struck the assailant's arm and caused the shots to go wild.

5/3/1936. Thursday (-3,351) The Spitfire fighter plane made its first flight from Eastleigh Aerodrome, near Southampton. It was flown by Captain J Summers. The RAF wanted a counter to the German Messerschmitt 109.

4/3/1936, Wednesday (-3,352) The airship LZ 129 Hindenburg had its first flight.

3/3/1936. Tuesday (-3,353) Mussolini nationalised the Italian banks.

1/3/1935, Sunday (-3,355)

29/2/1936. Saturday (-3,356) President Roosevelt signed a second neutrality bill, banning loans to countries at war.

28/2/1936, Friday (-3,357) The Interstate Commerce Commission ordered a reduction in basic rail passenger fares from 3.6 to 2 cents per mile everywhere in the United States.

27/2/1936, Thursday (-3,358) Death of Ivan Pavlov (born 14/9/1849 in Ryazan, Russia). He is famous for his work on conditioned reflexes in dogs.

26/2/1936. Wednesday (-3,359) The Volkswagen car factory in Saxony was opened by Adolf Hitler. The Volkswagen or ‘people’s car’ was designed by Ferdinand Porsche of Auto Union.

23/2/1936, Sunday (-3,362)

19/2/1936, Wednesday (-3,366) The Spanish Republic announced an amnesty for the rebels in the 1934 Asturian revolt.

18/2/1936, Tuesday (-3,367) Charlie Chaplin’s film, Modern Times, was banned in Nazi Germany because it had ‘Communist tendencies’. Many suspected the real reason for the ban was the resemblance of Charlie Chaplin to Hitler in the film.

17/2/1936, Monday (-3,368) A trade pact was agreed between Britain and Ireland, ending their trade war.

16/2/1936. Sunday (-3,369) Victory for the Left in Spanish elections. The Left won 256 seats against 165 for the Right and 52 for the Centre Parties. Manuel Azana became Prime Minister; he restored the 1931 Spanish Constitution. Churches in Spain were attacked and their land seized.

6/2/1936. Thursday (-3,379) Hitler opened the Winter Olympic Games in Germany.

28/1/1936, Tuesday (-3,388) The funeral of King George V.  General Franco from Spain attended.

20/1/1936. Monday (-3,396) Accession of King Edward VIII. He succeeded his late father, George V, who died at Sandringham this day. See 11/12/1936. George V, Grandson of Queen Victoria, had reigned for 26 years; he changed the surname of the Royal Family from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor during World War One to distance himself from his German cousins.

19/1/1936, Sunday (-3,397) The Aga Khan III, leader of the Ismaili community, was given his weight in gold, 16 stone, worth about £25,000 to mark his Golden Jubilee (£3.5 million in 2016) to use on social projects.

18/1/1936, Saturday (-3,398) Rudyard Kipling, English novelist who won the Nobel Prize in 1907, died.

4/1/1936, Saturday (-3,412) The first pop music chart was compiled, based on record sales published in New York in The Billboard.

1/1/1936, Wednesday (-3,415) The number of full-time university students in the UK stood at 40,465, up from 12,778 at 1/1/1909.

31/12/1935, Tuesday (-3,416) King Salman of Saudi Arabia was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

30/12/1935, Monday (-3,417) Omar Bongo, President of Gabon, was born.

22/12/1935. Sunday (-3,425) In the UK, Anthony Eden was appointed Foreign Secretary.

18/12/1935, Wednesday (-3,429) (1) The Huey P Long Bridge in Mentaine, Louisiana, opened.  It was the world’s longest railway bridge.

(2) In response to League of Nations sanctions, Mussolini appealed to Italians to donate their gold wedding rings to the government, in exchange for steel ones, also other gold, to help the invasion effort. Many Italians responded, and a total of 33,622 metric tonnes of gold was handed in.

(3) President Gomez of Venezuela died, aged 78. He had been dictator for 26 years, over which period Venezuela had become a major oil producer.

14/12/1935, Saturday (-3,433) Thomas Masaryk, first President of Czechoslovakia, resigned aged 85. He was succeeded by Edward Benes.

4/12/1935. Wednesday (-3,443) The game of monopoly was born, invented by unemployed engineer Charles Darrow. It is the world’s most successful box game, having sold over 500 million sets.

3/12/1935, Tuesday (-3,444)

1/12/1935, Sunday (-3,446) The Brill railway, Buckinghamshire, closed to passengers.

30/11/1935. Saturday (-3,447) Non-belief in Nazism was made legal grounds for divorce in Germany.

25/11/1935, Monday (-3,452) The monarchy was restored in Greece.

20/11/1935, Wednesday (-3,457) Lord Jellicoe, Admiral of the Fleet in WW I and naval commander at the Battle of Jutland, died in London.  Created an Earl in 1925, he was buried in St Paul’s Cathedral, next to Lord Nelson.

19/11/1935, Tuesday (-3,458) The University of Budapest closed for a day due to anti-Semitic rioting.

18/11/1935. Monday (-3,459) The League of Nations imposed sanctions on Italy, because of its invasion of Ethiopia.  The sanctions ended on 15/7/1936.

16/11/1935, Saturday (-3,461)

14/11/1935, Thursday (-3,463) King Hussein of Jordan was born in Aman, son of King Talal.

13/11/1935, Wednesday (-3,464) George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury 1991-2002, was born.

11/11/1935, Monday (-3,466) US balloonists Anderson and Stevens reached 74,000 feet.

8/11/1935. Friday (-3,469) The Italians completed the invasion of Tigre Province, Ethiopia, occupying the capital, Makale. Both France and Britain could have opposed the invasion by closing the Suez Canal. However France was bound by treaty to Italy not to oppose the invasion, and Britain did not wish to drive Mussolini into the arms of Hitler. Events in Ethiopia seemed largely irrelevant to many Britons, although some saw ominous warnings in the invasion of a poor African country by a well-armed European state.

7/11/1935, Thursday (-3,470) Germany introduced a new Reichskriegsflagge (Reich war flag). It resembled the national swastika flag, with elements of the old Imperial war flag included.

6/11/1935. Wednesday (-3,471) The RAF’s first monoplane fighter, the Hawker Hurricane, made its maiden flight. It was the fastest fighter aircraft in the world, with a top speed of 325 mph at 20,000 feet.

5/11/1935, Tuesday (-3,472) In Czechoslovakia, Milan Hodza, Agrarian Party, formed a government.

3/11/1935, Sunday (-3,474) Plebiscite in Greece favoured the restoration of King George II, with 97% voting in favour.

1/11/1935, Friday (-3,476)

20/10/1935. Sunday (-3,488) Mao Zedong’s troops completed their ‘Long March’ and arrived in the comparative safety of Yan’an in remote north-west China (Shenxi province). Of the 100,000 that set out from Kiangsi province 364 days and 6,000 miles earlier, only 10,000 battered and emaciated survivors remained. They had fought all the way, broken through ten encircling armies, crossed 11 provinces and 24 rivers.  The Communists could now regroup to fight Chinese Nationalists and the Japanese occupiers.

19/10/1935. Saturday (-3,489) After Itlay’s invasion of Abyssinia, the League of Nations imposed economic sanctions on Italy. Meanwhile it was apparent that Italy’s African possessions could not provide economic self-sufficiency for Italy, and the country would never be self-reliant in key raw materials sources such as oil, coal and metals. This pushed Italy into a closer partnership with stronger, industrialised, Germany.

12/10/1935, Saturday (-3,496) Hitler banned American jazz from German radio, calling it decadent.

8/10/1935. Tuesday (-3,500) Clement Attlee was appointed stopgap leader of the Labour Party.

2/10/1935. Wednesday (-3,506) The Italian army invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia) after Mussolini’s forces pounded border towns. See 9/5/1936, and 5/12/1934.

1/10/1935, Tuesday (-3,507) Julie Andrews, star in The Sound of Music and Mary Poppins, was born in Walton on Thames.

29/9/1935, Sunday (-3,509) The Barnstaple to Lynton narrow gauge railway closed.

16/9/1935, Monday (-3,522) Carl Andre, US artist, was born.

15/9/1935. Sunday (-3,523) Germany passed the Nuremberg Laws, depriving Jews of German citizenship. The Swastika was made the official flag of Germany.

10/9/1935, Tuesday (-3,528) Huey Pierce Long, Louisiana politician, was shot dead in Baton Rouge.  He had opposed ‘lying newspapers’ and got the Louisiana legislature to impose a tax on any newspaper with a circulation of over 20,000.

3/9/1935. Tuesday (-3,535) Sir Malcolm Campbell set a new world land speed record, in Utah, of 301.337 mph.

2/9/1935, Friday (-3,546) A small but intense storm hit the Florida Keys, killing 408 out of 760 people living there.

1/9/1935. Sunday (-3,537) Mexico announced it would give women workers the vote.

31/8/1935, Saturday (-3,538) In the USA, President Roosevelt banned arms sales to warring countries.

28/8/1935, Wednesday (-3,541)

26/8/1935, Monday (-3,543) Geraldine A Ferraro, first woman to be nominated for Vice Presidency of the US (with Walter Mondale, Democrats, in 1984) was born.

25/8/1935. Sunday (-3,544) Ethiopia was put on a war footing in anticipation of an Italian invasion. Mussolini did invade Ethiopia on 2/10/1935.

23/8/1936, Friday (-3,546) Juliette Adam, French writer (born 4/120/1836) died.

20/8/1935, Tuesday (-3,549) In the US, H McLean announced the isolation of Vitamin E.

15/8/1935. Thursday (-3,554) Hitler decreed that the Swastika was to be Germany’s national flag, and banned German-Jewish marriages.

14/8/1935. Wednesday (-3,555) President Roosevelt signed the Social Security Bill, introducing welfare for the old, sick, and unemployed.

30/7/1935. Tuesday (-3,570) Penguin paperbacks went on sale in Britain. The first such book on sale was a biography of Shelley.

28/7/1935, Sunday (-3,572) The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bomber made its first flight at Seattle.

27/7/1935. Saturday (-3,573) Anti-Catholic riots in Belfast.

24/7/1935. Wednesday (-3,576) Greetings telegrams were introduced by the GPO. If they were in a gold envelope they cost an extra 3d.

17/6/1935, Wednesday (-3,583) G W Russell, Irish writer, died aged 68.

16/7/1935. Tuesday (-3,584) The world’s first parking meters went into service in Oklahoma City. They were devised by the newspaper editor Carlton Magee.

15/7/1935, Monday (-3,585) Pieter Cort van der Linden, Dutch politician, died  at the Hague.

14/7/1935, Sunday (-3,586) In Britain the Peace Pledge Union was formed, after a meeting at the Albert Hall, to oppose re-armament and war.

13/7/1935, Saturday (-3,587) The USSR and USA made a trade pact.

12/7/1935, Friday (-3,588) Alfred Dreyfus, French Army Officer who was accused of selling military secrets to Germany, then imprisoned and later pardoned, died aged 75.

9/7/1935. Tuesday (-3,591) Engineers building the Moscow Underground discovered Ivan the Terrible’s torture chamber.

6/7/1935, Monday (-3,592) The Dalai Lama was born.

5/7/1935. Friday (-3,595) The US Labor Relations Act allowed workers to join unions.

4/7/1935, Thursday (-3,596) Austria, encouraged by Mussolini, abolished anti-Hapsburg laws and restored some imperial property.

3/7/1935. Wednesday (-3,597) Death of the French engineer Andre Citroen.

28/6/1935. Friday (-3,602) The first Rupert Bear cartoon appeared in The Daily Express. It was drawn by Albert Bestall, who had taken over from Rupert’s creator Mary Tourtel.

18/6/1935. Tuesday (-3,612) France was angry at an Anglo-German naval deal that allowed Germany to build up its naval strength, albeit to only 35% of the Royal Navy. This was in contravention of the Treaty of Versailles.

13/6/1935, Thursday (-3,617) Christo Javachev and his partner Jean Claude, artists, were born.

12/6/1935. Wednesday (-3,618) Bolivia and Paraguay signed an armistice to end their 3 year war over the disputed Chaco area. This war had claimed 35,000 lives for the Chaco Boreal, a wasteland of some 100,000 square miles west of the Paraguay River, the subject of a dispute between Paraguay and Bolivia since 1825. Bolivia, deprived of its coastal territories since the Pacific War with Chile, wanted to use the Chaco as a shipping route for its oil exports, and to exploit the oil reserves of the Chaco itself. Bolivian troops invaded in 1928; skirmishes continued until Paraguay launched a major offensive in 1932 and formally declared war in May 1933. Initially the larger and better-trained Bolivian army had success but in 1934 Paraguay gained the upper hand, capturing much Bolivian land. By 1935 both sides were weary of war, so agreed an armistice.

11/6/1935, Tuesday (-3,619)

10/6/1935, Monday (-3,620)Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in the United States by Bill Wilson and Dr Robert Smith.

9/6/1935, Sunday (-3,621) General election in Greece. The Populists (Monarchists) won 243 seats, although the Liberal party boycotted the election,

7/6/1935. Friday (-3,623) Stanley Baldwin became British Prime Minister. Ramsay McDonald retired.

4/6/1935, Tuesday (-3,626) In France, Pierre Laval formed a government.

3/6/1935, Monday (-3,627) The new French Line passenger liner Normandie arrived in New York, having crossed the Atlantic on her maiden voyage in four days 11 hours. She was 340 metres long, and weighed 79,000 tons.

2/6/1935, Sunday (-3,628)

1/6/1935, Saturday (-3,629) Leslie Hore Belisha introduced driving tests in Britain, and made L plates for learners compulsory.

31/5/1935, Friday (-3,630) In France, politician Pierre Flandin lost power.

30/5/1935. Thursday (-3,631) More than 50,000 died in a magnitude 7.6 quake in Quetta (then India, now Pakistan).

28/5/1935, Tuesday (-3,633)

25/5/1935. Saturday (-3,636) The US athlete Jesse Owens broke 5 world records in one day.

24/5/1935. Friday (-3,637) Pope Pius IX condemned the German sterilisation of 56,244 ‘inferior’ German citizens.

23/5/1935, Thursday (-3.638) Laase Stromstedt, Swedish author, was born (died 2009).

22/5/1935, Wednesday (-3,639) The day after Hitler had made a speech claiming that German rearmament offered no threat to peace, Attlee asserted that Hitler's speech gave "a chance to call a halt in the armaments race". However Britain announced plans to treble the size of the RAF in the next two years, to make it equal to Germany’s.

21/5/1935, Tuesday (-3,640) Death of Jane Addams (born 6/9/1860). She founded Hull House, a mission to help poor immigrants in the US. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her efforts to promote pacifism after World War One.

20/5/1935, Monday (-3,641) Mickey Rose, US actor, was born (died 2013).

19/5/1935. Sunday (-3,642) (1) T.E. (Thomas Edward) Lawrence, or Lawrence of Arabia, died six days after a motorcycle accident in a country lane in Moreton, Dorset; he swerved to avoid two boys on bicycles, and crashed. Colonel Lawrence was sent to Saudi Arabia to gain information about an Arab revolt in the Arabian desert. Lawrence realised this revolt could be used to disrupt the Turkish war effort. He persuaded the British Army in Egypt to supply guns, armoured cars, and even aircraft. With these, Lawrence led the Arabs on strategic attacks on railways and captured the town of Aqaba. The Arabs then supported the British advance in Palestine. Lawrence was furious when after the War, the Arabs were not given independence.

(2) The Nazi Party made gains in elections in the Sudetenland.

15/5/1935, Wednesday (-3,646) (1) The Moscow Metro railway was opened by Joseph Stalin.

(2) The world’s first TV quiz programme was broadcast, in Canada.

12/5/1935, Sunday (-3,649) (1) Pilsudski, Polish leader, died.

(2) A chance meeting between two alcoholics, Dr Robert Smith and William Wilson, which led to the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous.

8/5/1935, Wednesday (-3,653) The UK Cabinet heard that it was estimated that the RAF was inferior to the Luftwaffe by 370 aircraft and that in order to reach parity the RAF must have 3,800 aircraft by April 1937—an extra 1,400 on the existing air programme. It was learnt that Germany was easily able to outbuild this revised programme as well. On 21 May 1935, the Cabinet agreed to expanding the home defence force of the RAF to 1,512 aircraft (840 bombers and 420 fighters).

4/5/1935, Saturday (-3,657) London’s Leicester Square tube station opened.

2/5/1935. Thursday (-3,659) (1) France and the USSR signed a mutual defence pact in case of attack.  See 7/3/1936.

(2) Faisal II, King of Iraq, was born.

29/4/1935. Monday (-3,662) ‘Cats eye’ reflectors were used on British roads for the first time.

21/4/1935, Sunday (-3,670) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1935. Sunday (-3,677) Britain, France, and Italy agreed to form a united front against German re-armament.

13/4/1935. Saturday (-3,678) The London to Australia air service began. The route was operated by Imperial Airways and QANTAS.

11/4/1935. Thursday (-3,680) Severe dust storms hit Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Texas, and New Mexico, destroying crops and making many homeless. Dust storms covering up to five states at a time developed because US farmers had ploughed up areas unsuitable for this. A run of wet summers had made large areas of prairie seem suitable for the plough, but when normal drier conditions returned, the ploughing had broken up the roots of the prairie grasses that held the soil in place. Topsoil blew away, farmers were ruined, and diseases such as dust-pneumonia struck many, especially children and livestock.

7/4/1935. Sunday (-3,684) In the free city of Danzig, the Nazis won 60% of the vote.

1/4/1935, Monday (-3,690) The Green Belt Scheme for the environs of |London came into force.

29/3/1935, Friday (-3,693) Stalin and Eden met in Moscow to discuss German re-armament.

21/3/1935, Thursday, (-3,701) Persia officially changed its name to Iran.

20/3/1935, Wednesday (-3,702) Following elections in Norway, Labour formed a government with Johan Nygaardsvold as Prime Minister.

18/3/1935, Monday (-3,704)

16/3/1935, Saturday (-3,706) Germany announced it was reintroducing conscription, for one year (see 24/8/1936), with a view to building a peacetime army of 35 divisions.  This was in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles; other European  powers protested but did nothing else.

15/3/1935. Friday (-3,707) France extended compulsory military service to two years.

14/3/1935, Thursday (-3,708) Anton Rintelen was sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the July Putsch.

13/3/1935. Wednesday (-3,709) Driving tests were introduced to the UK by Mr Leslie Hore-Belisha; see 10/3/1899, France. The tests were at first voluntary, but became compulsory from 1/6/1935. They only applied to those who had taken out their driving licence since 1/4/1934 – see 14/8/1903. Britain was one of the last European countries to bring in a driving test. ‘L’ plates and provisional licences also became compulsory on 1/6/1935.

11/3/1935. Monday (-3,711) In Germany, Hermann Goering announced the creation of the Luftwaffe, or German air force.

10/3/1935, Sunday (-3,712) The Bill Holman comic strip Smokey Stover ran for the first time in the Chicago Tribune.

9/3/1935. Saturday (-3,713) In the USSR, Nikita Krushchev was elected chief of the Communist Party.

6/3/1935, Wednesday (-3,716) Oliver Wendell Jr, US Supreme Court Justice, died in Washington DC.

2/3/1935, Saturday (-3,720) King Rama VII of Siam abdicated after a 10-year reign during which absolute royal power was abolished. He was succeeded by his 10-year-old nephew who ruled ass Rama VIII (Ananda Mahidol) until he was assassinated in 1946.

1/3/1935, Friday (-3,721) The Saar returned to Germany, after a plebiscite, see 13/1/1935.

26/2/1935. Tuesday (-3,724) Radar (Radio Detection And Ranging) was tested at Daventry. Engineers had reported that passing aircraft distorted radio transmissions. The BBC transmitter at Daventry was used this day by Robert Watson Watt to detect a bomber 8 miles away at 10,000 feet. See 20/3/1934.

23/2/1935. Saturday (-3,727) Italian troops set sail for Ethiopia as the border dispute over the Italian post at Wal-Wal inside Ethiopia escalated.

12/2/1935, Tuesday (--3,738) The airship Macon crashed in America.

11/2/1935, Monday (-3,739) The UK Government passed the 1935 Government of India Act, giving the colony of India more autonomy; Britain retained control of external affairs and defence.

5/2/1935, Tuesday (-3,745)

29/1/1935, Tuesday (-3,752) The London County Council approved the Green Belt scheme.

28/1/1935. Monday (-3,753) Iceland became the first country to legalise abortion, on medical grounds, under Law no.38, allowing abortion at up to 28 weeks if there was a threat to the mental or physical health of the mother. Most subsequent abortion laws followed this pattern. However in Ireland the import or sale of contraceptives became illegal.

24/1/1935. Thursday (-3,757) (1) Beer was first sold in cans, in Richmond, Virginia, by the Krueger Brewing Company.

(2) Bamber Gasgoigne, UK TV presenter, was born in London.

(3) Mussolini dismissed the Italian Cabinet.

21/1/1935, Monday (-3,760) Snowdonia, Wales, was designated a national park.

15/1/1935. Tuesday (-3,766) Mussolini united Eritrea and Somaliland as Italian East Africa.

14/1/1935, Monday (-3,767) The Iraq – Mediterranean (Kirkuk to Haifa)  oil pipeline was inaugurated.

13/1/1935. Sunday (-3,768) A plebiscite in the Saar indicated a desire to return to Germany.  The vote was 90.36% in favour of joining Germany, with an almost-100% turnout.  The Saar rejoined Germany on 1/3/1935.  2,000 refugees fled the Saar for France.

8/1/1935. Tuesday (-3,773) Elvis Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, the surviving brother of twins.

1/1/1935. Tuesday (-3,780) (1) The Italian colonies of Cyrenaica, Tripoli, and Fezzan were renamed Libya.

(2) Mustafa Kemal changed his name to Kemal Ataturk.

28/12/1934, Friday (-3,784) First women’s cricket test match held in Australia.

27/12/1934. Thursday (-3,785) In Tehran, the government declared that ‘Persia’ would now be known as Iran.

8/12/1934, Saturday (-3,804) The London to Australia airmail service was inaugurated.

6/12/1934, Thursday (-3,806) Turkey gave universal suffrage to all men and women over 21.

5/12/1934. Wednesday (-3,807) Italy and Ethiopia clashed on the Somaliland border.  At the oasis of Walwal, 100 Ethiopians were killed by an Italian Expeditionary Force, which had penetrated some 50 miles beyond the borders of Italian Somaliland; the Italians suffered some 50 casualties.  Mussolini wanted to establish an Italian east African Empire, consisting of Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia, and to avenge the defeat of the Italians by the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in March 1896.  See 2/10/1935.

3/12/1934, Monday (-3,809)

1/12/1934, Saturday (-3,811) The Tanna rail tunnel, Japan, 7 km long, opened.

30/11/1934, Friday (-3,812) The Flying Scotsman set a new rail speed record of 97 mph.

29/11/1934, Thursday (-3,813) Marriage of George Duke of Kent and Princess Marina of Greece.

28/11/1934. Wednesday (-3,814) Churchill warned of growing German air strength.

26/11/1934, Monday (-3,816)

25/11/1934. Sunday (-3,817) Mustapha Kemal told all Turks to adopt a surname by 1/1/1935. His was to be ‘Ataturk’, or ‘Father of the Turks’. He also banned hereditary titles in Turkey.

24/11/1934, Saturday (-3,818) Alfred Schnittke, German composer, was born (died 1998).

23/11/1934, Friday (-3,819) Arthur Wing Pinero, English actor, died aged 79.

20/11/1934, Tuesday (-3,822) Plans for numbered postal districts in British towns were introduced.

9/11/1934, Friday (-3,833) Carl Sagan, US astronomer, was born in New York.

24/10/1934. Wednesday (-3,849) (1) Ghandi left the Congress Party.

(2) Nazi labour movement formed.

20/10/1934. Saturday (-3,853) An air race began at Mildenhall, Suffolk, at 6.30am. A prize of £10,000 and a £500 gold cup went to the fastest flight to Australia. It was won by the Briton, Mr T Campbell-Black and Mr C W a Scott, who flew a De Havilland Comet to Australia in 2 days, 22 hours, and 58 minutes.

16/10/1934. Tuesday (-3,857) Mao Tse Tung's 'Long March' began.  See 20/10/1935.

15/10/1934, Monday (-3,858) Raymond Poincare, French statesman, died aged 74.

12/10/1934, Friday (-3,861)

9/10/1934, Tuesday (-3,864) Alexander (1888 – 1934), King of Yugoslavia since 1921, was assassinated by Croatian terrorists from the Ustase Movement in Marseilles.  He was succeeded by his 11-year old son Peter II (1923-1970).

8/10/1934. Monday (-3,865) Despite martial law, there was fierce fighting in Spain and Catalonia was trying to set up its own government, with Barcelona as the capital.

5/10/1934, Friday (-3,868)

2/10/1934, Tuesday (-3,871) A magnitude 6 earthquake hit San Francisco, USA.

1/10/1934, Monday (-3,872) Passenger services were withdrawn between Stirling and Jamestown via Gartness. The Clifton Rocks Railway, Bristol, finally closed after years of deficits. In 1922 the Portway Road had been widened, leaving only a very narrow access for pedestrians at the lower end.

28/9/1934, Friday (-3,875) Brigitte Bardot, actress, female role model, was born in Paris.

26/9/1934. Wednesday (-3,877) The liner Queen Mary was launched at John Brown’s yard in Clydebank, Glasgow.

21/9/1934, Friday (-3,882) The most powerful storm for 40 years hit Japan. 3,066 people were killed, and 45,600 houses destroyed.

20/9/1934, Thursday (-3,883) Sophia Loren, actress, was born.

18/9/1934. Tuesday (-3,885) (1) Mussolini said all Italians from the age of 8 must have military training.

(2) The USSR joined the League of Nations in an anti-Nazi move.

(3) Britons first heard Lord Haw Haw (Irishman William Joyce) make a pro-Nazi broadcast.

9/9/1934. Sunday (-3,894) Fascists and their opponents clashed in London.

4/9/1934. Tuesday (-3,899) In Germany, 750,000 attended the opening of the Nazi Party Conference.

20/8/1934. Monday (-3,914) The USA joined the International Labour Organisation.

19/8/1934. Sunday (-3,915) A plebiscite in Germany gave sole power to the Fuhrer; agreeing to his merging the offices of President and Chancellor, Adolf Hitler. Of 45.5 million voters, 38m voted for Hitler, 4.25m voted against him, and 870,000 spoilt their ballot papers.

11/8/1934, Saturday (-3,923) The first batch of prisoners, classified ‘most dangerous’, arrived at the new Alcatraz high-security prison in San Francisco Bay.

7/8/1934, Tuesday (-3,927) A US Appeal Court upheld a judge’s ruling to allow James Joyce’s work, Ulysses, to be sold in the USA.

6/8/1934, Monday (-3,928) US Marines withdrew from Haiti, ending 19 years of military occupation.

5/8/1934, Sunday (-3929)

3/8/1934, Friday (-3,931) Following the death of Hindenberg, the German Cabinet merged the offices of President and Chancellor, and made Hitler ‘Der Fuhrer’.

2/8/1934. Thursday (-3,932) (1) A Nazi rally in New York attracted a crowd of 9,000.

(2) Paul von Hindenburg, German military leader and President from 1925, died aged 86.

1/8/1934, Wednesday (-3,933) Kurmanbek Bakiyev, President of Kyrgyzstan, was born.

31/7/1934, Tuesday (-3,934) The murderers of Chancellor Dolfuss were executed.

30/7/1934, Monday (-3,935) Kurt von Schuschnigg was appointed Chancellor of Austria.

27/7/1934, Friday (-3,938)

26/7/1934. Thursday (-3,939) Following the murder of Chancellor Dollfus in Austria, on 25/7/1934 in a failed Nazi coup, the Austrian government ordered the round up of all Nazis. Over 150 Austrian Nazis were arrested. The Nazis in Austria had attempted an unsuccessful coup against the Dollfus administration; Dollfus was a devout Catholic and violently anti-Socialist. He had used the army to crush the schutzbund, the big socialist defence force established in the housing estates outside Vienna. The workers held out against the army for five days. A Nazi gang broke into the Austrian Chancellery; Dollfus was shot in the throat and left to bleed to death for four hours. When it was clear the Nazi coup was going to fail the gang took other government ministers hostage and negotiated a promise of safe conduct to the German border. This promise was withdrawn when it was discovered that Dollfus was dead. Three police and two Nazis died in a three hour battle for the radio station.

25/7/1934, Wednesday (-3,940) Engelbert Dolfuss (1892-1934), Chancellor of Austria, was assassinated in Vienna by rebel Austrian Nazis.  Otto Planetta was convicted of the crime and hanged.

22/7/1934, Sunday (-3,943) Bank robber John Dillinger was killed in an FBI ambush in Chicago.

20/7/1934, Friday (-3,945) In Germany, the SS was constituted an independent organisation within the Nazi Party.

19/7/1934. Thursday (-3,946) The UK government announced that the RAF would receive another 500 planes.

18/7/1934. Wednesday (-3,947) King George V opened the Mersey Tunnel. It was 2.13 miles long and had a diameter of 44 feet, allowing for 4 traffic lanes. See 18/12/1925.

18/7/1934, Monday (-3,949)

14/7/1934, Saturday (-3,951) The oil pipeline from Mosul, Iraq, to Tripoli, Lebanon, opened.

13/7/1934. Friday (-3,952) Heinrich Himmler (33) was put in charge of Germany’s concentration camps.

12/7/1934, Thursday (-3,953) Belgium banned uniformed political parties.

11/7/1934, Wednesday (-3,954)

4/7/1934. Wednesday (-3,961) The French physicist, Marie Curie, died.  She was born in Poland, and pioneered the medical uses of radioactivity.

3/7/1934. Tuesday (-3,962) The German Vice-Chancellor Von Papen resigned.

2/7/1934, Monday (-3,963) Lazaro Cardenas was elected President of Mexico.

30/6/1934. Saturday (-3,965) Hitler’s rival Ernst Rohm and hundreds of influential Nazis were murdered by the SS in the ‘night of the long knives’. Hitler justified this by claiming the SS were planning to overthrow him. The Army probably also threatened to take over unless Hitler got rid of the brownshirt thugs and stopped talk of socialist revolution. So they were crushed and the blackshirts, or SS, emerged triumphant.

26/6/1934, Tuesday (-3,969)

19/6/1934, Tuesday (-3,976)

15/6/1934. Friday (-3,980) The dictators Hitler and Mussolini met for the first time, in Venice.

12/6/1934, Tuesday (-3,983) In London, pedestrian crossings were installed to cut road casualties.

11/6/1934, Monday (-3,984) The League of Nations Disarmament Conference at Geneva ended in failure.

10/6/1934, Sunday (-3,985) British composer Frederick Delius died in France.

9/6/1934. Saturday (-3,986) Donald Duck was created, in Walt Disney’s cartoon The Little Wise Hen. Walt Disney was born in Chicago on 5/12/1901.

8/6/1934, Friday (-3,987) Fierce fighting broke out at a fascist rally staged by Oswald Moseley at London’s Olympia.

1/6/1934, Friday (-3,994)

25/5/1934. Friday (-4,001)  The composer Gustav Holst, who wrote The Planets, died aged 59. He was buried in Chichester Cathedral.

24/5/1934, Thursday (-4,002) Colombia and Peru negotiated over the disputed Amazonian port of Leticia, claimed by both countries.

23/5/1934. Wednesday (-4,003) Bank robbers Bonnie Parker (23) and Clyde Barrow (25) were shot dead in an ambush by Texas rangers near Gibland, Alabama. Clyde met Bonnie in the café where she worked. She chose a life of excitement, drama, and danger, when she married the convict Clyde. She drove his getaway car as he robbed banks. A total of 12 people had died in their raids across the south western USA over the past 4 years. In 1930 Clyde was arrested but he escaped with Bonnie’s help and returned to bank robbery. After the death of the pair, people paid to see their bodies in the State morgue.

22/5/1934, Tuesday (-4,004)

20/5/1934, Sunday (-4,006) A brief war between Saudi Arabia under Prince Faisal and Yemen under Imam Yahya over possession of Asir province ended with victory to Saudi Arabia. The moderate terms of the peace treaty imposed by Faisal ensured friendly relations between him and Yahya for life.

19/5/1934. Saturday (-4,007) In Bulgaria, Fascists seized power in a coup aided by King Boris.

18/5.1934, Friday (-4,008) Dudley Zoo, Birmingham, opened.

17/5/1934, Thursday (-4,009) Cass Gilbert, the US architect who designed many of New York’s skyscrapers, including the Woolworth Building, died.

16/5/1934, Wednesday (-4,010) Officials at Wimbledon first allowed women competitors to wear shorts.

15/5/1934, Tuesday (4,011) Karlis Ulmanis became dictator of Latvia.

12/5/1934, Saturday (-4,014)

10/5/1934, Thursday (-4,016) The Police Training College in Hendon, London, was opened by the Prince of Wales.

9/5/1934, Wednesday (-4,017) Alan Bennett, British playwright, was born.

6/5/1934. Sunday (-4,020) Saudi Arabian forces captured the Yemeni city of Hodeida. On 13/5/1934 Saudi Arabia signed a truce with Yemen in Jeddah.

3/5/1934. Thursday (-4,023) The author H G Wells predicted there would be a major world war by 1940.

30/4/1934, Monday (-4,026) Chancellor Dollfuss became dictator of Austria.

27/4/1934, Friday (-4,029) Britain and France warned Germany not to default on reparations payments.

26/4/1934, Thursday (-4,030) US railway companies averted a strike by reaching a settlement to gradually roll back the 10% pay cut imposed on the workers two years earlier.

25/4/1934. Wednesday (-4,031) Martial law was declared in Spain as the government resigned.

24/4/1934, Tuesday (-4,032) Laurens Hammond filed a patent for an "electrical musical instrument" known today as the Hammond organ.

23/4/1934, Monday (-4,033) Berlin police prohibited fortune-telling.

22/4/1934, Sunday (-4,034) The Apennine rail tunnel, Italy, 19 km long, opened. The Monte Adone rail tunnel, Italy, 7 km long, opened.

18/4/1934. Wednesday (-4,038) The first launderette opened in Fort Worth, Texas, by J F Cantrell. It was called a washeteria.

7/4/1934. Saturday (-4,049) Ghandi suspended his campaign of civil disobedience.

6/4/1934, Friday (-4,050) In the last decade 1,900,000 new houses have been built in Britain.  In new estates on the fringes of big cities, semi-detached houses could be bought for £450.

5/4/1934, Thursday (-4,051) Joan Meakin became the first female glider pilot to fly over the English Channel.

4/4/1934, Wednesday (-4,052) The first ‘cat’s eye’ studs were laid in the road at an accident black spot, a crossroads near Bradford, Yorkshire, UK.

3/4/1934, Tuesday (-4,053) Jane Goodall, British zoologist who studied gorillas in Tanzania in the 1960s, was born.

1/4/1934, Sunday (-4,055) Easter Sunday.

29/3/1934, Thursday (-4,058) Germany published its defence estimates' which showed a total increase of one-third and an increase of 250% in its air force.

26/3/1934. Monday (-4,061) The speed limit in urban areas was set at 30 mph.

25/3/1934, Sunday (-4,062) The threatened US car workers' strike was averted when the Roosevelt administration created a National Automotive Labor Board to help resolve disputes

24/3/1934. Saturday (-4,063) The USA promised it would grant independence to the Philippines.

22/3/1934, Thursday (-4,065)

21/3/1934, Wednesday (-4,066) The slimming craze was blamed for a fall in UK potato sales.

20/3/1934, Tuesday (-4,067) Radar was first demonstrated in Kiel Harbour, Germany. See 26/2/1935.

14/3/1934, Wednesday (-4,073) Eugene Cernan, one of the sixth pair of US astronauts to land on the Moon, was born in Chicago, Illinois.

10/3/1934, Saturday (-4,077) Belfast Zoo (Bellevue) opened.

9/3/1934. Friday (-4,078) Yuri Gagarin, first man in space, was born near Smolensk, son of a collective farmer.

8/3/1934. Thursday (-4,079) The new Volkswagen was unveiled at the Motor Show in Germany, priced at £61.

7/3/1934, Wednesday (-4,080) John Campbell Aberdeen, British politician, died (born 3/8/1847).

1/3/1934, Thursday (-4,086)

23/2/1934. Friday (-4,092) (1) King Leopold III succeeded to the throne of Belgium.

(2) Sir Edward Elgar, English composer, (born 2/6/1857), died of pneumonia in Worcester. On 10/11/1910 he conducted the first performance of his violin concerto, played by Fritz Kreisler, at the Queen’s Hall, London Applause was described as worthy of the Battle of Trafalgar.

22/2/1934, Thursday (-4,093) General Augusto Sandino of Nicaragua was executed by rival USA-backed leader General Anastazio Somoza. Sandino’s guerrilla forces had opposed a US occupation of Nicaragua from 1912; the US withdrew in 1933 after Sandino agreed a ceasefire.

21/2/1934, Wednesday (-4,094) Cesar Sandino, Nicaraguan revolutionary, died aged 40.

20/2/1934, Tuesday (-4,095)

18/2/1934, Sunday (-4,097) Yoko Ono, the widow of Jon Lennon, was born.

17/2/1934. Saturday (-4,098) (1) A Socialist revolt in Austria was brutally crushed.

(2) Albert I, King of Belgium, aged 58, was killed in a climbing accident near Namur, after a 25-year reign. He was succeeded by his son, Leopold III, aged 32, who ruled until 1950.

14/2/1934, Wednesday (-4,201)

12/2/1934, Monday (-4,103) General Strike in France began (until 13/2/1934) in protest at the dangers of Fascism.

11/2/1934, Sunday (-4,104) Mary Quant, English fashion designer who invented the mini-skirt, was born in Blackheath, London.

8/2/1934, Thursday (-4,107)

6/2/1934, Tuesday (-4,109) Riots in Paris between Far Right and Communist factions. These riots continued until 9/2/1934. They had been sparked by the suicide, on 3/1/1934, of the Russian-born Serge Stavisky, a dubious speculator who had been protected from prosecution by corrupt government officials. There were allegations that he had in fact been killed to protect these officials, and both Far Right and Communist factions protested over the inefficiency and corruption of the French administration. Civil war loomed in France, until the establishment of a group of new government officials who were innocent of any corruption allegations.

5/2/1934, Monday (-4,110) Rioting broke out in the streets of New York over the cab driver strike as strikers fought with police and burned independent cabs.

4/2/1934, Sunday (-4,111) Hungary established diplomatic relations with the USSR.

3/2/1934, Saturday (-4,112) The first regular transatlantic mail service was begun by Deutsche Lufthansa between Berlin and Buenos Aires via Stuttgart, Seville, Bathurst and Natal.

30/1/1934. Tuesday (-4,116) All Austrian political parties were banned except the 'Fatherland Front'.  In Germany the regional Lander Diets were abolished and power centralised.

26/1/1934. Friday (-4,120) Germany signed a non-aggression pact with Poland.

21/1/1934. Sunday (-4,125) The British Union of Fascists, led by Sir Oswald Moseley, held its biggest rally ever in Birmingham. Moseley called for a Fascist dictatorship in Britain.

18/1/1934. Thursday (-4,128) British police made their first arrest using pocket radios. They caught a thief in Brighton three minutes after he had stolen three overcoats from a shop.

14/1/1934, Sunday (-4,132) In Spain, the Left won in the Barcelona area but the Right won in all other regions of Spain.

11/1/1934, Thursday (-4,135) Jean Chretien, Canada’s 20th Prime Minister, was born.

7/1/1934, Sunday (-4,139) The comic book hero Flash Gordon made his debut in the USA.

3/1/1934, Wednesday (-4,143) British road signs were to be standardised.

1/1/1934. Monday (-4,145) (1) Sterilisation became law in Germany.

(2) Britain now had over 2 million telephone subscribers, with 275,000 more joining every year.

24/12/1933, Friday (-4,155) The Codex Siniaticus arrived in London.

23/12/1933, Thursday (-4,156) In Germany, the sentences were announced at the Reichstag Fire Trial.

17/12/1933, Sunday (-4,160) Just for this day, the public were allowed to walk through the newly completed Mersey Tunnel.

12/12/1933. Tuesday (-4,165) In Germany, the new Reichstag met but adjourned indefinitely.

9/12/1933. Saturday (-4,168) London to Singapore air service began.

6/12/1933. Wednesday (-4,171) Germany planned to abolish women’s suffrage.

5/12/1933. Tuesday (-4,172) (USA, Morals) Prohibition Laws repealed in the USA, by the 21st Amendment, after over 13 dry years, leaving individual States free to determine their known drinks laws. See 16/1/1920. Utah was the last state to ratify the 21st Amendment, which nullified the 19th Amendment of 1919 prohibiting the manufacture sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors. Prohibition had not stopped alcohol consumption, but merely driven it underground into the criminal world. America celebrated so much that 1.5 million barrels of beer were drunk the first night. Towns ran dry, and were drunk dry again the next night too. Prohibition had simply created enormous opportunities for organised crime.

4/12/1933, Monday (-4,173) Stefan George, German poet, died aged 65.

1/12/1933, Friday (-4,176)

19/11/1933, Sunday (-4,188) In Spain, the CEDA (Spanish Confederation of Right-Wing Groups) won the largest number of seats, 115, in the general election. The Radicals won 102, Centre parties won 167, and the Left won 99. CEDA and the Radicals formed a Government, led by Alejandro Lerroux.

16/11/1933, Thursday (-4,191) The USA established diplomatic relations with the USSR for the first time since the Russian Revolution.

15/11/1933. Wednesday (-4,192) Germany’s new Reichstag opened. Women and Jewish members were excluded.

14/11/1933, Tuesday (-4,193) (1) The Biassa rail tunnel, Italy, 5.1 km long, opened.

(2) Fred Haise, US astronaut, was born in Biloxi, Mississippi.

12/11/1933. Sunday (-4,195) In a plebiscite in Germany, the Nazis won 92% of the vote.

10/11/1933. Friday (-4,197) Dolfuss declared martial law in Austria.

8/11/1933, Wednesday (-4,199) Mohammed Nadir Shah, King of Afghanistan, was assassinated in Kabul. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammed Zahir Shah.

7/11/1933, Tuesday (-4,200) LaGuardia was elected Mayor of new York; he served until 1045.

31/10/1933, Tuesday (-4,207) The carvings of the four heads of Presidents at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota, was completed.

29/10/1933, Sunday (-4,209) The Falange Party, a Spanish version of Fascism, was launched by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera.

23/10/1933, Monday (-4,215) (1) The Piccadilly Line was extended from South Harrow to Uxbridge.

(2) The first Lyons Corner House opened in London.

(3) Albert Sarraut became Prime Minister of France.

20/10/1933. Friday (-4,218) Mussolini denounced Roosevelt as a dictator.

19/10/1933, Thursday (-4,219) The 1,000th Boots chemist opened, at Galashiels, Scotland. By 1939 the chain operated 1,200 stores across the UK.

17/10/1933, Tuesday (-4,221)

16/10/1933, Monday (-4,222) In Norway, the Labour Party won the general elections. Labour won 69 seats, Conservatives 30 seats, Liberals 24 seats, Farmers Party 23 seats, Others 4 seats.

15/10/1933, Sunday (-4,223) Moseley’s Fascist supporters were stoned in Manchester.

14/10/1933. Saturday (-4,224) Germany withdrew from the League of Nations.

30/9/1933, Saturday (-4,238) US President Franklin D Roosevelt announced the US$ 700 million New Deal for the poor.

27/9/1933, Wednesday (-4,241) In Germany the National Synod elected the pro-Nazi Ludwig Muller as Reichs-Bishop. Opponents rallied round Pastor Neimoller and formed the anti-Nazi Confessional Church.

25/9/1933, Monday (-4,243) 25,000 visited Turin Cathedral to gaze at the Turin Shroud, revealed to the public for the first time in 400 years, which purportedly showed the face of Jesus.

22/9/1933, Friday (-4,246) In Ireland, William Cosgrave became leader of the Finne Gael Party

21/9/1933, Thursday (-4,247) The Reichstag Fire trial began.

20/9/1933, Wednesday (-4,248) Annie Besant, co-founder of the Theosophical Society, died.

15/9/1933, Friday (-4,253)

8/9/1933. Friday (-4,260) Iraqi King Feisal I, King since 1921, died in Berne, Switzerland.

7/9/1933, Thursday (-4,261) Sir Edward Grey (born 25/4/1862), Liberal MP for Berwick on Tweed from 1885 and UK Foreign Secretary 1905-1916, died at Fallodon. He attempted to avert war in 1914 through negotiations with Germany.

2/9/1933, Saturday (-4,266) (1) Adolf Hitler addressed a huge crowd at Zeppelin Field, promising that the Nazi Party would meet in Nuremberg for the next 1,000 years.

(2) In Ireland, the opposition parties of the National Guard, the Centre, and Cumann na nGaedhael united to form the Fine Gael Party, led Owen O’Duffy (from 22/9, William Cosgrave was leader).

29/8/1933. Tuesday (-4,270) It was officially confirmed that German Jews were being sent to concentration camps.

25/8/1933, Friday (-4,274) (Germany, Jewish) The Haavara (‘transfer’) Agreement was signed between the Nazi German Government and Zionist Jews. It provided for the relocation of Jews from hostile Germany to what was then British Mandated Palestine, and for these Jews to take some assets that would otherwise have been confiscated by Germany. Advantages to Nazi Germany included the removal of Jews from their territory and a possible easing of sanctions on the country which had been imposed by Jews in the rest of Europe, which were a threat to the still-fragile German economy. The Agreement was cancelled in 1939 after Hitler invaded Poland. Hitler initially opposed the Haavara Agreement, but supported it in the period 1937-9.

23/8/1933. Wednesday (-4,276) (1) Gandhi was released from Poona jail after his hunger strike over the government’s attitude to Untouchables nearly killed him.

(2) The King and Queen opened the new Civic Hall at Leeds.

22/8/1933, Tuesday (-4,277) In Ireland, Eamon de Valera banned the Blue Shirts, a quasi-Fascist movement.

21/8/1933, Monday (-4,278) In the USSR, the White Sea Canal opened. It was built mostly with forced labour.

12/8/1933, Saturday (-4,287) In Cuba the army, led by Fulgencio Batista, and backed by the US, overthrew President Machedo.

31/7/1933, Monday (-4,299) London’s Piccadilly Line was extended from Enfield West (now Oakwood) to Cockfosters, see 13/3/1933.

25/7/1933. Tuesday (-4,305) Hitler’s Cabinet announced that disabled people would be sterilised.

23/7/1933. Sunday (-4,307) (1) Germany decreed that importing banned books was punishable with death.

(2) The World Monetary and Economic Conference met in London without reaching any agreement. The British Government abandoned its principle of free trade and encouraged people to ‘buy British’.

(3) Richard Rogers, architect who designed the Pompidou Centre in Paris and the Lloyds Building in London, was born.

22/7/1933. Saturday (-4,308) Wiley Post, 34, completed the first solo round the world flight. He also slice 21 hours off the previous record for a round the world flight of 8 days 15 hours 51 minutes he achieved with his navigator Harold Gatty.

20/7/1933, Thursday (-4,310) 20,000 Jews protested in Hyde Park, London, against Nazi anti-Semitism.

14/7/1933. Friday (-4,316) Nazis banned all other political parties in Germany.

8/7/1933, Saturday (-4,322) The Vatican signed a concordat with Nazi Germany; this did not protect German Catholics from persecution.

4/7/1933. Tuesday (-4,326) (1) The Deutsche Volkspartei (DVP) was dissolved. The DVP had been formed in December 1918 as a moderate right-wing Party representing liberalism and industry. Its leader, Streseman, served as German Foreign Minister from 1923 until his death in 1929; he did much to alleviate the harsher provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. However from 1930 the DVP lost most of its electoral support.

(2) Ghandi was jailed for a year for anti-British activity.

1/7/1933, Saturday (-4,329) (1) The new London passenger Transport Board came into existence, coordinating all bus, tram and tube services within a radius of 20-30 miles of Charing Cross. Only main line rail services were excluded. The tube map was also reorganised according to a new design by Harry Beck.

(2) Speke aerodrome, Liverpool, opened.

26/6/1933, Monday (-4,334) King George laid the foundation stone of the University of London’s new Bloomsbury site.

22/6/1933, Thursday (-4,338) In Germany, the Social Democrat Party was suppressed.

20/6/1933, Tuesday (-4,340) Army coup in Siam (Thailand).

19/6/1933. Monday (-4,341) The Prime Minister of Austria, Engelbert Dollfuss, banned all Nazi organisations.

15/6/1933, Thursday (-4,345) China and Tibet ended a two-year war, agreeing to settle upon their pre-war border.

6/6/1933. Tuesday (-4,354) The first drive – in cinema opened in Camden, New Jersey, with room for 400 cars.

30/5/1932, Tuesday (-4,361) German Chancellor Heinrich Briening (1885-1970) was ousted from office by the pro-Nazi Franz von Papen.  Breining had been appointed as Chancellor by President Hindenburg on 28/3/1930, as a counterweight to Nazi influence.  Breining escaped from Germany to Holland in 1934 and went on to lecture at Harvard.

28/5/1933. Sunday (-4,363) The Nazis won elections in the free city of Danzig.

27/5/1933, Saturday (-4,364) The ‘Century of World Progress’ Fair opened in Chicago.

26/5/1933, Friday (-4,365) Australia claimed a third of Antarctica.

24/5/1933. Wednesday (-4,367) In Britain, the TUC called for a boycott of Germany to protest against Hitler, who became Chancellor on 30/1/1933.

22/5/1933. Monday (-4,369) President Roosevelt appointed Harry Hopkins as the administrator of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. This was to give aid and work to the destitute in the USA as the 1930s Depression deepened. 29/10/1929 was the date of the Wall Street Crash.

21/5/1933. Sunday (-4,370) Britain signed a ten-year non-aggression pact with Italy, France, and Germany.

19/5/1933,  Friday (-4,372) Edward de Bono, who developed the concept of lateral thinking, was born.

17/5/1933, Wednesday (-4,374) (1) In Spain the Association Law nationalised Church property, and closed Church schools.

(2) Hitler made the first of his ‘Peace’ speeches.

16/5/1933, Tuesday (-4,375) Hitler gave a secret instruction to begin mass production of weaponry for the German Army.

15/5/1933, Monday (-4,376)

9/5/1933. Tuesday (-4,382) Hitler ordered the burning of more than 25,000 books. ‘Un-German’ volumes were thrown onto a huge bonfire outside Berlin University. Other similar fires took place in other German cities and over 1 million books may have been burned altogether.

8/5/1933, Monday (-4,383) The first execution by gas chamber in the US, in Nevada.

7/5/1933. Sunday (-4,384) Jews and Fascists fought in the East End of London.

5/5/1933. Friday (-4,386) Hitler proposed a ban on mixed marriages between Jews and Aryans, and to begin sterilisations.

3/5/1933, Wednesday (-4,388) Ireland removed the Oath of Allegiance to the British Crown; appeals to the Privy Council were outlawed.

2/5/1933. Tuesday (-4,389) Trades Unions were forbidden in Germany. The ADGD (Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund) had been formed in 1919, as a federation of German Trades Unions, and had gained a total membership of 5 million workers. On this day it was banned by the Nazi Party.

1/5/1933, Monday (-4,390) The Britain to India telephone service began.

30/4/1933. Sunday (-4,391) The USA came off the Gold Standard to prevent a drain on gold stocks.

28/4/1933, Friday (+4,393)

26/4/1933, Wednesday (-4,395) The Gestapo German secret police force was established.

25/4/1933. Tuesday (-4,396) Canada came off the Gold Standard.

24/4/1933, Monday (-4,397) Felix Adler, US educationalist (born 13/8/1851) died.

22/4/1933, Saturday (-4,399) Sir Frederick Henry Royce, English car manufacturer of Rolls Royce cars, died.

19/4/1933. Wednesday (-4,402) The UK banned trade with the USSR. See 18/4/1933.

18/4/1933, Tuesday (-4,403) Russia staged a show-trial of three Britons accused of espionage.

16/4/1933, Sunday (-4,405) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1933. Monday (-4,411) A world air speed record of 424 mph was set by Francesco Agello.

8/4/1933, Saturday (-4,413) Western Australia, irritated by federal taxation, voted to seceded from the rest of Australia.

7/4/1933, Friday (-4,414) Germany banned Jews from government employment.

6/4/1933, Thursday (-4,415)

5/4/1933, Wednesday (-4,416) The International Court at The Hague ruled that Greenland was a Danish possession, against Norway’s claim.

4/4/1933, Tuesday (-4,417) The American helium-filled airship Abron crashed into the sea off New Jersey during a violent storm.

3/4/1933. Monday (-4,418) Two British planes became the first to fly over Mount Everest.

1/4/1933. Saturday (-4,420) Nazis seized Jewish bank accounts.

30/3/1933, Thursday (-4,422) In South Africa, J B M Hertzog formed a National Coalition Government, with J C Smuts as deputy Prime Minister.

29/3/1933, Wednesday (-4,423) (Austria, Germany) Austrian Nazis staged a large demonstration, in defiance of Chancellor Dollfuss. Meanwhile Germany instituted a punitive 1,000 Mark tourist tax on any German visiting Austria, which severely damaged the Austrian tourist industry.

28/3/1933. Tuesday (-4,424) Hitler ordered a boycott of Jews and Jewish shops. Jewish-owned shops were closed, Jewish professors thrown out of universities, and school textbooks re-written to include ‘racial science’. Officials of trades unions and employer’s organisations were sacked and replaced by Nazis. The boy scouts were dissolved and replaced by the Hitler Youth organisation, run by the anti-Semitic Baldur Von Schirach.

27/3/1933, Monday (-4,425) Japan announced it would leave the League of Nations, effective 1935.

24/3/1933, Friday (-4,428)

23/3/1933. Thursday (-4,429) Germany passed 'Enabling Laws' giving Hitler dictatorial powers.

22/3/1933. Wednesday (-4,430) The Dachau concentration camp was opened on the site of an old munitions factory in Munich to detain Communists and other ‘political undesirables’. This was the first German concentration camp.

21/3/1933, Tuesday (-4,431) (1) The first meeting of the German Reichstag, after the fire of 27/2/1933.  The Reichstag met in the garrison church in Potsdam, a historical site of Prussian military power.

(2) Michael Heseltine, British Conservative politician, was born.

19/3/1933, Sunday (-4,433) Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister of Italy, proposed a pact with Britain, France and Germany.

16/3/1933, Thursday (-4,436) At the League of Nations Disarmament Conference in Geneva, Britain’s plan for a reduction in the size of national armies failed, because of Germany’s insistence that its Stormtroopers not be included in the totals.

15/3/1933. Wednesday (-4,437) Hitler proclaimed the Third Reich, which he said would last for a thousand years. Many Jews fled Germany, as Kosher food and Left-wing newspapers were banned.

14/3/1933. Tuesday (-4,438) The Nazis banned Kosher meat.  Goebbels was appointed as Nazi Minister of Propaganda and Public Enlightenment.

13/3/1933, Monday (-4,439) London’s Piccadilly Line was extended from Arnos Grove to Enfield West (now Oakwood), see 19/9/1932 and 31/7/1933.

12/3/1933, Sunday (-4,440) In the US, President Roosevelt made the first of his ‘fireside chats’ by radio to the people. He assured people that the banks were safe for depositing savings.

11/3/1933, Saturday (-4,441)

9/3/1933, Thursday (-4,443) (USA, Price) In the US, the holding of gold bullion by private citizens was made illegal by the Emergency Banking Relief Act. This was a measure to ensure that all gold in the US was available to back the US Dollar during the Depression.

8/3/1933, Wednesday (-4,444) Johnny Dollar, musician, was born.

7/3/1933. Tuesday (-4,445) (1) Chancellor Dolfuss suspended the Austrian Parliament.

(2) Malcolm Campbell set a new land speed record of 276 mph.

6/3/1933. Monday (-4,446) (1) The growing financial crisis in the USA caused all banks to close for 4 days.

(2) Poland occupied the free city of Danzig, now renamed Gdansk.

5/3/1933. Sunday (-4,447) (1) The Nazis won almost half the seats in the German elections (43.9% of the vote). The Communists won 12.3% of the vote.  Hitler capitalised on the Reichstag Fire (27/2/1933) to raise the spectre of a Bolshevist takeover of Germany. The result was, Nazis 288 seats, Social Democrats 120 seats, Communists 81 seats, Centre 74 seats, National People’s Party 52 seats, Others 32 seats.

(2) Sir Malcolm Campbell set a new world land speed record of 272mph in ‘Bluebird’.

4/3/1933. Saturday (-4,448) President Franklin D Roosevelt was inaugurated in the USA. In the midst of the Depression, with banks closing, he said “We have nothing to fear but fear itself”.

3/3/1933, Friday (-4,449) Margaret Fink, Australian film producer, was born.

1/3/1933. Wednesday (-4,451) The Nazis began mass arrests of all political opponents.

28/2/1933, Tuesday (-4,452) In Germany, the Reichstag Fire Decree banned the Communist Party.

27/2/1933. Monday (-4,453) The German Reichstag burned down. The fire was blamed on a simple-minded Dutch Communist, Marinus Van Der Lubbe, who police found in the Reichstag grounds. Marinus Van Der Lubbe was guillotined on 10/1/1934. However many suspect the Nazis. Hitler now pressed for, and succeeded in getting, dictatorial powers from President Hindenburg, and the lack of a majority in the Reichstag was no longer a hindrance to the Nazis.

26/2/1933, Sunday (-4,454) James Goildsmith, financier, was born in Paris.

25/2/1933. Saturday (-4,455) Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in protest at a  vote condemning the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Japan now occupied all of China north of the Great Wall.

21/2/1933, Tuesday (-4,459)

16/2/1933, Thursday (-4,464) (1) Fearing German aggression, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia formed the Little Entente, with a Permanent Council,

(2) England won the Ashes against Australia using a controversial ‘bodyline’ bowling technique, aiming the cricket ball at the batsman’s legs and body, making the game more dangerous.

15/2/1933, Wednesday (-4,465) The Italian immigrant and anarchist Guiseppe Zangara failed in an attempt to assassinate President Franklin D Roosevelt in Bayfront Park, Miami.

14/2/1933, Tuesday (-4,466) (1) Oxford students declared that ‘they would not fight for King and Country’.

(2) The world’s first speaking clock became available to telephone users in the Paris area.

10/2/1933. Friday (-4,470) Hitler made a speech in Berlin attacking democracy.

7/2/1933, Tuesday (-4,473) The Australian Antarctic Territory was created.

6/2/1933, Monday (-4,474) Gayford and Nicholetts began a non-stop flight from England to Africa.

3/2/1933, Friday (-4,477)

31/1/1933, Tuesday (-4,480) Edouard Daladier became Prime Minister of France.

30/1/1933. Monday (-4,481) Adolf Hitler, 43 years old, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by 85-year old President Paul Von Hindenburg. Hitler’s Cabinet included only two Nazis; Hermann Goering (Minister without Portfolio) and Wilhelm Frick (Minister of the Interior). Franz von Papen was vice-Chancellor, and Constantin von Neurath was Foreign Minister.

28/1/1933, Saturday (-4,483) In Germany, Kurt von Schleicher’s Government fell, after the Left and Centre failed to reach agreement.

25/1/1933, Wednesday (-4,486) In Norway, a L:iberal Government succeeded the Agrarian Party administration.

24/1/1933, Tuesday (-4,487) In elections in the Irish Free State, Eamon de Valera’s Fianna Fail party gained a majority of 1, 77 seats, against Cumann na nGaedhael 48, others 28.

23/1/1933, Monday (-4,488) The US, under the 20th Amendment, moved the Inauguration Day of its Presidents from 4 March to 23 January. The aim was to reduce the ‘lame duck’ period of an outgoing President.

22/1/1933, Sunday (-4,489) The USSR launched its Second Five Year Plan. This envisioned the growth of heavy industry but also the production of more consumer goods.

21/1/1933, Saturday (-4,490) George Augustus Moore, Irish writer, died aged 80.

18/1/1933, Wednesday (-4,493) The botanist and conservationist David Bellamy was born.

16/1/1933, Monday (-4,495) Eleutherios Venizelos again became Prime Minister of Greece.

10/1/1933. Tuesday (-4,501) Civil disorder broke out in Spain and the army declared martial law.

5/1/1933, Thursday (-4,506) Calvin Coolidge, American Republican statesman and 30th President (1923-1929), died of a heart attack in Northampton, Massachusetts.

2/1/1933, Monday (-4,509) Anarchist uprising in Barcelona.

1/1/1933, Sunday (-4,510) Joe Orton, English author, was born (died 1967)

31/12/1932, Saturday, (-4,511) The Bishops Waltham branch (Hampshire) closed to passengers

30/12/1932, Friday (-4,512) The London to Brighton railway was electrified.

29/12/1932, Thursday (-4,513)

28/12/1932, Wednesday (-4,514) Roy Hattersley, British Labour Deputy Prime Minister, was born.

27/12/1932. Tuesday (-4,515) South Africa came off the Gold Standard.

26/12/1932, Monday (-4,516) Earthquake in China killed 70,000.

25/12/1932. Sunday (-4,517) King George V made the first Christmas Day broadcast to the Empire, see 19/12/1932.

22/12/1932, Thursday (-4,520)

19/12/1932, Monday (-4,523) The British Broadcasting Corporation inaugurated its Empire shortwave broadcasting service to the entire British Empire, based from its Daventry transmitters, see 25/12/1932.

18/12/1932, Sunday (-4,524) In France, Edouard Herriot resigned after defeat over proposal to pay War Debt to the USA, and Joseph Boncour formed a Government.

16/12/1932, Friday (-4,526) Dian Fossey, US zoologist and conservationist was born.

10/12/1932, Saturday (-4,532) The Metropolitan railway branch from Wembley to Stanmore opened.

4/12/1932, Sunday (-4,538) In Germany, Kurt von Schleicher attempted to form a coalition with a majority in the German Parliament, but failed.

29/11/1932. Tuesday (-4,543) (1) The USSR and France signed a non-aggression pact.

(2) Jacques Chirac, French Prime Minister 1995-2007, was born in Paris.

19/11/1932, Saturday (-4,553) At President Hindenburg’s invitation, Adolf Hitler attempted to form a coalition with a majority in the German Parliament, but failed.

17/11/1932. Thursday (-4,555) In Germany, Prime Minister Von Papen resigned after failing to form a government. Hitler refused the Chancellorship, if it meant a coalition with other parties, as Hindenburg wanted.

14/11/1932. Monday (-4,558) Book tokens were sold in Britain for the first time.

9/11/1932, Wednesday (-4,563) At Santa Cruz del Sur, Cuba, 2,500 out of a population of 4,000 were drowned by a storm surge.

8/11/1932. Tuesday (-4,564) Franklin D Roosevelt, Democrat, promising a New Deal to restore employment, financial security, and welfare, was swept into the White House on a landslide result, beating the sitting Republican candidate, Herbert Hoover. He became the 32nd President of the USA. Roosevelt got 22,822,000 votes against 15,762,000 for Hoover.

7/11/1932, Monday (-4,565)

6/11/1932, Sunday (-4,566) In Germany’s last elections before Hitler assumed absolute power, the Nazi Party lost 34 Reichstag seats, with gains for the Communists. The Nazis won 192 seats, Social Democrats 121 seats, Centre Party 70 seats, Communists 100 seats, National People’s Party 52 seats, Others 45 seats.

5/11/1932, Saturday (-4,567) London Transport changed the name of Gillespie Road station to Arsenal after the local football club.

2/11/1932, Wednesday (-4,570)

31/10/1932, Monday (-4,572) In Greece, after an inconclusive general election, Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos resigned and was replaced by Panyoti Tsaldaris, a moderate Royalist.

30/10/1932. Sunday (-4,573) Hunger marchers, protesting at unemployment, clashed on the streets of London with police.

29/10/1932, Saturday (-4,574)

28/10/1932. Friday (-4,575) In Rome the Via dell’ Imperio opened. It was part of a grand plan for the reconstruction of Rome, initiated by Mussolini in 1931. This was the tenth anniversary of the Fascist March on Rome.

27/10/1932, Thursday (-4,576) Hunger Marchers protested in Hyde Park, London.

25/10/1932. Tuesday (-4,578) (1) George Lansbury was elected leader of the British Labour Party.

(2) UK policemen’s pay was cut by 10%.

4/10/1932. Tuesday (-4,599) Hungary formed a Nationalist and anti-Semitic government.

3/10/1932, Monday (-4,600) Iraq joined the League of Nations.

2/10/1932, Sunday (-4,601)

1/10/1932, Saturday (-4,602) The British Union of Fascists was founded.

30/9/1932, Friday (-4,603) In Britain, unemployment reached nearly 3 million, 25% of the workforce. The figures did not include agricultural workers, the self employed and housewives who do not normally sign on when they lose their jobs. In Stockton on Tees the average weekly income for the unemployed was just 20 shillings a week, against 51 shillings 6d for those in work.

25/9/1932, Sunday (-4,608) Catalonia in Spain became autonomous, with its own Parliament, language and flag.

20/9/1932, Tuesday (-4,613) (1) The Sultanate of Nejd, the Kingdom of Hejaz, and their conquered dependencies were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

(2) At the Royal Albert Hall, London, UK, the three Methodist Churches – Wesleyan, Primitive and United – agreed to merge.

19/9/1932, Monday (-4,614) The Piccadilly Line, London, was extended 4 ½ miles from Finsbury Park to Arnos Grove, see 13/3/1933.

17/9/1932, Saturday (-4,616)

15/9/1932, Thursday (-4,618) In Spain, the Agrarian ;law was passed, allowing for expropriation of private estates, to be administered by a Bureau of Agrarian Reform.

14/9/1932, Wednesday (-4,619) Germany withdrew from the Geneva Disarmament Conference (until December 1932), demanding to be allowed to possess armaments equal to the other powers.

12/9/1932. Monday (-4,621) (1) The ‘World’s fastest train’, the Cheltenham Flyer, completed the journey between Swindon and Paddington in 65 minutes, an average speed of 71.3 mph.

(2) Von Papen dissolved the Reichstag.

10/9/1932, Saturday (-4,623) The Lauder branch line closed to passengers.

7/9/1932, Wednesday (-4,626) J Paul Getty II, US philanthropist, was born.

1/9/1932, Thursday (-4,632) A band of Peruvians invaded the Colombian port of Leticia, on the Amazon; the Peruvian Government backed their action.

30/8/1932. Tuesday (-4,634) Herman Goering, Nazi Party, was elected President of the Reichstag.

22/8/1932, Monday (-4,642) The first regular BBC broadcast began, from Alexandra Palace, Wood Green, north London. Programmes were broadcast on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Fridays for just 30 minutes, from 11.00pm to 11.30pm. The same masts were used for radio broadcasts so TV broadcasts could not begin until radio had finished.

13/8/1932. Saturday (-4,651) Hitler refused to serve as Chancellor under Von Papen.

11/8/1932, Thursday (-4,653) US President Hoover said it was time to scrap Prohibition.

10/8/1932, Wednesday (-4,654) In Spain, a revolt by General Jose Sanjurjo in Seville was suppressed.

4/8/1932. Thursday (-4,660) Nazi versus Communist riots in Berlin.

1/8/1932. Monday (-4,663) (1) In Britain, 3-letter car number plates were introduced, The first plate in London was AMY-1.

(2) The first Mars Bar, made in Slough, went on sale, at 2d. Made by Mr Forrest E Mars, son of a US confectioner, the bar was innovative, because until then all chocolate bars had been just solid blocks of chocolate.

31/7/1932. Sunday (-4,664) The Nazis were now the biggest party in the Reichstag, with 230 seats, but without an overall majority.

30/7/1932, Saturday (-4,665) The 10th Olympic Games opened in Los Angeles.

28/7/1932, Thursday (-4,667)

27/7/1932, Wednesday (-4,668) Archduchess Gisela of Austria died, aged 76

26/7/1932. Tuesday (-4,669) The War Minister of Germany, Kurt Von Scheidler, said that Germany was ready to re-arm.

25/7/1932. Monday (-4,670) The USSR, Poland, and Japan signed a non-aggression pact.

22/7/1932, Friday (-4,673) The Imperial Economic Conference began at Ottawa.

20/7/1932, Wednesday (-4,674) As law and order deteriorated in Prussia, Chancellor Franz von Papen dismissed the Prussian Social Democrat Prime Minister (Otto Braun) and the Prussian Minister of the Interior (Severing).

19/7/1932. Tuesday (-4,676) King George opened London’s Lambeth Bridge.

18/7/1932, Monday (-4,677) At Loch Lomond, Scotland, Kaye Don reclaimed the world boat speed record with a new mark of 119.81 mph in the Miss England III.

17/7/1932, Sunday (-4,678) In China Chiang Kai Shek began an anti-Communist drive.

16/7/1932, Saturday (-4,679) Rioting broke out in front of the White House by members of the Bonus Army who still refused to leave the capital. Contrary to tradition, President Hoover did not attend the final day of the 72nd Congress before adjourning until December due to safety concerns.

15/7/1932, Friday (-4,680) The Dublin Government halted land annuity payments, £5 million a year, to Britain, on moral, economic and legal grounds. Britain, already irked by the dropping of the oath of allegiance to the British Crown by the Dail, retaliated by imposing a 20% duty on Irish agricultural imports. Ireland in turn put import duties on British coal.

13/7/1932, Wednesday (-4,682)

11/7/1932. Monday (-4,684) The World Bank called for a return to the Gold Standard.

10/7/1932, Sunday (-4,685) Richard Threlfall, English chemist and engineer, died aged 70.

9/7/1932. Saturday (-4,686) (1) In Switzerland, the Allies voted to ease Germany’s economic crisis by suspending the repayment of war debts.

(2) King Camp Gillette, American inventor of the safety razor and blade, died.

8/7/1932, Friday (-4,687)

6/7/1932, Wednesday (-4,689) Kenneth Grahame, author who wrote Wind in the Willows, died (born 8/3/1859).

5/7/1932. Tuesday (-4,690) (1) The first electric express train ran from London Bridge to Three Bridges, Sussex.

(2) Oliveira Salazar became virtual dictator of Portugal at the head of a Fascist regime.  Portugal was in the middle of an economic and political crisis.

2/7/1932, Saturday (-4,693) Manuel II, ex-King of Portugal, died.

25/6/1932, Saturday (-4,700) (1) The first England – India test cricket match began at Lords, London.  England won by 158 runs.

(2) Britain imposed a 25% duty on imports from Germany in retaliation for Germany’s moratorium on loan repayments.

24/6/1932, Friday (-4,701) Radicals captured King Rama VII and held him prisoner until he agreed to reforms and the creation of a Senate.

20/6/1932, Monday (-4,705)

16/6/1932, Thursday (-4,709) In Germany, a ban on Nazi storm troopers, in place since April, was lifted.

15/6/1932, Wednesday (-4,710) The Chaco war broke out. Bolivian troops attacked Paraguay. The dispute had been exacerbated by the issue of a Paraguayan postage stamp bearing a map with the Chaco labelled as ‘Chaco Paraguayo’, along with the provocative words ‘Ha sido, es, y sera’(Has been, is, and will be). The war lasted until 1935, see 12/6/1935.

6/6/1932. Monday (-4,719) The GWR (Great Western Railway) set a new rail speed record of 81.6 mph between Swindon and Paddington.

4/6/1932, Saturday (-4,721) Second Government of Edouard Herriot began in France.

3/6/1932, Friday (-4,722) Magnitude 8.1 earthquake in Jalisco, Mexico, killed 400.

2/6/1932, Thursday (-4,723) In Germany, Franz von Papen, having been repudiated by the Centre Party, formed a non-party ‘Cabinet of Barons’.

1/6/1932, Wednesday (-4,724)

31/5/1932. Tuesday (-4,725) (see 10/4/1932) President Hindenburg invited Franz Von Papen to form a government. On 1/6/1932 Von Papen formed one that excluded the Nazis. However on 14/6/1932 Hitler promised to co-operate with Von Papen. On 16/6/1932 the ban on Nazi storm troopers in Germany was lifted.

30/5/1932, Monday (-4,726) President Hindenburg of Germany withdrew his support from Chancellor Heinrich Bruning, who resigned.

28/5/1932, Saturday (-4,728) The 29 kilometre dyke connecting North Holland with Friesland was closed, making the Zuyder Zee an inland lake. Amsterdam could now only be reached from the sea via the 22 kilometre deep water North Sea Canal, completed in 1876. The dike increased the size of Holland by 2,030 square kilometres.

22/5/1932,

21/5/1932. Saturday (-4,735) (1) Amelia Earhart became the first woman to make a solo air crossing of the Atlantic. She flew from Harbor Grace in Newfoundland to Londonderry in Ireland in just under 15 hours.

(2) Down Street Station, on the Piccadilly Line, closed. It was very close to Hyde Park Corner and Dover Street, now renamed Green Park, in a prosperous area f Mayfair where many had their own transport.

20/5/1932, Friday (-4,736) Engelbert Dolfuss, Austrian Chancellor, formed a coalition government of Christian Socialists and Agrarians.

19/5/1932, Thursday (-4,737) In the Irish Free State, the Dail voted to abolish the oath of loyalty to the British Crown. However opposition in the Senate blocked the motion.

18/5/1932, Wednesday (-4,738)

16/5/1932. Monday (-4,740) Clashes between Hindus and Muslims killed hundreds in Bombay.

15/5/1932, Sunday (-4,741) The Japanese Prime Minister, Ki Tauyoshi Inukai, was assassinated. He was succeeded by the Governor-general of Korea, 73-year old Makoto Saito.

14/5/1932, Saturday (-4,742) The Allhallows on Sea (Kent) branch opened.

12/5/1932, Thursday (-4,744)

10/5/1932, Tuesday (-4,746) Albert Lebrun succeeded Doumier as French President.

9/5/1932. Monday (-4,747) Piccadilly Circus first lit by electricity.

8/5/1932, Sunday (-4,748) The Left gained around 100 seats in French elections.

7/5/1932, Saturday (-4,749)

6/5/1932, Friday (-4,750) President Doumer of France was assassinated.

5/5/1932. Thursday (-4,751) Japanese troops withdrew from Shanghai after an armistice was agreed.

4/5/1932, Wednesday (-4,752) The mob leader Al Capone began his prison sentence for tax evasion.

30/4/1932, Saturday (-4,762)

27/4/1932. Wednesday (-4,759) (1) The Imperial Airways London to Cape Town air service was inaugurated.

(2) Mr C W Scott flew from Lympne, Kent, to Darwin, northern Australia, in 8 days, 20 hours, 47 minutes.

26/4/1932, Tuesday (-4,760) The Motor Traffic provided for motorists who killed to be found guilty of manslaughter.

21/5/1932, Thursday (-4,765) In the UK, at the nadir of the Depression, 16,911 men were recorded as sleeping in ‘casual wards’ (hostels for the destitute). This compares with 3,188 in May 1920 and 10,217 in December 1929.

24/4/1932. Sunday (-4,762) (1) Thousands of ramblers established public access rights in the Peak District with a mass trespass  of 500 walkers on Kinder Scout, the highest hill in the Peak District. The event turned into a riot and 4 walkers and the leader Benny Rothman was arrested, and spent 4 months in jail after sentencing at Derby Assizes. There was a new fashion for outdoor pursuits, and just 1,212 acres of the 150,000 acres of moorland, close to the big cities of Manchester, Sheffield and Derby, were open top the public. Benny Rothman died aged 90 in 2002.

(2) The Nazis led in four state elections (Prussia, Bavaria, Wurttemberg and Hamburg; in Prussia they were the largest single Party in Parliament). In the Prussian state Parliament, their share of the seats rose from 6 to 162.

23/4/1932, Saturday (-4,763) The new Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opened in Stratford on Avon.

18/4/1932, Monday (-4,768) Business reply-paid enveloped were introduced by the GPO in Britain.

16/4/1932. Saturday (-4,770) The last electric tram ran in Luton.

14/4/1932, Thursday (-4,771) Anthony Perkins, the actor who starred in Hitchcock’s film, Pyscho, was born.

13/4/1932. Wednesday (-4,773) The Nazi paramilitary SA and SS were banned in Germany.

10/4/1932. Sunday (-4,776) Paul Von Hindenburg won the German Presidency against Adolf Hitler after a second ballot to secure a majority. See 31/5/1932. Paul von Hindenburg received 19.5 million votes, 53%, against Hitler, 13.4 million votes, 36.8%. Thalmann received 3.7 million, 10.2%.

6/4/1932, Wednesday (-4,780) The British Ministry of Health urged local authorities to clear their slum areas.

4/4/1932. Monday (-4,782) Vitamin C was isolated by Charles Glen King, professor of chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh.

29/3/1932. Tuesday (-4,788) Eamon de Valera, the hard-line republican leader of the Fianna Fail Party, elected to head the new Irish government.

28/3/1932. Monday (-4,789) Mr J A Mollison flew from England to Cape Town in 4 days, 17 hours, 19 minutes, beating the previous record by 15 hours, 18 minutes.

27/3/1932, Sunday (-4,790) Easter Sunday.

23/3/1932, Wednesday (-4,794)

19/3/1932. Saturday (-4,798) Sydney Harbour Bridge was officially opened. At 1,650 feet, it was the world’s longest single-span bridge.

18/3/1932, Friday (-4,799) John Updike, US author, was born (died 2009)

16/3/1932, Wednesday (-4,801)

15/3/1932, Tuesday (-4,802) The BBC made its first broadcast from its new HQ at Portland Place, near Oxford Circus.

14/3/1932. Monday (-4,803) The US industrialist George Eastman, founder of Kodak, committed suicide.

13/3/1932. Sunday (-4,804) Hindenburg defeated Hitler in the German presidential elections.  Paul von Hindenbiurg received 18.6 million votes (49.6%); Adolf Hitler received 11.3 million votes (30.1%), and the Communist Ernst Thalmann received 4.9 million votes (13.2%). Because Hindenburg was o.4% below an absolute majority, a second round was held on 10/4/1932.

12/3/1932, Saturday (-4,805) Ivar Kreuger, 52, Swedish civil engineer and industrialist committed suicide.

11/3/1932, Friday (-4,806) Nigel Lawson, British Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer, was born.

10/3/1932, Thursday (-4,807) Paul von Hindenburg gave a radio address in his one and only public speech of the German presidential campaign, emphasizing his non-party status and pledging to "oppose those who merely stand for party interests"

9/3/1932. Wednesday (-4,808) (1) Eamon de Valera became President of the Irish Free State.

(2) The last emperor of China, Pu Yi, was installed as head of the Japanese puppet government in Manchuria.

8/3/1932. Tuesday (-4,809) Franklin D. Roosevelt won the New Hampshire presidential primary

7/3/1932, Monday (-4,810) 5,000 unemployed workers laid off by the Ford Motor Company marched through Detroit to demand relief payments. As the unarmed crowd got near Gate 4 of the River Rouge Ford Plant at Dearborn, armed police and security guards stormed out of the plant and fired on the workers, killing five.

6/3/1932, Sunday (-4,811) John Philip Sousa, composer, died.

5/3/1932, Saturday (-4,812)

3/3/1932, Thursday (-4,814) In Finland the suppression of the Mantasala Rising, a pro-Facsist Lapua Movement who had gathered at Mantsala, was completed.

1/3/1932, Tuesday (-4,816) The 20-month old son of Charles Lindbergh was kidnapped from the nursery of their home in Hopwell, New Jersey. He was found dead on 12/5/1932. Bruno Hauptmann was convicted of the crime and electrocuted.

29/2/1932, Monday (-4,817) The branch railway from Bentley to Hadleigh closed to passengers.

27/2/1932, Saturday (-4,819)

25/2/1932. Thursday (-4,821) Adolf Hitler was granted German citizenship.

24/2/1932, Wednesday (-4,822) Malcolm Campbell set a new world land speed record of 253.96 mph at Daytona Beach.

22/2/1932. Monday (-4,824) (1) The Nazis choose Hitler as presidential candidate.

(2) Edward Kennedy, American senator and younger brother of President Kennedy, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts.

18/2/1932, Thursday (-4,828) Milos Forman, Czech film director and actor, was born.

16/2/1932, Tuesday (-4,830) Irish elections gave a majority to the Fianna Fail Republicans under Eamon de Valera.

12/2/1932, Friday (-4,834) In Britain, a Bill was introduced in Parliament to ban the whipping of children aged under 14.

10/2/1932, Wednesday (-4,836) Edgar Wallace, English writer, died aged 57.

6/2/1932. Saturday (-4,840) The Fascists staged a successful coup in Memel, Lithuania.

4/2/1932, Thursday (-4,842) Britain imposed a 10% tariff on all imported goods with concessions for those from the Commonwealth.

3/2/1932. Wednesday (-4,843) A severe earthquake hit New Zealand killing 256 people around Hawke’s Bay. Napier’s Bluff Hill, a substantial suburban peninsula, crumbled into the sea. A wide stretch of seabed, Ahuriri Lagoon, was raised in the quake and became 9,000 acres of dry land in a day.

2/2/1932, Tuesday (-4,844) The World Conference on Disarmament opened in Geneva,

30/1/1932. Saturday (-4,847) Finland ended prohibition of alcohol.

28/1/1932. Thursday (-4,849) The Japanese occupied Shanghai, start of a full scale invasion of China. Ostensibly in revenge for a Chinese boycott of Japanese goods, the Japanese were aware of possible US attacks in defence of China. They warned the US that any attempt to interfere in their operations in China would result in war.

25/1/1932, Monday (-4,852) A riot at Dartmoor Prison; the Governor’s life was saved by a man, George Donovan, who had been reprieved from hanging an hour before execution and was serving life instead. Prisoners were complaining of poor and inadequate food, damp cells, and the difficulty faced by visitor in reaching the remote granite prison high on the moors.

22/1/1932. Friday (-4,855) A Communist uprising in northern Spain was crushed.

21/1/1932, Thursday (-4,856) Lytton Strachey, founder member of the Bloomsbury Group, died.

20/1/1932. Wednesday (-4,857) The first airmail service between London and Cape Town.

15/1/1932, Friday (-4,862)

8/1/1932. Friday (-4,869) An assassination attempt was made on the Japanese Emperor Hirohito.

7/1/1932, Thursday (-4,870) German Chancellor Heinrich Bruning declared that Germany could not, and would not, resume Reparations payments.

4/1/1932. Monday (-4,873) Ghandi was arrested in India as the Congress party was outlawed.

2/1/1932. Saturday (-4,875) The Japanese proclaimed the Republic of Manchukuo in Manchuria.

30/12/1931. Wednesday (-4,878) (1) Mr Fielder, a British pilot, flew from London to Algiers in a day.

(2) The Nazi Party was formed in Holland.

29/12/1931, Tuesday (-4,879) US chemist Harold C Urey of Columbia University announced the discovery of heavy water.

26/12/1931, Saturday (-4,882) Melvil Dewey, inventor of a classification system for library books, died.

15/12/1931, Tuesday (-4,893) Traffic lights were to be introduced across Britain, following their success in London.

11/12/1931. Friday (-4,897) (1) The Statute of Westminster, recognising the independence of the British Commonwealth, became law.

(2) Japan abandoned the Gold Standard.

30/11/1931. Monday (-4,908) EM was formed by the merger of His Master’s Voice and Columbia.

15/11/1931. Sunday (-4,923) The Nazi Party won elections in the state of Hesse.

12/11/1931. Thursday (-4,926) The Abbey Road BBC recording studios were opened by Sir Edward Elgar, who conducted his Pomp and Circumstance marches with the London Symphony Orchestra.

9/11/1931. Monday (-4,929) A C Butler set a new speed record for flying from England to Port Darwin, in 9 days, 2 hours, 29 minutes.

6/11/1931, Friday (-4,932) The Italian government awarded prizes to the country's biggest families.

5/11/1931. Thursday (-4,933) Miss Peggy Salaman and Mr Gordon Stone set a new record in aviation, flying from England to the Cape, South Africa, in 5 days, 6 hours, 40 minutes.

4/11/1931, Tuesday (-4,935) Indian campaigner Mahatma Ghandi, in London for the Round Table Conference on Dominion Status for India, had tea with King George V at Buckingham Palace.

31/10.1931, Saturday (-4,938) The Oldmeldrum branch railway closed to passengers.

27/10/1931. Tuesday (-4,942) General election held in the UK. A landslide victory by the National Government; Ramsay Mc Donald continued to be Prime Minister. McDonald won 554 seats (470 of them Conservative) against 46 for Labour.

26/10/1931, Monday (-4,943) 11 political leaders went on trial in Poland for conspiring to overthrow Józef Piłsudski.

25/10/1931. Sunday (-4,944) France and the USA agree to retain the Gold Standard.

24/10/1931. Saturday (-4,945) Al Capone, 32,, Chicago gang boss of the Prohibition era, was jailed for 11 years for tax evasion. He was also fined US$80,000. He was released in 1939 and died on 25/1/1947 of a brain haemorrhage.

20/10/1931, Tuesday (-4,949)

18/10/1931. Sunday (-4,951) The prolific inventor, Thomas Alva Edison, died in the USA, aged 84. He was most famous for inventing the light bulb, but he also invented  the phonograph, the ticker tape machine, much of the technology of moving pictures, and some 1,300 other items. Born in 1847 in Ohio, Edison was bottom of the class in school and left to be a newsboy at 12. He moved to Boston in 1866 and became very interested in electricity. He set up a laboratory in new jersey and worked on improving telegraphy. In 1878 he worked on electric light and produced a commercially viable bulb in 1879. By 1900 he was also researching in chemistry.

17/10/1931, Saturday (-4,952) 100 were injured in fighting between Nazis and Communists in Braunschweig, Germany.

16/10/1931. Friday (-4,953) Spain legalised divorce.

11/10/1931. Sunday (-4,958) Large march in London in protest at pay cuts.

7/10/1931, Wednesday (-4,962) Desmond Tutu, Anglican priest, was born in South Africa. General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984.

4/10/1931. Sunday (-4,965) Richard Rorty, US philosopher, was born (died 2007).

3/10/1931. Saturday (-4,966) Death of the Danish composer Carl Nielsen.

2/10/1931, Friday (-4,967) Tea tycoon Sir Thomas Lipton died, aged 81. Born in Glasgow Sir Thomas, a grocer, bought tea. coffee and cocoa plantations in Sri Lanka to supply his shops.

1/10/1931, Thursday (-4,968) The Waldorf Astoria, on Park Avenue, New York, opened.  It was the world’s largest commercial hotel building.

30/9/1931. Wednesday (-4,969) The British Royal Navy mutinied over a 25% pay cut. 12,000 ratings on 15 ships of the Atlantic Fleet at Invergordon were involved.  Income tax rose to 5 shillings in the £ (25%).

29/9/1931, Tuesday (-4,970) William Orpen, Irish painter, died aged 52.

28/9/1931. Monday (-4,971) Denmark abandoned the Gold Standard. Norway, Sweden, and Egypt abandoned it on 27/9/1931.

24/9/1931, Thursday (-4,975) The Japanese set up a puppet government of Manchuria based in Mukden.

21/9/1931, Monday (-4,978) The Japanese took Kirin, China. By early 1932 they controlled three coastal provinces.

20/9/1931. Sunday (-4,979) The Pound was poised for a fall after Britain announced it was abandoning the Gold Standard because of heavy pressure on the nation’s Gold Reserves. A 30% devaluation took the pound from US$4.86 to about $3.50. Ramsay MacDonald’s Labour government took many measures, including spending cuts and cutting unemployment pay, but the economic crisis sweeping the world was too severe.

19/9/1931, Saturday (-4,980)

18/9/1931. Friday (-4,981) Japan besieged Mukden as it invaded Manchuria.  The Japanese set up a puppet state called Manchukuo, which was returned to China in 1945 after World War Two.  The Kwantung (Japanese) Army had started the incident, by blowing up wagons on the South Manchuria railway, near the Chinese garrison at Mukden, then blaming the Chinese.  However the plot was supported by military leaders in Tokyo.  See 18/2/1931.

17/9/1931. Thursday (-4,982) 33 1/3 rpm LP records were released in the USA.  They were demonstrated at the Savoy Plaza Hotel, New York.

16/9/1931, Wednesday (-4,983)

15/9/1931, Tuesday (-4,984) The British Royal Navy mutinied at Invergordon over sevicemen’s pay cuts.

14/9/1931, Monday (-4,985) The Blagdon branch line, Somerset, closed to passengers.

13/9/1931, Sunday (-4,986) In Austria, an attempted Fascist coup by the Heimwehr under Dr Pfrimer failed.

12/9/1931, Saturday (-4,987) Mexico was admitted to the League of Nations.

7/9/1931. Monday (-4,992) In Britain, the King took a pay cut of £50,000 for the duration of the financial crisis.

2/9/1931, Wednesday (-4,997) Mussolini made a pact with The Vatican.

1/9/1931, Tuesday (-4,998) The Shimizu rail tunnel, Japan, 10 km long, opened.

31/8/1931, Monday (-4,999) Hall Caine, British novelist, died aged 78.

30/8/1931, Sunday (-5,000) John Swigert, US astronaut, was born in Denver, Colorado.

29/8/1931, Saturday (-5,001) The Indian nationalist leader Mohandas Gandhi came to London, to attend the second Round Table Conference at St James Palace.

24/8/1931, Monday (-5,006) Ramsay McDonald formed a National Government, following the collapse of the UK’s Labour Government. Most Labour MPs opposed it, but it was generally supported by the Liberals and Conservatives.

8/8/1931, Saturday (-5,022) The US airship Akron was launched by Mrs Hoover.

5/8/1931. Wednesday (-5,025) A serious run on Sterling began, forcing the return of the King from Balmoral on 11/8/1931.

3/8/1931, Monday (-5,027) Heavy rainfall along the Yangtze River burst a dam which flooded 104,000 square kilometres of farmland. Widespread famine followed. The 37-year old leader of China, Mao Tse Tung, faced multiple threats from this and the Communist rebellion, undermining his ability to deal with the Japanese invasion.

31/7/1931, Friday (-5,030) (1) Chiang Kai Shek defeated the Communists, in northern China.

(2) Cleveland Municipal Stadium, home of the Cleveland Indians, opened.  It was the largest baseball stadium in the world.

28/7/1931, Tuesday (-5,033) Chessington Zoo opened.

22/7/1931. Wednesday (-5,039) Britain, France, and the USA renewed credits for Germany to help it through financial problems.

13/7/1931. Monday (-5,048) All German banks closed till 5/8/1931 following the collapse of Danatbank.

10/7/1931, Friday (-5,051) The King George V Dock, Glasgow, opened.

9/7/1931, Thursday (-5,052) In Germany, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and German Nationalist leader Alfred Hugenberg agreed to cooperate.

6/7/1931, Monday (-5,055) (1) The Longparish branch (Andover) closed to passengers.

(2) The 1931 Census showed Britain’s population almost static since the last census, at 44.8 million. However there had been a drift to the south, and London now had 8 million people, a rise of almost 10% since 1921.

28/6/1931. Sunday (-5,063) Socialists won the Spanish general elections.

22/6/1931. Monday (-5,069) In The USA, President Hoover suggested that German war reparations be suspended for a year to stimulate world trade.

19/6/1931. Friday (-5,072) The second Five Year Plan was announced in the USSR.

17/6/1931. Wednesday (-5,074) In China, the British arrested Nguyen Ai Quoc, also known as Ho Chi Minh, founder of the Indo-Chinese Communist Party.

13/6/1931. Saturday (-5,078) (1) German bank failure (Danatbank) caused the closure of all German banks.

(2) Jesse Boot, who founded Boots the Chemist, died aged 81 in Millbrook, Jersey.  He was created Baron Trent in 1929.

12/6/1931. Friday (-5,079) Al Capone and 68 henchmen were charged with 5,000 offences regarding breaching the USA Prohibition laws.

11/6/1931. Thursday (-5,080) Martial law was imposed on 7 Spanish cities.

10/6/1931, Wednesday (-5,081) Chester Zoo opened.

7/6/1931, Sunday (-5,084) Earthquake felt across Britain.

4/6/1931, Thursday (-5,087) Ibn Hussein, King of the Hejaz, died.

3/6/1931, Wednesday (-5,088) In Britain the Derby horserace was televised for the first time. Only a limited number of wealthy people had TV sets, and a few other enthusiasts had built their own receivers in garden sheds.

2/6/1931, Tuesday (-5,089)

1/6/1931. Monday (-5,090) The USA was to help build 90 steel plants in the USSR.

31/5/1931. Sunday (-5,091) The Pope denounced Mussolini’s Fascists following attacks on priests and church property.

27/5/1931, Wednesday (-5,095) Professor Auguste Picard became the first man to reach the stratosphere.  He ascended 9 ¾ miles in a balloon from Augsburg, Germany.

23/5/1931. Saturday (-5,099) Whipsnade Zoo in Bedfordshire opened.

15/5/1931. Friday (-5,107) Pope Pius XI condemned Communism.

14/5/1931, Thursday (-5,108) In Sweden, soldiers shot and killed striking workers at Adalen.

13/5/1931, Wednesday (-5,109) In France, Paul Doumier was elected President.

11/5/1931. Monday (-5,111) In Austria, the bankruptcy of Credit-Anstalt began Europe’s financial collapse.

8/5/1931, Friday (-5,114) In Norway the Farmers’ Party was in power.

1/5/1931. Friday (-5,121) The Empire State Building was opened by President Hoover in New York. 102 storeys and 1,245 feet high, it had a 220 foot TV antenna added in 1950. This total height of 1,472 feet was reduced to 1,454 feet when the antenna was replaced in 1985. In 2001 the world’s tallest building was the  twin Petronas Towers in Malaysia, 1,483 feet high.

30/4/1931, Thursday (-5,122) Moseley’s New Party candidate split the vote in a by-election in Ashton Under Lyne, letting in the Conservative candidate.

27/4/1931, Monday (-5,125) The Brechin to Edzell railway closed to passengers.

25/4/1931, Saturday (-5,127) Rail passenger services between Kirtlebridge and Annan, Scotland, ceased.

20/4/1931. Monday (-5,132) The Republican party of Mustapha Kemal won a landslide in the Turkish national elections.

19/4/1931. Sunday (-5,133) Unemployment in the USA reached 7 million.

17/4/1931, Friday (-5,135)

14/4/1931 Tuesday (-5,138) (1) The Highway Code was first issued in the UK.

(2) King Alfonso XIII of Spain abdicated and left Spain to settle in Rome, when the Republicans gained overwhelming success in Spain’s municipal elections. Alfonso (1886 –1941) had ruled Spain since 1902. Alfonso had supported the dictator Primo de Rivera, who overthrew the Spanish Parliament in 1923; Rivera was ousted in 1930 and the army also opposed Alfonso.

13/4/1931, Monday (-5,139) The Shakerstone via Coalville to Loughborough Derby Road railway closed to passengers..

12/4/1931. Sunday (-5,140) In Spain, elections showed a big majority for the Republicans. King Alfonso XIII abdicated on 14/4/1931, and left for exile in Rome.

7/4/1931, Tuesday (-5,145)

5/4/1931, Sunday (-5,147) Easter Sunday. Germany formed a customs union with Austria. See 25/3/1931.

4/4/1931, Saturday (-5,153) The first airmail left Croydon aerodrome for Australia.

29/3/1931, Sunday (-5,154) Norman Tebbit, British Conservative politician and chairman of the Party, was born.

27/3/1931, Friday (-5,156) Arnold Bennett, English writer, died aged 64.

26/3/1931, Thursday (-5,157) Leonard Nimoy, American film actor who played Dr Spock in the TV series Star Trek, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

25/3/1931. Wednesday (-5,158) Germany announced plans for a customs union with Austria, in defiance of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.  France and Britain strongly objected. See 5/4/1931.

20/3/1931, Friday (-5,163)

19/3/1931, Thursday (-5,164) Indigestion aid Alka-Seltzer went on sale in the USA.

18/3/1931, Wednesday (-5,165) The US company Schick Inc started to manufacture electric razors.

15/3/1931, Sunday (-5,168) In Poland the Peasants’ Party was founded.

11/3/1931. Wednesday (-5,172) Birth of Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch.

3/3/1931. Tuesday (-5,180) (1) The Viceroy of India agreed to withdraw the salt tax.

(2) The song, ‘The Star Spangled Banner’, became the American National Anthem.

2/3/1931. Monday (-5,181) Birth of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. He was born in Stavropol, in the north Caucasus.

28/2/1931. Saturday (-5,183) Oswald Moseley formed the 'New Party' in Britain after leaving the Labour Party.

24/2/1931. Tuesday (-5,187) German unemployment reached almost 5 million.

23/2/1931, Monday (-5,188) Dame Nellie Melba, the Australian opera singer after whom peach melba is named, died.

21/2/1931 Saturday (-5,190) The New Statesman began publishing.

18/2/1931, Wednesday (-5,193) The Mukden Incident, an explosion on a railway line near Mukden, gave the Japanese an excuse to occupy Manchuria.   The Chinese were driven out of Manchuria.  See 18/9/1931.

16/2/1931, Monday (-5,195) The Indian Viceroy received Ghandi.

11/2/1931, Wednesday (-5,200) Sir Charles Pearsons, inventor of the first practical steam turbine, died in Kingston, Surrey.

10/2/1931, Tuesday (-5,201) New Delhi was officially inaugurated.

9/2/1931, Monday (-5,202) The Abermule to Kerry branch railway closed to passengers.

7/2/1931, Saturday (-5,204)

5/2/1931, Thursday (-5,206) In the UK, Campbell broke the land speed record in Bluebird. The new record was now 245 mph.

4/2/1931, Wednesday (-5,207) Isabel Peron was born

3/2/1931, Tuesday (-5,208)

2/2/1931. Monday (-5,209) (1) The Nazis demanded that Germany withdraw from the League of Nations.

(2) The St Ives to Ely railway closed to passengers.

1/2/1931. Sunday (-5,210) (1) Ghandi continued his campaign of civil disobedience.

(2) Boris Yeltsin, Russian leader, was born.

29/1/1931, Thursday (-5,213)

27/1/1931, Tuesday (-5,215) Pierre Laval became Prime Minister in France.

26/1/1931. Monday (-5,216) Winston Churchill resigned from Baldwin’s shadow cabinet after disagreements over the policy of conciliation with Indian nationalism; Churchill opposed any hint of independence for India. In India, Mahatma Ghandi was released from prison, for talks with the government.

21/1/1931, Wednesday (-5,221) A Bill to raise the UK school leaving age to 15 was defeated in the Commons.

10/1/1931. Saturday (-5,232) (Food, Russia) Molotov announced the collectivisation of USSR agriculture. In the Ukraine a famine was politically created to destroy the peasant kulaks; an estimated 5 – 6 million people died as a result.

6/1/1931, Tuesday (-5,236) The New Sadlers Wells Theatre in London was opened.

3/1/1931, Saturday (-5,239) Joseph Joffre, French marshal and commander in chief of the French armies on the Western Front, died.

2/1/1931, Friday (-5,240) President of Panama Florencio Harmodio Arosemena was overthrown and imprisoned by a military junta.

1/1/1931. Thursday (-5,241) (1) The Masham, Yorkshire, branch closed to passengers (closed to goods, 11/11/1963). The Winsford & Over branch line, from Cuddington, closed to passengers.

(2) In Britain the Road Traffic Act came into force, introducing traffic policemen and making third party insurance compulsory.

31/12/1930, Wednesday (-5,242) US unemployment reached over 4 ½ million.

30/12/1930, Tuesday (-5,243) The Colonial National Monument in Virginia was proclaimed by President Hoover.

29/12/1930. Monday (-5,244) Radio Luxembourg began broadcasting.

23/12/1930, Tuesday (-5,250)

16/12/1930, Tuesday (-5,257) A General Strike began in Spain.

15/12/1930, Monday (-5,258) (1) The UK Government published a draft Highway Code.

(2) A Commons Select Committee recommended ending the death penalty.

12/12/1930. Friday (-5,261) The Spanish revolution began.

12/11/1930. Wednesday (-5,291) The British colony of India demanded Dominion status.

11/11/1930, Tuesday (-5,292) Finland enacted repressive legislation against Communists

9/11/1930. Sunday (-5,294) Social Democrats won elections to the Austrian Parliament.

2/11/1930. Sunday (-5,301) Ras (Duke) Tafari was crowned Haile Selassie (Might of the Trinity), Emperor of Ethiopia. At this time, the only African countries with Black rulers were Ethiopia and Liberia.

1/11/1930, Saturday (-5,302) Vargas dissolved the Brazilian Congress and assumed dictatorial powers.

31/10/1930, Friday (-5,303) Michael Collins, US astronaut who piloted the command module during the first Moon landing, was born in Rome, Italy.

30/10/1930. Thursday (-5,304) Greece and Turkey signed a treaty of friendship.

28/10/1930, Tuesday (-5,306)

27/10/1930, Monday (-5,307) The London Naval Treaty was ratified.

26/10/1930, Sunday (-5,308) Vargas became President of Brazil.

24/10/1930, Friday (-5,310)

22/10/1930, Wednesday (-5,312) Rebels massacred 8,000 in Shanghai, China.

21/10/1930, Tuesday (-5,313) The Hope Simpson Enquiry on Palestine was released.

20/10/1930. Monday (-5,314) Zionist leaders protested against a British plan to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish areas. They said it went against the Balfour declaration which promised a Jewish homeland in Palestine. The British attempted to halt Jewish immigration to Palestine.

14/10/1930, Tuesday (-5,320) An attempted Fascist coup in Finland.

5/10/1930. Sunday (-5,329) The 777-foot long British airship R101 crashed at the edge of a wood near Beauvais, France during a storm, killing 48 people, out of 54 passengers and crew. The airship hit a hill and exploded.  It was captained by Flight Lieutenant Irwin, on a flight from Cardington, Bedfordshire, to India. UK Air Minister Lord Thompson was on board, and may have contributed to the disaster with his large amount of luggage, equivalent to the weight of about 24 people. Britain abandoned all airship construction.

24/9/1930, Wednesday (-5,340) John Young, US astronaut, whose spacecraft made the 5th landing on the Moon, was born in San Francisco, California.

23/9/1930, Tuesday (-5,341) Three Reichswehr artillery officers went on trial before the Leipzig Supreme Court in Germany, charged with high treason for conspiring with the Nazis to overthrow the German Government.

22/9/1930, Monday (-5,342) Passenger services were withdrawn on the Stoke Ferry (Norfolk) branch. The Red Wharf Bay branch (Anglesey) closed. Skipton to Grassington closed to passengers. Somersham to Ramsey East closed to passengers. Bourne to Sleaford closed to passengers. The Alnwick to Coldstream railway closed to passengers.

20/9/1930, Saturday (-5,344)

17/9/1930, Wednesday (-5,347) Thomas Stafford, US astronaut, was born in Weatherford, Oklahoma.

16/9/1930, Tuesday (-5,348) The Berlin city council met for the first time since summer recess, but broke up in turmoil after the Communists and Nazis introduced a motion demanding that the council dissolve. The motion was defeated.

15/9/1930. Monday (-5,349) (1) Adolf Hitler, because he was an Austrian citizen, was barred from taking his seat at the Reichstag. There was further trouble at the Reichstag when Nazi deputies turned up, on 13/10/1930, wearing uniform; this was illegal for civilians.

(2) the removal of press censorship in Spain brought out demands for a Republic.

14/9/1930, Sunday (-5,350) The Berlin stock market fell 20 points as news that the Nazis (denouncing the Versailles Treaty) had gained 107 seats to become the second largest party after the Socialists.  Before the elections they had only 12 seats. Their vote rose from 800,000 in 1928 to 6.409,000, only 2,000,000 behind the Socialists. Adolf Hitler played on voter’s fears of economic chaos and social disorder. He blamed Jews and Bolsheviks as the cause of the nation’s problems and promised to make Germany great again.

10/9/1930, Wednesday (-5,354)

8/9/1930, Monday (-5,356) The first roll of Scotch Tape (Sellotape) was made. Although introducing a new product to US consumers during the recession was risky, in fact the mood of thriftiness at the time ensured the success of the product as it was used for mending and fixing things. The UK version, called Sellotape, was introduced in 1937.

7/9/1930, Sunday (-5,357) King Baudouin of the Belgians was born at Stuyenberg Castle, the elder son of King Leopold III and Queen Astrid.

6/9/1930, Saturday (-5,358) In Argentina, demonstrations by the people and an army rebellion forced President Hipolito Irigoyen to resign. General Jose Uriburu was appointed President.

5/9/1930, Friday (-5,359)

3/9/1930, Wednesday (-5,361) (1) Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, was destroyed by a hurricane. 8,000 died, 12,000 were injured, and US$ 20,000,000 damage.

(2) The first non-stop flight from Paris to New York was made by Dieudonne Costes and Maurice Bellonte.

2/9/1930, Tuesday (-5,362) In Beijing, rebels under Yen Hsi-chan took power.

1/9/1930, Monday (-5,363)

30/8/1930, Saturday (-5,365) Warren Buffett, US investor and philanthropist, was born.

29/8/1930, Friday (-5,366) (1) The inhabitants of St Kilda were evacuated by the British Government. The 36 islanders, from the only village of Hirta, were relocated on the Morvern Peninsula, Argyll. The population of St Kilda had halved in a generation.

(2) The Reverend William Spooner, originator of spoonerisms, died.

25/8/1930, Monday (-5,370) Sean Connery, British film actor who played the leading role in seven James Bond movies, was born in Edinburgh as Thomas Connery.

22/8/1930. Friday (-5,373) The remains of the Swedish aeronaut, Andree, were discovered on White Island.

21/8/1930, Thursday (-5,374) In Britain, Princess Margaret Rose was born.

20/8/1930, Wednesday (-5,375) The Imperial Economic Conference at Ottawa ended.

19/8/1930, Tuesday (-5,376)

18/8/1930. Monday (-5,377) The two halves of Sydney Bridge met in the middle, seven years after building work began. The 503 metre bridge used 38,390 tons of high tensile steel. Completion was scheduled for March 1932.

17/8/1930, Sunday (-5,378) In Spain, the Pact of San Sebastian was made between Republicans and Catalans. Catalonia was to have autonomy if the Republicans gained power.

16/8/1930, Saturday (-5,379) Ted Hughes, English poet, was born (died 1998)

15/8/1930, Friday (-5,380) Tom Mboya, Kenyan trade unionist, activist and statesman, was born (died 1969).

14/8/1930, Thursday (-5,381) The Church of England grudgingly accepted birth control.

12/8/1930. Tuesday (-5,383) Turkish and Iranian forces launched attacks on Kurdish rebels.

7/8/1930. Thursday (-5,388) In Britain, 2 million were unemployed. The post-War economic recovery of the early 1920s had been halted by the Wall Street Crash of 1929. A collapse on world business confidence had hit investment and British exports. The north of Britain, with its heavy export-oriented coal, steel, shipping industries was badly hit. The south and Midlands, with its car industries geared to supplying domestic demand, fared better,

5/8/1930. Tuesday (-5,390) Birth of US astronaut Neil Armstrong, first man on the Moon, in Wapakoneta, Ohio.

4/8/1930. Monday (-5,391) Soviet troops killed 200 striking workers in Odessa.

1/8/1930. Friday (-5,394) The airship R101 arrived in Montreal after a flight of 79 hours from Cardington, Bedfordshire.

30/7/1930, Wednesday (-5,396) In Portugal, the Fascist National Union Party was formed.

28/7/1930, Monday (-5,398) The airship R101 began its maiden flight across the Atlantic.

27/7/1930, Sunday (-5,399) Shirley Williams, British politician who co-founded the Social Democratic Party, was born, the daughter of Vera Brittain.

24/7/1930, Thursday (-5,402)

22/7/1930, Tuesday (-5,404) The large German battle cruiser Hindenburg was salvaged from Scapa Flow, 12 years after German sailors had scuttled here there on 21/6/1919.

21/7/1930, Monday (-5,405) Maxim Litvinov became Soviet Foreign Minister.

19/7/1930, Saturday (-5,407) The King’s Prize at Bisley was first won by a woman.

15/7/1930, Tuesday (-5,411) Jacques Derrida, French philosopher, was born (died 2004).

13/7/1930. Sunday (-5,413) The first World Cup football tournament kicked off in Uruguay.

10/7/1930, Thursday (-5,416) In China, Communist troops attacked the city of Hankow.

7/7/1930, Monday (-5,419) Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, British author who created the crime detective character Sherlock Holmes, died, aged 71.

6/7/1930, Sunday (-5,420) The railway from Staines to Windsor was electrified.

3/7/1930, Thursday (-5,423)

1/7/1930,  Tuesday (-5,425) A pint of milk cost 1.2p  1 kg old potatoes cost 0.543p. A second class return rail fare London to Glasgow cost £5.00

30/6/1930. Monday (-5,426) (1) Britain recognised the independence of Iraq.

(2) France pulled the last of its troops out of the Rhineland, 5 years before the date set by the Versailles Treaty.

26/6/1930, Thursday (5,430) Stalin was ‘purging undesirables’ from the Soviet Union administration.

17/6/1930, Tuesday (-5,439) The USA introduced the Smoot-Hawley tariffs on imports, the highest rates ever imposed. This measure encouraged retaliatory tariffs and reduced world trade, and so exacerbated the Depression.

16/6/1930. Monday (-5,440) Mixed bathing allowed for the first time in the Serpentine, Hyde Park.

13/6/1930, Friday (-5,443) Sir Henry Segrave was killed on Lake Windermere, along with his mechanic, Vic Halliwell, when his speedboat crashed after he set a new world speed record of 158.93 km/hr (98.76 mph) in his boat, Miss England II.

8/6/1930, Sunday (-5,448) King Carol II returned from exile to take the throne of Romania.

5/6/1930, Thursday (-5,451) The UK Government rejected plans for a Channel Tunnel.

2/6/1930, Monday (-5,454) Charles Conrad, American astronaut whose spacecraft made the second landing on the Moon, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1/6/1930, Sunday (-5,455) Birth of TV actor Edward Woodward, best known for the Equaliser.

31/5/1930, Saturday (-5,456) Clint Eastwood, American actor and film director, was born in San Francisco.

24/5/1930, Saturday (-5,463) Amy Johnson arrived in Australia, completing her historic solo flight from Croydon, England. She took off on 5/5/1930.

21/5/1930, Wednesday (-5,466) Malcolm Fraser, Australian Liberal Prime Minister, was born.

20/5/1930. Tuesday (-5,467) The Bank for International Settlements was set up in Basle, Switzerland. It had two purposes; to handle the payment of reparations by Germany after World War One, and to establish an institution for central-bank co-operation.

19/5/1930. Monday (-5,468) In South Africa, women were given the vote.

18/5/1930, Sunday (-5,469)

16/5/1930, Friday (-5,471) Tilbury Riverside station was opened, east of London. In an era of ocean liner travel, before jet aircraft, there was considerable passenger maritime traffic here; during 1955, 500 liners docked at Tilbury. However as liner traffic declined the station saw less usage and was closed in 1993.

15/5/1930, Thursday (-5,472) Registered nurse Ellen Church became the world’s first air hostess, on a United Airlines flight from Oakland California to Cheyenne, Wyoming. She had written herself to the airline suggesting that young ladies like herself be employed as cabin attendants. Ellen was taken on and charged with training 7 others, who had to be under 5 ft 4 inches high, weigh under 115 lb, and be registered nurses aged under 25. They were paid US$ 125 a month for 100 hours flying in an unheated unpressurised aircraft; they also carried passengers baggage, cleaned the interior of the plane, and assisted the pilot and mechanic to push the plane in and out of the hangar. In flight they served standard meals of fried chicken, fruit cocktail and bread rolls, and tea or coffee. The total ,flight, with four intermediate stops, was scheduled as 18 hours but generally took nearer 24 hours. The pilots, and especially their wives, did not welcome the new employees at first. However the passengers appreciated the service and they stayed on.

13/5/1930, Tuesday (-5,474) Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian Arctic explorer and subsequently politician, and Nobel Prize winner in 1922, died in Lysaker, Norway.

5/5/1930. Monday (-5,482) In India, Ghandi was arrested. Civil disturbances continued. A young Punjabi terrorist, Bhagat Singh, had been executed for shooting a British police officer. The Sikh majority in Punjab protested and called for demonstrations and strikes as a sign of mourning for Bhagat Singh. In Cawnpore the shopkeepers were mainly Muslim and refused to close their shops. Angry mobs of Sikhs attacked and burnt any shops they found open, massacring the shopkeepers and their families. Muslims fought back and violence continued in Cawnpore for several days. It was in Cawnpore that, eighty years earlier, hundreds of British civilians had been murdered in the Indian Mutiny. Ghandi tried to intervene to restore peace but was assaulted by the crowd. The British forcibly restored order with many troops and police but discontent remained.

30/4/1930. Wednesday (-5,487) A telephone link opened between Britain and Australia.

25/4/1930, Friday (-5,492) In the USSR, the Gulag Agency was created to run the penal camps.

20/4/1930, Sunday (-5,497) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1930, Wednesday (-5,501) Rioting in India; police fired on the crowds.

11/4/1930. Friday (-5,506) (1) US scientists predicted that man would have landed on the Moon by 2050.

(2) The Daily Express became the first paper to publish TV programmes.

6/4/1930. Sunday (-5,511) Mahatma Ghandi reached the Indian coast after a 300 mile walk from his ashram near Ahmedabad, taking 25 days. Thousands followed him, and prepared to defy the British salt tax. To India’s millions of nationalists, the salt tax of 1 rupee per 82 pounds is an effective poll tax, burdening the poorest, and a symbol of foreign oppression. At 5.30 in the morning, Ghandi walked down to the sea and picked up a piece of crystallised sea salt, so effectively breaking the salt laws.  His followers did  likewise. They had wanted to work the mudflats, covered with salt after each high tide, but the police forestalled them by stirring the salt into the mud.

3/4/1930. Thursday (-5,514) (1) Ras Tafari became Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia. He ruled the country for 44 years.

(2) Helmut Kohl, German Chancellor, was born.

2/4/1930, Wednesday (-5,515) Zanditu, Empress of Ethiopia, died.

1/4/1930, Tuesday (-5,516)

30/3/1930, Sunday (-5,518) Rolf Harris, Australian entertainer and cartoonist, was born.

29/3/1930, Saturday (-5,519) The Garstang to Knott End railway closed to passengers.

28/3/1930. Friday (-5,520) Constantinople had its name changed to Istanbul, and Angora to Ankara, by Kemal Attaturk.

27/3/1930, Thursday (-5,521) In Germany, Hermann Muller’s Government resigned because of Social Democrat opposition to planned cuts in Unemployment Benefits.

19/3/1930, Wednesday (-5,529) Arthur James Balfour, British Conservative Prime Minister from 1902-06, died aged 81.

16/3/1930, Sunday (-5,532) The Spanish dictator Primo de Rivera died, aged 59, having fallen ill on 28/1/1930.

14/3/1930, Friday (-5,534) The UK Government’s Channel Tunnel Committee approved the building of a Channel Tunnel.

13/3/1930, Thursday (-5,535) The discovery of Pluto was announced this day.

12/3/1930, Wednesday (-5,536) Ghandi began a 300-mile march to the sea to protest at the British salt tax in India. See 6/4/1930.

8/3/1930. Saturday (-5,540) (1) Mahatma Ghandi started a civil disobedience campaign in India.

(2) William Howard Taft, American Republican and 27th President from 1909 to 1913, died in Washington.

6/3/1930. Thursday (-5,542) (1) The first frozen food, peas, went on sale, at grocery stores in Springfield, Massachusetts. It was produced by Clarence Birdseye. Birdseye got the idea when surveying wildlife in Labrador in 1912, and noticing how local people preserved fish by packing them in snow. It took till 1930 to develop a commercially viable method of bulk freezing and to get financial backing. Sales were slow at first, because the products were not readily visible, being kept in with the ice cream, and because their price was relatively high. However the availability of vegetables out of season and of seafood made frozen foods popular. Birdseye sold his company within months for US4 22million. By 1933 there were 516 frozen food outlets across the USA.. In Britain frozen foods were pioneered by S W Smedley of Wisbech, who began freezing fruit and vegetables in 1936.

(2) Alfred von Tirpitz, German Admiral, died.

25/2/1930, Tuesday (-5,551) In the UK, a Bill to abolish blasphemy as a criminal offence was dropped.

24/2/1930. Monday (-5,552) Reports out of the USSR claimed that 40 kulaks a day were being murdered by Stalin’s agents.

18/2/1930. Tuesday (-5,558) American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered the planet Pluto from a series of pictures taken during the previous month at the Lowell Observatory.

3/2/1930, Monday (-5,573) The first ever ‘untouchables’ were elected to local councils in India.

1/2/1930. Saturday (-5,575) The Times published its first crossword.

28/1/1930, Tuesday (-5,579) In Spain the dictator Primo de Rivera resigned, after the Army withdrew support for him. General Damaso Berenguer formed a Government.

23/1/1930, Thursday (-5,584) In Germany, Wilhelm Frick was appointed Minister for Education and the Interior in Thuringia, the first Nazi party member to become a Minister in State Government.

20/1/1930. Monday (-5,587) Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin, second man on the Moon, was born at Glen Ridge, New Jersey.

16/1/1930. Thursday (-5,591) The airship R100 reached 81 ½ mph in a trial flight.

15/1/1930, Wednesday (-5,592) Ramsay Mac Donald advocated that the world powers abolish battleships.

13/1/1930. Monday (-5,594) Two million Chinese had died of starvation and famine threatened millions more. China was in political chaos as Chiang Kai Shek tried to establish nationalist rule against the Communists. Japan watched the Chinese turmoil with interest, waiting for a chance to invade the wealthy northern provinces of Manchuria.

7/1/1930, Tuesday (-5,600) The Soviet government ordered all agricultural land to be collectivised.

5/1/1930, Sunday (-5,602) The railway from Wimbledon opened fully to Sutton, see 7/7/1929.

3/1/1930. Friday (-5,604) Stalin collectivised all farms in the USSR.

2/1/1930, Thursday (-5,605) The All-India National Congress called for ‘complete independence’.

1/1/1930, Wednesday (-5,606) In Egypt, Nahas Pasha formed a Wafd Nationalist Government.

22/12/1929. Sunday (-5,616)

 

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