Historical events from 1 January 1920 to 31 December 1929
(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday)
22/12/1929. Sunday (-5,616) (1) The All-India National Congress demanded Indian independence.
(2) China and Russia agreed to withdraw troops from the border as their dispute over the eastern railway ended.
9/12/1929, Monday (-5,629) Bob Hawke, Australian Labour Prime Minister 1983-91, was born.
8/12/1929. Sunday (-5,630) Hitler’s Nazi Party won municipal elections in Bavaria.
7/12/1929, Saturday (-5,631) (India, Islam) Agha Khan 1I1 was married at a private ceremony in Aix les Bains, France, to a former candy store clerk and dressmaker. He was founder and first President of the all-India Muslim League.
6/12/1929, Friday (-5,632) US marines were sent to Haiti to quell a revolt there.
5/12/1929, Thursday (-5,633) 94 mph winds swept across Britain, killing 26 people.
4/12/1929, Wednesday (-5,634) The House of Lords voted 43 to 21 against the UK resuming diplomatic relations with the USSR.
3/12/1929, Tuesday (-5,625) President Hoover delivered his first State of the Union speech to Congress.
2/12/1929. Monday (-5,636) Britain got its first 22 public phone boxes.
1/12/1929. Sunday (-5,637) Major Thames floods.
29/11/1929. Friday (-5,639) US Admiral Richard Byrd, with pilot Bernt Balchen, became the first to fly over the South Pole.
24/11/1929, Sunday (-5,650) Georges Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France, died.
21/11/1929. Thursday (-5,647) Henry Ford raised workers wages in all his car plants.
13/11/1929, Wednesday (-5,655) (1) The Toronto stock market crashed.
(2) The Bank for International Settlements was founded.
11/11/1929, Monday (-5,657) Anti-Japanese occupation protests in Korea.
8/11/1929, Friday (-5,660) The Museum of Modern Art in New York opened.
6/11/1929, Wednesday (-5,662) The Week in Westminster was first broadcast on UK radio.
2/11/1929, Saturday (-5,666) The first News Theatre Cinema opened in New York, the Embassy.
1/11/1929, Friday (-5,667) The Pony Club movement was founded in Britain.
30/10.1929, Wednesday (-5,669) General Election in Ontario. The Conservatives, led by Howard Ferguson, won with an increased majority.
29/10/1929, Tuesday (-5,670) The Montreal stock market crashed.
28/10/1929, Monday (-5,671) The London stock market crashed.
27/10/1929, Sunday (-5,672) Elections in Czechoslovakia were won by the Republican Party of Agricultural and Smallholder Peoples.
26/10/1929, Saturday (-5,673) All London buses to be painted red. Earlier trials with yellow and red proved unpopular.
25/10/1929, Friday (-5,674) Chewing gum magnate William Wrigley Jr stated that business was good and prospects bright.
24/10/1929. Thursday (-5,675) New York stock market crash. See 22/5/1933. The Stock market opened to brisk selling and as the ticker tape was unable to cope with the volume of shares trading (12 million shares were traded that day), prices fell further, and worried investors sold more as prices fell. By 11.30 am. There was total chaos on the market. There were eleven suicides from ruined investors in New York alone. On 28/10/1929 the London Stock Exchange also fell sharply, and New York stocks fell further on 29/10/1929.
23/10/1929, Wednesday (-5,676) A sudden and unanticipated rush of selling hit the New York stock market.
22/10/1929, Tuesday (-5,677) The Brazilian airline Panair do Brasil began operation as NYRBA do Brasil S.A.
21/10/1929, Monday (-5,678) (1) Irish rural electrification received a boost when the Shannon hydroelectric scheme began operating this day. Until now only about a third of Dublin and a quarter of Cork had electricity; the new scheme, at a cost of £5 million, would greatly increase the electricity supply.
(2) The BBC began transmitting regional services.
18/10/1929, Friday (-5,681) Violeta Chamorro, President of Nicaragua, was born.
14/10/1929, Monday (-5,685) The R101 airship went on its first trials above London from its Cardington hangar in Bedfordshire. The airship was 732 feet long and held 5 million cubic feet of hydrogen; power was from 5 diesel engines.
13/10/1929, Sunday (-5,686) Walasse Ting, Chinese-American poet, was born in Shanghai. He died in 2010.
12/10/1929, Saturday (-6,687) (1) The last British troops left the Rhineland, moving out of their base in Wiesbaden.
(2) Magnus Magnusson, British writer and TV presenter, was born in Reykjavik, Iceland.
10/10/1929, Thursday (-6,689)
3/10/1929. Thursday (-5,696) The name of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was changed to Yugoslavia. The name change was an attempt to eradicate longstanding historical divisions within the country.
2/10/1929, Wednesday (-5,697) Britain set up a committee to consider the establishing of National Parks.
1/10/1929, Tuesday (-5,698) Britain resumed diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia.
30/9/1929, Monday (-5,699) The first experimental TV broadcast was made by the BBC.
28/9/1929, Saturday (-5,701) In India, marriage of girls aged under 14 was banned by the Sarda Act.
25/9/1929, Wednesday (-5,704) Ronnie Barker, English comedy actor, was born in Bedford, UK.
24/9/1929. Tuesday (-5,705) Workers in the USSR were given 2 days off a week.
23/9/1929, Monday (-5,706) The $1.5 million, 21,000-seat St. Louis Arena opened.
22/9/1929. Sunday (-5,707) Communists and Nazis fought on the streets of Berlin.
16/9/1929. Monday (-5,713) Bolivia and Paraguay signed an agreement to end their 10 month border dispute.
10/9/1929. Tuesday (-5,719) A British seaplane reached a record speed of 355.8 mph.
9/9/1929. Monday (-5,720) Heavy fighting between Russia and China on their border.
6/9/1929, Friday (-5,723)
5/9/1929. Thursday (-5,724) Aristide Briand, the French Prime Minister, proposed a United States of Europe.
4/9/1929, Wednesday (-5,725) The German airship Graf Zeppelin completed its 20-day round the world trip from Friedrichshafen on the shore of lake Constance via Tokyo, Los Angeles, and Lakehurst.
3/9/1929. Tuesday (-5,726) The New York Stock Exchange reached a new high of 381.17.
25/8/1929. Sunday (-5,735) Britain declared martial law in Jerusalem as Arabs and Jews continued fighting. Arabs killed 8 Jews and then burned whole streets of houses; the rioting was sparked by Arab hostility to Jewish access to the Wailing Wall, situated in the heart of Arab east Jerusalem. Order was not restored by the British until 31/8/1929.
12/8/1929, Monday (-5,748) The Mansfield to Southwell railway closed to passengers.
8/8/1929, Thursday (-5,752) Ronald Biggs, great train robber, was born in Lambeth, south London.
6/8/1929, Tuesday (-5,754) Britain and Egypt agreed a draft treaty for the withdrawal of British troops from Egypt, except from the Canal Zone.
3/8/1929, Saturday (-5,757) Emile Berliner, US inventor of the flat phonographic record, died.
31/7/1929, Wednesday (-5,760) World Boy Scouts jamboree opened at Arrowe Park, Merseyside.
29/7/1929, Monday (-5,762) Britain’s Foreign Secretary, Arthur Henderson, had talks with his Soviet counterpart about restoring Anglo-Soviet diplomatic relations.
28/7/1929, Sunday (-5,763) Jacqueline Onassis, widow of President Kennedy, was born in Southampton, New York State, as Jacqueline Lee Bouvier.
25/7/1929. Thursday (-5,766) Pope Pius XI became the first Pope for 59 years to leave the Vatican. The creation of the Papal state under the Lateran treaties had clarified the politico-legal position of the Pope, who until then had been a virtual prisoner within the Vatican.
21/7/1929, Sunday (-5,770) The Puymorens rail tunnel, France, 5.5 km long, opened.
17/7/1929. Wednesday (-5,774) Russia broke off diplomatic relations with China and began to mobilise troops on the border.
16/7/1929, Tuesday (-5,775) In Dublin, the Censorship of Publications Act came into force, to control obscenity.
12/7/1929, Friday (-5,779)
8/7/1929, Monday (-5,783) Passenger services were withdrawn on the Shipston on Stour railway.
7/7/1929, Sunday (-5,784) The railway from Wimbledon to Sutton opened as far south as South Merton, see 5/1/1930. The Yealmton (Plymouth) branch railway closed (regular passenger services).
1//7/1929. Monday (-5,790) Britain refused Leon Trotsky asylum.
26/6/1929. Wednesday (-5,795) The Japanese government signed the anti-war Kellogg-Briand pact, the last government to sign it.
12/6/1929. Wednesday (-5,809) Birth of Anne Frank, Dutch Jewish schoolgirl who wrote her famous dairies before going to her death in a Nazi concentration camp.
8/6/1929. Saturday (-5,813) (1) At The Hague, Germany’s war debts were rescheduled. Germany was no longer required to pay for the reconstruction of France’s war-damaged provinces. The Young Plan, named after its American author Owen Young, removed controls on the German economy. However Germany must still repay £1.65 billion over the next 40 years, including £2 million a year that Britain insists upon to cover its American debt. Militant Germans, including the Nazis, demonstrated against these payments.
(2) Margaret Bondfield became the first British woman Cabinet Minister when she was appointed Minister of Labour.
7/6/1929. Friday (-5,814) The Papal State, extinct since 1870, was revived as the Vatican City State in Rome under the Lateran Treaty.
30/5/1929. Thursday (-5,822) UK General Election. Labour secured its first Parliamentary majority – see 22/1/1924. The Labour Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald, running Britain’s second Labour government, appointed Margaret Bondfield as Britain’s first woman minister. She was Minister of Labour, a key post, given the lengthening dole queues Britain faced. Labour won 288 seats, the Conservatives 260.
21/5/1929, Tuesday (-5,831) (1) Lord Roseberry, British Liberal Prime Minister, died.
(2) King Alexander I of Yugoslavia used his dictatorial powers to ban the Croat Party and other political factions.
5/5/1929. Sunday (-5,847) In Bombay a curfew was imposed to quell Hindu-Moslem fighting.
3/5/1929. Friday (-5,849) Severe civil unrest in Berlin.
1/5/1929, Wednesday (-5,851) Communists in Berlin attacked policemen.
29/4/1929, Monday (-5,853) The future Liberal Party leader, Jeremy Thorpe, was born.
26/4/1929. Friday (-5,856) The first non-stop flight from England to India of 4,130 miles in 50 hours 37 minutes was made by two RAF officers. They were Squadron leader A G Jones-Williams and Flight Lieutenant N H Jenkins.
24/4/1929, Wednesday (-5,858) Denmark elected a socialist government.
20/4/1929. Saturday (-5,862) The first Italian Parliament composed exclusively of Fascists led by Benito Mussolini was opened by King Victor Emmanuel III.
15/4/1929, Monday (-5,867) Chancellor Winston Churchill, in his budget, abolished the 325-year-old tea duty, knocking 4d off the price of a pound of tea.
14/4/1929. Sunday (-5,868) (1) The first air mail from India arrived at Croydon.
(2) The Monte Carlo Grand Prix was run for the first time, 76 laps round the narrow streets and harbour of Monte Carlo.
11/4/1929. Thursday (-5,871) (1) Germany refused asylum to Leon Trotsky.
(2) Popeye the cartoon character first appeared in a comic strip in a New York newspaper.
4/4/1929. Thursday (-5,878) The engineer Carl Benz, who built the first internal combustion car, died aged 84.
30/3/1929, Saturday (-5,883) The first commercial air service between London and Karachi began.
24/3/1929. Sunday (-5,889) Mussolini’s single party Fascist state claimed it had won 99% of the vote in elections.
23/3/1929, Saturday (-5,890) Roger Bannister, the first man to run a mile in under 4 minutes (3 minutes, 59.4 seconds), was born in Harrow, London.
20/3/1929. Wednesday (-5,893) The French military commander Marshal Ferdinand Foch died aged 68.
11/3/1929. Monday (-5,902) Major H O D Seagrave reached 231.36 mph in his racing car at Daytona Beach.
10/3/1929. Sunday (-5,903) Egyptian women were granted limited rights of divorce.
5/3/1929, Tuesday (-5,908)
4/3/1929. Monday (-5,909) Herbert Hoover was inaugurated as the President of the USA.
3/3/1929, Sunday (-5,910) The southern branch line from Tooting to Wimbledon was closed to passengers, see 1/10/1868. It closed to goods traffic on 5/8/1968.
21/2/1929. Thursday (-5,920) France refused asylum to Leon Trotsky, Stalin’s most feared opponent, now exiled from the USSR.
18/2/1929, Monday (-5,,923) The First Academy Awards, known as Oscars from 1931, were announced.
17/2/1929, Sunday (-5,924) The first in-flight movie was shown, on an internal flight in the USA.
16/2/1929, Saturday (-5,925) The New York Stock Exchange posted widespread losses after the Federal Reserve Advisory Council's warning about speculators the previous day.
15/2/1929. Friday (-5,926) German unemployment was over 3 million.
14/2/1929. Thursday (-5,927) The St Valentines Day Massacre took place in Chicago. Seven members of Bugsy Moran’s gang were machine-gunned to death by a rival gang.
11/2/1929. Monday (-5,930) The 109 acres of the Vatican in Rome were made an independent state under the Lateran Treaty, which was signed by Benito Mussolini and Pietro Gasparri, Pope Pius XI.
6/2/1929, Wednesday (-5,935) Germany ratified the Kellogg-Briand anti-war pact.
5/2/1929, Tuesday (-5,936) Éamon de Valera was arrested for entering Northern Ireland.
4/2/1929, Monday (-5,937) The first Green Belt area was approved, a five-mile wide strip near Hendon.
31/1/1929. Thursday (-5,941) Leon Trotsky was expelled from Russia by Stalin. He found asylum in Mexico.
15/1/1929, Tuesday (-5,957) (1) US civil rights leader Martin Luther King was born in Atlanta, Georgia, son of a Baptist pastor.
(2) The USA ratified the Kellogg-Briand anti-war pact.
14/1/1929, Monday (-5.958) Amānullāh Khān of Afghanistan, facing revolt, abdicated and left the throne to his brother Inayatullah Khan.
13/1/1929, Sunday (-5,959) Wyatt Earp, American lawman and hero of the OK Corral, died peacefully aged 81.
12/1/1929, Saturday (-5,960) The Cascade Tunnel, USA, 12 km, long, was opened.
9/1/1929, Wednesday (-5,963) Fleming treated his assistant Stuart Craddock for an infection by washing it out with a penicillin solution; this cleared the infection.
6/1/1929, Sunday (-5,966) King Alexander of Yugoslavia became dictator.
1/1/1929. Tuesday (-5,971) In the UK, there were now 3.6 telephones per 100 people.
20/12/1928. Thursday (-5,983) (1) Harry Ramsden started his first fish and chip restaurant in a hut near Bradford, West Yorkshire, which soon became the most famous in the world.
(2) The UK recognised the Kuomintang government of China.
11/12/1928, Tuesday (-5,992) Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian author, was born.
10/12/1928, Monday (-5,993) In London, the new Underground Station at Piccadilly Circus opened.
29/11/1928, Thursday (-6,004) In Britain the Government was concerned at the rising toll of road accidents. In 1927 there were 133,943 accidents and 5,329 deaths on Britain’s roads. The number of private cars was just 200,000 in 1920 but forecast to reach one million by 1930. However anyone aged 17 could drive with no more than a self-certification of physical fitness. The speed limit of 20 mph was widely ignored. Motoring had been the preserve of the wealthy but the Austin Seven car, introduced in 1921, cost just £225, within the reach of many people.
26/11/1928, Monday (-6,007) The first twins to be born by Caesarean section in Britain were delivered in Manchester.
17/11/1928, Saturday (-6,016) Lala Rajpat Raj, Indian politician, died.
6/11/1928. Tuesday (-6,027) Herbert Hoover, Republican, was elected 31st President of the USA.
5/11/1928. Monday (-6,028) Mount Etna erupted.
4/11/1928, Sunday (-6,029) The Nicaraguan general election was held; José María Moncada was elected president.
3/11/1928. Saturday (-6,030) Turkey abolished the use of the Arabic script and adopted the Roman alphabet.
30/10/1928, Tuesday (-6,034) (1) The Col de Braus rail tunnel, France, 6 km long, opened.
(2) Static pictures were first transmitted by radio. Receivers required a special device called a Fultograph, attached to the radio set. This utilised a revolving drum upon which a stylus marked half-tone lines on special paper. The result was about as good as a mediocre picture in an underfunded local newspaper, and the device never became popular.
15/10/1928. Monday (-6,049) The German airship Graf Zeppelin, captained by Hugo Eckener, completed its first transatlantic flight. It flew from Friedrichshafen, Germany, to Lakehurst in New York.
12/10/1928. Friday (-6,052) The first iron lung was used at the Boston Children’s Hospital, Massachusetts.
11/10/1928, Thursday (-6,053) The LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin departed Friedrichshafen with 20 passengers and 40 crew, bound for the United States.
10/10/1928. Wednesday (-6,054) The King and Queen opened the new Tyne road bridge.
6/10/1928. Saturday (-6,058) Chiang Kai-Shek became President of Nationalist China.
1/10/1928. Monday (-6,063) Stalin’s first Five Year Plan began. The idea was for rapid industrialisation of the USSR, especially in coal, iron, oil, steel, and machine building. Output of consumer goods was also to rise sharply. Agriculture was to be collectivised, which meant disempowering the wealthy rural peasantry, or Kulaks. On 5/1/1930 Stalin sent thousands of government agents to the Russian countryside to persuade the Kulaks to join the new collectives. Under Stalin’s scheme, every poor farmer who turned his land over to the collective would be allowed to own a house, stable, garden, and one car, and to keep the income from any sales of garden vegetables.
20/9/1928, Thursday (-6,074) In Rome the supreme legislative body, the Chamber of Deputies, was taken over by the Fascists.
19/9/1928. Wednesday (-6,075) The first cartoon talking picture, Walt Disney’s Steamboat Willie, with Mickey Mouse (originally called Mortimer Mouse), was shown in New York.
18/9/1928, Tuesday (-6,076)
16/9/1928, Sunday (-6,078) In Glasgow the P&O liner Viceroy of India was launched; she was the first to have oil-fired electric turbines.
15/9/1928. Saturday (-6,079) Alexander Fleming reported the discovery of penicillin.
11/9/1928, Tuesday (-6,083) In New York the world’s first television drama was broadcast. It was a 40 minute two-character play called The Queen’s Messenger.
1/9/1928. Saturday (-6,093) Zogu was proclaimed King Zog I of Albania.
28/8/1928, Tuesday (-6,097) In Britain the Dangerous Drugs Act (1925) was amended to make the use of cannabis illegal.
27/8/1928. Monday (-6,098) In Paris, 15 nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, outlawing war. The USSR signed the pact on 6/9/1928.
26/8/1928, Sunday (-6,099) Actress Barbara Stanwyck and vaudeville comedian Frank Fay were married in St. Louis.
25/8/1928, Saturday (-6,100) Anfield’s famous Kop terrace at Liverpool football ground opened. It was probably named after the Battle of Spion Kop in the Boer War (1899-1902); ‘kopje’ means ‘small hill’.
19/8/1928, Sunday (-6,106) Lord Haldane, who founded the Territorial Army in 1908, died in London.
14/8/1928. Tuesday (-6,111) (1) The world’s first scheduled television programmes were broadcast by WRNY in New York.
(2) The world’s first coach service to have sleeping bunks began, between London and Liverpool.
10/8/1928, Friday (-6,115) British cigarette smoking was rising fast. In 1924 the country consumed 77,458,000 lbs of tobacco, up from 23,766,000 lbs in 1907, according to figures from the Imperial economic Committee. In 1927 Britons consumed 3.4 lbs of tobacco per head. All the increase was from cigarettes; pipe smoking and cigars have declined. Cigarette sales were boosted by marketing techniques such as free cards, and cigarette smoking had become a powerful symbol of female emancipation. Younger females also saw the habit as romantic. However some doctors were concerned about links to the rise in various cancers.
6/8/1928, Monday (-6,119) Andy Warhol, US artist, was born.
1/8/1928, Wednesday (-6,124) The Morris Minor car was launched.
28/7/1928, Saturday (-6,128) The 9th Olympic Games opened in Amsterdam.
22/7/1928. Sunday (-6,134) Japan severed all relations with China.
7/7/1928, Saturday (+6,149) Sliced bread was first produced
6/7/1928, Friday (-6,150) The first all-talking feature film, Lights of New York, was presented at The Sound Theatre, New York.
3/7/1928. Tuesday (-6,153) The first TV sets went on sale in the USA, at $75 each. John Logie Baird made the first colour TV transmission, from the Baird Studios, London.
18/6/1928. Monday (-6,168) (1) Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer who was the first to reach the South Pole in 1911, was lost in the North Sea after a flying accident..
(2) American aviator Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly the Atlantic. She and her two male companions landed safely in Wales.
15/6/1928. Friday (-6,171) A race between a train and a plane from London to Edinburgh was won by the train, the ‘Flying Scotsman’.
14/6/1928. Thursday (-6,172) (1) Birth of the Argentine revolutionary, Che Guevara, at Rosario, Argentina.
(2) Emmeline Pankhurst, suffragette, born 13/2/1858, died.
8/6/1928, Friday (-6,178) (1) Charles Kingsford-Smith and Captain Ulm completed the first flight across the Pacific, landing at Brisbane, Australia. They had taken off from Oakland, California, and flew via Hawaii and Fiji in their plane, the Southern Cross.
(2) Beijing fell to Nationalist forces under Chiang Kai Shek, ending the Chinese civil war.
30/5/1928, Wednesday (-6,187) In Germany, Socialists won the elections.
29/5/1928. Tuesday (-6,188) In the USA, the Chrysler and Dodge motor companies merged.
21/5/1928. Monday (-6,196) In Italy, Catholics were told to disassociate themselves from Fascism.
15/5/1928. Tuesday (-6,202) Australia began the flying doctor service. It began at Cloncurry, Queensland; the first doctor was Dr Vincent Welsh.
12/5/1928. Saturday (-6,205) The Italian electorate was reduced from 10 million to 3 million, under Mussolini.
7/5/1928. Monday (-6,210) In Britain, women aged between 21 and 30 won equal suffrage in elections. This was known as the ‘flapper’s vote’. The women’s voting age in Britain had previously been 30.
3/5/1928, Thursday (-6,214) Chinese Nationalist forces suffered major losses against the Japanese.
2/5/1928. Wednesday (-6,215) Croydon Airport officially opened.
1/5/1928. Tuesday (-6,216) Ebenezer Howard, founder of the New Towns movement, knighted in 1927, of Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City, died in the latter town.
28/4/1928, Saturday (-6,219)
27/4/1928. Friday (-6,220) The Piccadilly Theatre, London, opened.
26/4/1928, Thursday (-6,221) Madame Tussauds waxworks museum re-opened on Marylebone Road, after its previous address in Baker Street burnt down.
22/4/1928. Sunday (-6,225) Earthquake in Corinth left 50,000 homeless.
19/4/1928. Thursday (-6,228) The Japanese occupied Shantung, China.
9/4/1928. Monday (-6,238) Turkey abolished Islam as the State religion.
7/4/1928, Saturday (-6,240) Chinese Nationalists launched an offensive to capture Beijing.
6/4/1928, Friday (-6,241) In Italy, handshaking was banned as it was deemed unhygienic.
28/3/1928. Wednesday (-6,250) France shortened its term of compulsory military service to one year.
25/3/1928, Sunday (-6,253) James Lovell, American astronaut, was born in Cleveland, Ohio.
19/3/1928, Monday (-6,259) In Britain, the Revised Book of Common Prayer was published.
13/3/1928, Tuesday (-6,265) In Los Angeles, 450 died when a dam burst.
27/2/1928, Monday (-6,280) The Moffat rail tunnel, USA, 9 km long, opened.
22/2/1928. Wednesday (-6,285) Mr Bert Hinkler arrived in Port Darwin, having set a record time for the flight from England, 15 ½ days.
20/2/1928. Monday (-6,287) Britain recognised the independence of the Kingdom of Transjordan (now Jordan).
19/2/1928. Sunday (-6,288) A new world land speed record of 206.35 mph was set by Malcolm Campbell in the US.
15/2/1928. Wednesday (-6,292) (1) Herbert Harry Asquith, Liberal Prime Minister in the UK from 1908 to 1916, died.
(2) The Oxford English Dictionary was completed after 70 years of work.
12/2/1928. Sunday (-6,295) The British colony of Malta gained Dominion status.
6/2/1928. Monday (-6,301) 50,000 fled as Communists raided Peking.
1/2/1928. Wednesday (-6,306) In the USA, Dr Herbert Evans discovered vitamin E.
30/1/1928, Monday (-6,308) Croydon Aerodrome began operations, see 29/3/1920 and 2/5/1928.
29/1/1928, Sunday (-6,309) General Earl Haig, WW I Commander and founder of the British Legion, died in London. He was buried at Dryburgh Abbey.
25/1/1928, Wednesday (-6,313) Edvard Shevardnadze, Soviet Foreign Minister under Gorbachev, was born.
21/1/1928, Saturday (-6,317) George Washington Goethals, American, chief engineer of the Panama Canal, died.
17/1/1928, Tuesday (-6,321) Vidal Sassoon, English hair stylist, was born in London.
14/1/1928. Saturday (-6,324) Clashes between Italians and tribesmen in Libya, 100 tribesmen killed.
13/1/1928. Friday (-6,325) Allied military control in Bulgaria ended.
12/1/1928, Thursday (-6,326) The Italian press was banned from reporting suicides or sensational crimes
11/1/1928. Wednesday (-6,327) Thomas Hardy, English poet and novelist, author of Tess of the D’Ubervilles, died in his native Dorset aged 87.
10/1/1928. Tuesday (-6,328) (1) Stalin purged his opponents. Many were arrested by his security police, the OGPU, and sent to exile in Siberia. Trotsky was exiled from the USSR.
(2) Aviators Hood and Moncrieff were lost whilst attempting the first flight across the Tasman Sea, from Australia to New Zealand.
8/1/1928, Sunday (-6,330)
7/1/1928. Saturday (-6,331) Fourteen people drowned when the River Thames flooded parts of London, including the Palace of Westminster. A sudden thaw swelled the river as high tides and strong winds also drove up water levels.
6/1/1928, Friday (-6,332) Italian Finance Minister Giuseppe Volpi banned industries from taking out foreign loans without government approval.
5/1/1928. Thursday (-6,333) The first over 65s in the UK received their State Pensions. The sum was 10 shillings a week.
Walter Mondale, US Vice-President, was born in Ceylon, Minnesota.
4/1/1928, Wednesday (-6,334) Severe flooding hit large areas of England.
3/1/1928, Tuesday (-6,335) US troops went to Nicaragua to fight the Sandinistas.
2/1/1928, Monday (-6,336) Daily Service was first broadcast on radio in the UK.
1/1/1928, Sunday (-6,337) Nearly 250,000 domestic slaves in the British Protectorate of Sierra Leone were freed by decree of 1927.
31/12/1927, Saturday (-6,338) (1) In Britain the Electricity Supply Act provided for the setting up of a Central Electricity Board, which will create a uniform national supply via a national grid. At the time, there were many small competing power companies, delaying the spread of electrification, and only about 10% of UK homes could run the new electrical gadgets such as vacuum cleaners.
(2) The use of the lance was abandoned by the British Army, except for ceremonial purposes.
25/12/1927, Sunday (-6,344) A White Christmas in London.
19/12/1927, Monday (-6,350) In China, 600 Communists were executed by the Nationalists.
15/12/1927, Thursday (-6,354) China broke off diplomatic relations with the USSR.
14/12/1927. Wednesday (-6,355) Chiang Kai Shek’s forces suppressed an attempted Communist coup in Canton.
10/12/1927, Saturday (-6,359) As greyhound racing grew in popularity, London’s third racecourse opened, at Wembley, to join those at Haringey and White City. Harringey stadium closed in 1987 to make way for a Sainsbury superstore.
2/12/1927, Friday (-6,367) Ford’s Model A car went on sale as the successor to the Model T.
22/11/1927, Tuesday (-6,377) 200 unemployed Welsh miners marched to London, but Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin refused to meet them.
18/11/1927. Friday (-6,381) The head of the International Football Association announced the creation of a World Cup.
15/11/1927, Tuesday (-6,384) Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party, USSR.
14/11/1927, Monday (-6,385) The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party voted to expel both Trotsky and Zinoviev from membership, along with 81 of their associates. The resolution became effective on December 2, when the Fifteenth Congress of the CPSU purged 93 other Party members associated with the "Trotsky-Zinoviev faction"
13/11/1927, Sunday (-6,386) The Holland Tunnel, linking New York City to New Jersey, was opened.
12/11/1927. Saturday (-6,387) (1) The first automatic telephone exchange opened, in Holborn, London.
(2) The first London to Brighton veteran car rally, sponsored by the Daily Sketch. It was won by John Bryce, from amongst 51 competitors.
11/11/1927, Friday (-6,388) France and Yugoslavia made a friendship treaty.
10/11/1927. Thursday (-6,389) General Motors announced the largest dividend in history, US$ 62million.
9/11/1927, Wednesday (-6,390) Rebellion in the Lithuanian city of Tauragé by citizens dissatisfied with President Antanas Smetona, 209 people were convicted of charges arising from the insurrection, and eleven were executed.
8/11/1927, Tuesday (-6,391) Nguyen Khanh, Prime Minister of South Vietnam, was born.
5/11/1927. Saturday (-6,394) The UK’s first set of automatic traffic lights began operating, at the Prince Square crossroads in Wolverhampton.
31/10/1927, Monday (-6,939) Kemal Ataturk, founder of the modern Turkish Republic, abolished the Fez in favour of western headgear.
30/10.1927, Sunday (-6,400) Admiral Paul Kondouriotis, the President of Greece, survived an assassination attempt by a 25-year-old waiter. Zafioios Goussies shot President Kondouriotis in the head as the he was leaving a conference of Greece's mayors in Athens.
29/10/1927, Saturday (-6,401) Russian archaeologist Peter Kozlof discovered the tomb of Genghis Khan.
28/10/1927, Friday (-6,402) The Monte Orso rail tunnel, Italy, 7.5 km long, opened. Also the Vivola tunnel, Italy, 7 km long, opened. Also the Monte Massico rail tunnel, Italy, 5.5 km long, opened.
23/10.1927, Sunday (-6,407)
18/10/1927. Tuesday (-6,412) Dancing bears were banned from the streets of Berlin.
17/10/1927, Monday (-6,413) Norway elected its first Labour government.
16/10/1927, Sunday (-6,614) The first remnant of Peking Man, a tooth, was found by paleontologist Anders Birger Bohlin at Chou K'ou Tien (Zhoukoudian), under sponsorship of Davidson Black, who gave it the scientific name Sinanthropus pekinensis. More remains would be discovered over the next ten years, and reclassified as Homo erectus pekinensis, estimated to be more than 300,000 years old.
15/10/1927. Saturday (-6,415) (1) Britain’s Public Morals Committee attacked the use of contraceptives for ‘causing poor hereditary stock’.
(2) Iraq made its first oil strike, at Kirkuk.
14/10/1927, Friday (-6,416) Dieudonne Costas and Joseph Le Brix became the first persons to fly an airplane across the South Atlantic Ocean, and the first to make an east-to-west transatlantic crossing, departing Saint-Louis, Senegal and arriving in Port Natal, Brazil 21 hours and 15 minutes later, at 11:40 pm local time.
13/10/1927, Thursday (-6,417) Britain’s first veteran car rally took place. It was organised by the Daily Sketch, and took place in London, with 43 entrants.
10/10/1927, Monday (-6,420)
6/10/1927. Thursday (-6,424) The first full length talking picture, The Jazz Singer, opened in New York. The soundtrack was almost entirely music. The biggest problem with sound movies was synchronising speech with mouth movements.
5/10/1927. Wednesday (-6,425) The Labour Party voted to nationalise the coal mines at its party conference at Blackpool.
22/9/1927. Thursday (-6,438) Sierra Leone abolished domestic slavery.
16/9/1927. Friday (-6,444) President Von Hindenburg repudiated German responsibility for the Great War (World War One).
8/9/1927, Thursday (-6,452) In Edinburgh, the Trades Union Congress voted to cut ties with Soviet trades unions.
7/9/1927, Wednesday (-6,453) Mao Tse Tung led a Communist uprising in the rural province of Hunan.
2/9/1927, Friday (-6,458) Mustafa Kemal made Turkey a one-party state.
18/8/1927, Thursday (-6,473) Rosalynn Carter, wife of Jimmy Carter, 39th US President, was born in Plains, Georgia, as Rosalynn Smith.
12/8/1927, Friday (-6,479) Eamon de Valera took his seat in the Irish Dail.
7/8/1927, Sunday (-6,484) The Peace Bridge opened between Canada and the USA.
1/8/1927, Monday (-6,490) The Nanchang Army uprising against the Kuomintang. The Chinese Communist Party considers this the date of the founding of the Red Army.
24/7/1927, Sunday (-6,498) The Menin Gate, a memorial at Ypres to the soldiers of the British Empire, was unveiled by Lord Plumer.
20/7/1927, Wednesday (-6,502) King Ferdinand of Romania died, aged 61. He was succeeded by his nephew, 5-year old Michael I.
18/7/1927, Monday (-6,504) The Somport rail tunnel, 8 km long, between France and Spain, opened.
16/7/1927. Saturday (-6,506) First train ran on the Romney, Hythe, and Dymchurch railway.
15/7/1927. Friday (-6,507) Vienna faced a General Strike as Socialists rioted. The left wing was upset that Austrian courts were much more lenient on offences committed by right-wing offenders, even up to murder.
11/7/1927. Monday (-6,511) The LNER (London and North Eastern Railway) inaugurated a non-stop service between London and Newcastle on Tyne. On 1/5/1928 the LNER inaugurated the longest non-stop train service in the world, from London Kings Cross to Edinburgh, 392 ½ miles. The 392 mile journey took 7 hours, 27 minutes.
7/7/1927. Thursday (-6,515) Christopher Stone became the first disc jockey on British radio when he presented his record round up from Savoy Hill.
6/7/1927, Wednesday (-6,516) The Church of England approved revisions to the Book of Common Prayer.
23/6/1927. Thursday (-6,529) Britain passed the Trades Disputes Act, making sympathetic strikes illegal. This was a consequence of the General Strike, to support the miners, which began on 3/5/1926.
20/6/1927, Monday (-6,532) (1) Fighting between Communists and Fascists in Hyde Park, London.
(2) Greyhound racing began at London’s White City Stadium.
(3) Naval disarmament conference began, between UK, USA, and Japan. The conference ended on 4/4/1927 without agreement.
4/6/1927. Saturday (-6,548) In Indonesia, Ahmed Sukarno founded the Indonesian Nationalist Party.
31/5/1927. Tuesday (-6,552) The last ‘tin lizzie’, came off the production line, almost unchanged since the model was introduced as the Model T Ford in 1908. 15,007,003 Model Ts were produced. It was replaced by the Model A. The Model T had become outdated, and Ford had lost first place in the market to General Motors. The first Model T made in 1908 cost US$ 850 but by 1927 they cost under US$ 300. Ford had also lost sales to the second hand market; other car manufacturers countered this by changing the model slightly each year.
24/5/1927. Tuesday (-6,559) Britain severed relations with the USSR amid allegations of subversion and espionage throughout the British Empire. On 9/6/1927 the USSR executed 20 people accused of being British spies.
22/5/1927, Sunday (-6,561) Earthquake in China killed 200,000.
21/5/1927. Saturday (-6,562) Charles A Lindbergh completed the first solo Atlantic flight. He took off from Roosevelt Field, Long Island, flew his monoplane Spirit of St Louis for 33 ½ hours, and landed at Le Bourget airfield, Paris. Landing in Paris, he won the US$ 25,000 prize for the first solo flight across the Atlantic.
20/5/1927. Friday (-6,563) Britain recognised the independence of Saudi Arabia, under the Treaty of Jeddah.
16/5/1927, Monday (-6,567) Eamon de Valera, former President of Sinn Fein, inaugurated the new political party of Fianna Fail (‘Soldier of Destiny’) at the La Scala theatre in Dublin. His main aim was the reunification of Ireland.
14/5/1927. Saturday (-6,569) The BBC broadcast its first cricket commentary, from the Essex vs. New Zealand match at Leyton, east London.
9/5/1927. Monday (-6,574) Parliament House, Canberra, opened. Canberra became the new capital of Australia, replacing Melbourne.
1/5/1927, Sunday (-6,582) The first airline cooked meals were served, from a galley aboard the Imperial Airways Silver Ewing London to Paris flights. The galley could serve up to 18 passengers.
22/4/1927, Friday (-6,591) Start of the Great Mississippi Flood, until 5/5/1927. 246 people were killed.
21/4/1927. Thursday (-6,592) The National Museum of Wales opened in Cardiff.
19/4/1927, Tuesday (-6,594) The US actress Mae West was convicted of obscenity for writing, producing and directing a Broadway musical called Sex.
7/4/1927, Thursday (-6,606) The comedian A Dolan was televised in Whippany, New Jersey, making him the first televised comedian.
6/4/1927, Wednesday (-6,607) Chinese police raided the Soviet Embassy in Beijing, seizing incriminating evidence of subversion. Several Communist leaders were later executed.
5/4/1927, Tuesday (-6,608) (Italy, East Europe) Hungary signed a ‘Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation’ with the Italian leader, Mussolini. Hungary needed allies, and Italy strengthened its influence in the Danube Basin.
2/4/1927, Saturday (-6,611) The Oxford and Cambridge boat race was first broadcast.
29/3/1927. Tuesday (-6,615) A new land speed record of 203.841 mph was set by Major Harry Seagrave at the Daytona Beach racetrack, Florida.
26/3/1927. Saturday (-6,618) The Gaumont British Film Corporation was founded.
21/3/1927. Monday (-6,623) The victorious army of Chiang Kai-Shek entered Shanghai. In April 1927 he mounted an offensive against trade unionists and Communists, driving them into the countryside.
8/3/1927 Tuesday (-6,636) Archaeologists discovered a 5,000-year-old manicure kit in Iran.
8/2/1927. Tuesday (-6,664) The revised book of common prayer introduced sex equality to the Church of England wedding service.
4/2/1927. Friday (-6,668) Malcolm Campbell set a new world land speed record of 174.224 mph in his car, Bluebird, on Pendine Sands.
3/2/1927, Thursday (-6,669) In Portugal, a revolt began against dictator General Carmona; the revolt was defeated on 13/2/1927.
31/1/1927, Monday (-6,672) 12,000 British troops were ordered to China to defend British nationals in Shanghai, where the civil war was posing a threat to foreigners.
29/1/1927. Saturday (-6,674) In London the Park Lane Hotel opened, the first with en-suite bathrooms.
24/1/1927, Monday (-6,679) The British Medical Association warned that cancer deaths, especially of the chest and tongue, had risen sharply in the past 20 years. Smoking had become much more popular over this period.
22/1/1927. Saturday (-6,681) The BBC broadcast its first football match; between Arsenal and Sheffield United. The result was a draw, 1-1.
21/1/1927, Friday (-6,682) Telly Savalas, American film actor who played ‘Kojak’, was born in Garden City, New York.
15/1/1927. Saturday (-6,688) Winston Churchill met Mussolini in Italy.
9/1/1927. Sunday (-6,694) Greta Garbo and John Gilbert -real life lovers – shocked cinemagoers in New York by their uninhibited kissing in the silent film Flesh and the Devil.
8/1/1927. Saturday (-6,695) The first scheduled flight from London to Delhi arrived in India.
7/1/1927. Friday (-6,696) (1) The transatlantic telephone service between London and New York began. The charge was £15 for three minutes.
(2) The Harlem Globetrotters basketball team was founded.
1/1/1927. Saturday (-6,702) (1) In China the Kuomintang established a government at Hankow.
(2) The British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, came into being. It had formerly been the British Broadcasting Company.
(3) Hungary reformed its currency with a new unit, the Pengo, equivalent to 12,500 paper Crowns. The country had suffered rampant inflation in the early 1920s, and the League of Nations now helped with economic reconstruction.
25/12/1926. Saturday (-6,709) Emperor Hirohito ascended the Japanese throne after the death of his father Emperor Yoshihito. He died in January 1989 after 62 years as Emperor.
20/12/1926, Monday (-6,714) Sir Geoffrey Howe, British Conservative politician, was born.
15/12/1926. Wednesday (-6,719) The Italian fascist party adopted the Roman symbol of authority, the fasces, or bundle of sticks, and origin of the word ‘fascist,, as its symbol.
6/12/1926. Monday (-6,728) The impressionist painter Claude Monet died as a recluse in Coventry, aged 86.
27/11/1926. Saturday (-6,737) (1) Vesuvius erupted.
(2) Italy and Albania signed the Treaty of Tirana, effectively making Albania an Italian Protectorate. Britain formally recognised the Treaty, angering France, who saw the Balkans as their sphere of influcnce.
20/11/1926. Saturday (-6,744) The Commonwealth was born out of the British Empire. Britain decided that the self-governing dominions of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Newfoundland should have equal status with Britain as members of a ‘commonwealth of nations’. Ireland also became independent. The status of India was unchanged.
19/11/1926. Friday (-6,745) British striking miners returned to work, after a six-month strike, agreeing to work longer hours in return for no pay cut.
13/11/1926, Saturday (-6,751) In Italy, Mario de Bernardi set a new seaplane speed record of 246 mph.
2/11/1926. Tuesday (-6,762) Imperial Chemical Industries, ICI, was formed, from the merger of four companies; Brunner Mond, Nobel Industries, United Alkali and British Dyestuffs.
31/10/1926. Sunday (-6,764) (1) The USA magician and escapologist Harry Houdini died, aged 52. He was born as Ehrich Weisz in Hungary and adopted his later name from the conjuror Robert Houdin whose autobiography he read as a young boy. .Determined to match Houdin’s achievements and to haul his family out of poverty, Houdini ran away to New York to begin a life in magic and entertainment which would enthral thousands. He escaped from handcuffs in an underwater nailed packing crate, and later exposed many psychic frauds. Whilst giving a lecture on spiritualism in Montreal, Houdini was asked if he could withstand a blow to the abdomen. Before he had a chance to prepare himself, Houdini was struck three times by a student. Despite this he managed to perform again, but died of peritonitis in a Detroit hospital a few days later.
(2) Jimmy Savile, British radio and TV presenter, was born in Leeds, Yorkshire.
(3) An attempt was made on Mussolini’s life. This gave him the excuse to remove more civil liberties.
23/10/1926, Saturday (-6,772) In Russia, Leon Trotsky and Zinoviev were ousted from the Politburo.
14/10/1926. Thursday (-6,781) In Britain, A A. Milne published Winnie the Pooh, a children’s book.
11/10/1926. Monday (-6,784) Children’s Hour started on BBC Radio.
7/10/1926. Thursday (-6,788) Mussolini decreed the Fascist party to be the state Party; all opposition was banned.
3/10/1926, Sunday (-6,792) At Chiswick, London, Violet Percy became the first woman to run a marathon. She took 3 hours 4o minutes.
1/10/1926, Friday (-6,794) Alan Cobham made a round the world flight in 58 days.
13/9/1926, Monday (-6,812) In London, the Underground extensions from Charing Cross (Embankment) to Kennington and from Clapham Common to Morden (5 miles) were opened.
8/9/1926. Wednesday (-6,817) The League of Nations voted to admit Germany as a member. On 11/9/1926 Spain left the League in protest at Germany joining.
7/9/1926. Tuesday (-6,818) Spain left the League of Nations after being denied a permanent seat on the council.
6/9/1926, Monday (-6,819) In China, Chiang Kai Shek captured Hankow.
1/9/1926, Wednesday (-6,824) Adbur Rahman Biswas, President of Bangladesh, was born.
29/8/1926. Sunday (-6,827) A Nazi Party rally was held at Nuremberg.
13/8/1926. Friday (-6,843) Cuban revolutionary and leader Fidel Castro was born near Biran, the son of a sugar planter.
7/8/1926. Saturday (-6,849) The first motor racing Grand Prix in Britain was held at Brooklands, with the winning car averaging 71.61 mph. The race was over 110 laps, or 287 miles.
6/8/1926, Friday (-6,850) The first LP record discs, at 33.3 rpm, went on sale.
5/8/1926. Thursday (-6,851) Houdini, the famous escapologist and magician, survived for 1 ½ hours in a bronze coffin in a hotel swimming pool in Los Angeles.
4/8/1926, Wednesday (-6,852) Umberto Nobile was feted in Rome for his part in the recent North Pole expedition, as 20,000 filled the square in front of the Palazzo Chigi.
3/8/1926. Tuesday (-6,853) Britain’s first traffic lights went into operation in Piccadilly Circus, London.
24/7/1926. Saturday (-6,863) The first greyhound racing track was opened by Brigadier Critchley, at Belle Vue in Manchester.
29/6/1926. Tuesday (-6,888) In Italy, Mussolini increased the working day by one hour.
12/6/1926. Saturday (-6,905) Brazil left the League of Nations.
10/6/1926, Thursday (-6,907) Spanish architect Gaudi y Cornet died. His most famous building is the Sagrada Familia cathedral in Barcelona.
5/6/1926, Saturday (-6,912) At the Treaty of Angora, Turkey accepted the Brussels line, setting the northern boundary of Iraq, and including Mosul within Iraq. Turkey was to receive a share of oil revenues from Mosul for the next 25 years, and to be compensated for public works carried out around Mosul.
4/6.1926, Friday (-6,913) Frederick Spofforth, Australian cricketer, died.
3/6/1926, Thursday (-6,914) Allan Ginsberg, US poet, was born.
2/6/1926, Wednesday (-6,915) Jonas Staugaitis was elected head of the Seimas in Lithuania.
1/6/1926, Tuesday (-6,916) Marilyn Monroe, American film actress, was born in Los Angeles, California, as Norma Jean Baker.
23/5/1926, Sunday (-6,925) In Morocco, the French seized Rif, and the rebel leader Abd El Krim surrendered.
14/5/1926, Friday (-6,934) Josef Pilsudski seized power in a military coup in Poland.
12/5/1926. Wednesday (-6,936) (1) Striking miners in Britain resolved to carry on alone, after the TUC called off a general strike in support. See 1/5/1926.
(2) Roald Amundsen flew in the airship Norge over the North Pole. They had left Spitsbergen on 11/5 and landed on 14/5/1926 at Teller, Alaska.
10/5/1926. Monday (-6,938) Striking UK miners grew angry as the army moved food from the docks by rail (see 1/5/1926). The Flying Scotsman was derailed in Northumberland, partly because the volunteer driver refused to heed warnings that the track ahead had been lifted. No serious injuries were caused, but the miners responsible got prison sentences of up to eight years.
9/5/1926, Sunday (-6,939) Richard Byrd, American explorer, made the first flight over the North Pole, with pilot Floyd Bennett.
8/5/1926, Saturday (-6,940) The naturalist and broadcaster Sir David Attenborough was born.
5/5/1926, Wednesday (-6,943)
3/5/1926, Monday (-6,945) The General Strike began in Britain.
2/5/1926, Sunday (-6,946) In Nicaragua, a revolt against the new President, Emiliano Chamorro, was underway. This day US troops landed in Nicaragua to protect US personnel and property interests there
1/5/1926. Saturday (-6,947) In Britain, a coal strike began over proposed pay cuts and longer working hours by the mine owners, faced with a slump in the coal trade (see 25/7/1925). The miners were locked out, and voted overwhelmingly for strike action. The first General Strike In British history began on 4/5/1926 when the TUC (Trades Union Congress) voted to back the striking miners. There were worries about a Communist revolution in Britain. On 11/5/1926 the engineering and shipworkers unions called their men out on strike, but at this time negotiations were going on to end the strike. The TUC agreed to government terms but the miners did not. The TUC called off the General Strike on 12/5/1926 leaving the miners on their own. Many trains were run by volunteers, especially undergraduates and rail enthusiasts, and troops took over the unloading of food at London’s docks (see 10/5/1926). Students also drove lorries, trams, and buses, the illegality of this being ignored. On 23/6/1927 the Trades Disputes Act was passed, outlawing sympathetic strikes. The Trade Union movement suffered a setback; membership had been falling from a peak of 8.3 million in 1920 to 5.3 million in 1926, and further fell to 4.3 million by 1933. See 12/5/1926.
24/4/1926. Saturday (-6,954) Germany signed a friendship treaty with the USSR.
21/4/1926. Wednesday (-6,957) Queen Elizabeth II, crowned 1952, was born at 17 Bruton Street London. She was then called Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, the eldest daughter of George VI.
12/4/1926, Monday (-6,966) The Halesworth to Southwold narrow gauge (3-foot) line in Suffolk, 8 miles, closed. The Board of Trade speed limit on the line of 16 mph meant it could not compete with road buses.
7/4/1926. Wednesday (-6,971) Mussolini survived an assassination attempt.
6/4/1926, Tuesday (-6,972) The Northern Ireland politician, MP for Antrim, Ian Paisley was born.
4/4/1926, Sunday (-6,974)
3/4/1926, Saturday (-6,975) Virgil Grissom, third man in space, was born.
2/4/1926. Friday (-6,976) In India, riots broke out between Hindus and Moslems. On 4/4/1926 martial law was declared in Calcutta.
30/3/1926, Tuesday (-6,979) American physicist Robert Goddard successfully tested the world’s first liquid-propellant rocket.
13/3/1926. Saturday (-6,996) Germany was refused a place on the League of Nations Council.
6/3/1926. Saturday (-7,003) (1) Alan Greenspan, Chairman of the US Federal Bank, was born.
(2) Fire destroyed the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford on Avon. Only a blackened shell was left.
18/2/1926, Thursday (-7,019) An Anglo-Persian oil treaty was signed, giving another 25-year oil exploration contract to the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.
12/2/1926. Friday (-7,025) Mussolini outlawed strikes in Italy.
9/2/1926, Tuesday (-7,028) Dr Garret Fitzgerald, Irish Prime Minister, was born in Dublin.
8/2/1926. Monday (-7,029) Germany applied to join the League of Nations.
6/2/1926, Saturday (-7, 031)
3/2/1926. Wednesday (-7,034) Czech became the official language of Czechoslovakia.
2/2/1926, Tuesday (-7,035) Giscard D’Estang, French President, was born.
30/1/1926. Saturday (-7,038) British troops ended a 7-year occupation of the Rhineland.
27/1/1926. Wednesday (-7,041) Scottish inventor John Logie Baird, aged 38, demonstrated the principle of transmitting moving images by radio. The demonstration was to members of the Royal Institution, at his workshop in Soho, London. He called this ‘television’.
26/1/1926, Tuesday (-7,042) The Shipping Forecast was first broadcast on radio.
25/1/1926, Monday (-7,043) British surgeon Sir Berkeley Moynihan said cancer of the tongue is partly caused by smoking.
24/1/1926,Sunday (-7,044) The Week’s Good Cause was first broadcast on radio.
12/1/1926. Tuesday (-7,056) In Paris, the Pasteur Institute announced the discovery of an anti-tetanus vaccine.
8/1/1926. Friday (-7,060) The new King, Ibn Saud, 43, renamed Hejaz as Saudi Arabia.
7/1/1926, Thursday (-7,061) The Royal Academy of Italy was created.
6/1/1926. Wednesday (-7,062) The German airline Lufthansa was founded.
5/1/1926. Tuesday (-7,063) In the UK the Widow's Pension began to be paid at Post Offices.
1/1/1926, Friday (-7,067) The nationalist government was established in China.
21/12/1925. Monday (-7,078) Battleship Potemkin, a film by Sergei Eisenstein, opened in the USSR.
18/12/1925. Friday (-7,081) Work began on the Mersey Road Tunnel, Liverpool. It opened on 18/7/1934.
17/12/1925, Thursday (-7,082) The siege of Jeddah ended in victory for Ibn Saud.
16/12/1925, Wednesday (-7,083) The League of Nations voted to uphold the Brussels Line, dividing Mosul villayet, see 21/11/1925, 29/10/1924.
14/12/1925, Monday (-7,085)
13/12/1925, Sunday (-7,086) Reza Khan was proclaimed Shah of Iran.
12/12/1925. Saturday (-7,087) The world’s first motel opened in San Luis Obispo, California, starting a trend for overnight stops by motorists in individual accommodation.
10/12/1925, Thursday (-7,089)
6/12/1925, Sunday (-7,093) Italy agreed the frontier of Libya with Egypt.
5/12/1925, Saturday (-7,094) Medina capitulated to Ibn Saud.
4/12/1925, Friday (-7,095) The Italian Chamber of Deputies passed a law allowing the government to regulate rates of industrial production based on the needs of the country.
3/12/1925. Thursday (-7,096) Stanley Baldwin signed an agreement fixing the Northern Irish frontier with the Irish Free State. See 10/11/1925.
2/12/1925, Wednesday (-7,097) Julie Harris, actress, was born in Grosse Point, Michigan (died 2013)
1/12/1925, Tuesday (-7,098) The Peace of Locarno was signed (by UK, France, Italy, and Germany), guaranteeing peace and existing national frontiers in Europe.
30/11/1925, Monday (-7,099) The US sent warships to Hankow, China, to stop attacks by Communist Chinese on foreigners.
25/11/1925, Wednesday (-7,104) (1) In Turkey, Kemal Ataturk, as part of his Westernisation program, outlawed the traditional fez and substituted western hats.
(2) In Britain, 12 Communists arrested in October 1925 were jailed for sedition.
21/11/1925, Saturday (-7,108) The Permanent Court of International Justice agreed to the Brussels Line, dividing Mosul villayet, see 29/10/1924, and 16/12/1925.
20/11/1925, Friday (-7,109) British MPs approved a 4-month prison sentence and £50 fine for drunk-driving.
18/11/1925, Wednesday (-7,111)
15/11/1925, Sunday (-7,114) In Ireland the Legion of Mary was founded by Frank Duff, civil servant and former active member of the Society of St Vincent de Paul, to combat drunkenness, prostitution, crime and disease. Members went to the poorest parts of Dublin to advise women living in poverty and degradation.
14/11/1925, Saturday (-7,115) The first Surrealist art exhibition opened in Paris.
13/11/1925, Friday (-7,116) The South African Government called for more segregation of Black people.
11/11/1925, Wednesday (-7,118)
10/11/1925, Tuesday (-7,119) In Dublin, Eoin McNeill resigned from the boundary commission set up under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 to determine the Northern Irish border, see 10/5/1924. A leaked report and map in the Morning Post of 7/11/1925 indicated that, contrary to the expectations of the Dublin Government, the commission had recommended only very minor changes to the border. Northern Ireland would lose parts of south Armagh, south-west Fermanagh and west Tyrone, and gain small parts of Donegal and Monahan. Overall, Northern Ireland would lose just 1.8% of its population and 3.7% of its territory. Fearing defeat in the Dail, Irish Government leaders sought agreement with the London Government to suppress the commission’s report. Dublin had hoped for a major diminution of Northern Ireland, making it economically unviable so the remainder of it would have to join the South. See 3/12/1925.
9/11/1925. Monday (-7,120) The German Schutzstaffel, or Protection Squad (SS), was formed.
8/11/1925, Sunday (-7,121)
6/11/1925, Friday (-7,123) Khai Dinh, Emperor of Vietnam, died.
5/11/1925. Thursday (-7,124) In Italy, Mussolini banned all left-wing parties
4/11/1925, Wednesday (-7,125)
2/11/1925, Monday (-7,127) The Metropolitan line branch to Watford opened.
1/11/1925, Sunday (-7,128) The Buster Keaton film Go West opened.
31/10/1925, Saturday (-7,129) Persian Majles deposed the Shah, Sultan Ahmad.
30/10/1925. Friday (-7,130) In his workshop in London, John Logie Baird achieved the first TV pictures using a dummy’s head. He then persuaded a 15 year old office boy, William Taynton, to sit in front of the camera to become the first live person captured on TV.
29/10/1925, Thursday (-7,131) Greek troops withdrew from Bulgaria, on orders from the League of Nations.
22/10/1925. Thursday (-7,138) Border dispute flared between Greece and Bulgaria.
18/10/1925. Sunday (-7,142) French fleet bombards Damascus following a Druze insurrection that began on 18/7/1925.
16/10/1925, Friday (-7,144) (1) France and Germany concluded the Locarno Treaty, guaranteeing their mutual frontier. Italy and Britain also signed. Germany reaffirmed its renunciation of Alsace-Lorraine and guaranteed not to attack France or Belgium. Russia feared the Locarno Treaty ,meant an alliance of western powers against it, see 24/4/1926.
(2) Britain began regular broadcasts to Continental Europe, on a weekly basis.
13/10/1925, Tuesday (-7,147) The future Conservative leader, Margaret Thatcher, was born as Margaret Roberts. She was born in Grantham, the daughter of a grocer. She was Prime Minister 1979-90.
12/10/1925, Monday (-7,148) Germany and the USSR signed a commercial treaty.
5/10/1925, Monday (-7,155) The Locarno Conference opened, to decide the German border and future of the Rhineland.
2/10/1925, Friday (-7,158) London’s iconic red double-decker buses went into service. See 9/4/1909.
29/9/1925, Tuesday (-7,161) In Britain, white lines were to be painted on roads to reduce accidents.
16/9/1925, Wednesday (-7,174) Charles Haughey, Irish Fianna Fail politician and Prime Minister, was born.
7/9/1925. Monday (-7,183) Anti-British rioters were shot in Shanghai. Protests had begun in May over working conditions in Japanese owned factories in Shanghai, and British police shot and killed demonstrating workers on 30/5/1925.
20/8/1925. Thursday (-7,201) Rome’s underground railway opened.
16/8/1925. Sunday (-7,205) Charlie Chaplin’s film Gold Rush was premiered in America.
12/8/1925. Wednesday (-7,209) Norris and Ross McWhirter, the British twins who founded the Guinness Book of records, were born. After the Bible, it is the best selling book in the world (2002). Ross McWhirter was murdered by the IRA.
8/8/1925. Saturday (-7,213) The first national congress of the Klu Klux Klan opened in Washington, with a big Klan march.
7/8/1925. Friday (-7,214) The Summer Time Act in the UK was made permanent. See 17/5/1916.
6/8/1925, Thursday (-7,215) Loretta Perfectus Walsh, first active-duty woman to serve in the United States Navy, died aged 29 of tuberculosis.
5/8/1925, Wednesday (-7,216) The first public meeting of Plaid Cymru, the Welsh Nationalist Party. Founder-member Saunders Lewis planned a wholly-Welsh-speaking summer school at Machynlleth to open in August 1926.
2/8/1925, Sunday (-7,219) Alan Whicker, widely-travelled TV reporter, was born in Cairo, Egypt.
27/7/1925, Monday (-7,225) The railway from Torrington to Halwell Junction, Devon, opened.
26/7/1925, Sunday (-7,226) William Jennings Bryan, US Democratic Party orator and prosecutor in the Scopes ‘Monkey Trial’, born 19/3/1860 in Salem, Illinois, died in Dayton, Tennessee.
25/7/1925. Saturday (-7,227) The railworkers, transport, and seamens unions supported the mine workers against pay cuts and longer hours (see 30/6/1925). On 31/7/1925 the UK government offered a subsidy to the mine owners to enable them to continue with existing wages. Discussions between the mine owners, mine workers, and a government commission continued until April 1926 (see 30/4/1926).
24/7/1925. Friday (-7,228) Insulin (patented 12/6/1922) was first used to successfully treat a patient, 6 year old Patricia Cheeseman, at Guy’s Hospital London.
22/7/1925, Wednesday (-7,230)
20/7/1925, Monday (-7,232) The Fawley (Southampton) branch line opened.
19/7/1925, Sunday (-7,233) Italian cyclist Ottavio Bottecchia won the Tour de France for the second straight year.
18/7/1925, Saturday (-7,234) Insurrection by the Druze in Syria, against French rule.
15/7/1925, Wednesday (-7,237)
13/7/1925. Monday (-7,239) (1) The Scunthorpe to Winteringham and Whitton railway closed to passengers.
(2) French troops begin to withdraw from the Rhineland.
12/7/1925, Sunday (-7,240) The first veteran car rally was held, in Munich.
11/7/1925, Saturday (-7,241) France and Spain agreed to coordinate their efforts in the Rif War.
10/7/1925, Friday (-7,242) The Scopes trial began in Dayton Tennessee. Mr Scopes, a science teacher, was accused of teaching evolution and so breaching State laws against teaching ideas contradicting the Bible. The real issue was the role of the State in determining the religious nature of school education. The outcome was inconclusive. Scopes was found guilty on 21/7/1925 but the US$100 penalty was set aside on a technicality.
9/7/1925, Thursday (-7,243) In Dublin, Oonagh Keogh, 22, became the first female member of a stock exchange.
7/7/1925, Tuesday (-7,245)
30/6/1925. Tuesday (-7,252) The British mining industry faced a crisis. During 1923 and 1924 German coal exports had been halved because of French occupation of the Ruhr following a reparations dispute between France and Germany. Settlement of this, and a return to the Gold Standard by Britain at a rate which effectively raised UK export prices by 10% mean that in the first 6 months of 1925 the UK coal industry made a loss of £2.1 million. On 30/6/1925 the mine workers were given a month’s notice of the cancellation of a pay award made in 1924 and the option of returning to an 8 hour day or further wage cuts ranging from 13% to 38%. Even after the 1924 pay rise, miners’ wages were very low, in real terms lower than they had been in 1914. The Miners Union rejected the pay cut and the longer hours. See 25/7/1925.
29/6/1925. Monday (-7,253) South Africa passed laws, the Mines and Works Act, excluding ‘Coloured, Indian, and Black people from all skilled jobs. In the late 19th century, skilled mining jobs in South Africa could only be filled by Whites. By the 1920s Black people had acquired the necessary skills for these jobs, and White employees feared their wages would be undercut, so they lobbied the Government for these racist laws.
22/6/1925, Monday (-7,260)
20/6/1925. Saturday (-7,262) In Germany, a wireless telephone for cars was demonstrated.
19/6/1925, Friday (-7,263) Bank robber Everett Bridgewater and two accomplices were arrested in Indianapolis, Indiana.
18/6/1925. Thursday (-7,264) France accepted German proposals for a security pact. Hitler’s Mein Kampf was published.
6/6/1925. Saturday (-7,276) Walter P Chrysler founded the Chrysler Motor Company in Detroit.
3/6/1925, Wednesday (-7,279) Tony Curtis, US actor, was born.
2/6/1925. Tuesday (-7,280) The Canadian government claimed all land between Greenland and Alaska up to the North Pole.
30/5/1925. Saturday (-7,283) King George V opened the Great West Road at Brentford, London. It was seen as a model for post-War development.
23/5/1925, Saturday (-7,290) British publishing magnate Sir Edward Hulton died after falling off his penny-farthing bicycle.
22/5/1925, Friday (-7,291) Sir John French, British general who led the British Expeditionary Force in France and Belgium, died.
19/5/1925, Tuesday (-7,294) Malcolm X, US militant Black civil rights leader, was born in Omaha, Nebraska, as Malcolm Little.
11/5/1925. Monday (-7,302) Direct telephone communication between London and Rome began for the first time.
8/5/1925, Friday (-7,305) Ali Hassan Mwinyi, President of Tanzania, was born.
7/5/1925, Thursday (-7,306) William Lever, Viscount Leverhulme, British entrepreneur and founder of the Lever Brothers corporation, died.
2/5/1925, Saturday (-7,311)
1/5/1925. Friday (-7,312) Cyprus became a British Crown Colony. It had been annexed by Britain from Turkey in 1914 when Turkey supported Germany in World War One.
30/4/1925. Thursday (-7,313) The Distillers Whisky Group was formed.
28/4/1925. Tuesday (-7,315) Britain returned to the Gold Standard. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Winston Churchill, told the House of Commons he will not renew the Act of 1919 which suspended the Standard. Symbolically, this measure signalled a return to pre-War stability and a Victorian era in which Britain was pre-eminent. However Cambridge economist John Maynard Keynes warned that the USA was not actually adhering to a Gold Standard; it was manipulating the price of gold, at great expense, to ensure it stayed level with the US Dollar. For Britain to return to the Standard meant subjugating UK economic policy to that of the USA.
25/4/1925. Saturday (-7,318) Hindenburg became President of Germany.
16/4/1925. Thursday (-7,327) In Turkey, the Kurdish uprising ended.
15/4/1925, Wednesday (-7,328) Sir James Barrie donated the copyright of Peter Pan to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children in London.
8/4/1925. Wednesday (-7,335) (1) The Australian Government and the British Colonial Office offered low interest rate loans for Britons to emigrate to Australia; the aim was for 450,000 Britons a year to migrate to Australia over the next 10 years. In the first decade of the 20th century, an average 284,000 Britons emigrated annually, mostly to the USA or the Dominions.
(2) Italian Catholic bishops banned scantily clad or bare legged women from churches.
6/4/1925. Monday (-7,337) The first in-flight movie was shown; The Lost World.
3/4/1925, Friday (-7,340) Anthony Wedgewood Benn, British Labour politician, was born.
2/4/1925, Thursday (-7,341) France and Turkey agreed on the autonomy of Alexandretta.
1/4/1925, Wednesday (-7,342) The Hebrew University at Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, was opened.
31/3/1925, Tuesday (-7,343) The Philadelphia Daily News began publication.
30/3/1925, Monday (-7,344) Rudolf Steiner, Austrian educator who founded the Anthroposophical Society, died aged 64.
29/3/1925. Sunday (-7,345) Japan passed a Bill for universal male suffrage.
28/3/1925, Saturday (-7,346) In the Boat Race, the Oxford boat sank.
27/3/1925, Friday (-7,347) Double Chase won the 84th Grand National horse race at Aintree Racecourse near Liverpool, England.
26/3/1925, Thursday (-7,348) Hindenburg was elected President of Germany.
25/3/1925. Wednesday (-7,349) The new fast London-Southend road was opened.
24/3/1925, Tuesday (-7,350) Quazi Nuruzzaman, Bangladeshi guerrilla commander, was born (died 2011)
23/3/1925. Monday (-7,351) US Tennessee law prohibited the teaching of evolution.
22/3/1925, Sunday (-7,350) Radio broadcasting began in Japan.
19/3/1925. Thursday (-7,355) Britain established a large naval base at Singapore. This reinforced links with the British colonies such as Hong Kong, but Japan saw it as a threat.
13/3/1925, Friday (-7,361) British MPs approved the Summer Time Bill, making annual daylight saving time permanent,
12/3/1925, Thursday (-7,362) In China, Kuomintang leader Dr Sun Yat Sen died. General Chiang Kai Shek became the new leader.
2/3/1925. Monday (-7,372) Austria introduced a new currency, the schilling.
28/2/1925. Saturday (-7,374) Kurdish uprising in Turkey. The rebellion ended on 16/4/1925.
27/2/1925, Friday (-7,375) Hitler spoke at a Nazi meeting at a Munich beer hall.
24/2/1925, Tuesday (-7,378) Joseph Rowntree, chocolate manufacturer in York, died in that city.
14/2/1925. Saturday (-7,388) The ban on the Nazi Party in Bavaria was lifted.
4/2/1925, Wednesday (-7,398) Robert Koldeway, the archaeologist who excavated Babylon, died.
21/1/1925, Wednesday (-7,412) Benny Hill, English comedian, was born in Southampton.
20/1/1925, Tuesday (-7,413) The UK and China made the Treaty of Peking.
5/1/1925. Monday (-7,428) Mrs Nellie Taylor Ross became governor of Wyoming, the first woman Governor in the USA. This followed the death of her husband.
3/1/1925. Saturday (-7,430) Mussolini assumed full dictatorial control in Italy. He nominated his cabinet on 5/1/1925.
1/1/1925. Thursday (-7,432) Norway’s capital, Christiana, was renamed Oslo.
29/12/1924, Monday (-7,435) John D Rockefeller donated US$ 1 million to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
28/12/1924, Sunday (-7,436) Milton Obote, President of Uganda, was born.
24/12/1924. Wednesday (-7440) Albania was declared a republic.
20/12/1924. Saturday (-7,444) Adolf Hitler was freed from prison on parole after serving just 8 months of his jail term for high treason.
18/12/1924, Thursday (-7,446) Pope Pius XI denounced the USSR.
2/12/1924, Tuesday (-7,462) The UK and Germany signed a trade pact.
1/12/1924, Monday (-7,463) Communists staged a failed coup attempt in Estonia.
30/11/1924, Sunday (-7,464) (1) The last French and Belgian troops left the Ruhr.
(2) Radio photographs were first transmitted from Britain to the USA.
29/11/1924, Saturday (-7,465) The composer Puccini died in Brussels.
26/11/1924. Wednesday (-7,468) The Communist party of the USSR denounced Trotsky.
21/11/1924, Friday (-7,473) The new Conservative Government of Britain repudiated a treaty made by the previous Labour administration with the USSR.
8/11/1924, Saturday (-7,486) The Irish Government offered an amnesty to those involved in the civil conflict between IRA and Government. See 12/1/1922.
7/11/1924, Friday (-7,497) Germany announced its first balanced budget since the war.
6/11/1924. Thursday (-7,488) The new Conservative prime Minister of Britain, Stanley Baldwin, appointed Winston Churchill as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
5/11/1924, Wednesday (-7,489) The last Manchu Emperor, Pu-Yi, 18, was evicted from his palace in Beijing by the Christian warlord Feng Xuyiang who took control of the city. Pu-Yi had been compelled to abdicate in 1912, when he was aged 6, by the Revolutionary Government in Nanking after the Wuchang uprising, ending 268 years of Manchu rule and over 2000 years of imperial tradition. He was allowed to continue living in his palace in the Forbidden City, and was temporarily restored to the throne by General Xun’s coup in 1917, but was dethroned after 12 days. Pu-Yi now sought refuge in the Japanese concession at Tien-Tsin.
4/11/1924. Tuesday (-7,490) Texas elected its first woman state governor.
3/11/1924, Monday (-7,491) Feng Yuxiang's troops entered Tianjin.
2/11/1924. Sunday (-7,492) The first crossword appeared in a British newspaper, the Sunday Express. It was bought from an American paper, operated by C W Shepherd, where crosswords had appeared 11 years earlier, see 21/12/1913.
1/11/1924, Saturday (-7,493) (1) Eamon de Valera was jailed for one month for entering Northern Ireland illegally. He was a devout Roman Catholic and Britain did not want him proselytising in Protestant Northern Ireland. See 16/7/1924.
(2) The British Empire Exhibition at Wembley, London, closed (opened 23/4/1924).
30/10/1924, Thursday (-7,495)
29/10/1924, Wednesday (-7,496) The Council of Brussels drew the Brussels Line, dividing the villayet of Mosul into Turkish and Iraqi areas. See 21/11/1925, 16,12,1925.
28/10/1924. Tuesday (-7,497) France recognised the USSR.
20/10/1924, Monday (-7,505) Ibn Saud seized control of Mecca, defeating the Hashemites.
9/10/1924. Thursday (-7,516) Britain’s minority Labour government fell after a vote of censure in the Commons; the vote was 364 against the Government, 198 in favour. On 29/10/1924 the Conservatives won a large victory following a scare over the ‘Zinoviev letter’. This was a forged letter allegedly from Moscow, urging a Communist revolution in Britain. A General Election was held on 30/10/1924 and the result was 413 seats to the Conservatives, against 151 for Labour and 40 for the Liberals. Stanley Baldwin became Prime Minister.
7/10/1924, Tuesday (-7,518) The British Labour Party banned Communists from becoming members.
2/10/1924, Thursday (-7,523) Trotsky took command of the Red Army in Georgia.
1/10/1924. Wednesday (-7,524) US Democrat and 39th President James Earl (Jimmy) Carter, peanut farmer, was born in Plains, Georgia.
28/9/1924, Sunday (-7,527) Lieutenants Smith and Nelson, in US Army Douglas airplanes, completed the first circumnavigation of the globe. They flew a total of 26,103 miles, with 57 stops.
18/9/1924. Thursday (-7,537) Mohandas Ghandi, serving 6 years in prison for sedition, began a 21-day hunger strike, to try and dissuade Hindus and Moslems from rioting.
15/9/1924, Monday (-7,540) The BBC began broadcasting from Belfast.
2/9/1924, Tuesday (-7,553) Daniel Arap Moi, President of Kenya, was born.
30/8/1924, Saturday (-7,556) The German Reichsbank was made independent of the government. It issued a new currency, the ReichsMark, at 1,000,000 million to the old Mark.
19/8/1924, Tuesday (-7,567)
18/8/1924, Monday (-7,568) London’s Northern Line opened from Hendon Central to Edgware, 3 miles, see 19/11/1923. The line was to have been extended to Bushey Heath and on to Watford but this never materialised.
17/8/1924. Sunday (-7,569) French and Belgian troops agreed to withdraw from the Ruhr within 1 year following Germany’s agreement on war reparations.
16/8/1924, Saturday (-7,570) The Allies and Germany accepted the Dawes Plan, for a revised timetable of reparations.
8/8/1924, Friday (-7,578) A ten-nation summit agreed a plan drawn up by US banker Charles Dawes, designed to assist Germany’s economy and fulfil reparation payments.
19/7/1924. Saturday (-7,598) Liverpool Cathedral was consecrated, although it was not yet finished. Construction had begun in 1904.
16/7/1924, Wednesday (-7,601) Eamon de Valera was released after 11 months in Kilmainham Prison. Hundreds of other activists continued to be held, many without trial. Free State troops continued to carry out raids and arrests, causing much bitterness. See 1/11/1924, 8/11/1924.
11/7/1924. Friday (-7,606) Hindus and Muslims rioted in Delhi.
8/7/1924, Tuesday (-7,609) Adolf Hitler resumed leadership of the Nazi Party.
5/7/1924, Saturday (-7,612) The 8th Olympic games opened in Paris.
12/6/1924, Thursday (-7,635) George Bush, Republican and US President, was born in Milton, Massachusetts.
11/6/1924, Wednesday (-7,636) Théodore Dubois, French composer, died aged 86.
10/6/1924, Tuesday (-7,637) Italian socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated by Mussolini’s fascists. He had replaced Filippo Turati as leader of Italy’s reformed Socialist Party, and on 30/5/1924 he denounced the Italian elections of April 1924, in which Mussolini’s Fascists had done well, as fraudulent.
9/6/1924, Monday (-7,638) Ed Farhat, professional wrestler, was born in Lansing, Michigan (died 2003)
8/6/1924. Sunday (-7,639) George Mallory, on his third attempt to conquer Everest, was seen for the last time at a point 800 feet from the summit.
7/6/1924, Saturday (-7.,640)
5/6/1924, Thursday (-7,642) The UK Government appointed a Northern Ireland representative to the Border Commission, see 10/5/1924.
4/6/1924, Wednesday (-7,643) Anti-government forces in Albania took Shkoder.
3/6/1924, Tuesday (-7,644) German novelist Franz Kafka died in a sanatorium at Kierling, near Vienna, after a seven year battle with tuberculosis.
1/6/1924, Sunday (-7,646)
31/5/1924. Saturday (-7,647) China recognised the USSR.
30/5/1925, Friday (-7,648) The British colony of Southern Rhodesia became self-governing; its assembly met for the first time.
26/5/1924. Monday (-7,652) The US passed a bill to limit immigration and bar Japanese.
10/5/1924, Saturday (-7,668) Under the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty (6/12/1921) a Boundary Commission was to determine the borders of Northern Ireland. The Irish Government believed that such a commission would give them at least 3 of the 6 Northern counties, and an economically unviable North would then join the South. Now the Northern Irish Government refused to appoint a member to the commission. Both the London and Dublin governments could fall over this issue. However on 5/6/1924 the UK Government appointed a representative for Northern Ireland. See 20/11/1925.
8/5/1924, Thursday (-7,670) Afrikaans became the official language of South Africa.
1/5/1924, Thursday (-7,677) Greece proclaimed itself a republic.
28/4/1924, Monday (-7,680) (1) Kenneth Kaunda, Zambia’s first President, was born in Lubwa.
(2) The US sent troops to Honduras amidst electoral unrest.
24/4/1924. Thursday (-7,684) Train ferry service between Harwich and Zeebrugge was opened by King George V.
23/4/1924. Wednesday (-7,685) King George V opened the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley Stadium, London. It closed on 1/11/1924.
20/4/1924, Sunday (-7,688) The interchange at Camden Town between the City and South London Lines and the Northern Line to Golders Green, Highgate, came into use.
17/4/1924. Thursday (-7,691) Mussolini’s Fascist Party won a sweeping victory in the Italian general election.
16/4/1924. Wednesday (-7,692) The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film corporation was formed by merger.
15/4/1924, Tuesday (-7,693) The Japan Times called for a boycott of California if the United States passed the Immigration Act, putting the blame for the bill on that State.
14/4/1924, Monday (-7,694) Louis Sullivan, US architect, died in Chicago.
10/4/1924. Thursday (-7,698) The first crossword puzzle book was published in New York.
4/4/1924, Friday (-7,704) The BBC broadcast its first radio programmes for schools.
1/4/1924. Tuesday (-7,707) (1) Adolf Hitler was jailed for 5 years for his part in the abortive Munich beer hall putsch.
(2) The first gramophone to automatically change records went on sale, produced by HMV.
(3) Britain’s national airline, Imperial Airways, was created by amalgamating four smaller aviation companies. These were Handley Page Transport, Daimler Airway, Instone Airline and British Marine Air Navigation. These four companies were unprofitable, and the government realised that, as in other countries, they way forward was a national carrier, with strong financial support from public funds.
28/3/1924, Friday (-7,711) Total was founded as the Compagnie Française des Pétroles (CFP), the "French Petroleum Company". Petroleum was seen as vital in the case of a new war with Germany.
15/3/1924. Saturday (-7,724) The first Egyptian Parliament opened.
4/3/1924, Tuesday (-7,735) Happy Birthday to You, a song written by two US teachers, the sisters Patty and Mildred Hill, first appeared in print in a book by Robert H Coleman.
2/3/1924, Sunday (-7,737) The Turkish National Assembly abolished the caliphate, disestablishing the Islamic religion.
26/2/1924, Tuesday (-7,742) Adolf Hitler was charged with treason for his part in the abortive Munich beer hall putsch.
21/2/1924, Thursday (-7,747) Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe, was born.
12/2/1924, Tuesday (-7,756) Calvin Coolidge became the first US President to deliver a speech on radio.
8/2/1924. Friday (-7,760) The first execution by gas chamber, in Carson City’s Nevada State Prison. Chinese gang member Gee John’s execution took some six minutes after the hydrocyanic gas was introduced.
7/2/1924, Thursday (-7,761) Italy recognised the USSR.
6/2/1924. Wednesday (-7,762) The USA granted full citizenship to American Indians.
5/2/1924. Tuesday (-7,763) The BBC ‘pips’ or time signals, were heard for the first time. They were set by a clock at Greenwich.
3/2/1924, Sunday (-7,765) Woodrow Wilson, Democrat and 28th President of America from 1913 to 1921, also Nobel Prize winner, died and was buried in Washington Cathedral.
1/2/1924. Friday (-7,767) Britain’s Labour Government recognised the USSR.
29/1/1924. Tuesday (-7,770) The ice cream cone making machine was patented by Carl Taylor.
27/1/1924. Sunday (-7,772) (1) Mussolini signed a pact with Yugoslavia, and Italy annexed the free city of Fiume.
(2) Rauf Denktash, Turkish-Cypriot politician, was born,
26/1/1924. Saturday (-7,773) Petrograd was renamed Leningrad.
25/1/1924. Friday (-7,774) The first Winter Olympics were held, at Chamonix, France.
23/1/1924, Wednesday (-7,776)
22/1/1924. Tuesday (-7,777) The Labour Party won 288 seats against the Conservatives 266, but had no overall majority as the Liberals held 59. Ramsay MacDonald became Britain’s first Labour Prime Minister, succeeding the Conservative, Stanley Baldwin. See also 26/7/1945. The first Labour government in Britain was elected. King George V sent for Ramsay MacDonald (born 12/10/1866) following the Conservative defeat on a censure motion in the Commons the previous day. The state of the Commons was then, previous to the election, Conservative 259 seats, Labour 191, and Liberals 159. Labour secured its first UK Parliamentary majority on 30/5/1929.
The new Labour government was to prioritise unemployment; slum clearance and house building would also be tackled.
21/1/1924. Monday (-7,778) (1) Vladimir Illitch Lenin died, aged 53. The middle-class lawyer who made a revolution on behalf of the workers died of a series of debilitating strokes. A power struggle then ensued between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin, who won.
(2) The Chinese Kuomintang Congress admitted the Communists.
16/1/1924, Wednesday (-7,783) The BBC broadcast the first play written specifically for radio, Danger, by Richard Hughes.
7/1/1924. Monday (-7,792) Direct communication by transatlantic cable and land wire was opened by the Western Union Telegraph Company between London and Chicago.
31/12/1923. Monday (-7,799) The chimes of Big Ben were broadcast by the BBC for the first time.
28/12/1923. Friday (-7,802) Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, who designed the 300 metre Eiffel Tower, Paris, died aged 91.
27/12/1923, Thursday (-7,803) Emperor Hirohito of Japan narrowly escaped assassination.
23/12/1923, Sunday (-7,807) The BBC began regular radio broadcasts for entertainment, as opposed to information.
18/12/1923, Tuesday (-7,812) The International Zone of Tangier was set up.
17/12/1923. Monday (-7,813) The Greek Army deposed King George II.
15/12/1923, Saturday (-7,815)
10/12/1923, Monday (-7,820) The Kraft Company started as National Dairy Products Corporation (National Dairy), formed on December 10, 1923, by Thomas H. McInnerney.
9/12/1923, Sunday (-7,821) Meggie Albanesi, British actress, died aged 24.
8/12/1923. Saturday (-7,822) In the UK 8 women were now MPs. The British general election resulted in a hung Parliament.
25/11/1923. Sunday (-7,835) The first transatlantic wireless broadcast from the UK to the USA was made.
19/11/1923, Monday (-7,841) London’s Northern Line opened from Golders Green to Hendon Central, 1 ¾ miles, see 18/8/1924.
18/11/1923, Sunday (-7,842) Alan Shepard, the first US astronaut in space, was born in East Derry, New Hampshire.
15/11/1923. Thursday (-7,845) (1) Rampant German inflation peaked with the Mark worth 4,200,000 Million to the US Dollar, and 10,000,000 Million to the UK Pound – if you could find anyone willing to change your marks for dollars. It had been 4.2 to the Dollar in 1914, 350,000 to the pound (1 pound was 5 dollars) on 1/6/1923, and 622,000 to the pound on 22/6/1923. A loaf of bread cost 63 pfennigs in 1918, and 250 pfennigs in January 1923. But by July 1923 a loaf cost 3,465 pfennigs, and by November 1923, 201,000 million marks. Workers were paid twice a day and by the evening a loaf of bread would cost what a house was worth in the morning.
Money had effectively become worthless; trade was done by barter. Middle class families with cash in the bank had been ruined. The problem had been that, after French troops occupied the Ruhr to enforce war reparations, the German Government began to print marks in huge numbers. German industry was unable to produce the goods to match the vast increase in money supply. On 15/11/1923 Germany introduced the Rentemark, tied to the country’s real estate. Each rentemark was worth 1,000 million old marks.
(2) Poland was also in the grip of hyperinflation, though not as bad as Germany’s. The Polish mark went from 9.8 to the US$ in November 1918 to 580 by end-December 1920, and to 17,800 to the US$ by December 1922. By November 1932 the rate stood at 2,300,000 Polish Marks to the US$.
13/11/1923, Tuesday (-7,847) In Italy, Mussolini introduced a Bill giving women the vote.
9/11/1923. Friday (-7,851) The Munich beer hall putsch marked the start of Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. This putsch against the Bavarian Government failed and Hitler was arrested on 11/11/1923 in a village outside Munich and imprisoned. Hitler then spent several months in prison in Landsberg Am Lech, Bavaria, where he dictated part of his Mein Kampf to Rudolf Hess.
30/10/1923, Tuesday (-7,861) Andrew Bonar-Law, Canadian-born UK Prime Minister, died.
29/10/1923. Monday (-7,862) Mustapha Kemal proclaimed Turkey a Republic and himself as its first President, called Kemal Ataturk.
25/10/1923, Thursday (-7,866)
23/10/1923, Tuesday (-7,868) A Communist uprising occurred in Hamburg.
22/10/1923, Monday (-7,869) Communists in Hamburg led by Ernst Thalmann were secretly called on to mobilise.
21/10/1923, Sunday (-7,870) The world’s first planetarium opened, in Munich.
12/10/1923. Friday (-7,879) The Turkish capital was officially moved from Istanbul to Ankara.
10/10/1923. Wednesday (-7,881) Rhodesia, formerly administered by the British South African Company, became a self-governing British colony.
1/10/1923, Monday (-7,890) The German mark reached 242,000,000 to the US$
30/9/1923, Sunday (-7,891) A German uprising in Dusseldorf against French occupation of The Ruhr.
29/9/1923. Saturday (-7,892) The British mandate in Palestine officially began.
28/9/1923. Friday (-7,893) (1) Ethiopia joined the League of Nations.
(2) The Radio Times was first published.
27/9/1923. Thursday (-7,894) Martial law was proclaimed in Germany.
10/9/1923. Monday (-7,911) The Irish Free State was admitted to the League of Nations.
6/9/1923, Thursday (-7,915) King Peter of Yugoslavia was born.
4/9/1923. Tuesday (-7,917) Birth of Birmingham politician Lord Howell, Britain’s first Minister for Sport.
3/9/1923, Monday (-7,918) The US recognised the Mexican government.
2/9/1923, Sunday (-7,919) Hitler fiercely denounced the Weimar Republic.
1/9/1923. Saturday (-7,920) An earthquake magnitude 7.9 in Japan left the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama in ruins and killed over 300,000 people. The epicentre was just outside Tokyo. Half of Tokyo’s houses were destroyed, a million of its people made homeless, and 132,807 killed in Tokyo alone. Altogether 143,000 died and 2.5 million were made homeless.
31/8/1923. Friday (-7,921) Italy seized the Greek island of Corfu. This followed an incident in which an Italian General and 4 members of his staff were shot whilst determining the Albanian-Greek border on 27/8/1923. Mussolini saw the incident as a national insult. Greece appealed to the League of Nations on 3/9/1923, and under pressure from France and the UK, Italy withdrew from Corfu on 27/9/1923. Greece was compelled to pay a considerable indemnity to Italy.
21/8/1923, Tuesday (-7,931) In London, a 7-week dockworkers strike ended.
17/8/1923. Friday (-7,935) The defence treaty between Japan and the UK (see 30/1/1902 and 23/8/1914) was replaced by a four power agreement between the USA, France, Japan, and the UK.
16/8/1923, Thursday (-7,936) Shimon Peres, Prime Minister of Israel 1984-86, was born in Poland.
13/8/1923. Monday (-7,939) Mustapha Kemal, (Ataturk), was elected President of Turkey.
9/8/1923, Thursday (-7,943) In Ireland, the 1923 Land Law Act, introduced by Agriculture Minister Paul Hogan, reformed landholdings in favour of tenants. This Act completed the work of William Gladstone, British Prime Minister, who in 1870 introduced legislation allowing tenant farmers to borrow two thirds of the price of buying their landholding from the government, to be repaid with interest over 35 years. Hogan’s Act made compulsory the sale of all land still owned by landlords. Rents fixed before 1911 were reduced by 35%, those fixed after 1911 by 30%. All rent arrears pre-1920 were cancelled and rent arrears post 1920 were reduced by 25%. Current sub-tenants were recognised as legitimate owners and further subdivision or subletting of land was made illegal.
5/8/1923, Sunday (-7,947) C V Devan Nair, President of Singapore, was born.
4/8/1923, Saturday (-7,948) The Otira Tunnel, New Zealand, 9km long, opened.
3/8/1923, Friday (-7,949) John Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) became 30th (Republican) President of the USA, going on to win the election of 1924. He declined to stand for election in 1928 but retired, just before the Wall Street crash.
2/8/1923, Thursday (-7,950) Warren Harding, American Republican and 29th President from 1921, died in San Francisco on return from a trip to Alaska. The remainder of his term was completed by Calvin Coolidge.
30/7/1923, Monday (-7,953) The Ross Dependency in Antarctica was created, under New Zealand rule.
27/7/1923, Friday (-7,956)The BBC radio transmission station at Daventry opened.
25/7/1923, Wednesday (-7,958) 100 killed in Bulgarian train crash.
24/7/1923. Tuesday (-7,959) The Treaty of Lausanne was signed. This restored Adrianople to Turkey after the Greco-Turkish was of 1923. Turkey regained the territories lost after World War One, including the eastern Aegean and Armenia.
16/7/1923. Monday (-7,967) Mussolini banned gambling in Italy.
13/7/1923, Friday (-7,970) Britain made sales of alcohol to under-18s illegal.
10/7/1923, Tuesday (-7,973) Francisco ‘Pancho’ Villa, Mexican revolutionary leader, born 1878, son of a farm worker, was shot dead. His killers were members of the Herrera family, four of whom Pancho had executed during the Revolution.
1/7/1923, Sunday (-7,982) The German Mark reached 160,000 to the US$. Pre 1914 it had been 4.20; during 1922 the rate fell from 162 to over 7,000 to the US$.
30/6/1923. Saturday (-7,983) The Klu Klux Klan claimed to have a million members. Founded after Black slaves gained freedom in the American Civil War, it gradually widened its targets to include Jews, Catholics, foreigners; anyone not Protestant and White. It was disbanded in 1869 but revived in 1915, under its ‘imperial wizard’, a dentist called Hiram Evans.
15/6/1923. Friday (-7,998) Earthquake in Iran killed 20,000.
10/6/1923. Sunday (-8,003) (1) Switzerland and Liechtenstein formed a customs union.
(2) Robert Maxwell, newspaper owner, was born in Solotvino, eastern Czechoslovakia, as Ludvick Hoch.
9/6/1923, Saturday (-8,004) In Italy, the Vatican ordered the Catholic Party to disband, and many of its members joined Mussolini’s Fascist party. The Catholic Party, or Partito Popolare Italiano (Italian People’s Party), had been formed in 1919;before then the Vatican had forbidden Catholics to vote. In Italian elections in 1919 and in 1921 the Catholic Party received 20% of the vote, second only to the Italian Socialist Party. Following Mussolini’s victory in 1922 Cardinal Gasparri, the Vatican’s Secretary of State, made a deal with Mussolini that the Catholic Church would support him; in return Mussolini would restore the historic privileges of the catholic Church in Italy. In 1927 Mussolini was baptised as a Catholic, and in 1929 he signed the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican a separate sovereign State. He also made Catholicism the State religion of Italy, and paid the Vatican 750 million lire as compensation for the Vatican’s loss of the ancient Papal States territory in Italy.
8/6/1923, Friday (-8,005) In the UK, wives were now allowed to divorce their husbands for adultery.
4/6/1923, Monday (-8,009) In Spain, the Archbishop of Saragossa was murdered.
31/5/1923, Thursday (-8,013) Prince Ranier III, prince of the House of Grimaldi, was born in Monaco.
27/5/1923. Sunday (-8,017) Henry Kissinger, American Secretary of State, was born in Furth, Germany. Kissinger shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Le Duc Thuo for their part in ending the Vietnam War.
26/5/1923, Saturday (-8,018) The annual Le Mans 24-hour race for sports cars was first held, on the Sarthe circuit. The winners, Andre Lagache and Rene Leonard, averaged 57.2 mph.
25/5/1923, Friday (-8,019) The State of Transjordan, now Jordan, became independent.
22/5/1923. Tuesday (-8,022) Stanley Baldwin became Conservative Prime Minister after the resignation of Andrew Bonar Law due to illness. Baldwin was to serve as PM for three terms. See 23/10/1922.
2/5/1923, Wednesday (-8,042) The BBC radio programme ‘Woman’s Hour’ began.
30/4/1923. Monday (-8,044) The US only permitted alcohol consumption on ships 3 miles or more out at sea.
28/4/1923. Saturday (-8,046) The first major sporting event was held at Wembley Stadium; the FA Cup Final.
27/4/1923, Friday (-8,047) After the death of IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch (see 10/4/1923), Eamon de Valera called off his armed struggle against the Treaty that partitioned Ireland. Speaking to his Republican followers, termed ‘irregulars’ or ‘rebels’ by the Irish Free State Government, de Valera said “Further sacrifice of life would now be in vain. Military victory must be allowed for to rest for the moment with those who have destroyed the Republic”. The struggle had taken 4,000 lives and cost £30 million in damage to property. Republicans had regarded the entire State apparatus of the Free State government, courts, police, judges, illegal and therefore legitimate military targets. In turn the Free Government had reacted with a strong crackdown on the IRA.
26/4/1923, Thursday (-8,048) King George V, then the Duke of York, married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in Westminster Abbey.
10/4/1923, Tuesday (-8,064) Liam Lynch, head of the IRA, died in police custody after being wounded in fighting with Free State troops. See 27/4/1923.
31/3/1923, Saturday (-8,074) Rioting German workers at the Krupps works in Essen in French-occupied Ruhr were shot by French troops.
27/3/1923, Tuesday (-8,078) (1) The astronomer and broadcaster Patrick Moore was born in Pinner.
(2) Sir James Dewar, Scottish scientist, inventor of the vacuum flask, died aged 80.
26/3/1923. Monday (-8,079) (1) The world’s first inter-urban motorway opened, in Italy. It was formally opened by the King of Italy on 21/9.1924. It ran from Milan to Varese and the Lombardy Lakes.
(2) Regular daily weather forecasts began to be broadcast on BBC radio. See 14/11/1922.
24/3/1923. Saturday (-8,081) The salt tax in India was restored.
21/3/1923. Wednesday (-8,084) Scientists in Paris claimed smoking is beneficial.
15/3/1923, Thursday (-8,890) Fuad I was proclaimed King of Egypt.
14/3/1923. Wednesday (-8,891) The Allies recognised Vilna and East Galicia as Polish.
12/3/1923, Monday (-8,093) The foundation stone of the Australian Federal Parliament Building at Canberra was laid.
9/3/1923. Friday (-8,096) Vladimir Illitch Lenin retired from the Bolshevik leadership of the USSR because of a second stroke.
3/3/1923. Saturday (-8,102) The US magazine Time was first published. Republican-leaning, the magazine was to condense the news for time-pressed Americans, and could be distributed by rail in a country with no true national newspaper.
2/3/1923, Friday (-8,103) (1) In Britain the Matrimonial Causes Bill, passed by 231 votes to 27, changed the inequality whereby a man could divorce his wife simply for adultery, but a woman had to prove cruelty or desertion as well.
(2) Cardinal Basil Hume, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster from 1976, was born.
1/3/1923, Thursday (-8,104) The Czechoslovak national airline, CSA, was set up.
24/2/1923, Saturday (-8,109) The Flying Scotsman train began scheduled 4-hour services between Kings Cross, London, and Edinburgh, at a record 100 mph.
21/2/1923, Wednesday (-8,112) In Italy the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Vincenzo Cardinal Vanutelli, said ‘Mussolini had been chosen to save the nation and restore her fortune.
17/2/1923. Saturday (-8,116) Tutenkhamen’s tomb opened by the Egyptologist Howard Carter. Carter was born in Swaffham, Norfolk, on 9/5/1873, and joined the British – sponsored archaeological survey of Egypt at the age of 17. He died in London in 1939.
13/2/1923, Tuesday (-8,120) Charles ‘Chuck’ Yeager, American pilot, first to fly at supersonic speed, was born.
10/2/1923. Saturday (-8,123) William Konrad Von Roentgen, German physicist who discovered X rays in 1895, died.
9/2/1923, Friday (-8,124) The Soviet national airline, now called Aeroflot, was established; then known as Dobrolet.
5/2/1923, Monday (-8,128)
1/2/1923. Thursday (-8,132) Inflation in Germany continued; £1 was now worth 220,000 Marks. On 2/1/1922 £1 had been worth 30,000 Marks.
31/1/1923, Wednesday (-8.133) Hungary was admitted to the League of Nations.
27/1/1923. Saturday (-8,137) The German Nazi Party held its first rally, in Munich.
12/1/1923 Friday (-8,152) Germany protested at the occupation of the Ruhr (see 11/1/1923) and ceased all coal reparations shipments to France. The French erected customs posts and economically divided the region from the rest of Germany. This was a serious blow to the German economy, especially after the loss of the industrial Upper Silesia to Poland. The resultant economic disruption hit the German economy and its currency began to collapse. See 31/7/1925.
11/1/1923. Thursday (-8,153) Germany defaulted on reparations payments (see 26/12/1922), and French and Belgian troops occupied Essen and The Ruhr.
10/1/1923, Wednesday (-8,154) The last US troops left Germany.
1/1/1923, Monday (-8,163) (1) Britain’s railways were regrouped according to the Railways Act of 1921. The railways had been nationalised during the War, but ambitious plans for electrification and redevelopment had been abandoned in favour foa return to private ownership. However the multiple overlapping companies of pre-War Britain were now organised into four regional monopolies, the Great Western, the London and North Western, the London and North eastern, and the Southern.
(2) A French pilot set a new air speed record of 217 mph.
(3) 100 acres of Ken Wood Estate were bought for the nation to extend Hampstead Heath.
30/12/1922. Saturday (-8,165) Soviet Russia was officially renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or USSR.
23/12/1922, Saturday (-8,172) Birth of Helmut Schmidt, German Chancellor.
17/12/1922, Sunday (-8,178) The last British troops left Dublin.
16/12/1922, Saturday (-8,179) The Reparation Commission accused Germany of intentional shortfalls in wood and coal deliveries to France. See 11/1/1923.
13/12/1922, Wednesday (-8,182) Hannes Hafstein, Prime Minister of Iceland, died.
5/12/1922. Tuesday (-8,190) The Irish Free State was officially proclaimed. The last British troops left on 17/12/1922.
26/11/1922. Sunday (-8,199) (1) The tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamen was discovered by Howard Carter and his patron, Lord Carnarvon.
(2) Birth of the American cartoonist Charles Schultz. At an arts instruction school in St Paul, Minnesota, Schultz asked fellow student Charlie Brown if he could use his name . He also used Brown’s moon-face looks to create the friendly loser-kid in the comic strip Peanuts, which featured in some 2,600 newspapers in 75 countries, translated into 21 languages. Schultz died in Santa Rosa, California, in 2000.
21/11/1922. Tuesday (-8,204) Ramsay MacDonald was elected leader of the Labour Party.
17/11/1922, Friday (-8,208) Siberia voted for union with the USSR.
16/11/1922. Thursday (-8,209) In Britain, the Tories under Bonar Law won the General Election with a majority of 77. The Conservatives got 345 seats. Labour won 142 to become the main opposition party for the first time, and the Liberals had 117 seats.
14/11/1922. Tuesday (-8,211) The British Broadcasting Corporation began daily news broadcasts from 2LO in The Strand, London. This had formerly been Marconi’s London broadcasting station. At 6pm the news was read by Arthur Burrows, once at normal speed and once at slow speed. See 14/2/1922, 18/10/1922 and 26/3/1923.
8/11/1922, Wednesday (-8,217) Dr Christian Barnard, South African surgeon who pioneered heart transplants, was born in Beaufort West, Cape Province.
1/11/1922. Wednesday (-8,224) (1) Mustafa Kemal announced a new Turkish Republic.
(2) The first radio licences went on sale in Britain. They cost 10 shillings (50p). They were abolished on 1/2/1971. Some people built their own radios; others bought them from the BBC, costing between £2 and £4, with headphones.
31/10/1922, Tuesday (-8,225) (1) Mussolini’s supporters organised a mass rally in Rome.
(2) Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia, was born.
30/10/1922. Monday (-8,226) Benito Mussolini took power in Italy.
29/10/1922, Sunday (-8,227) King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy invited Mussolini to travel to Rome from Milan to form a government. Mussolini’s Fascist Party had been founded in March 1919, and was dissolved on 28/7/1943.
27/10/1922, Friday (-8,229)
25/10/1922, Wednesday (-8,231) The last Japanese troops left Vladivostok. With all anti-Bolshevik forces gone, Soviet rule was established there.
24/10/1922, Tuesday (-8,232) (1) A mass rally of 40,000 Fascists at Naples.
(2) George Cadbury, English chocolate manufacturer and social reformer, died in Birmingham aged 83.
23/10/1922, Monday (-8,233) A Bonar Law became UK Conservative Prime Minister, succeeding Austin Chamberlain. He was replaced by Stanley Baldwin on 22/5/1923, becoming the shortest term of office in the 20th century.
21/10/1922, Saturday (-8,235)
19/10/1922, Thursday (-8,237) At the Carlton Club Meeting, in Britain, the Tories decided to quit the coalition with the Liberals.
18/10/1922. Wednesday (-8,238) The BBC, the British Broadcasting Company, was officially formed, at Marconi House, The Strand, London (2LO). See 14/11/1922.
16/10/1922, Monday (-8,240) The world’s longest main-line railway tunnel, the Simplon II under the Alps, 21 km, was completed after four years work.
7/10/1922, Saturday (-8,249) The first woman senator was sworn in in the USA.
6/10/1922. Friday (-8,250) Alcohol was banned on all US ships in port.
27/9./1922. Tuesday (-8,260) Following Greece’s defeat in Turkey, King Constantine abdicated (see more at 18/3/1913). He was succeeded by King George II.
18/9/1922. Monday (-8,268) Hungary applied to join the League of Nations.
13/9/1922, Wednesday (-8,273) A record temperature of 58 C, or 136.4 F, was recorded at El Azizia, Libya.
11/9/1922. Monday (-8,275) The British Mandate in Palestine began; Britain took over rulership from the Ottoman Turks.
9/9/1922, Saturday (-8,277) The Turkish Army entered Smyrna, and its Christians fled in chaos. Central Smyrna was burnt on 13/9/1922.
5/9/1922, Tuesday (-8,281) American aviator James Doolittle made the first coast to coast flight across the USA, taking 21 hours 19 minutes.
26/8/1922. Saturday (-8,291) Turkey began an offensive against Greece to recover land lost after World War One. The Russian government was sending military aid to Turkey. On 9/9/1922 Greece lost Smyrna, ending its presence on the eastern Aegean coast. Turkish forces now threatened British forces occupying the southern Dardanelles at Chanak; the British government authorised an ultimatum to Turkey, but the local British commander delayed its delivery until local Turkish agreement to respect the British zone had been secured. As the Greek Army retreated it burnt Turkish towns.
25/8/1922, Friday (-8,292) William T Cosgrave became head of the provisional government of the Irish Free State, replacing Arthur Griffith who died of a brain haemorrhage on 12/8/1922.
24/8/1922. Thursday (-8,293) Arabs at Nablus rejected the British Mandate for Palestine.
22/8/1922, Tuesday (-8,295) Michael Collins, Irish revolutionary, died.
16/8/1922, Wednesday (-8,301) Peter I of Yugoslavia died at 77, and was succeeded by his 33-year old son, Alexander I.
14/8/1922, Monday (-8,303) Lord Alfred Harmsworth, British newspaper publisher who launched the London Evening News, Daily Mirror, and The Times, died.
6/8/1922, Sunday (-8,311) Freddie Laker, British airline operator, was born.
2/8/1922. Wednesday (-8,315) Death of Alexander Graham Bell, aged 75, at his home near Baddock, Nova Scotia. He was born on 3/3/1847 and patented the telephone on 7/3/1876. Many others had been working on the idea of sending speech by wire but Bell was the first to succeed. With his assistant Thomas Walsop, Bell began making improvements to the telegraph system, and formed the Bell Telephone Company in 1872. Bell also invented the photophone transmission of sound, precursor of fibre-optics, as well as techniques of teaching speech to the deaf.
29/7/1922. Saturday (-8,319) The Allies forbade Greece to occupy Constantinople.
13/7/1922, Thursday (-8,335) Montenegro joined Yugoslavia.
22/6/1922, Thursday (-8,356) Marshall Sir Henry Wilson, former chief of the General Staff and an Irishman, was shot dead by IRA gunmen, acting without IRA authority.
16/6/1922, Friday (-8,362) In the first elections in the Irish Free State, pro-Treaty Sinn Fein won 58 seats, anti-treaty Sinn Fein won 36 seats, and others took 34 seats.
12/6/1922, Monday (-8,366) (1) The Mallory expedition succeeded in getting within 3,200 feet of the summit of Everest.
(2) Insulin, the treatment for diabetes, was patented by Frederick Banting. See 27/7/1921 and 24/7/1925.
31/5/1922, Wednesday (-8,378) The Royal Ulster Constabulary was formed.
29/5/1922. Monday (-8,380) Minimum postage for letters reduced to 1 ½ d.
25/5/1922, Thursday (-8,384) Lenin was disabled my a major stroke.
15/5/1922. Monday (-8,394) Germany ceded Upper Silesia to Poland.
10/5/1922. Wednesday (-8,399) Dr Ivy Williams became the first woman to be called to the English Bar.
16/4/1922. Sunday (-8,423) (France/Germany, Russia) Germany restored relations with the USSR, signing the Second Treaty of Rapallo. Secretly, the USSR agreed to let Germany build and test weapons in Soviet territory that were forbidden within Germany under the Treaty of Versailles.
7/4/1922, Friday (-8,432) The first collision between airliners. A Farman Goliath operated by French airline Grands Express flew into the path of a Daimler Airways DH 18 over Foix, northern France.
3/4/1922, Monday (-8,436) Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party.
2/4/1922, Sunday (-8,437) Jack Sanderson became the world’s first airline steward, on the London-Paris route.
31/3/1922, Friday (-8,439) In Britain, the Irish Free State Bill received the Royal Assent.
24/3/1922. Friday (-8,446) Only 3 of the 32 horses in the Grand National finished the race.
21/3/1922. Tuesday (-8,449) Queen Mary opened the new Waterloo Station, London.
20/3/1922. Monday (-8,450) President Harding recalled US troops from the Rhineland.
18/3/1922. Saturday (-8,452) Ghandi was jailed for 6 years for civil disobedience.
15/3/1922, Wednesday (-8,455) Britain abolished its protectorate over Egypt and recognised its independence.
12/3/1922, Sunday ( -8,458) White Nationalists seized control of The Rand, South Africa’s industrial area, in protest at job losses as Whites lost their jobs to cheaper Black labour.
8/3/1922, Wednesday (-8,462) 100 mph winds battered England’s south coast.
28/2/1922, Tuesday (-8,470) The British Protectorate over Egypt ended, and Ahmed Fuad was proclaimed King.
26/2/1922, Sunday (-8,472) Britain and France concluded a 20-year alliance.
18/2/1922, Saturday (-8,480) The notorious Black and Tans were disbanded, following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. They had acquired ill repute for their brutal treatment of suspected IRA members.
15/2/1922. Wednesday (-8,483) (1) A cycle of reciprocal violence spread fear across Ireland, North and South. In Belfast Loyalists threw a bomb at a group of Catholic children, killing 6, in revenge for the murder of four policemen in Clones, County Monaghan. The IRA had launched a terrorist offensive in January 1922. In Belfast, Catholics bombed trams bound for the shipyards, where many Protestants worked.
(2) The first session of the Permanent Court of International Justice was held in The Hague, Netherlands.
14/2/1922. Tuesday (-8,484) Marconi began first regular radio broadcasts from England (Writtle, Essex). This invention had been patented by Marconi on 22/6/1896. See 14/11/1922.
13/2/1922, Monday (-8,485) Francis Pym, British politician, was born.
11/2/1922. Saturday (-8,487) Honduras became an independent Republic.
6/2/1922, Monday (-8,492) The Limitation of Armaments Conference at Washington ended.
5/2/1922. Sunday (-8,493) The Readers Digest was first published, in the USA.
1/2/1922, Wednesday (-8,497) Death of the Japanese statesman Yamagata Aritomo (born 14/6/1838). He played a key role in the rise of Japan as a military power in the early 20th century. He was Chief of Staff during the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. Because of this War he developed the ‘Plan of National Defence’ in case of another war with either Russia or America. This Plan formed the basis of Japan’s entry into World War Two. Yamagata died in disgrace after public censure for meddling in the Crown Prince’s marriage.
12/1/1922, Thursday (-8,517) The UK Government declared an amnesty for Irish political prisoners. See 8/11/1924.
11/1/1922, Wednesday (-8,518) Leonard Thompson became the first patient to be treated with insulin for his diabetes, at Toronto General Hospital. He lived for another 13 years before dying of pneumonia at age 27.
10/1/1922, Tuesday (-8,519) Arthur Griffith was elected President of the newly formed Irish Free State.
7/1/1922, Saturday (-8,522) The Irish Dail voted 64 votes 57 to accept the Anglo-Irish Treaty, see 6/12/1921.
5/1/1922. Thursday (-8,524) The British explorer Ernest Shackleton died on the island of South Georgia. He was on an expedition to Enderby Land, Antarctica.
2/1/1922. Monday (-8,527) As inflation soared in Germany, £1 bought over 30,000 German Marks. See 1/2/1923.
25/12/1921, Sunday (-8,535) Ghandi organised a successful mass boycott of the Prince of Wales as he arrived in Calcutta.
22/12/1921, Thursday (-8,538) US Congress set aside US$ 20 million for food aid to starving children in the USSR.
16/12/1921, Friday (-8,544) French composer and organist Camille Saint-Saens died aged 86.
15/12/1921. Thursday (-8,545) Germany sought a moratorium on reparations.
14/12/1921, Wednesday (-8,546) A (somewhat dubious) plebiscite resulted in the retention by Hungary of the Sopron district, which would otherwise have gone to Austria.
10/12/1921, Saturday (+8,550) Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize for Physics, for his work on Relativity.
6/12/1921. Tuesday (-8,554) Under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, Britain granted the 26 counties of Southern Ireland dominion status within the Empire, as the Irish Free State. 6 of the 9 counties of Ulster remained part of the United Kingdom. Britain retained certain naval bases within Southern Ireland. See 7/1/1922 and 25/4/1938.
1/12/1921, Thursday (-8,559) The US Navy airship Goodyear became the first such craft to fly using helium gas. This was much safer than hydrogen; however the gas was then only found within the US, and for military reasons its use was denied to other countries. Use of hydrogen in 1937 caused the Hindenburg airship disaster in 1937, and finally doomed airships as a means of transport.
27/11/1921, Sunday (-8,563) Alexander Dubcek, Czechoslovak politician, was born in Uhrovek.
25/11/1921. Friday (-8,565) Hirohito became Regent in Japan.
23/11/1921, Wednesday (-8,567) In the US, President Harding banned doctors from prescribing beer.
22/11/1921. Tuesday (-8,568) Britain recognised the independence of Afghanistan, under the Anglo-Afghan Treaty, signed by the Dobbs Mission in Kabul.
21/11/1921. Monday (-8,569) Troops were sent to quell rioting in Belfast.
17/11/1921, Thursday (-8,573) The Polish Constitution was established.
12/11/1921, Saturday (-8,578) The Limitation of Armaments Conference began in Washington.
11/11/1921, Friday (-8,579) The British Legion held its first Poppy Day.
7/11/1921, Monday (-8,583) Benito Mussolini, the 38 year old son of a blacksmith from the Romagna, became leader of the Italian National Fascist Party, with its 35 seats in Parliament. Black-shirted Fascist sqaudristi roamed the country disrupting Communist meetings.
4/11/1921. Friday (-8,586) The German currency began to collapse.
25/10/1921, Tuesday (-8,596) King Michael of Romania was born, son of King Carol II.
23/10/1921. Sunday (-8,598) John Boyd Dunlop, who invented pneumatic tyres, died.
21/10/1921. Friday (-8,600) Anglo-Irish peace talks began.
20/10/1921, Thursday (-8,601) The Silesia Crisis (see 20/3/1921) was settled by the League of Nations. The League awarded two thirds of Upper Silesia to Germany, but Poland gained the coal mines, much of the industry, and a substantial German minority in its share.
19/10/1921, Wednesday (-8,602) Portuguese PM Antonio Granjo was assassinated.
18/10/1921. Tuesday (-8,603) Russia granted independence to the Crimea.
17/10/1921, Monday (-8,604) Ludwig III, King of Bavaria, died.
13/10/1921, Thursday (-8,608) Turkey, Russia, and the Caucasian Republics signed a treaty in Kars. Turkey retained Kars, Ardahan, and Artvin, and Russia took Batum.
4/10/1921. Tuesday (-8,617) League of Nations rejected Russian entry.
30/9/1921. Friday (-8,621) French troops pulled out of the Ruhr.
25/9/1921, Sunday (-8,626) Sir Robert Muldoon, Prime Minister of New Zealand 1975-84, was born.
22/9/1921. Thursday (-8,629) The Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia joined the League of Nations.
11/9/1921, Sunday (-8,640) The Klu Klux Klan took control of a university faculty in Atlants, Georgia, for the purposes of teaching ‘Americanism’.
10/9/1921. Saturday (-8,641) Completion of the first motorway (autobahn) in Germany. The 6 ¼ mile (10 km) route ran from Grunwald, Berlin, to the suburb of Wannsee, was exclusively for motor vehicles, and had controlled limited access. It had been planned in September 1909 and was nearly complete when the outbreak of World War One delayed its completion. Intended to double as a motor racing track, it has a loop at either end where competitors could turn round without stopping. It had 2 carriageways 26 feet wide and a 26 feet wide grassed central reservation, and ten concrete flyovers spanned it. Known as the Avus Autobahn, it is still in use today as route 115.
9/9/1921, Friday (-8,642) Charlie Chaplin arrived at Waterloo Station, London, on the boat train from Southampton, to a rapturous welcome. He was staying at the Ritz Hotel, socially a million miles from his childhood days in Lambeth.
8/9/1921, Thursday (-8,643)
7/9/1921. Wednesday (-8,644) The first Miss America beauty contest was held in Atlantic City. The winner was 15 year old, blonde, Margaret Goorman, of Washington DC.
6/9/1921, Tuesday (-8,645) Five female councillors in Poplar faced jail for refusing to set a domestic rate (property tax). Labour-controlled Poplar, led by George Lansbury, objected to a central rate equalisation scheme which, it says, meant poor areas like Poplar paid more than wealthier areas.
1/9/1921, Thursday (-8,650)
25/8/1921. Thursday (-8,657) Peace treaty (Treaty of Berlin) signed between Germany and the USA.
24/8/1921. Wednesday (-8,658) An R38 airship crashed into the Humber at Hull, killing 44 of the 49 crew and passengers.
23/8/1921. Tuesday (-8,659) (1) The 1921 Census of Britain showed the population had increased by almost 2 million to 42,767,530. 7.4 million of these lived in London. War losses affected the total, but the loss due to emigration was greater. Women exceeded men by 2 million, much the same as in 1911.
(2) Emir Faisal was crowned King of Iraq with British consent. However he then asserted his independence from Britain, demanding independent nation status rather than British mandate status. In October 1921 a compromise was reached under which Iraq became independent but tied to Britain for the duration of the mandate, till 1930. After 1930 Iraq accepted a continued British presence at the airbases of Basra and Habbaniya, useful staging posts en route to India. Iraq remained a political client of Britain until 1958 when King Feisal II was overthrown in a coup.
17/8/1921, Wednesday (-8,667)
16/8/1921. Tuesday (-8,666) (1) The Times exposed as a fake the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”, which purported to be a manifesto for a Jewish conspiracy for world domination.
(2) King Peter of Yugoslavia died at Belgrade.
15/8/1921. Monday (-8,667) Government control of Britain’s railways ended.
14/8/1921. Sunday (-8,668) De Valera rejected Dominion status for Ireland.
11/8/1921, Thursday (-8,671) Alex Hailey, US author of Roots, was born.
4/8/1921, Thursday (-8,678) Lenin asked the world for help in overcoming the famine in Russia.
3/8/1921, Wednesday (-8,679) The first aerial crop spraying took place at Troy Ohio, to clear a catalpa grove infested with leaf caterpillars. Powdered arsenate of lead was sprayed over the trees. 99% of the insects were killed.
2/8/1921. Tuesday (-8,680) Death of the Italian tenor Enrico Caruso, whose funeral in Naples was attended by 50,000 people.
31/7/1921, Sunday (-8,682)
29/7/1921 Friday (-8,684) Hitler became President of the National Socialist Party.
28/7/1921, Thursday (-8,,685) The All-India Congress Party voted to boycott a visit to India by the Prince of Wales, and also urged a boycott of imported cloth.
27/7/1921. Wednesday (-8,686) Insulin was isolated by Dr Frederick Banting at the University of Toronto medical School, helped by his assistant Charles Best, and tested on a de-pancreatised dog the same day. It was first used successfully on a human on 11/1/1922. See 12/6/1922.
26/7/1921, Tuesday (-8,687)
23/7/1921. Saturday (-8,690) The first congress of the Chinese Communist Party was held in Beijing.
22/7/1921, Friday (-8,691) A truce was called in the ‘Troubles’ in Ireland.
21/7/1921, Thursday (-8,692) The Spanish army was defeated by Moroccan nationalists at Annual. The Spanish sustained over 12,000 casualties. Adb-E-Krim, nationalist leader, was eventually defeated by a Franco-Spanish force in 1926. Abd E Krim was held on the island of Reunion till 1947 but was then given permission to live in France. However he succeeded in escaping to Egypt where he became an inspiration to Arab nationalism generally.
18/7/1921, Monday (-8,695) John Glenn, US astronaut and first man to orbit the Earth, was born in Cambridge, Ohio.
11/7/1921. Monday (-8,702) (1) The British Government and Sinn Fein agreed a truce.
(2) The Iraqi Council of State unanimously voted for Faisal to be King.
10/7/1921. Sunday (-8,703) Mongolia declared its independence as a People’s Republic, becoming the world’s second Communist state after Russia.
8/7/1921. Friday (-8,705) King George V opened the King George V Dock in east London.
6/7/1921, Wednesday (-8,707) Nancy Reagan, wife of President Reagan, was born as Nancy Davis.
29/6/1921, Wednesday (-8,714) Lady Randolph Churchill, American mother of Winston Churchill, died.
23/6/1921, Thursday (-8,720) Emir Faisal arrived at Basra.
22//6/1921. Wednesday (-8,721) King George V opened the first Northern Ireland Parliament asking for peace and reconciliation.
12/6/1921. Sunday (-8,731) Last Sunday deliveries by British postmen.
10/6/1921, Friday (-8,733) Prince Philip, husband of Queen Elizabeth II, was born on the Greek island of Corfu.
6/6/1921. Monday (-8,737) Southwark Bridge opened by the King.
4/6/1921, Saturday (-8,739) In the US, floods killed 500 in eastern Colorado.
27/5/1921. Friday (-8,747) Anti-Bolshevik forces took Vladivistok.
25/5/1921. Wednesday (-8,749) (1) Sinn Fein burned down the Dublin Customs House.
(2) Miss Olive Clapham qualified as Britain’s first woman barrister.
24/5/1920, Tuesday (-8,750) Sinn Fein won 124 out of the 128 seats in the new Southern Irish Parliament. In the Northern Irish Parliament, Unionists won 40 seats, Nationalists 6 and Sinn Fein 6.
23/5/1921. Monday (-8,751) British troops entered Alexandria, Egypt, to quell nationalist rioting.
22/5/1921. Sunday (-8,752) The US city of Chicago planned to fine women for wearing short skirts and exposed arms.
21/5/1921, Saturday (-8,753) Andrei Sakharov, Russian physicist and human rights campaigner, was born.
19/5/1921. Thursday (-8,755) The USA introduced quotas for immigration, setting these at 3% of the each nationality in the US as it was in 1910. This favoured the British, Irish, Scandinavians, and Germans, and worked against the southern Europeans and Asians. The measure was backed by organised labour, worried about unemployment, by reformers worried about the poverty and slums in the US, and by those who felt that the Asian races were inferior to Europeans.
14/5/1921. Saturday (-8,760) (1) The British Legion was founded in London by Earl Haig. It was renamed the Royal British Legion in 1971.
(2) Fascists won seats in Italian elections.
8/5/1921. Sunday (-8,766) Sweden abolished capital punishment.
4/5/1921. Wednesday (-8,770) France invaded the Ruhr to enforce reparations.
27/4/1921, Wednesday (-8,777) The Allies claimed £6,650 million (132,000 million gold Marks) compensation from Germany. Germany reluctantly agreed, but it would put a great strain on the German economy. The Fehrenbach German government at once resigned. The Allies threatened that if Germany did not agree, they would occupy the Ruhr.
26/4/1921. Tuesday (-8,778) The first police motorcycle patrols began in London.
24/4/1921. Sunday (-8,780) Germany pleaded in vain to the USA for aid on reparations. On 27/4/1921 reparations were set at £6.65 billion.
15/4/1921, Friday (-8,789) Less than a day before it was due to begin, a rail and transport workers strike in support of the striking coalminers was called off. The miners had been locked out of the pits since 1/4/1921. The miners wanted higher wages, and wage equality across the country; the pit owners wanted to reduce wages. The owners proposed a compromise of continuing with present wages, but this was rejected by the miner’s executive this day by a majority of one vote. The miners called this day ‘Black Friday’.
14/4/1921. Thursday (-8,790) Air services between London and Amsterdam resumed.
12/4/1921, Tuesday (-8,792) US President Harding rejected joining the League of Nations.
10/4/1921, Sunday (-8,794) Sun Yat Sen was elected President of China.
2/4/1921, Saturday (-8,802) The IRA first obtained Tommy guns, from a gunsmith in Hartford, Connecticut.
1/4/1921. Friday (-8,803) In Britain, a coal strike began; a state of emergency was proclaimed. Coal rationing began on 3/4/1921. However the strike became a lockout, and the coal miner's traditional allies, the railway and transport unions, failed to support them. The miners had to return on humiliating terms, including a wages cut. The strike was settled on 4/7/1921, after the UK government promised to subsidise the coal industry. Wage reductions in other industries followed and neither Lloyd George or any other politician ever again had the chance to make Britain 'a land fit for heroes'.
28/3/1921. Monday (-8,807) Dirk Bogarde, English film actor, was born in Hampstead, London.
23/3/1921. Wednesday (-8,812) Germany defaulted on reparations.
21/3/1921. Monday (-8,814) Austen Chamberlain succeeded Andrew Bonar Law as Conservative leader (who had resigned due to ill-health).
20/3/1921, Sunday (-8,815) A plebiscite in Upper Silesia resulted in a majority vote for remaining with Germany. Germany tried to claim that the whole territory should therefore remain as German, no part passing to Poland. The resultant crisis, with France supporting Poland, was passed to the League of Nations, see 20/10/1921.
19/3/1921. Saturday (-8,816) Daily air service between Paris and London resumed.
17/3/1921. Thursday (-8,818) First birth control clinic opened in Holloway, London, by Marie Stopes.
15/3/1921. Tuesday (-8,820) Belgium ceded Rwanda to Britain.
12/3/1921. Saturday (-8,823) Lenin announced that state planning of the economy will end and free enterprise would be permitted. This was a move forced by the Russian famine on 1921. The famine was caused by a drought in 1920 which wiped out the crops but revolution and civil war exacerbated the situation. The USA responded to Lenin’s appeal and sent 800,000 tons of food.
11/3/1921, Friday (-8,824) Queen Mary became the first woman to be awarded an Oxford Degree.
8/3/1921. Tuesday (-8,827) Because of Germany’s failure to give a satisfactory response to demands for war reparations, Allied troops occupied the Ruhr towns. Germany agreed to pay war reparations on 11/5/1921. These consisted of £10 billion in gold over the next 42 years plus a 12.5% tax on Germany’s exports.
3/3/1921, Thursday (-8,832) Poland signed an alliance with Romania. This resulted in a decline in previously-close Hungarian-Polish relations.
1/3/1921, Tuesday (-8,834) Allied troops entered Germany to enforce war reparations payments.
27/2/1921. Sunday (-8,836) Communists and Fascists rioted in Italy.
25/2/1921, Friday (-8,838) The Red Army entered Tbilisi, Georgia.
23/2/1921, Wednesday (-8,840) Russian naval mutiny at Kronstadt due to the collapse of the economy. In March this mutiny was brutally suppressed by the Soviet Government.
22/2/1921, Tuesday (-8,841) Jean-Bedel Bokassa, ruler of the Central African Republic, was born.
21/2/1921, Monday (-8,842) Reza Khan (born 1878, of the Pahlevan clan), an officer in the Iranian Army who had risen from the rank of Private to General, occupied Tehran with 1,200 men. Iran was in chaos after the ravages of World War One and its ruler Ahmad Shah, the last of the Qajar dynasty, was young and incompetent, and the cabinet was weak and corrupt. Subsequently known as Reza Shah Pahlavi, he modernised the country, organised its transport links, and retook control of Iran’s finances from foreign investors. His foreign policy was to play the principal foreign powers in the region, the Soviet Union and Britain, off against each other. This policy failed when Britain and Russia became allies in World War Two in 1941. Britain and Russia jointly occupied Iran in August 1941 so the Soviet war effort could be supplied. Reza Shah then abdicated so his son, Mohammed Reza Shah, could adapt Iranian foreign policy to the new situation, and continue the dynasty. Reza Shah died in Johannesburg, South Africa, in June 1944.
18/2/1921. Friday (-8,845) The first helicopter flew, designed in France by Etienne Oemichen.
16/2/1921, Wednesday (-8,847) Eight Sinn Fein supporters were shot dead in a gun battle with British soldiers.
9/2/1921. Wednesday (-8,854) A peace treaty was signed between Poland and Russia, at Riga.
8/2/1921. Tuesday (-8,855) Jan Smuts was elected prime Minister of South Africa.
6/2/1921, Sunday (-8,857)
5/2/1921. Saturday (-8,858) Anti-Soviet sailors mutiny at Kronstadt naval base, outside Petrograd. The rebellion was crushed by Red Army troops on 17/3/1921.
4/2/1921, Friday (-8,859) Betty Friedan was born, as Betty Naomi Goldstein, in Peoria, Illinois. She was a leading US feminist, and organised the Women’s Strike for Equality (26/8/1970) to raise awareness of feminist issues.
2/2/1921, Wednesday (-8,861)
25/1/1921, Tuesday (-8,869) Six women were sworn in as jurors in a divorce trial, the first women to serve in this type of case.
24/1/1921, Monday (-8,870) The Reparations Conference in Paris fixed German war reparations at US$ 56 billion, to be paid over 42 years; of this sum, France would get 52%. German politician reacted with outrage, seeing this as ‘enslavement of the German economy’, and defaulted on repayments on 23/3/1921. Under pressure from the US, the Allies reduced their claim but when Germany defaulted on this, too, they reoccupied the Rhineland.
22/1/1921. Saturday (-8,872) British tanks were sent into Dublin, as a hunt for the police killers got underway.
20/1/1921, Thursday (-8,874) Six policemen were shot dead by the IRA in Dublin.
8/1/1921, Saturday (-8,886) Lloyd George became the first Prime Minister to occupy Chequers, the house near Wendover given to the nation by Lord Lee of Fareham.
7/1/1921. Friday (-8,887) The first woman was elected as foreman of a jury in Britain, in Dudley, Birmingham.
3/1/1921, Monday (-8,891) (1) The airships R 36 and R 37 were built; they could carry 50 passengers.
(2) India's first parliament met.
(3) Turkey concluded a peace with the Republic of Armenia at Alexandropol. Armenia had been raiding Turkish frontier villages, which had led Turkey to attack Armenia. Turkey took Kars and Alendropol.
1/1/1921, Saturday (-8,893) (1) Car tax discs for obligatory display on windscreens were introduced in Britain.
(2) The Navy, Army, and Air Force Institute, or NAAFI, was founded in Britain.
30/12/1920, Thursday (-8,895) The French Communist Party was founded at Tours.
23/12/1920. Thursday (-8,902) The Bill for the division of Ireland into North and South became law. Northern and Southern Ireland got their own Parliaments.
22/12/1920, Wednesday (-8,903) The Soviet Congress adopted an ambitious plan for the electrification of Russia.
20/12/1920, Monday (-8,905)
18/12/1920.. Saturday (-8,907) (1) Britain and France agreed on the borders of Syria and Palestine.
(2) King Constantine was restored to the Greek throne.
17/12/1920, Friday (-8,908) The League of Nations ratified South African rule over Namibia (South West Africa), a territory taken by South Africa from German rule in 1915.
16/12/1920. Thursday (-8,909) (1) Permanent Court of International Justice established at The Hague.
(2) Earthquake in China killed 180,000.
15/12/1920. Wednesday (-8,910) China and Austria were admitted to the League of Nations.
14/12/1920, Tuesday (-8,911) The first aeroplane disaster. A Handley page Continental Air Services flight from Cricklewood Aerodrome, London, to Paris crashed into the back of a newly built house at 6, Basinghill, The Ridgeway, and fell in flames in the garden. 4 of the 6 passengers managed to jump clear and escaped major injury; the other 2 passengers and 2 crew were killed.
11/12/1920. Saturday (-8,914) Martial law was declared in Ireland. Britain had 40,000 soldiers in Ireland, plus 7,000 of the hated ‘Black and Tans’ (ex-soldiers serving as police), who were often accused of brutality. They would burn down entire villages in their search for IRA gunmen. Recently, both sides escalated the conflict with IRA hit and run tactics countered by increased British army intervention.
8/12/1920. Wednesday (-8,917) Cambridge University refused to admit women to full-time studentships.
5/12/1920, Sunday (-8,920) A Greek referendum result called for the return of King Constantine, deposed by the Allies in 1917.
4/12/1920. Saturday (-8,921) An attempt to introduce Prohibition to Scotland failed.
3/12/1920, Friday (-8,922)
2/12/1920, Thursday (-8,923) Armenia was forced to conclude a peace treaty with Turkey that not only annulled the Wilson Line but gave the district of Kars, formerly Russian/Armenian, to Turkey. This treaty also stated that ‘there were no Armenian majorities anywhere in Turkey’.
1/12/1920, Wednesday (-8,924) Alvaro Obregon became President of Mexico, bringing stability after a decade of civil conflict.
25/11/1920, Thursday (-8,930)
22/11/1920, Monday (-8,933) US President Wilson set a proposed border (The Wilson Line) between Turkey and Armenia that would have given Armenia lands as far west as Trebizond, Erzingan, and Bitlis. However on the ground both Turkey and the USSR were advancing into Armenia and the Wilson line never materialised. See 2/12/1920.
21/11/1920. Sunday (-8,934) 21 British officers and officials were killed in their beds by IRA members, setting off a day of killing and bloodshed in Ireland. This was in retaliation for an attack by the Black and Tans, an auxiliary police force, at a Gaelic football match, where 12 died.
19/11/1920, Friday (-8,936) 100,000 White Russian refugees from the Crimea arrived in Constantinople.
16/11/1920. Tuesday (-8,939) The Bolsheviks defeated the White Russians in the Crimea, so ending the Russian Civil War. The white Russian General, Baron Wrangel, fled with his men to Turkey.
15/11/1920. Monday (-8,940) Danzig was declared a free city.
14/11/1920, Sunday (-8,941) Sebastopol was captured by the Red Army.
13/11/1920. Saturday (-8,942) The first full session of the League of Nations opened, attended by 5,000 representatives from 41 countries worldwide.
12/11/1920, Friday (-8,943) (Italy, East Europe) The first Treaty of Rapallo was signed, between Italy and Yugoslavia, settling territorial disputes in the Adriatic and pledging collaboration to prevent a Hapsburg restoration. Istria, the territory east of Venice, became part of Italy. The town of Fiume, seized by Italian Nationalists in September 1919, was to return to Free City status. However, although the Nationalists were ejected from Fiume by the Italian Navy, Fiume did not regain this status and in 1924, when Mussolini came to power, Italy abrogated these terms and retained control of Fiume (although Yugoslavia controlled the adjacent port of Susak). After World War Two, Fiume became part of the Republic of Croatia, itself a part of Yugoslavia.
11/11/1920, Thursday (-8,944) (1) The Labour politician Roy Jenkins was born at Abersychan.
(2) The 35-foot Cenotaph war memorial (Greek cenos taphos = empty tomb) in Whitehall, London, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, was unveiled by King George V. Londoners doffed their hats when passing it.
10/11/1920, Wednesday (-8,945) The body of an unknown British soldier was brought to London for burial at Westminster Abbey.
8/11/1920. Monday (-8,947)
3/11/1920, Wednesday (-8,952) Britain’s miners returned to work, see 18/10/1922.
2/11/1920, Tuesday (-8,953) The first regular radio programme began, KDKA, in Pittsburgh.
1/11/1920, Monday (-8,954) White Russian forces under Baron Wrangel were pushed southwards into the Crimea by the Communists.
25/10/1920, Monday (-8,961) King Alexander of Greece died of blood poisoning after being bitten by a monkey. His father, who abdicated in 1917, resumed the throne, continuing the struggle against Turkey.
18/10/1920. Monday (-8, 968) Britain's miners walked out over a claim for 2 shillings (10p) more a week, work did not resume until 3/11/1920.
16/10/1920, Saturday (-8.970) US Marines killed the Haitian rebel leader.
14/10/1920. Thursday (-8,972) Russia recognised the independence of Finland. Russia ceded the port of Petsamo to Finland, giving Finland access to the Arctic Ocean.
6/10/1920. Wednesday (-8,980) Poland and Russia signed an armistice at Riga, Latvia.
22/9/1920, Wednesday (-8,994) The Metropolitan Police ‘Flying Squad’ was formed.
15/9/1920. Wednesday (-9,001) New air mail services began in Europe, from Copenhagen to Amsterdam, London, and Hamburg.
10/9/1920, Friday (-9,006) The Indian National Congress voted to adopt Mahatma Gandhi’s policy of non-co-operation with Britain’s colonial administration.
1/9/1920. Wednesday (-9,015) France proclaimed the creation of the state of Lebanon, with Beirut as its capital.
31/8/1920, Tuesday (-9,.016) Under the decree of General Giraud, France enlarged the Sanjak of Lebanon (Mount Lebanon) at Syria’s expense, adding Tripoli, Sidon, Tyre and the Bekaa plain. Greater Lebanon now had a small Christian majority, but the Muslim population had a higher birth rate.
26/8/1920. Thursday (-9,021) Under the 19th Amendment, women received the vote in the USA.
19/8/1920, Thursday (-9,028) The Russian army was defeated by the Poles at Warsaw.
16/8/1920. Monday (-9,031) As Russian troops closed in on Warsaw, US warships were sent to Danzig. On 23/8/1920, with the support of British airmen, the Poles repelled the Russian advance on Warsaw.
14/8/1920, Saturday (-9,033) The 7th Olympic Games opened in Antwerp.
11/8/1920, Wednesday (-9,036) A Latvian-Soviet peace treaty gave Latvia independence from Soviet Russia.
10/8/1920. Tuesday (-9,037) (1) The Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Sevres, ceding 80% of its land area. (see also 30/10/1917). Syria became a French mandate (including Lebanon, see1/9/1920), Palestine and Mesopotamia became British mandates, Rhodes and the Dodecanese islands went to Italy, and the other Aegean Islands went to Greece.
(2). Other post-war provisions included the creation of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia, Galicia was given to Poland, Transylvania to Romania, and Istria, Trentino, and South Tyrol to Italy. Greece and Yugoslavia acquired parts of Bulgaria. German East Africa went to Britain, the Samoan Islands to New Zealand, and South West Africa to South Africa. Germany itself lost territory to Poland, France, Denmark, and Lithuania.
3/8/1920, Tuesday (-9,044) London’s Central Line was extended from Shepherd’s Bush to Ealing Broadway.
1/8/1920, Sunday (-9,046) (1) Ghandi began his campaign of resistance to British rule in India.
(2) The Communist Party of Great Britain was founded.
31/7/1920. Saturday (-9,047) Russia postponed peace talks and marched on Warsaw.
27/7/1920, Tuesday (-9,051) The Red Army took Pinsk.
25/7/1920, Sunday (-9,053) The Greeks took Adrianople.
24/7/1920. Saturday (-9,054) A French expeditionary force occupied Damascus and the port of Aleppo. The Emir Faisal, installed by the British in March, fled.
23/7/1920, Friday (-9,055) Poland sought peace with Russia.
21/7/1920, Wednesday (-9,057) Sinn Fein and the Ulster Unionists rioted in Belfast.
13/7/1920, Tuesday (-9,065) The LCC banned the employment of foreigners in council jobs.
10/7/1920, Saturday (-9,068), (1) After a referendum amongst the inhabitants, northern Schleswig was returned to Denmark from Germany.
(2) Lloyd George proposed the Curzon Line as a Polish-Russian frontier. Subsequent correspondence was handled by the UK Foreign Secretary, George Curzon. The line, from Grodno through Brest-Litovsk and Przemysl to the Carpathians, excluded from Poland lands mainly inhabited by Ukrainians, Lithuanians, and Russians. Poland rejected the Curzon proposal, subsequently securing twice as much as Lloyd George suggested. In September 1939 the Russian and Germans divided Poland along, approximately, the Curzon line and in 1945 it became the eastern frontier of Poland.
9/7/1920, Friday (-9,069) The Greeks took Bursa.
8/7/1920, Thursday (-9,070) British troops set up road blocks in Dublin.
6/7/1920. Tuesday (-9,072) Major offensive by Red Army against Poland. Poland sought peace with Russia on 23/7/1920. On 31/7/1920 the Russians postponed peace talks and marched on Warsaw.
3/7/1920. Saturday (-9,075) The first RAF air display took place at Hendon.
1/7/1920, Thursday (-9,077) (1) The British civil administration of Palestine began.
(2) Germany surrendered her largest airship, the L-71 to Britain.
24/6/1920. Thursday (-9,084) (1) The Greeks defeated the Turks at Alashehr.
(2) Riots in Londonderry put down by the British Army.
22/6/1920, Tuesday (-9,086) With British support, Greek forces attacked Turkish Nationalist troops.
16/6/1920. Wednesday (-9,092) At The Hague, the League of Nations Permanent Court of Justice opened.
4/6/1920. Friday (-9,104) At Versailles, the Treaty of Trianon cut Hungary to 25% of its former size. The population of Hungary was cut from 21 million in 1914 to under 8 million after this Treaty.
1/6/1920. Tuesday (-9,107) UK postal rates raised from 1 ½ d to 2 d for a letter.
29/5/1920. Saturday (-9,110) Lincolnshire hit by major flooding.
28/5/1920. Friday (-9,111) (1) The foundation stone of the London School of Economics was laid.
25/5/1920, Tuesday (-9,114)
21/5/1920, Friday (-9,118) Venustiano Carranza, President of Mexico, was assassinated.
20/5/1920. Thursday (-9,119) Charles Lindbergh took off on the first transatlantic solo flight.
19/5/1920. Wednesday (-9,120) The Red Army invaded northern Iran.
18/5/1920. Tuesday (-9,121) Pope John Paul II was born as Karolum Wojtyla in the market town of Wadowice, near Krakow, Poland. He was the son of a junior officer in the Polish Army.
17/5/1920. Monday (-9,122) KLM, the national airline of The Netherlands, began its first scheduled service, between Amsterdam and London. See 7/10/1919.
16/5/1920, Sunday (-9,123) Joan of Arc was canonised.
15/5/1920, Saturday (-9,124) Britain sent more troops into Ireland after attacks by Sinn Fein militants.
12/5/1920, Wednesday (-9,127)
11/5/1920. Tuesday (-9,128) Oxford University agreed to start awarding degrees to women.
10/5/1920, Monday (-9,129) John Wesley Hyatt, US inventor who discovered celluloid, the first synthetic plastic, died.
7/5/1920. Friday (-9,132) Polish and Ukrainian troops seized Kiev from the Red Army. Poland wanted to bring the Ukraine under its influence, to weaken Russia.
5/5/1920, Wednesday (-9,134) Britain and France rejected a declaration of Syrian independence and, hastily convening a meeting of the Supreme Council of the League of Nations, they declared the intention of dividing Lebanon from Syria (both under French control) and Iraq (undivided) under British control.
30/4/1920. Friday (-9,139) Britain abolished conscription.
27/4/1920, Tuesday (-9,142) Soviet Russian troops invaded Azerbaijan, ending its independence (see 28/5/1918). On 28/5/1920 the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan was declared.
25/4/1920, Sunday (-9,144) The UN confirmed the British mandate to control Palestine and Mesopotamia.
23/4/1920. Friday (-9,146) Turkish Nationalists set up a provisional government at Ankara, with Mustapha Kemal as President.
19/4/1920, Monday (-9,150) The Conference of San Remo opened. Following on from the London Conference (see 12/1/2920), post World War One frontiers in Europe were settled.
13/4/1920, Tuesday (-9,156) 300,000 workers went on strike at the treatment of Sinn Fein hunger strikers; on 14/2/1920 89 hunger strikers were released from Dublin Prison.
4/4/1920, Sunday (-9,165) Rioting broke out in Jerusalem (then under British control) as fighting occurred between Arabs and Jews. The Arabs were angry at the arrival of Jewish immigrants, and anti-Zionist speeches led to unrest. Martial law was declared as 5 Jews and 4 Arabs died in the riots, and 281 Jews, 18 Arabs, and 7 British soldiers were injured.
1/4/1920, Thursday (-9,168) The Nazi Party was officially founded in Germany.
31/3/1920, Wednesday (-9,169) The British House of Commons passed the Irish Home Rule Bill.
30/3/1920, Tuesday (-9,170)
29/3/1920, Monday (-9,171) Croydon was designated as London’s official airport, and Hounslow abandoned, see 30/1/1928.
28/3/1920, Sunday (-9,172) Novorossiysk, on the Black Sea, was taken by the Red Army.
26/3/1920. Friday (-9,174) 800 special constables, the Black and Tans, arrived in Ireland to put down the Republican revolt in the south of the country, where public order was rapidly deteriorating.
20/3/1920. Saturday (-9,180) In response to the Syrian claim of 8/3/1920, the Lebanese Christians proclaimed their independence, choosing as their flag the French tricolour with a Lebanese cedar at its centre.
19/3/1920. Friday (-9,181) (1) In Germany, Socialists rebelled and captured Essen.
(2) The US Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, and the US refused to join the League of Nations.
16/3/1920. Tuesday (-9,184) Allied troops occupied Istanbul.
13/3/1920. Saturday (-9,187) A pro-Royalist coup was attempted in Berlin, led by Dr Wolfgang Kapp. The German Government had to retreat to Stuttgart but the German workers opposed the coup and began a general strike; the coup plotters had to flee.
8/3/1920. Monday (-9,192) Syria proclaimed independence from Ottoman Turkey, with Emir Faisal, hero of the Arab revolt, as King. He claimed not just the smaller Syria agreed by Britain and France, but of ‘natural Syria’, extending to the Euphrates and including Lebanon and Palestine. See 20/3/1920.
24/2/1920. Tuesday (-9,205) (1) The National Socialist Workers party, led by Adolf Hitler, published a programme for a Third Reich.
(2) Viscountess Lady Astor became the first woman to speak in the British Parliament. Her husband, Conservative MP Waldorf Astor, succeeded her father as Viscount Astor in 1932 and moved to the House of Lords; she won his seat in a by-election 2 months ago. This day she spoke in opposition to a move to abolish the Liquor Control Board.
23/2/1920, Monday (-9,206) The first regular broadcasting service in Britain began, from Chelmsford.
20/2/1920. Friday (-9,209) (1) The Red Army captured Archangel.
(2) Robert Peary, American Arctic explorer and first man to reach the North Pole in 1909, died in Washington DC.
12/2/1920, Thursday (-9,217) A conference began in London to settle the main frontiers of Turkey to be demarcated in the Treaty of Sevres. This conference ended on 23/2/1920, see 19/4/1920.
11/2/1920, Wednesday (-9,218) King Farouk, last King of Egypt, was born in Cairo, son of King Fuad I.
10/2/1920, Tuesday (-9,219)
9/2/1920, Monday (-9,220) By a treaty signed in Paris, Norway was given sovereignty over Svalbard (Spitsbergen).
8/2/1920. Sunday (-9,221) The Bolsheviks captured Odessa.
7/2/1920. Saturday (-9,222) The Bolsheviks executed the White Russian, Commander Koltchak.
6/2/1920, Friday (-9,223)
5/2/1920, Thursday (-9,224) (1) Germany refused to hand over alleged war criminals to the Allies.
(2) The Royal Air Force College at Cranwell opened to the first batch of apprentices.
4/2/1920, Wednesday (-9,225) (1) Aviators Pierre van Ryneveld and C J Quinton took off from Brooklands airfield on the first flight from London to cape Town, South Africa.
(2) Norman Wisdom, British comedian, was born as Norman Wisden .
3/2/1920, Tuesday (-9,226)
2/2/1920. Monday (-9,227) Estonia proclaimed its independence from Russia.
1/2/1920, Sunday (-9,228) (1) The North West Mounted Police changed their name to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
(2) The first full session of the League of Nations opened at St James Palace, London, overseen by the British Prime Minister, Arthur Balfour. Plans were made for an International Court of Justice.
22/1/1920, Thursday (-9,238) Sir Alf Ramsey, England international footballer and manager, was born.
20/1/1920, Tuesday (-9,240) Peace Talks in Paris concluded, see 18/1/1919.
19/1/1920, Monday (-9,241) Javier Perez de Cuellar, Secretary of the United Nations from 1982, was born.
10/1/1920. Saturday (-9,250) The League of Nations, whose function was defined on 28/4/1919, legally came into being at Geneva. It first met in Paris on 16/1/1920, but was boycotted by the USA, partly over the votes given to Britain and the dominions, partly over the obligation by one member to defend another if attacked in war.
9/1/1920. Friday (-9,251) (1) The UK Government announced plans for the construction of 100,000 new houses in 1920.
(2) Bolshevik troops defeated White Russians under Admiral Koltchak. See 16/11/1920.
5/1/1920. Monday (-9,255) Radio Corporation of America was formed for world-wide broadcasting.
2/1/1920. Friday (-9,258) (1) Major US crackdown on suspected Communists began. The ‘Palmer Raids’ in over 30 cities across the USA resulted in the arrest of almost 3,000 anarchists, communists and other radicals. These raids were the idea of Attorney-General A Mitchell Palmer. The raids were controversial; some protested at the disregard for civil liberties, but some on the Right wanted those detained to be executed. Palmer himself, a Democrat, lost the Presidential nomination in late 1920 but maintained he had foiled a Bolshevik plot to overthrow the US Government.
(2) Isaac Asimov was born.