Historical events from 1 January 1900 to 31 December 1929
(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday)
22/12/1929. Sunday (-5,616) (1) The All-India National Congress demanded Indian independence.
9/12/1929, Monday (-5,629) Bob Hawke, Australian Labour Prime Minister 1983-91, was born.
8/12/1929. Sunday (-5,630) Hitler’s Nazi Party won municipal elections in Bavaria.
7/12/1929, Saturday (-5,631)
6/12/1929, Friday (-5,632) US marines were sent to
5/12/1929, Thursday (-5,633) 94
mph winds swept across
4/12/1929, Wednesday (-5,634)
2/12/1929. Monday (-5,636) Britain got its first 22 public phone boxes.
1/12/1929. Sunday (-5,637) Major Thames floods.
29/11/1929. Friday (-5,639) US Admiral Richard Byrd, with pilot Bernt Balchen, became the first to fly over the South Pole.
21/11/1929. Thursday (-5,647) Henry Ford raised workers wages in all his car plants.
13/11/1929, Wednesday (-5,655) (1) The
(2) The Bank for International Settlements was founded.
11/11/1929, Monday (-5,657) Anti-Japanese occupation protests in Korea.
8/11/1929, Friday (-5,660) The Museum of Modern Art in New York opened.
2/11/1929, Saturday (-5,666)
The first News Theatre Cinema opened in
1/11/1929, Friday (-5,667)
The Pony Club movement was founded in
31/10/1929, Thursday (-5,668)
29/10/1929, Tuesday (-5,670) The Montreal stock market crashed.
28/10/1929, Monday (-5,671) The London stock market crashed.
26/10/1929, Saturday (-5,673) All London buses to be painted red. Earlier trials with yellow and red proved unpopular.
24/10/1929. Thursday (-5,675) New York stock market crash. See 22/5/1933. The Stock market opened to brisk selling and as the ticker tape was unable to cope with the volume of shares trading (12 million shares were traded that day), prices fell further, and worried investors sold more as prices fell. By 11.30 am. There was total chaos on the market. There were eleven suicides from ruined investors in New York alone. On 28/10/1929 the London Stock Exchange also fell sharply, and New York stocks fell further on 29/10/1929.
23/10/1929, Wednesday (-5,676) A sudden and unanticipated rush of selling hit the New York stock market.
21/10/1929, Monday (-5,678) (1) Irish rural electrification received a boost when the Shannon hydroelectric scheme began operating this day. Until now only about a third of Dublin and a quarter of Cork had electricity; the new scheme, at a cost of £5 million, would greatly increase the electricity supply.
(2) The BBC began transmitting regional services.
18/10/1929, Friday (-5,681) Violeta Chamorro, President of Nicaragua, was born.
14/10/1929, Monday (-5,685) The R101 airship went on its first trials above London from its Cardington hangar in Bedfordshire. The airship was 732 feet long and held 5 million cubic feet of hydrogen; power was from 5 diesel engines.
12/10/1929, Saturday (-6,687) (1) The last British troops left the Rhineland, moving out of their base in Wiesbaden.
(2) Magnus Magnusson, British writer and TV presenter, was born in Reykjavik, Iceland.
3/10/1929. Thursday (-5,696) The name of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was changed to Yugoslavia.
1/10/1929, Tuesday (-5,698) Britain resumed diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia.
30/9/1929, Monday (-5,699) The first experimental TV broadcast was made by the BBC.
27/9/1929, Friday (-5,702)
(-5,704) Ronnie Barker, English comedy
actor, was born in
24/9/1929. Tuesday (-5,705) Workers
22/9/1929. Sunday (-5,707) Communists and Nazis fought on the
16/9/1929. Monday (-5,713)
10/9/1929. Tuesday (-5,719) A British seaplane reached a record speed of 355.8 mph.
9/9/1929. Monday (-5,720) Heavy
6/9/1929, Friday (-5,723)
5/9/1929. Thursday (-5,724) Aristide
Briand, the French Prime Minister, proposed a
4/9/1929, Wednesday (-5,725)
The German airship Graf Zeppelin completed its 20-day round the world trip
3/9/1929. Tuesday (-5,726) The
25/8/1929. Sunday (-5,735)
24/8/1929, Saturday (-5,736) Georges Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France, died.
8/8/1929, Thursday (-5,752) Ronald Biggs, great train robber, was born in Lambeth, south London.
6/8/1929, Tuesday (-5,754)
3/8/1929, Saturday (-5,757) Emile Berliner,
31/7/1929, Wednesday (-5,760) World Boy Scouts jamboree opened
29/7/1929, Monday (-5,762) Britain’s Foreign Secretary, Arthur Henderson, had talks with his Soviet counterpart about restoring Anglo-Soviet diplomatic relations.
28/7/1929, Sunday (-5,763)
Jacqueline Onassis, widow of President Kennedy, was born in
25/7/1929. Thursday (-5,766) Pope Pius XI became the first Pope
for 59 years to leave the
17/7/1929. Wednesday (-5,774)
16/7/1929, Tuesday (-5,775) In Dublin, the Censorship of Publications Act came into force, to control obscenity.
7/7/1929, Sunday (-5,784) The railway from Wimbledon to Sutton opened as far south as South Merton, see 5/1/1930.
1//7/1929. Monday (-5,790) Britain refused Leon Trotsky asylum.
26/6/1929. Wednesday (-5,795) The Japanese government signed the anti-war Kellogg-Briand pact, the last government to sign it.
12/6/1929. Wednesday (-5,809) Birth of Anne Frank, Dutch Jewish schoolgirl who wrote her famous dairies before going to her death in a Nazi concentration camp.
8/6/1929. Saturday (-5,813) (1) At The Hague, Germany’s war debts were
(2) Margaret Bondfield became the first British woman Cabinet Minister when she was appointed Minister of Labour.
7/6/1929. Friday (-5,814) The
30/5/1929. Thursday (-5,822) UK General Election. Labour secured its first Parliamentary majority – see 22/1/1924. The Labour Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald, running Britain’s second Labour government, appointed Margaret Bondfield as Britain’s first woman minister. She was Minister of Labour, a key post, given the lengthening dole queues Britain faced. Labour won 288 seats, the Conservatives 260.
21/5/1929, Tuesday (-5,831) Lord Roseberry, British Liberal Prime Minister, died.
5/5/1929. Sunday (-5,847) In
3/5/1929. Friday (-5,849) Severe civil unrest in
1/5/1929, Wednesday (-5,851) Communists in
29/4/1929, Monday (-5,853) The future Liberal Party leader, Jeremy Thorpe, was born.
26/4/1929. Friday (-5,856) The first non-stop flight from
24/4/1929, Wednesday (-5,858)
20/4/1929. Saturday (-5,862) The first Italian Parliament composed exclusively of Fascists led by Benito Mussolini was opened by King Victor Emmanuel III.
15/4/1929, Monday (-5,867) Chancellor Winston Churchill, in his budget, abolished the 325-year-old tea duty, knocking 4d off the price of a pound of tea.
14/4/1929. Sunday (-5,868) (1) The first air mail from
(2) The Monte
Carlo Grand Prix was run for the first time, 76 laps round the narrow streets
11/4/1929. Thursday (-5,871) (1)
(2) Popeye the cartoon character first
appeared in a comic strip in a
4/4/1929. Thursday (-5,878) The engineer Carl Benz, who built the first internal combustion car, died aged 84.
30/3/1929, Saturday (-5,883) The
first commercial air service between
24/3/1929. Sunday (-5,889) Mussolini’s single party Fascist state claimed it had won 99% of the vote in elections.
23/3/1929, Saturday (-5,890) Roger Bannister, the first man to run a mile in under 4 minutes (3 minutes, 59.4 seconds), was born in Harrow, London.
20/3/1929. Wednesday (-5,893) The French military commander Marshal Ferdinand Foch died aged 68.
11/3/1929. Monday (-5,902) Major H O D Seagrave reached 231.36
mph in his racing car at
10/3/1929. Sunday (-5,903) Egyptian women were granted limited rights of divorce.
5/3/1929, Tuesday (-5,908)
4/3/1929. Monday (-5,909) Herbert Hoover was inaugurated as the President of the USA.
3/3/1929, Sunday (-5,910) The southern branch line from Tooting to Wimbledon was closed to passengers, see 1/10/1868. It closed to goods traffic on 5/8/1968.
21/2/1929. Thursday (-5,920)
18/2/1929, Monday (-5,,923) The First Academy Awards, known as Oscars from 1931, were announced.
15/2/1929. Friday (-5,926) German unemployment was over 3 million.
14/2/1929. Thursday (-5,927) The St Valentines Day Massacre took
11/2/1929. Monday (-5,930) The 109 acres of the Vatican in Rome were made an independent state under the Lateran Treaty, which was signed by Benito Mussolini and Pietro Gasparri, Pope Pius XI.
6/2/1929, Wednesday (-5,935)
4/2/1929, Monday (-5,937) The first Green Belt area was approved, a five-mile wide strip near Hendon.
31/1/1929. Thursday (-5,941) Leon Trotsky was expelled from
15/1/1929 Tuesday (-5,957) (1) US
civil rights leader Martin Luther King
was born in
9/1/1929, Wednesday (-5,963) Fleming treated his assistant Stuart Craddock for an infection by washing it out with a penicillin solution; this cleared the infection.
6/1/1929, Sunday (-5,966) King Alexander of
1/1/1929. Tuesday (-5,971) In the
20/12/1928. Thursday (-5,983) (1) Harry Ramsden started his first fish and chip restaurant in a hut near Bradford, West Yorkshire, which soon became the most famous in the world.
11/12/1928, Tuesday (-5,992) Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian author, was born.
10/12/1928, Monday (-5,993) In London, the new Underground Station at Piccadilly Circus opened.
29/11/1928, Thursday (-6,004) In Britain the Government was concerned at the rising toll of road accidents. In 1927 there were 133,943 accidents and 5,329 deaths on Britain’s roads. The number of private cars was just 200,000 in 1920 but forecast to reach one million by 1930. However anyone aged 17 could drive with no more than a self-certification of physical fitness. The speed limit of 20 mph was widely ignored. Motoring had been the preserve of the wealthy but the Austin Seven car, introduced in 1921, cost just £225, within the reach of many people.
26/11/1928, Monday (-6,007) The first twins to be born by Caesarean section in Britain were delivered in Manchester.
17/11/1928, Saturday (-6,016) Lala Rajpat Raj, Indian politician, died.
6/11/1928. Tuesday (-6,027) Herbert Hoover, Republican, was elected 31st President of the USA.
5/11/1928. Monday (-6,028) Mount Etna erupted.
3/11/1928. Saturday (-6,030)
30/10/1928, Tuesday (-6,034) Static pictures were first transmitted by radio. Receivers required a special device called a Fultograph, attached to the radio set. This utilised a revolving drum upon which a stylus marked half-tone lines on special paper. The result was about as good as a mediocre picture in an underfunded local newspaper, and the device never became popular.
15/10/1928. Monday (-6,049) The German airship Graf Zeppelin,
captained by Hugo Eckener, completed its first transatlantic flight. It flew from Friedrichshafen, Germany, to
12/10/1928. Friday (-6,052) The first iron lung was used at the
Boston Children’s Hospital,
10/10/1928. Wednesday (-6,054) The King and Queen opened the new
7/10/1928, Sunday (-6,057) In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ras Tafari was crowned Emperor.
6/10/1928. Saturday (-6,058) Chiang Kai-Shek became President of Nationalist China.
1/10/1928. Monday (-6,063) Stalin’s first Five Year Plan began.
The idea was for rapid
industrialisation of the
20/9/1928, Thursday (-6,074) In Rome the supreme legislative body, the Chamber of Deputies, was taken over by the Fascists.
19/9/1928. Wednesday (-6,075) The first cartoon talking picture,
Walt Disney’s Steamboat Willie, with
Mickey Mouse (originally called Mortimer Mouse), was shown in
18/9/1928, Tuesday (-6,076)
16/9/1928, Sunday (-6,078) In Glasgow the P&O liner Viceroy of India was launched; she was the first to have oil-fired electric turbines.
15/9/1928. Saturday (-6,079) Alexander Fleming reported the discovery of penicillin.
11/9/1928, Tuesday (-6,083) In New York the world’s first television drama was broadcast. It was a 40 minute two-character play called The Queen’s Messenger.
1/9/1928. Saturday (-6,093) Zogu was proclaimed King Zog I of
28/8/1928, Tuesday (-6,097) In Britain the Dangerous Drugs Act (1925) was amended to make the use of cannabis illegal.
27/8/1928. Monday (-6,098) In
25/8/1928, Saturday (-6,100) Anfield’s famous Kop terrace at
19/8/1928, Sunday (-6,106) Lord Haldane, who founded the
Territorial Army in 1908, died in
14/8/1928. Tuesday (-6,111) (1) The world’s first scheduled television programmes were broadcast by WRNY in New York.
(2) The world’s first coach service to have sleeping
bunks began, between
10/8/1928, Friday (-6,115) British cigarette smoking was rising fast. In 1924 the country consumed 77,458,000 lbs of tobacco, up from 23,766,000 lbs in 1907, according to figures from the Imperial economic Committee. In 1927 Britons consumed 3.4 lbs of tobacco per head. All the increase was from cigarettes; pipe smoking and cigars have declined. Cigarette sales were boosted by marketing techniques such as free cards, and cigarette smoking had become a powerful symbol of female emancipation. Younger females also saw the habit as romantic. However some doctors were concerned about links to the rise in various cancers.
6/8/1928, Monday (-6,119) Andy Warhol, US artist, was born.
1/8/1928, Wednesday (-6,124) The Morris Minor car was launched.
28/7/1928, Saturday (-6,128) The 9th Olympic Games
22/7/1928. Sunday (-6,134)
7/7/1928, Saturday (+6,149) Sliced bread was first produced
6/7/1928, Friday (-6,150) The first all-talking feature film, Lights of New York, was presented at The Sound Theatre, New York.
3/7/1928. Tuesday (-6,153) The first TV sets went on sale in
18/6/1928. Monday (-6,168) (1) Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer who was the first to reach the South Pole in 1911, was lost in the North Sea after a flying accident..
(2) American aviator Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly the Atlantic. She and her two male companions landed safely in Wales.
15/6/1928. Friday (-6,171) A race between a train and a plane from London to Edinburgh was won by the train, the ‘Flying Scotsman’.
14/6/1928. Thursday (-6,172) (1) Birth of the Argentine revolutionary, Che
(2) Emmeline Pankhurst, suffragette, born 13/2/1858, died.
8/6/1928, Friday (-6,178) (1) Charles Kingsford-Smith and Captain Ulm completed the first flight across the Pacific, landing at Brisbane, Australia. They had taken off from Oakland, California, and flew via Hawaii and Fiji in their plane, the Southern Cross.
30/5/1928, Wednesday (-6,187) In
29/5/1928. Tuesday (-6,188) In the USA, the Chrysler and Dodge motor companies merged.
21/5/1928. Monday (-6,196) In
15/5/1928. Tuesday (-6,202) Australia began the flying doctor service. It began at Cloncurry, Queensland; the first doctor was Dr Vincent Welsh.
12/5/1928. Saturday (-6,205) The Italian electorate was reduced from 10 million to 3 million, under Mussolini.
7/5/1928. Monday (-6,210) In Britain, women aged between 21 and 30 won equal suffrage in elections. This was known as the ‘flapper’s vote’. The women’s voting age in Britain had previously been 30.
3/5/1928, Thursday (-6,214) Chinese Nationalist forces suffered major losses against the Japanese.
2/5/1928. Wednesday (-6,215) Croydon Airport officially opened.
1/5/1928. Tuesday (-6,216) Ebenezer Howard, founder of the New Towns movement, knighted in 1927, of Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City, died in the latter town.
28/4/1928, Saturday (-6,219)
27/4/1928. Friday (-6,220) The Piccadilly Theatre,
(-6,221) Madame Tussauds waxworks museum
22/4/1928. Sunday (-6,225) Earthquake in Corinth left 50,000 homeless.
19/4/1928. Thursday (-6,228) The Japanese occupied
9/4/1928. Monday (-6,238)
7/4/1928, Saturday (-6,240) Chinese Nationalists launched an
offensive to capture
6/4/1928, Friday (-6,241) In Italy, handshaking was banned as it was deemed unhygienic.
28/3/1928. Wednesday (-6,250)
25/3/1928, Sunday (-6,253) James Lovell, American astronaut, was
19/3/1928, Monday (-6,259) In
13/3/1928, Tuesday (-6,265) In Los Angeles, 450 died when a dam burst.
22/2/1928. Wednesday (-6,285) Mr Bert Hinkler arrived in Port Darwin, having set a record time for the flight from England, 15 ½ days.
20/2/1928. Monday (-6,287) Britain recognised the independence of the Kingdom of Transjordan (now Jordan).
19/2/1928. Sunday (-6,288) A new world land speed record of 206.35
mph was set by Malcolm
15/2/1928. Wednesday (-6,292) (1)
Herbert Harry Asquith, Liberal Prime Minister in the
(2) The Oxford English Dictionary was completed after 70 years of work.
12/2/1928. Sunday (-6,295) The British colony of Malta gained Dominion status.
6/2/1928. Monday (-6,301) 50,000 fled as Communists raided
1/2/1928. Wednesday (-6,306) In the
30/1/1928, Monday (-6,308) Croydon Aerodrome began operations, see 29/3/1920 and 2/5/1928.
29/1/1928, Sunday (-6,309) General Earl Haig, WW I Commander and
founder of the British Legion, died in
25/1/1928, Wednesday (-6,313) Edvard Shevardnadze, Soviet Foreign Minister under Gorbachev, was born.
21/1/1928, Saturday (-6,317) George Washington Goethals, American,
chief engineer of the
17/1/1928, Tuesday (-6,321) Vidal Sassoon, English hair stylist, was born in
14/1/1928. Saturday (-6,324) Clashes between Italians and
13/1/1928. Friday (-6,325) Allied military control in
12/1/1928, Thursday (-6,326)
11/1/1928. Wednesday (-6,327) Thomas Hardy, English poet and
novelist, author of Tess of the D’Ubervilles, died in his native
10/1/1928. Tuesday (-6,328) (1) Stalin purged his opponents. Many were arrested by his security police, the OGPU, and sent to exile in Siberia. Trotsky was exiled from the USSR.
Hood and Moncrieff were lost whilst attempting the first flight across the
Tasman Sea, from
7/1/1928. Saturday (-6,331) Fourteen people drowned when the
River Thames flooded parts of
5/1/1928. Thursday (-6,333) The first over 65s in the UK received their State Pensions. The sum was 10 shillings a week.
Walter Mondale, US Vice-President, was born in
3/1/1928, Tuesday (-6,335) US troops went to
31/12/1927, Saturday (-6,338) (1) In Britain the Electricity Supply Act provided for the setting up of a Central Electricity Board, which will create a uniform national supply via a national grid. At the time, there were many small competing power companies, delaying the spread of electrification, and only about 10% of UK homes could run the new electrical gadgets such as vacuum cleaners.
(2) The use of the lance was abandoned by the British Army, except for ceremonial purposes.
25/12/1927, Sunday (-6,344) A White Christmas in
19/12/1927, Monday (-6,350) In China, 600 Communists were executed by the Nationalists.
15/12/1927, Thursday (-6,354) China broke off diplomatic relations with the USSR.
14/12/1927. Wednesday (-6,355) Chiang Kai Shek’s forces suppressed an attempted Communist coup in Canton.
10/12/1927, Saturday (-6,359) As greyhound racing grew in popularity, London’s third racecourse opened, at Wembley, to join those at Haringey and White City. Harringey stadium closed in 1987 to make way for a Sainsbury superstore.
2/12/1927, Friday (-6,367) Ford’s Model A car went on sale as the successor to the Model T.
22/11/1927, Tuesday (-6,377) 200 unemployed Welsh miners marched to London, but Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin refused to meet them.
18/11/1927. Friday (-6,381) The head of the International Football Association announced the creation of a World Cup.
15/11/1927, Tuesday (-6,384) Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party, USSR.
13/11/1927, Sunday (-6,386) The Holland Tunnel, linking New York City to New Jersey, was opened.
12/11/1927. Saturday (-6,387) (1) The first automatic telephone exchange opened,
(2) The first London to Brighton veteran car rally, sponsored by the Daily Sketch. It was won by John Bryce, from amongst 51 competitors.
11/11/1927, Friday (-6,388)
10/11/1927. Thursday (-6,389) General Motors announced the largest dividend in history, US$ 62million.
8/11/1927, Tuesday (-6,391) Nguyen Khanh, Prime Minister of South Vietnam, was born.
5/11/1927. Saturday (-6,394) The UK’s first set of automatic traffic lights began operating, at the Prince Square crossroads in Wolverhampton.
31/10/1927, Monday (-6,939) Kemal Ataturk, founder of the modern Turkish Republic, abolished the Fez in favour of western headgear.
29/10/1927, Saturday (-6,401) Russian archaeologist Peter Kozlof discovered the tomb of Genghis Khan.
18/10/1927. Tuesday (-6,412) Dancing
bears were banned from the streets of
17/10/1927, Monday (-6,413)
15/10/1927. Saturday (-6,415) (1) Britain’s Public Morals Committee attacked the use of contraceptives for ‘causing poor hereditary stock’.
(2) Iraq made its first oil strike, at
13/10/1927, Thursday (-6,417) Britain’s first veteran car rally took place. It was organised by the Daily Sketch, and took place in London, with 43 entrants.
6/10/1927. Thursday (-6,424) The first full length
talking picture, The Jazz Singer, opened in
5/10/1927. Wednesday (-6,425) The Labour Party
voted to nationalise the coal mines at its party conference at
22/9/1927. Thursday (-6,438) Sierra Leone abolished domestic slavery.
16/9/1927. Friday (-6,444) President Von Hindenburg repudiated German responsibility for the Great War (World War One).
8/9/1927, Thursday (-6,452) In Edinburgh, the Trades Union Congress voted to cut ties with Soviet trades unions.
2/9/1927, Friday (-6,458) Mustafa Kemal made
18/8/1927, Thursday (-6,473) Rosalynn Carter, wife of Jimmy
12/8/1927, Friday (-6,479) Eamon de Valera took his seat in the Irish Dail.
7/8/1927, Sunday (-6,484) The Peace Bridge opened between
24/7/1927, Sunday (-6,498) The Menin Gate, a memorial at Ypres to
the soldiers of the
20/7/1927, Wednesday (-6,502) King Ferdinand of
16/7/1927. Saturday (-6,506) First train ran on the Romney, Hythe, and Dymchurch railway.
15/7/1927. Friday (-6,507)
11/7/1927. Monday (-6,511) The LNER (London and North Eastern Railway) inaugurated a non-stop service between London and Newcastle on Tyne. On 1/5/1928 the LNER inaugurated the longest non-stop train service in the world, from London Kings Cross to Edinburgh, 392 ½ miles. The 392 mile journey took 7 hours, 27 minutes.
7/7/1927. Thursday (-6,515) Christopher Stone became the first disc jockey on British radio when he presented his record round up from Savoy Hill.
6/7/1927, Wednesday (-6,516) The Church of England approved revisions to the Book of Common Prayer.
23/6/1927. Thursday (-6,529) Britain passed the Trades Disputes Act, making sympathetic strikes illegal. This was a consequence of the General Strike, to support the miners, which began on 3/5/1926.
21/6/1927, Tuesday (6,531)
20/6/1927, Monday (-6,532) (1)
Fighting between Communists and Fascists in Hyde Park,
(2) Greyhound racing began at
(3) Naval disarmament conference began, between
4/6/1927. Saturday (-6,548) In
31/5/1927. Tuesday (-6,552) The last ‘tin lizzie’, came off the production line, almost unchanged since the model was introduced as the Model T Ford in 1908. 15,007,003 Model Ts were produced. It was replaced by the Model A. The Model T had become outdated, and Ford had lost first place in the market to General Motors. The first Model T made in 1908 cost US$ 850 but by 1927 they cost under US$ 300. Ford had also lost sales to the second hand market; other car manufacturers countered this by changing the model slightly each year.
24/5/1927. Tuesday (-6,559) Britain severed relations with the USSR amid allegations of subversion and espionage throughout the British Empire. On 9/6/1927 the USSR executed 20 people accused of being British spies.
22/5/1927, Sunday (-6,561) Earthquake in China killed 200,000.
21/5/1927. Saturday (-6,562) Charles A Lindbergh completed the first solo Atlantic flight. He took off from Roosevelt Field, Long Island, flew his monoplane Spirit of St Louis for 33 ½ hours, and landed at Le Bourget airfield, Paris. Landing in Paris, he won the US$ 25,000 prize for the first solo flight across the Atlantic.
20/5/1927. Friday (-6,563) Britain recognised the independence of Saudi Arabia, under the Treaty of Jeddah.
16/5/1927, Monday (-6,567) Eamon de Valera, former President of Sinn Fein, inaugurated the new political party of Fianna Fail (‘Soldier of Destiny’) at the La Scala theatre in Dublin. His main aim was the reunification of Ireland.
14/5/1927. Saturday (-6,569) The BBC broadcast its first cricket
commentary, from the Essex vs.
9/5/1927. Monday (-6,574) Parliament House, Canberra, opened. Canberra became the new capital of Australia, replacing Melbourne.
1/5/1927, Sunday (-6,582) The first airline cooked meals were served, from a galley aboard the Imperial Airways Silver Ewing London to Paris flights. The galley could serve up to 18 passengers.
21/4/1927. Thursday (-6,592) The National Museum of Wales opened
19/4/1927, Tuesday (-6,594) The US actress Mae West was convicted of obscenity for writing, producing and directing a Broadway musical called Sex.
7/4/1927, Thursday (-6,606) The comedian A Dolan was televised in Whippany, New Jersey, making him the first televised comedian.
6/4/1927, Wednesday (-6,607) Chinese police raided the Soviet Embassy in Beijing, seizing incriminating evidence of subversion. Several Communist leaders were later executed.
5/4/1927, Tuesday (-6,608) (Italy, East Europe) Hungary signed a ‘Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation’ with the Italian leader, Mussolini. Hungary needed allies, and Italy strengthened its influence in the Danube Basin.
2/4/1927, Saturday (-6,611) The
29/3/1927. Tuesday (-6,615) A new land speed record of 203.841 mph was set by Major Harry Seagrave at the Daytona Beach racetrack, Florida.
26/3/1927. Saturday (-6,618) The Gaumont British Film Corporation was founded.
21/3/1927. Monday (-6,623) The victorious army of Chiang Kai-Shek entered Shanghai. In April 1927 he mounted an offensive against trade unionists and Communists, driving them into the countryside.
8/3/1927 Tuesday (-6,636) Archaeologists discovered a
5,000-year-old manicure kit in
8/2/1927. Tuesday (-6,664) The revised book of common prayer introduced sex equality to the Church of England wedding service.
4/2/1927. Friday (-6,668) Malcolm Campbell set a new world land speed record of 174.224 mph in his car, Bluebird, on Pendine Sands.
3/2/1927, Thursday (-6,669)
31/1/1927, Monday (-6,672) 12,000 British troops were ordered to China to defend British nationals in Shanghai, where the civil war was posing a threat to foreigners.
29/1/1927. Saturday (-6,674) In
24/1/1927, Monday (-6,679) The British Medical Association warned that cancer deaths, especially of the chest and tongue, had risen sharply in the past 20 years. Smoking had become much more popular over this period.
22/1/1927. Saturday (-6,681) The BBC broadcast its first football match; between Arsenal and Sheffield United. The result was a draw, 1-1.
21/1/1927, Friday (-6,682) Telly
Savalas, American film actor who played ‘Kojak’, was born in Garden City,
15/1/1927. Saturday (-6,688) Winston Churchill met Mussolini in
9/1/1927. Sunday (-6,694) Greta
Garbo and John Gilbert -real life lovers
– shocked cinemagoers in
8/1/1927. Saturday (-6,695) The first scheduled flight from London to Delhi arrived in India.
7/1/1927. Friday (-6,696) (1) The transatlantic telephone service between
(2) The Harlem Globetrotters basketball team was founded.
1/1/1927. Saturday (-6,702) (1) In China the Kuomintang established a government at Hankow.
(2) The British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, came into being. It had formerly been the British Broadcasting Company.
(3) Hungary reformed its currency with a new unit, the Pengo, equivalent to 12,500 paper Crowns. The country had suffered rampant inflation in the early 1920s, and the League of Nations now helped with economic reconstruction.
25/12/1926. Saturday (-6,709) Emperor Hirohito ascended the Japanese throne after the death of his father Emperor Yoshihito. He died in January 1989 after 62 years as Emperor.
20/12/1926, Monday (-6,714) Sir Geoffrey Howe, British Conservative politician, was born.
15/12/1926. Wednesday (-6,719) The Italian fascist party adopted the Roman symbol of authority, the fasces, or bundle of sticks, and origin of the word ‘fascist,, as its symbol.
6/12/1926. Monday (-6,728) The impressionist painter Claude
Monet died as a recluse in
27/11/1926. Saturday (-6,737) Vesuvius erupted.
20/11/1926. Saturday (-6,744) The
Commonwealth was born out of the
19/11/1926. Friday (-6,745) British striking miners returned to work, after a six-month strike, agreeing to work longer hours in return for no pay cut.
13/11/1926, Saturday (-6,751) In Italy, Mario de Bernardi set a new seaplane speed record of 246 mph.
2/11/1926. Tuesday (-6,762) Imperial Chemical Industries, ICI, was formed.
31/10/1926. Sunday (-6,764) (1) The
(2) Jimmy Savile, British radio and TV presenter, was
born in Leeds,
(3) An attempt was made on Mussolini’s life. This gave him the excuse to remove more civil liberties.
23/10/1926, Saturday (-6,772) In
14/10/1926. Thursday (-6,781) In
11/10/1926. Monday (-6,784) Children’s Hour started on BBC Radio.
7/10/1926. Thursday (-6,788) Mussolini decreed the Fascist party to be the state Party; all opposition was banned.
3/10/1926, Sunday (-6,792) At Chiswick, London, Violet Percy became the first woman to run a marathon. She took 3 hours 4o minutes.
1/10/1926, Friday (-6,794) Alan Cobham made a round the world flight in 58 days.
13/9/1926, Monday (-6,812) In London, the Underground extensions from Charing Cross (Embankment) to Kennington and from Clapham Common to Morden (5 miles) were opened.
8/9/1926. Wednesday (-6,817)
The League of Nations voted to admit
7/9/1926. Tuesday (-6,818)
6/9/1926, Monday (-6,819)
1/9/1926, Wednesday (-6,824) Adbur Rahman Biswas, President of Bangladesh, was born.
29/8/1926. Sunday (-6,827) A Nazi Party rally was held at Nuremberg.
13/8/1926. Friday (-6,843) Cuban revolutionary and leader Fidel Castro was born near Biran, the son of a sugar planter.
7/8/1926. Saturday (-6,849) The first motor racing Grand Prix in Britain was held at Brooklands, with the winning car averaging 71.61 mph. The race was over 110 laps, or 287 miles.
6/8/1926, Friday (-6,850) The first LP record discs, at 33.3 rpm, went on sale.
5/8/1926. Thursday (-6,851) Houdini,
the famous escapologist and magician, survived for 1 ½ hours in a bronze coffin
in a hotel swimming pool in
3/8/1926. Tuesday (-6,853) Britain’s first traffic lights went into operation in Piccadilly Circus, London.
24/7/1926. Saturday (-6,863) The first greyhound racing track was
opened by Brigadier Critchley, at Belle Vue in
29/6/1926. Tuesday (-6,888) In Italy, Mussolini increased the working day by one hour.
12/6/1926. Saturday (-6,905)
10/6/1926, Thursday (-6,907) Spanish architect Gaudi y Cornet died. His most famous building is the Sagrada Familia cathedral in Barcelona.
5/6/1926, Saturday (-6,912) At the Treaty of Angora,
Turkey accepted the
4/6.1926, Friday (-6,913) Frederick Spofforth, Australian cricketer, died.
3/6/1926, Thursday (-6,914) Allan Ginsberg, US poet, was born.
1/6/1926, Tuesday (-6,916) Marilyn Monroe, American film actress,
was born in
23/5/1926, Sunday (-6,925) In
12/5/1926. Wednesday (-6,936) (1) Striking miners in Britain resolved to carry on alone, after the TUC called off a general strike in support. See 1/5/1926.
(2) Roald Amundsen flew in the airship Norge over the North Pole. They had left Spitsbergen on 11/5 and landed on 14/5/1926 at Teller, Alaska.
10/5/1926. Monday (-6,938) Striking
9/5/1926, Sunday (-6,939) Richard Byrd, American explorer, made the first flight over the North Pole, with pilot Floyd Bennett.
8/5/1926, Saturday (-6,940) The naturalist and broadcaster Sir David Attenborough was born.
3/5/1926, Monday (-6,945) The General Strike began in
1/5/1926. Saturday (-6,947) In Britain, a coal strike began over proposed pay cuts and longer working hours by the mine owners, faced with a slump in the coal trade (see 25/7/1925). The miners were locked out, and voted overwhelmingly for strike action. The first General Strike In British history began on 4/5/1926 when the TUC (Trades Union Congress) voted to back the striking miners. There were worries about a Communist revolution in Britain. On 11/5/1926 the engineering and shipworkers unions called their men out on strike, but at this time negotiations were going on to end the strike. The TUC agreed to government terms but the miners did not. The TUC called off the General Strike on 12/5/1926 leaving the miners on their own. Many trains were run by volunteers, especially undergraduates and rail enthusiasts, and troops took over the unloading of food at London’s docks (see 10/5/1926). Students also drove lorries, trams, and buses, the illegality of this being ignored. On 23/6/1927 the Trades Disputes Act was passed, outlawing sympathetic strikes. The Trade Union movement suffered a setback; membership had been falling from a peak of 8.3 million in 1920 to 5.3 million in 1926, and further fell to 4.3 million by 1933. See 12/5/1926.
24/4/1926. Saturday (-6,954)
21/4/1926. Wednesday (-6,957) Queen Elizabeth II, crowned 1952, was born at 17 Bruton Street London. She was then called Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, the eldest daughter of George VI.
12/4/1926, Monday (-6,966) The Halesworth to Southwold narrow gauge (3-foot) line in Suffolk, 8 miles, closed. The Board of Trade speed limit on the line of 16 mph meant it could not compete with road buses.
7/4/1926. Wednesday (-6,971) Mussolini survived an assassination attempt.
6/4/1926, Tuesday (-6,972) The Northern Ireland politician, MP for Antrim, Ian Paisley was born.
4/4/1926, Sunday (-6,974)
3/4/1926, Saturday (-6,975) Virgil Grissom, third man in space, was born.
2/4/1926. Friday (-6,976) In India, riots broke out between Hindus and Moslems. On 4/4/1926 martial law was declared in Calcutta.
30/3/1926, Tuesday (-6,979) American physicist Robert Goddard successfully tested the world’s first liquid-propellant rocket.
13/3/1926. Saturday (-6,996) Germany was refused a place on the League of Nations Council.
6/3/1926. Saturday (-7,003) Fire
destroyed the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at
18/2/1926, Thursday (-7,019) An Anglo-Persian oil treaty was signed, giving another 25-year oil exploration contract to the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.
12/2/1926. Friday (-7,025) Mussolini outlawed strikes in Italy.
9/2/1926, Tuesday (-7,028) Dr Garret Fitzgerald, Irish
Prime Minister, was born in
8/2/1926. Monday (-7,029) Germany applied to join the League of Nations.
6/2/1926, Saturday (-7, 031)
3/2/1926. Wednesday (-7,034) Czech became the official
2/2/1926, Tuesday (-7,035) Giscard D’Estang, French President, was born.
30/1/1926. Saturday (-7,038) British troops ended a 7-year occupation of the Rhineland.
27/1/1926. Wednesday (-7,041) Scottish
inventor John Logie Baird, aged
38, demonstrated the principle of transmitting moving images by radio. The
demonstration was to members of the Royal Institution, at his workshop in Soho,
13/1/1926, Wednesday (-7,055) Wyatt Earp, American lawman and hero of the OK Corral, died peacefully aged 81.
12/1/1926. Tuesday (-7,056) In
8/1/1926. Friday (-7,060) The
new King, Ibn Saud, renamed Hejaz as
6/1/1926. Wednesday (-7,062) The German airline Lufthansa was founded.
5/1/1926. Tuesday (-7,063) In the
1/1/1926, Friday (-7,067) The nationalist government was established in China.
21/12/1925. Monday (-7,078) Battleship Potemkin, a film by Sergei
Eisenstein, opened in the
18/12/1925. Friday (-7,081) Work began on the Mersey Road Tunnel, Liverpool. It opened on 18/7/1934.
16/12/1925, Wednesday (-7,083)
The League of Nations voted to uphold the Brussels Line, dividing
12/12/1925. Saturday (-7,087) The
world’s first motel opened in
6/12/1925, Sunday (-7,093)
5/12/1925, Saturday (-7,094)
3/12/1925. Thursday (-7,096) Stanley
Baldwin signed an agreement fixing the Northern Irish frontier with the
1/12/1925, Tuesday (-7,098) The Peace of Locarno was signed (by UK, France, Italy, and Germany), guaranteeing peace and existing national frontiers in Europe.
30/11/1925, Monday (-7,099) The US sent warships to Hankow, China, to stop attacks by Communist Chinese on foreigners.
25/11/1925, Wednesday (-7,104) In Britain, 12 Communists arrested in October 1925 were jailed for sedition.
21/11/1925, Saturday (-7,108) The Permanent Court of
International Justice agreed to the Brussels Line, dividing
20/11/1925, Friday (-7,109) British MPs approved a 4-month prison sentence and £50 fine for drunk-driving.
15/11/1925, Sunday (-7,114) In Ireland the Legion of Mary was founded by Frank Duff, civil servant and former active member of the Society of St Vincent de Paul, to combat drunkenness, prostitution, crime and disease. Members went to the poorest parts of Dublin to advise women living in poverty and degradation.
13/11/1925, Friday (-7,116) The South African Government called for more segregation of Black people.
10/11/1925, Tuesday (-7,119) In Dublin, Eoin McNeill resigned from the boundary commission set up under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 to determine the Northern Irish border, see 10/5/1924. A leaked report and map in the Morning Post of 7/11/1925 indicated that, contrary to the expectations of the Dublin Government, the commission had recommended only very minor changes to the border. Northern Ireland would lose parts of south Armagh, south-west Fermanagh and west Tyrone, and gain small parts of Donegal and Monahan. Overall, Northern Ireland would lose just 1.8% of its population and 3.7% of its territory. Fearing defeat in the Dail, Irish Government leaders sought agreement with the London Government to suppress the commission’s report. Dublin had hoped for a major diminution of Northern Ireland, making it economically unviable so the remainder of it would have to join the South. See 3/12/1925.
9/11/1925. Monday (-7,120) The German Schutzstaffel, or Protection Squad (SS), was formed.
8/11/1925, Sunday (-7,121)
6/11/1925, Friday (-7,123) Khai Dinh, Emperor of Vietnam, died.
5/11/1925. Thursday (-7,124) In Italy, Mussolini banned all left-wing parties.
3/11/1925, Tuesday (-7,126)
31/10/1925, Saturday (-7,129) Persian Majles deposed the Shah, Sultan Ahmad.
30/10/1925. Friday (-7,130) In his workshop in
29/10/1925, Thursday (-7,131)
Greek troops withdrew from
22/10/1925. Thursday (-7,138) Border
dispute flared between
18/10/1925. Sunday (-7,142) French
16/10/1925, Friday (-7,144) (1) France and Germany concluded the Locarno Treaty, guaranteeing their mutual frontier. Italy and Britain also signed. Germany reaffirmed its renunciation of Alsace-Lorraine and guaranteed not to attack France or Belgium. Russia feared the Locarno Treaty ,meant an alliance of western powers against it, see 24/4/1926.
13/10/1925, Tuesday (-7,147) The future Conservative leader, Margaret Thatcher, was born as Margaret Roberts. She was born in Grantham, the daughter of a grocer. She was Prime Minister 1979-90.
12/10/1925, Monday (-7,148)
5/10/1925, Monday (-7,155) The Locarno Conference opened, to decide the German border and future of the Rhineland.
2/10/1925, Friday (-7,158) London’s iconic red double-decker buses went into service. See 9/4/1909.
29/9/1925, Tuesday (-7,161) In Britain, white lines were to be painted on roads to reduce accidents.
16/9/1925, Wednesday (-7,174) Charles Haughey, Irish Fianna Fail politician and Prime Minister, was born.
7/9/1925. Monday (-7,183) Anti-British
rioters were shot in
20/8/1925. Thursday (-7,201) Rome’s underground railway opened.
16/8/1925. Sunday (-7,205) Charlie Chaplin’s film Gold Rush was premiered in
12/8/1925. Wednesday (-7,209) Norris and Ross McWhirter, the British twins who founded the Guinness Book of records, were born. After the Bible, it is the best selling book in the world (2002). Ross McWhirter was murdered by the IRA.
8/8/1925. Saturday (-7,213) The
first national congress of the Klu Klux Klan opened in
7/8/1925. Friday (-7,214) The Summer Time Act in the UK was made permanent. See 17/5/1916.
5/8/1925, Wednesday (-7,216) The first public meeting of Plaid Cymru, the Welsh Nationalist Party. Founder-member Saunders Lewis planned a wholly-Welsh-speaking summer school at Machynlleth to open in August 1926.
2/8/1925, Sunday (-7,219) Alan Whicker, widely-travelled TV
reporter, was born in
28/7/1925, Tuesday (7.224)
27/7/1925, Monday (-7,225) The railway from Torrington to Halwell Junction, Devon, opened.
25/7/1925. Saturday (-7,227) The
railworkers, transport, and seamens unions supported the mine workers against
pay cuts and longer hours (see 30/6/1925). On 31/7/1925 the
24/7/1925. Friday (-7,228) Insulin (patented 12/6/1922) was first used to successfully treat a patient, 6 year old Patricia Cheeseman, at Guy’s Hospital London.
18/7/1925, Saturday (-7,234) Insurrection by the Druze in Syria, against French rule.
13/7/1925. Monday (-7,239) French troops begin to withdraw from the Rhineland.
12/7/1925, Sunday (-7,240) The first veteran car rally was held, in Munich.
11/7/1925, Saturday (-7,241)
10/7/1925, Friday (-7,242) The Scopes trial began in
9/7/1925, Thursday (-7,243) In Dublin, Oonagh Keogh, 22, became the first female member of a stock exchange.
7/7/1925, Tuesday (-7,245)
30/6/1925. Tuesday (-7,252) The
British mining industry faced a crisis. During 1923 and 1924 German coal
exports had been halved because of French occupation of the Ruhr following a
reparations dispute between
29/6/1925. Monday (-7,253)
20/6/1925. Saturday (-7,262) In
18/6/1925. Thursday (-7,264)
6/6/1925. Saturday (-7,276) Walter P Chrysler founded the Chrysler Motor Company in Detroit.
3.6.1925, Wednesday (-7,279) Tony Curtis, US actor, was born.
2/6/1925. Tuesday (-7,280) The
Canadian government claimed all land between Greenland and
30/5/1925. Saturday (-7,283) King George V opened the Great West Road at Brentford, London. It was seen as a model for post-War development.
23/5/1925, Saturday (-7,290) British publishing magnate Sir Edward Hulton died after falling off his penny-farthing bicycle.
22/5/1925, Friday (-7,291) Sir
John French, British general who led the British Expeditionary Force in
19/5/1925, Tuesday (-7,294) Malcolm X,
11/5/1925. Monday (-7,302) Direct telephone communication
8/5/1925, Friday (-7,305) Ali Hassan Mwinyi, President of Tanzania, was born.
7/5/1925, Thursday (-7,306) William Lever, Viscount Leverhulme, British entrepreneur and founder of the Lever Brothers corporation, died.
2/5/1925, Saturday (-7,311)
1/5/1925. Friday (-7,312) Cyprus became a British Crown Colony. It had been annexed by Britain from Turkey in 1914 when Turkey supported Germany in World War One.
30/4/1925. Thursday (-7,313) The Distillers Whisky Group was formed.
28/4/1925. Tuesday (-7,315) Britain returned to the Gold Standard. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Winston Churchill, told the House of Commons he will not renew the Act of 1919 which suspended the Standard. Symbolically, this measure signalled a return to pre-War stability and a Victorian era in which Britain was pre-eminent. However Cambridge economist John Maynard Keynes warned that the USA was not actually adhering to a Gold Standard; it was manipulating the price of gold, at great expense, to ensure it stayed level with the US Dollar. For Britain to return to the Standard meant subjugating UK economic policy to that of the USA.
25/4/1925. Saturday (-7,318) Hindenburg became President of Germany.
16/4/1925. Thursday (-7,327) In
15/4/1925, Wednesday (-7,328) Sir James Barrie donated the copyright of Peter Pan to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children in London.
8/4/1925. Wednesday (-7,335) (1) The Australian Government and the British Colonial Office offered low interest rate loans for Britons to emigrate to Australia; the aim was for 450,000 Britons a year to migrate to Australia over the next 10 years. In the first decade of the 20th century, an average 284,000 Britons emigrated annually, mostly to the USA or the Dominions.
(2) Italian Catholic bishops banned scantily clad or bare legged women from churches.
6/4/1925. Monday (-7,337) The first in-flight movie was shown; The Lost World.
3/4/1925, Friday (-7,340) Anthony Wedgewood Benn, British Labour politician, was born.
1/4/1925, Wednesday (-7,342)
The Hebrew University at
30/3/1925, Monday (-7,344) Rudolf Steiner, Austrian educator who founded the Anthroposophical Society, died aged 64.
29/3/1925. Sunday (-7,345)
28/3/1925, Saturday (-7,346) In
the Boat Race, the
27/3/1925, Friday (-7,347)
26/3/1925, Thursday (-7,348) Hindenburg was elected President of Germany.
25/3/1925. Wednesday (-7,349) The new fast London-Southend road was opened.
23/3/1925. Monday (-7,351) US
19/3/1925. Thursday (-7,355) Britain established a large naval base at Singapore. This reinforced links with the British colonies such as Hong Kong, but Japan saw it as a threat.
13/3/1925, Friday (-7,361) British MPs approved the Summer Time Bill, making annual daylight saving time permanent,
12/3/1925, Thursday (-7,362) In China, Kuomintang leader Dr Sun Yat Sen died. General Chiang Kai Shek became the new leader.
2/3/1925. Monday (-7,372)
28/2/1925. Saturday (-7,374) Kurdish
27/2/1925, Friday (-7,375)
Hitler spoke at a Nazi meeting at a
24/2/1925, Tuesday (-7,378) Joseph Rowntree, chocolate
14/2/1925. Saturday (-7,388) The ban on the Nazi Party in Bavaria was lifted.
4/2/1925, Wednesday (-7,398) Robert Koldeway, the archaeologist who excavated Babylon, died.
21/1/1925, Wednesday (-7,412)
Benny Hill, English comedian, was born in
20/1/1925, Tuesday (-7,413)
The UK and
5/1/1925. Monday (-7,428) Mrs Nellie Taylor Ross became governor of Wyoming, the first woman Governor in the USA. This followed the death of her husband.
3/1/1925. Saturday (-7,430) Mussolini assumed full dictatorial control in Italy. He nominated his cabinet on 5/1/1925.
1/1/1925. Thursday (-7,432)
29/12/1924, Monday (-7,435) John D Rockefeller donated US$ 1 million to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
28/12/1924, Sunday (-7,436) Milton Obote, President of Uganda, was born.
24/12/1924. Wednesday (-7440)
20/12/1924. Saturday (-7,444) Adolf Hitler was freed from prison on parole after serving just 8 months of his jail term for high treason.
18/12/1924, Thursday (-7,446) Pope Pius XI denounced the USSR.
2/12/1924, Tuesday (-7,462) The UK and
30/11/1924, Sunday (-7,464) (1) The last French and Belgian troops left the Ruhr.
(2) Radio photographs were first transmitted from
26/11/1924. Wednesday (-7,468) The Communist party of the
21/11/1924, Friday (-7,473) The new Conservative Government of Britain repudiated a treaty made by the previous Labour administration with the USSR.
8/11/1924, Saturday (-7,486) The Irish Government offered an amnesty to those involved in the civil conflict between IRA and Government. See 12/1/1922.
6/11/1924. Thursday (-7,488) The
new Conservative prime Minister of
5/11/1924, Wednesday (-7,489) The last Manchu Emperor, Pu-Yi, 18, was evicted from his palace in Beijing by the Christian warlord Feng Xuyiang who took control of the city. Pu-Yi had been compelled to abdicate in 1912, when he was aged 6, by the Revolutionary Government in Nanking after the Wuchang uprising, ending 268 years of Manchu rule and over 2000 years of imperial tradition. He was allowed to continue living in his palace in the Forbidden City, and was temporarily restored to the throne by General Xun’s coup in 1917, but was dethroned after 12 days. Pu-Yi now sought refuge in the Japanese concession at Tien-Tsin.
4/11/1924. Tuesday (-7,490) Texas elected its first woman state governor.
3/11/1924, Monday (-7,491)
2/11/1924. Sunday (-7,492) The first crossword appeared in a British newspaper, the Sunday Express. It was bought from an American paper, operated by C W Shepherd, where crosswords had appeared 11 years earlier, see 21/12/1913.
1/11/1924, Saturday (-7,493) (1) Eamon de Valera was jailed for one month for entering Northern Ireland illegally. He was a devout Roman Catholic and Britain did not want him proselytising in Protestant Northern Ireland. See 16/7/1924.
British Empire Exhibition at Wembley,
30/10/1924, Thursday (-7,495)
29/10/1924, Wednesday (-7,496) The Council of Brussels drew
the Brussels Line, dividing the villayet of
28/10/1924. Tuesday (-7,497) France recognised the USSR.
9/10/1924. Thursday (-7,516)
7/10/1924, Tuesday (-7,518) The British Labour Party banned Communists from becoming members.
2/10/1924, Thursday (-7,523) Trotsky took command of the Red Army in Georgia.
1/10/1924. Wednesday (-7,524)
US Democrat and 39th President James Earl (Jimmy) Carter, peanut
farmer, was born in Plains,
28/9/1924, Sunday (-7,527) Lieutenants Smith and Nelson, in US Army Douglas airplanes, completed the first circumnavigation of the globe. They flew a total of 26,103 miles, with 57 stops.
18/9/1924. Thursday (-7,537) Mohandas Ghandi, serving 6 years in prison for sedition, began a 21-day hunger strike, to try and dissuade Hindus and Moslems from rioting.
15/9/1924, Monday (-7,540) The BBC began broadcasting from Belfast.
2/9/1924, Tuesday (-7,553) Daniel Arap Moi, President of Kenya, was born.
30/8/1924, Saturday (-7,556) The German Reichsbank was made independent of the government. It issued a new currency, the ReichsMark, at 1,000,000 million to the old Mark.
19/8/1924, Tuesday (-7,567)
18/8/1924, Monday (-7,568) London’s Northern Line opened from Hendon Central to Edgware, 3 miles, see 19/11/1923. The line was to have been extended to Bushey Heath and on to Watford but this never materialised.
17/8/1924. Sunday (-7,569) French
and Belgian troops agreed to withdraw from the Ruhr within 1 year following
16/8/1924, Saturday (-7,570) The Allies and Germany accepted the Dawes Plan, for a revised timetable of reparations.
8/8/1924, Friday (-7,578) A ten-nation summit agreed a plan drawn up by US banker Charles Dawes, designed to assist Germany’s economy and fulfil reparation payments.
19/7/1924. Saturday (-7,598) Liverpool Cathedral was consecrated, although it was not yet finished. Construction had begun in 1904.
16/7/1924, Wednesday (-7,601) Eamon de Valera was released after 11 months in Kilmainham Prison. Hundreds of other activists continued to be held, many without trial. Free State troops continued to carry out raids and arrests, causing much bitterness. See 1/11/1924, 8/11/1924.
11/7/1924. Friday (-7,606) Hindus and Muslims rioted in
8/7/1924, Tuesday (-7,609) Adolf Hitler resumed leadership of the Nazi Party.
5/7/1924, Saturday (-7,612) The 8th Olympic games
12/6/1924, Thursday (-7,635) George Bush, Republican and US President, was born in Milton, Massachusetts.
10/6/1924, Tuesday (-7,637) Italian socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated by Mussolini’s fascists. He had replaced Filippo Turati as leader of Italy’s reformed Socialist Party, and on 30/5/1924 he denounced the Italian elections of April 1924, in which Mussolini’s Fascists had done well, as fraudulent.
8/6/1924. Sunday (-7,639) George Mallory, on his third attempt to conquer Everest, was seen for the last time at a point 800 feet from the summit.
5/6/1924, Thursday (-7,642) The UK Government appointed a Northern Ireland representative to the Border Commission, see 10/5/1924.
3/6/1924, Tuesday (-7,644) German novelist Franz Kafka died in a sanatorium at Kierling, near Vienna,. After a seven year battle with tuberculosis.
31/5/1924. Saturday (-7,647) China recognised the USSR.
30/5/1925, Friday (-7,648) The British colony of Southern Rhodesia became self-governing; its assembly met for the first time.
26/5/1924. Monday (-7,652) The
10/5/1924, Saturday (-7,668) Under the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty (6/12/1921) a Boundary Commission was to determine the borders of Northern Ireland. The Irish Government believed that such a commission would give them at least 3 of the 6 Northern counties, and an economically unviable North would then join the South. Now the Northern Irish Government refused to appoint a member to the commission. Both the London and Dublin governments could fall over this issue. However on 5/6/1924 the UK Government appointed a representative for Northern Ireland. See 20/11/1925.
8/5/1924, Thursday (-7,670) Afrikaans became the official language of South Africa.
1/5/1924, Thursday (-7,677)
28/4/1924, Monday (-7,680) (1)
24/4/1924. Thursday (-7,684) Train ferry service between Harwich and Zeebrugge was opened by King George V.
23/4/1924. Wednesday (-7,685) King George V opened the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley Stadium, London. It closed on 1/11/1924.
20/4/1924, Sunday (-7,688) The interchange at Camden Town between the City and South London Lines and the Northern Line to Golders Green, Highgate, came into use.
17/4/1924. Thursday (-7,691) Mussolini’s Fascist Party won a sweeping victory in the Italian general election.
16/4/1924. Wednesday (-7,692) The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film corporation was formed by merger.
10/4/1924. Thursday (-7,698) The first crossword puzzle book was published in New York.
1/4/1924. Tuesday (-7,707) (1) Adolf Hitler was jailed for 5 years for his part in the abortive Munich beer hall putsch.
(2) The first gramophone to automatically change records went on sale, produced by HMV.
(3) Britain’s national airline, Imperial Airways, was created by amalgamating four smaller aviation companies. These were Handley Page Transport, Daimler Airway, Instone Airline and British Marine Air Navigation. These four companies were unprofitable, and the government realised that, as in other countries, they way forward was a national carrier, with strong financial support from public funds.
28/3/1924, Friday (-7,711) Total was founded as the Compagnie Française des Pétroles (CFP), the "French Petroleum Company". Petroleum was seen as vital in the case of a new war with Germany.
15/3/1924. Saturday (-7,724) The first Egyptian Parliament opened.
2/3/1924, Sunday (-7,737) The Turkish National Assembly abolished the caliphate, disestablishing the Islamic religion.
26/2/1924, Tuesday (-7,742) Adolf Hitler was charged with treason for his part in the abortive Munich beer hall putsch.
21/2/1924, Thursday (-7,747) Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe, was born.
12/2/1924, Tuesday (-7,756) Calvin Coolidge became the first US President to deliver a speech on radio.
8/2/1924. Friday (-7,760) The first execution by gas chamber, in Carson City’s Nevada State Prison. Chinese gang member Gee John’s execution took some six minutes after the hydrocyanic gas was introduced.
7/2/1924, Thursday (-7,761)
6/2/1924. Wednesday (-7,762)
5/2/1924. Tuesday (-7,763) The
BBC ‘pips’ or time signals, were heard for the first time. They were set by a
3/2/1924, Sunday (-7,765) Woodrow Wilson, Democrat and 28th President of America from 1913 to 1921, also Nobel Prize winner, died and was buried in Washington Cathedral.
1/2/1924. Friday (-7,767) Britain’s Labour Government recognised the USSR.
29/1/1924. Tuesday (-7,770) The ice cream cone making machine was patented by Carl Taylor.
27/1/1924. Sunday (-7,772) (1) Mussolini signed a pact with Yugoslavia, and Italy annexed the free city of Fiume.
(2) Rauf Denktash, Turkish-Cypriot politician, was born,
26/1/1924. Saturday (-7,773) Petrograd
25/1/1924. Friday (-7,774) The
first Winter Olympics were held, at
23/1/1924, Wednesday (-7,776)
22/1/1924. Tuesday (-7,777) The Labour Party won 288 seats against the Conservatives 266, but had no overall majority as the Liberals held 59. Ramsay MacDonald became Britain’s first Labour Prime Minister, succeeding the Conservative, Stanley Baldwin. See also 26/7/1945. The first Labour government in Britain was elected. King George V sent for Ramsay MacDonald (born 12/10/1866) following the Conservative defeat on a censure motion in the Commons the previous day. The state of the Commons was then, previous to the election, Conservative 259 seats, Labour 191, and Liberals 159. Labour secured its first UK Parliamentary majority on 30/5/1929.
The new Labour government was to prioritise unemployment; slum clearance and house building would also be tackled.
21/1/1924. Monday (-7,778) (1) Vladimir Illitch Lenin died, aged 53. The middle-class lawyer who made a revolution on behalf of the workers died of a series of debilitating strokes. A power struggle then ensued between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin, who won.
(2) The Chinese Kuomintang Congress admitted the Communists.
16/1/1924, Wednesday (-7,783) The BBC broadcast the first play written specifically for radio, Danger, by Richard Hughes.
7/1/1924. Monday (-7,792) Direct communication by transatlantic
cable and land wire was opened by the Western Union Telegraph Company between
31/12/1923. Monday (-7,799) The chimes of Big Ben were broadcast by the BBC for the first time.
28/12/1923. Friday (-7,802) Alexandre
Gustave Eiffel, who designed the 300 metre
27/12/1923, Thursday (-7,803)
Emperor Hirohito of
23/12/1923, Sunday (-7,807) The BBC began regular radio broadcasts for entertainment, as opposed to information.
18/12/1923, Tuesday (-7,812) The International Zone of Tangier was set up.
17/12/1923. Monday (-7,813) The Greek Army deposed King George II.
10/12/1923, Monday (-7,820) The Kraft Company started as National Dairy Products Corporation (National Dairy), formed on December 10, 1923, by Thomas H. McInnerney.
8/12/1923. Saturday (-7,822) In the UK 8 women were now MPs. The British general election resulted in a hung Parliament.
25/11/1923. Sunday (-7,835) The first transatlantic wireless
broadcast from the
19/11/1923, Monday (-7,841) London’s Northern Line opened from Golders Green to Hendon Central, 1 ¾ miles, see 18/8/1924.
18/11/1923, Sunday (-7,842)
Alan Shepard, the first
15/11/1923. Thursday (-7,845) (1) Rampant German inflation peaked with the Mark worth 4,200,000 Million to the US Dollar, and 10,000,000 Million to the UK Pound – if you could find anyone willing to change your marks for dollars. It had been 4.2 to the Dollar in 1914, 350,000 to the pound (1 pound was 5 dollars) on 1/6/1923, and 622,000 to the pound on 22/6/1923. A loaf of bread cost 63 pfennigs in 1918, and 250 pfennigs in January 1923. But by July 1923 a loaf cost 3,465 pfennigs, and by November 1923, 201,000 million marks. Workers were paid twice a day and by the evening a loaf of bread would cost what a house was worth in the morning.
Money had effectively become worthless; trade was done by barter. Middle class families with cash in the bank had been ruined. The problem had been that, after French troops occupied the Ruhr to enforce war reparations, the German Government began to print marks in huge numbers. German industry was unable to produce the goods to match the vast increase in money supply. On 15/11/1923 Germany introduced the Rentemark, tied to the country’s real estate. Each rentemark was worth 1,000 million old marks.
(2) Poland was also in the grip of hyperinflation, though not as bad as Germany’s. The Polish mark went from 9.8 to the US$ in November 1918 to 580 by end-December 1920, and to 17,800 to the US$ by December 1922. By November 1932 the rate stood at 2,300,000 Polish Marks to the US$.
13/11/1923, Tuesday (-7,847) In Italy, Mussolini introduced a Bill giving women the vote.
9/11/1923. Friday (-7,851) The Munich beer hall putsch marked the start of Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. This putsch against the Bavarian Government failed and Hitler was arrested on 11/11/1923 in a village outside Munich and imprisoned. Hitler then spent several months in prison in Landsberg Am Lech, Bavaria, where he dictated part of his Mein Kampf to Rudolf Hess.
30/10/1923, Tuesday (-7,861) Andrew Bonar-Law, Canadian-born
29/10/1923. Monday (-7,862) Mustapha Kemal proclaimed
23/10/1923, Tuesday (-7,868) A Communist uprising occurred in Hamburg.
21/10/1923, Sunday (-7,870) The world’s first planetarium opened, in Munich.
12/10/1923. Friday (-7,879) The Turkish capital was officially
10/10/1923. Wednesday (-7,881)
1/10/1923, Monday (-7,890) The German mark reached 242,000,000 to the US$
30/9/1923, Sunday (-7,891) A German uprising in
29/9/1923. Saturday (-7,892) The British mandate in
28/9/1923. Friday (-7,893) (1)
(2) The Radio Times was first published.
27/9/1923. Thursday (-7,894) Martial
law was proclaimed in
10/9/1923. Monday (-7,911) The Irish Free State was admitted to the League of Nations.
6/9/1923, Thursday (-7,915)
King Peter of
4/9/1923. Tuesday (-7,917) Birth
3/9/1923, Monday (-7,918) The US recognised the Mexican government.
2/9/1923, Sunday (-7,919)
Hitler fiercely denounced the
1/9/1923. Saturday (-7,920) An earthquake magnitude 7.9 in Japan left the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama in ruins and killed over 300,000 people. The epicentre was just outside Tokyo. Half of Tokyo’s houses were destroyed, a million of its people made homeless, and 132,807 killed in Tokyo alone. Altogether 143,000 died and 2.5 million were made homeless.
31/8/1923. Friday (-7,921)
21/8/1923, Tuesday (-7,931) In London, a 7-week dockworkers strike ended.
17/8/1923. Friday (-7,935) The
defence treaty between
16/8/1923, Thursday (-7,936) Shimon Peres, Prime Minister of Israel 1984-86, was born in Poland.
13/8/1923. Monday (-7,939) Mustapha Kemal, (Ataturk), was elected President of Turkey.
9/8/1923, Thursday (-7,943) In Ireland, the 1923 Land Law Act, introduced by Agriculture Minister Paul Hogan, reformed landholdings in favour of tenants. This Act completed the work of William Gladstone, British Prime Minister, who in 1870 introduced legislation allowing tenant farmers to borrow two thirds of the price of buying their landholding from the government, to be repaid with interest over 35 years. Hogan’s Act made compulsory the sale of all land still owned by landlords. Rents fixed before 1911 were reduced by 35%, those fixed after 1911 by 30%. All rent arrears pre-1920 were cancelled and rent arrears post 1920 were reduced by 25%. Current sub-tenants were recognised as legitimate owners and further subdivision or subletting of land was made illegal.
5/8/1923, Sunday (-7,947) C V Devan Nair, President of Singapore, was born.
3/8/1923, Friday (-7,949) John Calvin Coolidge
(1872-1933) became 30th (Republican) President of the
2/8/1923, Thursday (-7,950) Warren
Harding, American Republican and 29th President from 1921, died in
30/7/1923, Monday (-7,953)
The Ross Dependency in Antarctica was created, under
27/7/1923, Friday (-7,956)The BBC radio transmission station at Daventry opened.
25/7/1923, Wednesday (-7,958) 100 killed in Bulgarian train crash.
24/7/1923. Tuesday (-7,959) The Treaty of Lausanne was signed.
This restored Adrianople to
16/7/1923. Monday (-7,967) Mussolini banned gambling in Italy.
13/7/1923, Friday (-7,970) Britain made sales of alcohol to under-18s illegal.
10/7/1923, Tuesday (-7,973) Francisco ‘Pancho’ Villa, Mexican revolutionary leader, born 1878, son of a farm worker, was shot dead. His killers were members of the Herrera family, four of whom Pancho had executed during the Revolution.
1/7/1923, Sunday (-7,982) The German Mark reached 160,000 to the US$. Pre 1914 it had been 4.20; during 1922 the rate fell from 162 to over 7,000 to the US$.
30/6/1923. Saturday (-7,983) The Klu Klux Klan claimed to have a million members. Founded after Black slaves gained freedom in the American Civil War, it gradually widened its targets to include Jews, Catholics, foreigners; anyone not Protestant and White. It was disbanded in 1869 but revived in 1915, under its ‘imperial wizard’, a dentist called Hiram Evans.
15/6/1923. Friday (-7,998) Earthquake in Iran killed 20,000.
10/6/1923. Sunday (-8,003) (1)
(2) Robert Maxwell, newspaper owner, was born in
9/6/1923, Saturday (-8,004) In Italy, the Vatican ordered the Catholic Party to disband, and many of its members joined Mussolini’s Fascist party. The Catholic Party, or Partito Popolare Italiano (Italian People’s Party), had been formed in 1919;before then the Vatican had forbidden Catholics to vote. In Italian elections in 1919 and in 1921 the Catholic Party received 20% of the vote, second only to the Italian Socialist Party. Following Mussolini’s victory in 1922 Cardinal Gasparri, the Vatican’s Secretary of State, made a deal with Mussolini that the Catholic Church would support him; in return Mussolini would restore the historic privileges of the catholic Church in Italy. In 1927 Mussolini was baptised as a Catholic, and in 1929 he signed the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican a separate sovereign State. He also made Catholicism the State religion of Italy, and paid the Vatican 750 million lire as compensation for the Vatican’s loss of the ancient Papal States territory in Italy.
8/6/1923, Friday (-8,005) In the UK, wives were now allowed to divorce their husbands for adultery.
4/6/1923, Monday (-8,009) In
31/5/1923, Thursday (-8,013) Prince Ranier III, prince of the
House of Grimaldi, was born in
27/5/1923. Sunday (-8,017) Henry
Kissinger, American Secretary of State, was born in
26/5/1923, Saturday (-8,018) The annual Le Mans 24-hour race for sports cars was first held, on the Sarthe circuit. The winners, Andre Lagache and Rene Leonard, averaged 57.2 mph.
25/5/1923, Friday (-8,019) The State of Transjordan, now Jordan, became independent.
22/5/1923. Tuesday (-8,022) Stanley Baldwin became Conservative
Prime Minister after the resignation of Andrew Bonar Law due to illness.
2/5/1923, Wednesday (-8,042) The BBC radio programme ‘Woman’s Hour’ began.
30/4/1923. Monday (-8,044) The
28/4/1923. Saturday (-8,046) The first major sporting event was held at Wembley Stadium; the FA Cup Final.
27/4/1923, Friday (-8,047) After the death of IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch (see 10/4/1923), Eamon de Valera called off his armed struggle against the Treaty that partitioned Ireland. Speaking to his Republican followers, termed ‘irregulars’ or ‘rebels’ by the Irish Free State Government, de Valera said “Further sacrifice of life would now be in vain. Military victory must be allowed for to rest for the moment with those who have destroyed the Republic”. The struggle had taken 4,000 lives and cost £30 million in damage to property. Republicans had regarded the entire State apparatus of the Free State government, courts, police, judges, illegal and therefore legitimate military targets. In turn the Free Government had reacted with a strong crackdown on the IRA.
26/4/1923, Thursday (-8,048) King George V, then the Duke of York, married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in Westminster Abbey.
10/4/1923, Tuesday (-8,064) Liam Lynch, head of the IRA, died in police custody after being wounded in fighting with Free State troops. See 27/4/1923.
31/3/1923, Saturday (-8,074) Rioting German workers at the Krupps
27/3/1923, Tuesday (-8,078) (1) The astronomer and broadcaster Patrick Moore was born in Pinner.
(2) Sir James Dewar, Scottish scientist, inventor of the vacuum flask, died aged 80.
26/3/1923. Monday (-8,079) (1) The world’s first inter-urban motorway opened, in Italy. It was formally opened by the King of Italy on 21/9.1924. It ran from Milan to Varese and the Lombardy Lakes.
(2) Regular daily weather forecasts began to be broadcast on BBC radio. See 14/11/1922.
24/3/1923. Saturday (-8,081) The salt tax in
21/3/1923. Wednesday (-8,084) Scientists
15/3/1923, Thursday (-8,890) Fuad I was proclaimed King of Egypt.
14/3/1923. Wednesday (-8,891)
The Allies recognised Vilna and
12/3/1923, Monday (-8,093) The foundation stone of the
9/3/1923. Friday (-8,096) Vladimir Illitch Lenin retired from the Bolshevik leadership of the USSR because of a second stroke.
3/3/1923. Saturday (-8,102) The
2/3/1923, Friday (-8,103) (1) In Britain the Matrimonial Causes Bill, passed by 231 votes to 27, changed the inequality whereby a man could divorce his wife simply for adultery, but a woman had to prove cruelty or desertion as well.
Basil Hume, Roman Catholic Archbishop of
1/3/1923, Thursday (-8,104) The Czechoslovak national airline, CSA, was set up.
24/2/1923, Saturday (-8,109) The Flying Scotsman train began scheduled 4-hour services between Kings Cross, London, and Edinburgh, at a record 100 mph.
21/2/1923, Wednesday (-8,112) In Italy the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Vincenzo Cardinal Vanutelli, said ‘Mussolini had been chosen to save the nation and restore her fortune.
17/2/1923. Saturday (-8,116) Tutenkhamen’s tomb opened by the Egyptologist Howard Carter. Carter was born in Swaffham, Norfolk, on 9/5/1873, and joined the British – sponsored archaeological survey of Egypt at the age of 17. He died in London in 1939.
13/2/1923, Tuesday (-8,120) Charles ‘Chuck’ Yeager, American pilot, first to fly at supersonic speed, was born.
10/2/1923. Saturday (-8,123) William Konrad Von Roentgen, German physicist who discovered X rays in 1895, died.
9/2/1923, Friday (-8,124) The Soviet national airline, now called Aeroflot, was established; then known as Dobrolet.
5/2/1923, Monday (-8,128)
1/2/1923. Thursday (-8,132) Inflation in Germany continued; £1 was now worth 220,000 Marks. On 2/1/1922 £1 had been worth 30,000 Marks.
31/1/1923, Wednesday (-8.133) Hungary was admitted to the League of Nations.
27/1/1923. Saturday (-8,137) The German Nazi Party held its first rally, in Munich.
12/1/1923 Friday (-8,152) Germany protested at the occupation of the Ruhr (see 11/1/1923) and ceased all coal reparations shipments to France. The French erected customs posts and economically divided the region from the rest of Germany. This was a serious blow to the German economy, especially after the loss of the industrial Upper Silesia to Poland. The resultant economic disruption hit the German economy and its currency began to collapse. See 31/7/1925.
11/1/1923. Thursday (-8,153)
10/1/1923, Wednesday (-8,154) The last
1/1/1923, Monday (-8,163) (1) Britain’s railways were regrouped according to the Railways Act of 1921. The railways had been nationalised during the War, but ambitious plans for electrification and redevelopment had been abandoned in favour foa return to private ownership. However the multiple overlapping companies of pre-War Britain were now organised into four regional monopolies, the Great Western, the London and North Western, the London and North eastern, and the Southern.
(2) A French pilot set a new air speed record of 217 mph.
(3) 100 acres of Ken Wood Estate were bought for the nation to extend Hampstead Heath.
30/12/1922. Saturday (-8,165) Soviet Russia was officially renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or USSR.
23/12/1922, Saturday (-8,172) Birth of Helmut Schmidt, German Chancellor.
17/12/1922, Sunday (-8,178) The last British troops left Dublin.
16/12/1922, Saturday (-8,179) The Reparation Commission accused
13/12/1922, Wednesday (-8,182) Hannes Hafstein, Prime Minister of Iceland, died.
5/12/1922. Tuesday (-8,190) The Irish Free State was officially proclaimed. The last British troops left on 17/12/1922.
26/11/1922. Sunday (-8,199) (1) The tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamen was discovered by Howard Carter and his patron, Lord Carnarvon.
(2) Birth of
the American cartoonist Charles Schultz. At an arts instruction school in
21/11/1922. Tuesday (-8,204) Ramsay MacDonald was elected leader of the Labour Party.
17/11/1922, Friday (-8,208) Siberia voted for union with the USSR.
16/11/1922. Thursday (-8,209) In
14/11/1922. Tuesday (-8,211) The British Broadcasting Corporation began daily news broadcasts from 2LO in The Strand, London. This had formerly been Marconi’s London broadcasting station. At 6pm the news was read by Arthur Burrows, once at normal speed and once at slow speed. See 14/2/1922, 18/10/1922 and 26/3/1923.
8/11/1922, Wednesday (-8,217) Dr Christian Barnard, South
African surgeon who pioneered heart transplants, was born in Beaufort West,
1/11/1922. Wednesday (-8,224) (1)
Mustafa Kemal announced a new
(2) The first
radio licences went on sale in
31/10/1922, Tuesday (-8,225) (1) Mussolini’s supporters organised a mass rally in Rome.
(2) Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia, was born.
30/10/1922. Monday (-8,226) Benito Mussolini took power in Italy.
29/10/1922, Sunday (-8,227) King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy invited Mussolini to travel to Rome from Milan to form a government. Mussolini’s Fascist Party had been founded in March 1919, and was dissolved on 28/7/1943.
27/10/1922, Friday (-8,229)
25/10/1922, Wednesday (-8,231) The last Japanese troops left Vladivostok. With all anti-Bolshevik forces gone, Soviet rule was established there
24/10/1922, Tuesday (-8,232) (1) A mass rally of 40,000 Fascists at Naples.
(2) George Cadbury, English chocolate
manufacturer and social reformer, died in
23/10/1922, Monday (-8,233) A Bonar Law became UK Conservative Prime Minister, succeeding Austin Chamberlain. He was replaced by Stanley Baldwin on 22/5/1923, becoming the shortest term of office in the 20th century.
21/10/1922, Saturday (-8,235)
19/10/1922, Thursday (-8,237) At the Carlton Club Meeting,
18/10/1922. Wednesday (-8,238) The BBC, the British Broadcasting
Company, was officially formed, at Marconi House, The Strand,
16/10/1922, Monday (-8,240) The world’s longest main-line railway tunnel, the Simplon II under the Alps, was completed after four years work.
6/10/1922. Friday (-8,250) Alcohol was banned on all
27/9./1922. Tuesday (-8,260) Following
18/9/1922. Monday (-8,268)
13/9/1922, Wednesday (-8,273) A record temperature of 58 C, or
136.4 F, was recorded at
11/9/1922. Monday (-8,275) The British Mandate in
9/9/1922, Saturday (-8,277)
The Turkish Army entered
5/9/1922, Tuesday (-8,281) American aviator James Doolittle made the first coast to coast flight across the USA, taking 21 hours 19 minutes.
26/8/1922. Saturday (-8,291)
25/8/1922, Friday (-8,292) William T Cosgrave became head of the provisional government of the Irish Free State, replacing Arthur Griffith who died of a brain haemorrhage on 12/8/1922.
24/8/1922. Thursday (-8,293) Arabs at
22/8/1922, Tuesday (-8,295) Michael Collins, Irish revolutionary, died.
14/8/1922, Monday (-8,303) Lord Alfred Harmsworth, British newspaper publisher who launched the London Evening News, Daily Mirror, and The Times, died.
6/8/1922, Sunday (-8,311) Freddie Laker, British airline operator, was born.
2/8/1922. Wednesday (-8,315) Death of Alexander Graham Bell, aged 75, at his home near
29/7/1922. Saturday (-8,319) The Allies forbade
13/7/1922, Thursday (-8,335)
22/6/1922, Thursday (-8,356) Marshall Sir Henry Wilson, former chief of the General Staff and an Irishman, was shot dead by IRA gunmen, acting without IRA authority.
16/6/1922, Friday (-8,362) In the first elections in the Irish Free State, pro-Treaty Sinn Fein won 58 seats, anti-treaty Sinn Fein won 36 seats, and others took 34 seats.
12/6/1922, Monday (-8,366) (1) The Mallory expedition succeeded in getting within 3,200 feet of the summit of Everest.
(2) Insulin, the treatment for diabetes, was patented by Frederick Banting. See 27/7/1921 and 24/7/1925.
31/5/1922, Wednesday (-8,378) The Royal Ulster Constabulary was formed.
29/5/1922. Monday (-8,380) Minimum postage for letters reduced to 1 ½ d.
15/5/1922. Monday (-8,394)
10/5/1922. Wednesday (-8,399) Dr Ivy Williams became the first woman to be called to the English Bar.
16/4/1922. Sunday (-8,423) (France/Germany,
7/4/1922, Friday (-8,432) The first collision between airliners. A Farman Goliath operated by French airline Grands Express flew into the path of a Daimler Airways DH 18 over Foix, northern France.
3/4/1922, Monday (-8,436) Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party.
2/4/1922, Sunday (-8,437) Jack Sanderson became the world’s first airline steward, on the London-Paris route.
31/3/1922, Friday (-8,439) In Britain, the Irish Free State Bill received the Royal Assent.
24/3/1922. Friday (-8,446) Only 3 of the 32 horses in the Grand National finished the race.
21/3/1922. Tuesday (-8,449) Queen
Mary opened the new Waterloo Station,
20/3/1922. Monday (-8,450) President
Harding recalled US troops from the
18/3/1922. Saturday (-8,452) Ghandi was jailed for 6 years for civil disobedience.
15/3/1922, Wednesday (-8,455) Britain abolished its protectorate over Egypt and recognised its independence.
12/3/1922, Sunday ( -8,458) White Nationalists seized control of The Rand, South Africa’s industrial area, in protest at job losses as Whites lost their jobs to cheaper Black labour.
8/3/1922, Wednesday (-8,462) 100 mph winds battered
28/2/1922, Tuesday (-8,470) The British Protectorate over
26/2/1922, Sunday (-8,472) Britain and France concluded a 20-year alliance.
18/2/1922, Saturday (-8,480) The notorious Black and Tans were disbanded, following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. They had acquired ill repute for their brutal treatment of suspected IRA members.
15/2/1922. Wednesday (-8,483) (1) A cycle of reciprocal violence spread fear across Ireland, North and South. In Belfast Loyalists threw a bomb at a group of Catholic children, killing 6, in revenge for the murder of four policemen in Clones, County Monaghan. The IRA had launched a terrorist offensive in January 1922. In Belfast, Catholics bombed trams bound for the shipyards, where many Protestants worked.
(2) The first
session of the Permanent Court of International Justice was held in
14/2/1922. Tuesday (-8,484) Marconi began first regular radio broadcasts from England (Writtle, Essex). This invention had been patented by Marconi on 22/6/1896. See 14/11/1922.
13/2/1922, Monday (-8,485) Francis Pym, British politician, was born.
11/2/1922. Saturday (-8,487)
6/2/1922, Monday (-8,492) The Limitation of Armaments
5/2/1922. Sunday (-8,493) The
Readers Digest was first published, in the
1/2/1922, Wednesday (-8,497) Death of the Japanese statesman Yamagata Aritomo (born 14/6/1838). He played a key role in the rise of Japan as a military power in the early 20th century. He was Chief of Staff during the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. Because of this War he developed the ‘Plan of National Defence’ in case of another war with either Russia or America. This Plan formed the basis of Japan’s entry into World War Two. Yamagata died in disgrace after public censure for meddling in the Crown Prince’s marriage.
12/1/1922, Thursday (-8,517) The UK Government declared an amnesty for Irish political prisoners. See 8/11/1924.
11/1/1922, Wednesday (-8,518)
Leonard Thompson became the first patient to be treated with insulin for his diabetes, at
10/1/1922, Tuesday (-8,519) Arthur Griffith was elected President of the newly formed Irish Free State.
7/1/1922, Saturday (-8,522) The Irish Dail voted 64 votes 57 to accept the Anglo-Irish Treaty, see 6/12/1921.
5/1/1922. Thursday (-8,524) The British explorer Ernest
Shackleton died on the
2/1/1922. Monday (-8,527) As inflation soared in Germany, £1 bought over 30,000 German Marks. See 1/2/1923.
25/12/1921, Sunday (-8,535) Ghandi organised a successful mass
boycott of the Prince of Wales as he arrived in
22/12/1921, Thursday (-8,538) US Congress set aside US$ 20 million for food aid to starving children in the USSR.
16/12/1921, Friday (-8,544) French composer and organist Camille Saint-Saens died aged 86.
15/12/1921. Thursday (-8,545) Germany sought a moratorium on reparations.
14/12/1921, Wednesday (-8,546) A (somewhat dubious) plebiscite resulted in the retention by Hungary of the Sopron district, which would otherwise have gone to Austria.
10/12/1921, Saturday (+8,550) Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize for Physics, for his work on Relativity.
6/12/1921. Tuesday (-8,554) Under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, Britain granted the 26 counties of Southern Ireland dominion status within the Empire, as the Irish Free State. 6 of the 9 counties of Ulster remained part of the United Kingdom. Britain retained certain naval bases within Southern Ireland. See 7/1/1922 and 25/4/1938.
1/12/1921, Thursday (-8,559) The US Navy airship Goodyear became the first such craft to fly using helium gas. This was much safer than hydrogen; however the gas was then only found within the US, and for military reasons its use was denied to other countries. Use of hydrogen in 1937 caused the Hindenburg airship disaster in 1937, and finally doomed airships as a means of transport.
27/11/1921, Sunday (-8,563) Alexander Dubcek, Czechoslovak politician, was born in Uhrovek.
25/11/1921. Friday (-8,565) Hirohito became Regent in
23/11/1921, Wednesday (-8,567) In the US, President Harding banned doctors from prescribing beer.
22/11/1921. Tuesday (-8,568) Britain recognised the independence of Afghanistan, under the Anglo-Afghan Treaty, signed by the Dobbs Mission in Kabul.
21/11/1921. Monday (-8,569) Troops were sent to quell rioting in Belfast.
17/11/1921, Thursday (-8,573) The Polish Constitution was established.
12/11/1921, Saturday (-8,578) The Limitation of Armaments
Conference began in
11/11/1921, Friday (-8,579) The British Legion held its first Poppy Day.
7/11/1921, Monday (-8,583) Benito Mussolini, the 38 year old son of a blacksmith from the Romagna, became leader of the Italian National Fascist Party, with its 35 seats in Parliament. Black-shirted Fascist sqaudristi roamed the country disrupting Communist meetings.
4/11/1921. Friday (-8,586) The German currency began to collapse.
25/10/1921, Tuesday (-8,596) King Michael of
23/10/1921. Sunday (-8,598) John Boyd Dunlop, who invented pneumatic tyres, died.
21/10/1921. Friday (-8,600) Anglo-Irish peace talks began.
20/10/1921, Thursday (-8,601)
19/10/1921, Wednesday (-8,602) Portuguese PM Antonio Granjo was assassinated.
18/10/1921. Tuesday (-8,603)
17/10/1921, Monday (-8,604) Ludwig III, King of Bavaria, died.
13/10/1921, Thursday (-8,608)
4/10/1921. Tuesday (-8,617)
30/9/1921. Friday (-8,621) French troops pulled out of the
25/9/1921, Sunday (-8,626) Sir Robert Muldoon, Prime Minister of New Zealand 1975-84, was born.
22/9/1921. Thursday (-8,629) The Baltic states of
11/9/1921, Sunday (-8,640) The Klu Klux Klan took control of a university faculty in Atlants, Georgia, for the purposes of teaching ‘Americanism’.
10/9/1921. Saturday (-8,641) Completion of the first motorway (autobahn) in Germany. The 6 ¼ mile (10 km) route ran from Grunwald, Berlin, to the suburb of Wannsee, was exclusively for motor vehicles, and had controlled limited access. It had been planned in September 1909 and was nearly complete when the outbreak of World War One delayed its completion. Intended to double as a motor racing track, it has a loop at either end where competitors could turn round without stopping. It had 2 carriageways 26 feet wide and a 26 feet wide grassed central reservation, and ten concrete flyovers spanned it. Known as the Avus Autobahn, it is still in use today as route 115.
9/9/1921, Friday (-8,642) Charlie Chaplin arrived at Waterloo Station, London, on the boat train from Southampton, to a rapturous welcome. He was staying at the Ritz Hotel, socially a million miles from his childhood days in Lambeth.
8/9/1921, Thursday (-8,643)
7/9/1921. Wednesday (-8,644) The first Miss America beauty contest was held in Atlantic City. The winner was 15 year old, blonde, Margaret Goorman, of Washington DC.
6/9/1921, Tuesday (-8,645) Five female councillors in Poplar faced jail for refusing to set a domestic rate (property tax). Labour-controlled Poplar, led by George Lansbury, objected to a central rate equalisation scheme which, it says, meant poor areas like Poplar paid more than wealthier areas.
1/9/1921, Thursday (-8,650)
25/8/1921. Thursday (-8,657) Peace
treaty (Treaty of Berlin) signed between
24/8/1921. Wednesday (-8,658) An R38 airship crashed into the Humber at Hull, killing 44 of the 49 crew and passengers.
23/8/1921. Tuesday (-8,659) (1) The 1921 Census of Britain showed the population had increased by almost 2 million to 42,767,530. 7.4 million of these lived in London. War losses affected the total, but the loss due to emigration was greater. Women exceeded men by 2 million, much the same as in 1911.
(2) Emir Faisal
was crowned King of Iraq with British consent. However he then asserted his
17/8/1921, Wednesday (-8,667)
16/8/1921. Tuesday (-8,666) (1) The Times exposed as a fake the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”, which purported to be a manifesto for a Jewish conspiracy for world domination.
(2) King Peter
15/8/1921. Monday (-8,667) Government control of Britain’s railways ended.
14/8/1921. Sunday (-8,668) De Valera rejected Dominion status for Ireland.
11/8/1921, Thursday (-8,671) Alex Hailey, US author of Roots, was born.
3/8/1921, Wednesday (-8,679) The first aerial crop spraying took place at Troy Ohio, to clear a catalpa grove infested with leaf caterpillars. Powdered arsenate of lead was sprayed over the trees. 99% of the insects were killed.
2/8/1921. Tuesday (-8,680) Death of the Italian tenor Enrico
Caruso, whose funeral in
31/7/1921, Sunday (-8,682)
29/7/1921 Friday (-8,684) Hitler became President of the National Socialist Party.
28/7/1921, Thursday (-8,,685) The All-India Congress Party voted to boycott a visit to India by the Prince of Wales, and also urged a boycott of imported cloth.
27/7/1921. Wednesday (-8,686) Insulin was isolated by Dr Frederick Banting at the University of Toronto medical School, helped by his assistant Charles Best, and tested on a de-pancreatised dog the same day. It was first used successfully on a human on 11/1/1922. See 12/6/1922.
26/7/1921, Tuesday (-8,687)
23/7/1921. Saturday (-8,690) The first congress of the Chinese Communist Party was held in Beijing.
22/7/1921, Friday (-8,691) A truce was called in the ‘Troubles’ in Ireland.
21/7/1921, Thursday (-8,692) The Spanish army was defeated by Moroccan nationalists at Annual. The Spanish sustained over 12,000 casualties. Adb-E-Krim, nationalist leader, was eventually defeated by a Franco-Spanish force in 1926. Abd E Krim was held on the island of Reunion till 1947 but was then given permission to live in France. However he succeeded in escaping to Egypt where he became an inspiration to Arab nationalism generally.
18/7/1921, Monday (-8,695) John Glenn,
11/7/1921. Monday (-8,702) (1) The British Government and Sinn Fein agreed a truce.
(2) The Iraqi Council of State unanimously voted for Faisal to be King.
10/7/1921. Sunday (-8,703) Mongolia declared its independence as a People’s Republic, becoming the world’s second Communist state after Russia.
8/7/1921. Friday (-8,705) King George V opened the King George V Dock in east London.
6/7/1921, Wednesday (-8,707) Nancy Reagan, wife of President Reagan, was born as Nancy Davis.
29/6/1921, Wednesday (-8,714) Lady Randolph Churchill, American mother of Winston Churchill, died.
23/6/1921, Thursday (-8,720) Emir Faisal arrived at
22//6/1921. Wednesday (-8,721) King George V opened the first Northern Ireland Parliament asking for peace and reconciliation.
12/6/1921. Sunday (-8,731) Last Sunday deliveries by British postmen.
10/6/1921, Friday (-8,733) Prince Philip, husband of Queen
Elizabeth II, was born on the Greek
6/6/1921. Monday (-8,737)
4/6/1921, Saturday (-8,739)
In the US, floods killed 500 in eastern
27/5/1921. Friday (-8,747) Anti-Bolshevik forces took Vladivistok.
25/5/1921. Wednesday (-8,749) (1) Sinn Fein burned down the Dublin Customs House.
(2) Miss Olive Clapham qualified as
24/5/1920, Tuesday (-8,750) Sinn Fein won 124 out of the 128 seats in the new Southern Irish Parliament. In the Northern Irish Parliament, Unionists won 40 seats, Nationalists 6 and Sinn Fein 6.
23/5/1921. Monday (-8,751) British
22/5/1921. Sunday (-8,752) The US city of Chicago planned to fine women for wearing short skirts and exposed arms.
21/5/1921, Saturday (-8,753) Andrei Sakharov, Russian physicist and human rights campaigner, was born.
19/5/1921. Thursday (-8,755) The
14/5/1921. Saturday (-8,760) (1) The
British Legion was founded in
(2) Fascists won seats in Italian elections.
8/5/1921. Sunday (-8,766)
4/5/1921. Wednesday (-8,770)
27/4/1921, Wednesday (-8,777) The Allies claimed £6,650 million (132,000 million gold Marks) compensation from Germany. Germany reluctantly agreed, but it would put a great strain on the German economy. The Fehrenbach German government at once resigned. The Allies threatened that if Germany did not agree, they would occupy the Ruhr.
26/4/1921. Tuesday (-8,778) The
first police motorcycle patrols began in
24/4/1921. Sunday (-8,780) Germany pleaded in vain to the USA for aid on reparations. On 27/4/1921 reparations were set at £6.65 billion.
15/4/1921, Friday (-8,789) Less than a day before it was due to begin, a rail and transport workers strike in support of the striking coalminers was called off. The miners had been locked out of the pits since 1/4/1921. The miners wanted higher wages, and wage equality across the country; the pit owners wanted to reduce wages. The owners proposed a compromise of continuing with present wages, but this was rejected by the miner’s executive this day by a majority of one vote. The miners called this day ‘Black Friday’.
14/4/1921. Thursday (-8,790) Air services between London and Amsterdam resumed.
12/4/1921, Tuesday (-8,792) US President Harding
rejected joining the
10/4/1921, Sunday (-8,794) Sun Yat Sen was elected President of China.
2/4/1921, Saturday (-8,802) The IRA first obtained Tommy guns, from a gunsmith in Hartford, Connecticut.
1/4/1921. Friday (-8,803) In
28/3/1921. Monday (-8,807) Dirk Bogarde, English
film actor, was born in Hampstead,
23/3/1921. Wednesday (-8,812) Germany defaulted on reparations.
21/3/1921. Monday (-8,814) Austen Chamberlain succeeded Andrew Bonar Law as Conservative leader (who had resigned due to ill-health).
20/3/1921, Sunday (-8,815) A
plebiscite in Upper Silesia resulted in a majority vote for remaining with
19/3/1921. Saturday (-8,816) Daily air service between Paris and London resumed.
17/3/1921. Thursday (-8,818) First birth control clinic opened in Holloway, London, by Marie Stopes.
15/3/1921. Tuesday (-8,820)
12/3/1921. Saturday (-8,823) Lenin announced that state planning of the economy will end and free enterprise would be permitted. This was a move forced by the Russian famine on 1921. The famine was caused by a drought in 1920 which wiped out the crops but revolution and civil war exacerbated the situation. The USA responded to Lenin’s appeal and sent 800,000 tons of food.
11/3/1921, Friday (-8,824) Queen Mary became the first woman to be awarded an Oxford Degree.
8/3/1921. Tuesday (-8,827) Because of Germany’s failure to give a satisfactory response to demands for war reparations, Allied troops occupied the Ruhr towns. Germany agreed to pay war reparations on 11/5/1921. These consisted of £10 billion in gold over the next 42 years plus a 12.5% tax on Germany’s exports.
3/3/1921, Thursday (-8,832) Poland signed an alliance with Romania. This resulted in a decline in previously-close Hungarian-Polish relations.
1/3/1921, Tuesday (-8,834)
Allied troops entered
27/2/1921. Sunday (-8,836) Communists
and Fascists rioted in
25/2/1921, Friday (-8,838)
22/2/1921, Tuesday (-8,841) Jean-Bedel Bokassa, ruler of the Central African Republic, was born.
21/2/1921, Monday (-8,842) Reza Khan (born 1878, of the Pahlevan clan), an officer in the Iranian Army who had risen from the rank of Private to General, occupied Tehran with 1,200 men. Iran was in chaos after the ravages of World War One and its ruler Ahmad Shah, the last of the Qajar dynasty, was young and incompetent, and the cabinet was weak and corrupt. Subsequently known as Reza Shah Pahlavi, he modernised the country, organised its transport links, and retook control of Iran’s finances from foreign investors. His foreign policy was to play the principal foreign powers in the region, the Soviet Union and Britain, off against each other. This policy failed when Britain and Russia became allies in World War Two in 1941. Britain and Russia jointly occupied Iran in August 1941 so the Soviet war effort could be supplied. Reza Shah then abdicated so his son, Mohammed Reza Shah, could adapt Iranian foreign policy to the new situation, and continue the dynasty. Reza Shah died in Johannesburg, South Africa, in June 1944.
18/2/1921. Friday (-8,845) The first helicopter flew, designed in France by Etienne Oemichen.
16/2/1921, Wednesday (-8,847) Eight Sinn Fein supporters were shot dead in a gun battle with British soldiers.
9/2/1921. Wednesday (-8,854)
A peace treaty was signed between
8/2/1921. Tuesday (-8,855) Jan
Smuts was elected prime Minister of
5/2/1921. Saturday (-8,858) Anti-Soviet sailors mutiny at
Kronstadt naval base, outside
25/1/1921, Tuesday (-8,869) Six women were sworn in as jurors in a divorce trial, the first women to serve in this type of case.
24/1/1921, Monday (-8,870) The Reparations Conference in Paris fixed German war reparations at US$ 56 billion, to be paid over 42 years; of this sum, France would get 52%. German politician reacted with outrage, seeing this as ‘enslavement of the German economy’, and defaulted on repayments on 23/3/1921. Under pressure from the US, the Allies reduced their claim but when Germany defaulted on this, too, they reoccupied the Rhineland.
22/1/1921. Saturday (-8,872) British tanks were sent into
20/1/1921, Thursday (-8,874) Six policemen were shot dead by the
8/1/1921, Saturday (-8,886) Lloyd
George became the first Prime Minister to occupy Chequers, the house near
Wendover given to the nation by Lord Lee of
7/1/1921. Friday (-8,887) The first woman was elected as foreman of a jury in Britain, in Dudley, Birmingham.
3/1/1921, Monday (-8,891) (1) The airships R 36 and R 37 were built; they could carry 50 passengers.
1/1/1921, Saturday (-8,893) (1) Car tax discs for obligatory display on windscreens were introduced in Britain.
(2) The Navy, Army, and Air Force Institute, or NAAFI, was
23/12/1920. Thursday (-8,902) The Bill for the division of
18/12/1920.. Saturday (-8,907) (1)
(2) King Constantine was restored to the Greek throne.
16/12/1920. Thursday (-8,909) (1) Permanent
Court of International Justice established at
(2) Earthquake in China killed 180,000.
15/12/1920. Wednesday (-8,910) China and Austria were admitted to the League of Nations.
14/12/1920, Tuesday (-8,911) The first aeroplane disaster. A Handley page Continental Air Services flight from Cricklewood Aerodrome, London, to Paris crashed into the back of a newly built house at 6, Basinghill, The Ridgeway, and fell in flames in the garden. 4 of the 6 passengers managed to jump clear and escaped major injury; the other 2 passengers and 2 crew were killed.
11/12/1920. Saturday (-8,914) Martial law was declared in Ireland. Britain had 40,000 soldiers in Ireland, plus 7,000 of the hated ‘Black and Tans’ (ex-soldiers serving as police), who were often accused of brutality. They would burn down entire villages in their search for IRA gunmen. Recently, both sides escalated the conflict with IRA hit and run tactics countered by increased British army intervention.
8/12/1920. Wednesday (-8,917) Cambridge University refused to admit women to full-time studentships.
5/12/1920, Sunday (-8,920) A Greek referendum result called for the return of King Constantine, deposed by the Allies in 1917.
4/12/1920. Saturday (-8,921) An
attempt to introduce Prohibition to
2/12/1920, Thursday (-8,923) Armenia was forced to conclude a
peace treaty with Turkey that not only annulled the Wilson Line but gave the
district of Kars, formerly Russian/Armenian, to Turkey. This treaty also stated that ‘there were no
Armenian majorities anywhere in
22/11/1920, Monday (-8,933) US President Wilson set a proposed
border (The Wilson Line) between Turkey and Armenia that would have given
Armenia lands as far west as Trebizond, Erzingan, and Bitlis. However on the ground both
21/11/1920. Sunday (-8,934) 21 British officers and officials were killed in their beds by IRA members, setting off a day of killing and bloodshed in Ireland. This was in retaliation for an attack by the Black and Tans, an auxiliary police force, at a Gaelic football match, where 12 died.
19/11/1920, Friday (-8,936) 100,000 White Russian refugees from the Crimea arrived in Constantinople.
16/11/1920. Tuesday (-8,939) The Bolsheviks defeated the White Russians in the Crimea, so ending the Russian Civil War. The white Russian General, Baron Wrangel, fled with his men to Turkey.
15/11/1920. Monday (-8,940)
14/11/1920, Sunday (-8,941) Sebastopol was captured by the Red Army.
13/11/1920. Saturday (-8,942) The first full session of the
12/11/1920, Friday (-8,943) The first Treaty of Rapallo
was signed, between
11/11/1920, Thursday (-8,944) (1) The Labour politician Roy Jenkins was born at Abersychan.
(2) The 35-foot Cenotaph war memorial (Greek cenos taphos
= empty tomb) in
10/11/1920, Wednesday (-8,945)
The body of an unknown British soldier was brought to
8/11/1920. Monday (-8,947) The first Rupert Bear cartoon appeared in the Daily Express.
3/11/1920, Wednesday (-8,952)
2/11/1920, Tuesday (-8,953)
The first regular radio programme began,
18/10/1920. Monday (-8, 968)
16/10/1920, Saturday (-8.970) US Marines killed the Haitian rebel leader.
14/10/1920. Thursday (-8,972) Russia recognised the independence of Finland. Russia ceded the port of Petsamo to Finland, giving Finland access to the Arctic Ocean.
7/10/1920, Thursday (-8,979) (Education, Women’s Rights) Oxford University admitted its first 100 women, to study for full degrees. They had been permitted to sit Oxford examinations before this day.
6/10/1920. Wednesday (-8,980)
22/9/1920, Wednesday (-8,994) The Metropolitan Police ‘Flying Squad’ was formed.
15/9/1920. Wednesday (-9,001) New air mail services began in Europe, from Copenhagen to Amsterdam, London, and Hamburg.
10/9/1920, Friday (-9,006) The Indian National Congress voted to adopt Mahatma Gandhi’s policy of non-co-operation with Britain’s colonial administration.
1/9/1920. Wednesday (-9,015)
31/8/1920, Tuesday (-9,.016) Under the decree of General Giraud, France enlarged the Sanjak of Lebanon (Mount Lebanon) at Syria’s expense, adding Tripoli, Sidon, Tyre and the Bekaa plain. Greater Lebanon now had a small Christian majority, but the Muslim population had a higher birth rate.
26/8/1920. Thursday (-9,021) Under the 19th Amendment, women received the vote in the USA.
19/8/1920, Thursday (-9,028) The Russian army was defeated by
the Poles at
16/8/1920. Monday (-9,031) As Russian troops closed in on
14/8/1920, Saturday (-9,033) The 7th Olympic Games
11/8/1920, Wednesday (-9,036) A Latvian-Soviet peace treaty
10/8/1920. Tuesday (-9,037) (1) The Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Sevres, ceding 80% of its land area. (see also 30/10/1917).
(2). Other post-war provisions included the creation of
6/8/1920, Friday (-9,041)
1/8/1920, Sunday (-9,046) (1) Ghandi began his campaign of resistance to British rule in India.
(2) The Communist Party of Great Britain was founded.
31/7/1920. Saturday (-9,047)
30/7/1920, Friday (-9,048)
24/7/1920. Saturday (-9,054) A
French expeditionary force occupied
23/7/1920, Friday (-9,055)
21/7/1920, Wednesday (-9,057) Sinn Fein and the Ulster Unionists rioted in Belfast.
13/7/1920, Tuesday (-9,065) The LCC banned the employment of foreigners in council jobs.
10/7/1920, Saturday (-9,068), (1) After a referendum amongst the inhabitants,
northern Schleswig was returned to
(2) Lloyd George proposed the Curzon Line as a Polish-Russian
frontier. Subsequent correspondence was
handled by the UK Foreign Secretary, George Curzon. The line, from
8/7/1920, Thursday (-9,070) British troops set up road blocks
6/7/1920. Tuesday (-9,072) Major offensive by Red Army against
3/7/1920. Saturday (-9,075) The first RAF air display took place at Hendon.
1/7/1920, Thursday (-9,077) (1) The
British civil administration of
(2) Germany surrendered her largest airship, the L-71 to Britain.
24/6/1920. Thursday (-9,084) Riots in
16/6/1920. Wednesday (-9,092) At
4/6/1920. Friday (-9,104) At
1/6/1920. Tuesday (-9,107)
29/5/1920. Saturday (-9,110)
28/5/1920. Friday (-9,111) (1) The foundation stone of the London School of Economics was laid.
21/5/1920, Friday (-9,118)
20/5/1920. Thursday (-9,119) Charles Lindbergh took off on the first transatlantic solo flight.
19/5/1920. Wednesday (-9,120) The Red Army invaded northern Iran.
18/5/1920. Tuesday (-9,121) Pope John Paul II was born as Karolum Wojtyla in the market town of Wadowice, near Krakow, Poland. He was the son of a junior officer in the Polish Army.
17/5/1920. Monday (-9,122) KLM,
the national airline of The Netherlands, began its first scheduled service,
16/5/1920, Sunday (-9,123) Joan of Arc was canonised.
12/5/1920, Wednesday (-9,127)
11/5/1920. Tuesday (-9,128) Oxford University agreed to start awarding degrees to women.
10/5/1920, Monday (-9,129) John Wesley Hyatt, US inventor who discovered celluloid, the first synthetic plastic, died.
7/5/1920. Friday (-9,132) Polish and Ukrainian troops seized
5/5/1920, Wednesday (-9,134) Britain and France rejected a declaration of Syrian independence and, hastily convening a meeting of the Supreme Council of the League of Nations, they declared the intention of dividing Lebanon from Syria (both under French control) and Iraq (undivided) under British control.
30/4/1920. Friday (-9,139)
27/4/1920, Tuesday (-9,142) Soviet Russian troops invaded Azerbaijan, ending its independence (see 28/5/1918). On 28/5/1920 the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan was declared.
25/4/1920, Sunday (-9,144) The UN conformed the British mandate to control Palestine and Mesopotamia.
23/4/1920. Friday (-9,146) Turkish Nationalists set up a
provisional government at
19/4/1920, Monday (-9,150)
The Conference of San Remo opened.
Following on from the London Conference (see 12/1/2920), post World War
One frontiers in
13/4/1920, Tuesday (-9,156) 300,000 workers went on strike at the treatment of Sinn Fein hunger strikers; on 14/2/1920 89 hunger strikers were released from Dublin Prison.
4/4/1920, Sunday (-9,165) Rioting broke out in Jerusalem (then under British control) as fighting occurred between Arabs and Jews. The Arabs were angry at the arrival of Jewish immigrants, and anti-Zionist speeches led to unrest. Martial law was declared as 5 Jews and 4 Arabs died in the riots, and 281 Jews, 18 Arabs, and 7 British soldiers were injured.
1/4/1920, Thursday (-9,168) The Nazi Party was officially founded in Germany.
29/3/1920, Monday (-9,171) Croydon was designated as London’s official airport, and Hounslow abandoned, see 30/1/1928.
26/3/1920. Friday (-9,174) 800 special constables, the Black and Tans, arrived in Ireland to put down the Republican revolt in the south of the country, where public order was rapidly deteriorating.
20/3/1920. Saturday (-9,180) In response to the Syrian claim of 8/3/1920, the Lebanese Christians proclaimed their independence, choosing as their flag the French tricolour with a Lebanese cedar at its centre.
19/3/1920. Friday (-9,181) (1) In
16/3/1920. Tuesday (-9,184) Allied troops occupied Istanbul.
13/3/1920. Saturday (-9,187) A pro-Royalist coup was attempted in
8/3/1920. Monday (-9,192) Syria proclaimed independence from Ottoman Turkey, with Emir
Faisal, hero of the Arab revolt, as King. He claimed not just the smaller
24/2/1920. Tuesday (-9,205) (1) The National Socialist Workers party, led by Adolf Hitler, published a programme for a Third Reich.
(2) Viscountess Lady Astor became the first woman to speak in the British Parliament. Her husband, Conservative MP Waldorf Astor, succeeded her father as Viscount Astor in 1932 and moved to the House of Lords; she won his seat in a by-election 2 months ago. This day she spoke in opposition to a move to abolish the Liquor Control Board.
23/2/1920, Monday (-9,206) The first regular broadcasting
20/2/1920. Friday (-9,209) (1) The Red Army captured Archangel.
(2) Robert Peary, American Arctic explorer and first man
to reach the North Pole in 1909, died in
12/2/1920, Thursday (-9,217) A conference began in
11/2/1920, Wednesday (-9,218)
King Farouk, last King of Egypt,
was born in
10/2/1920, Tuesday (-9,219)
9/2/1920, Monday (-9,220) By a treaty signed in
8/2/1920. Sunday (-9,221) The Bolsheviks captured Odessa.
7/2/1920. Saturday (-9,222) The Bolsheviks executed the White Russian, Commander Koltchak.
6/2/1920, Friday (-9,223)
5/2/1920, Thursday (-9,224) (1)
4/2/1920, Wednesday (-9,225) (1) Aviators Pierre van Ryneveld and C J Quinton took off from Brooklands airfield on the first flight from London to cape Town, South Africa.
(2) Norman Wisdom, British comedian, was born as Norman Wisden .
3/2/1920, Tuesday (-9,226)
2/2/1920. Monday (-9,227)
1/2/1920, Sunday (-9,228) (1) The North West Mounted Police changed their name to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
(2) The first full session of the League of Nations opened at St James Palace, London, overseen by the British Prime Minister, Arthur Balfour. Plans were made for an International Court of Justice.
22/1/1920, Thursday (-9,238) Sir Alf Ramsey,
20/1/1920, Tuesday (-9,240) Peace Talks in
19/1/1920, Monday (-9,241) Javier Perez de Cuellar, Secretary of the United Nations from 1982, was born.
16/1/1920. Friday (-9,244) (Morals, USA) Prohibition began in the USA (18th Amendment), and the sale, manufacture, or involvement with alcohol was banned. See 16/1/1919, 5/12/1933.
10/1/1920. Saturday (-9,250) The
League of Nations, whose function was defined on 28/4/1919, legally came into being at
9/1/1920. Friday (-9,251) (1) The UK Government announced plans for the construction of 100,000 new houses in 1920.
(2) Bolshevik troops defeated White Russians under Admiral Koltchak. See 16/11/1920.
5/1/1920. Monday (-9,255) Radio Corporation of
2/1/1920. Friday (-9,258) (1) Major US crackdown on suspected Communists began. The ‘Palmer Raids’ in over 30 cities across the USA resulted in the arrest of almost 3,000 anarchists, communists and other radicals. These raids were the idea of Attorney-General A Mitchell Palmer. The raids were controversial; some protested at the disregard for civil liberties, but some on the Right wanted those detained to be executed. Palmer himself, a Democrat, lost the Presidential nomination in late 1920 but maintained he had foiled a Bolshevik plot to overthrow the US Government.
(2) Isaac Asimov was born.
30/12/1919, Tuesday (-9,261) In London, the first female bar student was admitted to Lincoln’s Inn.
22/12/1919. Monday (-9,269) David Lloyd George, the Prime
Minister, announced plans for the partition of
19/12/1919, Friday (-9,272) The Irish Republican Army (formerly Irish Volunteers) made an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Lord French, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
18/12/1919, Thursday (-9,273) Death of British aviation expert Sir John Alcock in a flying accident, six months after his pioneering transatlantic flight with Sir Arthur Brown.
17/12/1919. Wednesday (-9,274) Pierre Auguste Renoir died. He was born on 26/2/1841.
16/12/1919, Tuesday (-9,275)
German troops left
3/12/1919, Wednesday (-9,288) Pierre Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter, died near Cannes, aged 78.
30/11/1919, Sunday (-9,291) Women were allowed to vote for the first time in French elections.
28/11/1919. Friday (-9,293) (1) Viscountess (Nancy) Astor became Britain’s first woman MP. She took her seat in the House of Commons on 1/12/1919, elected by a substantial majority. She won the seat of Plymouth Sutton in a by-election caused by the elevation of her husband to the peerage. She retired from Parliament in 1945.
27/11/1919. Thursday (-9,294) (1)
(2) A large
meteor landed in
24/11/1919, Monday (-9,297) Proposals to divide Ireland in two, Ulster and the South, were submitted to the UK Cabinet.
19/11/1919, Wednesday (-9,302) In Italy, Benito Mussolini and 37 Fascists were arrested after rioting at the election of the Socialists.
15/11/1919. Saturday (-9,306) The Red Army captured Omsk.
12/11/1919. Wednesday (-9,309) Captain Ross Smith, his brother,
and two others began the first flight from
26/10/1919. Sunday (-9.326) Shah of
18/10/1919, Saturday (-9,334)
Pierre Trudeau, Canadian Liberal and Prime \Minister, was born in
13/10/1919. Monday (-9,339) Dock strike in New York.
12/10/1919. Sunday (-9,340) British troops pulled out of Murmansk, Russia.
11/10/1919. Saturday (-9,341) The first airline meals were served, on a Handley-Page flight from London to Paris. They were pre-packed lunch boxes priced at 3 shillings (15p).
10/10/1919, Friday (-9,342) British teachers, their salaries still at pre war levels, asked for a doubling of their pay.
7/10/1919, Tuesday (-9,345) KLM, the Dutch national airline, the oldest established air carrier, was established. It began flights on 17/5/1920.
6/10/1919. Monday (-9,346) Norway adopted alcohol Prohibition.
2/10/1919, Thursday (-9,350) US President Wilson suffered a massive stroke, leaving his left side paralysed.
22/9/1919. Monday (-9,360) Major steel strike in the
15/9/1919. Monday (-9,367)
10/9/1919, Wednesday (-9,372) (1) The TUC favoured nationalising the coal industry.
(2) The Treaty of St Germain was signed by the Allies with Austria at the Paris Peace Conference.
2/9/1919, Tuesday (-9,380) White Russian forces under Denikin captured Kiev, and came within 250 miles of Moscow, with backing from the UK. However a Red Army counter attack in December 1919 forced Denikin out of Kharkov and eventually back to the Caucasus, where he held on until March 1920. Denikin had a narrow Russophile view, and failed to see the need to link with Ukrainian and Polish anti-Bolshevik forces; he even blockaded Georgia and Azerbaijan, fearing these states would set up independent Republics.
1/9/1919, Monday (-9,381) The first intercontinental air service began, from Toulouse to Barcelona and Tangier. Services were extended to Casablanca in April 1920.
31/8/1919. Sunday (-9,382) The US Communist Party was founded.
29/8/1919, Friday (-9,384)
28/8/1919, Thursday (-9,385) Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, who invented the EMI scanner and winner of the Nobel prize for psychology in 1979, was born.
27/8/1919, Wednesday (-9,386) Louis Botha, South African Boer general and first Prime Minister from 1910, died.
25/8/1919. Monday (-9,388) Air service between London (Hounslow) and Paris (Le Bourget) inaugurated. This was the first international scheduled air service from Britain. The single fare was £21 for the 2 ½ hour journey, compared to the cost of rail and boat at £3 8s 5d. By 1/1/1920 three British companies were operating regular daily air services across The Channel, to Paris, Brussels, and Amsterdam, for passengers, freight, and mail.
21/8/1919, Thursday (-9,392)
12/8/1919, Tuesday (9,401)
8/8/1919, Friday (-9,405) (1) The Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed. This ended the Third Afghan War, which had begun on 3/5/1919.
(2) F W (Frank Winfield)
3/8/1919, Sunday (-9,410) Riots in
31/7/1919. Thursday (-9,413)
27/7/1919. Sunday (-9,417) Large scale race riots in Chicago.
22/7/1919, Tuesday (-9,422) British MPs formally approved the Treaty of Versailles. Only 4 MPs voted against, 3 of them Irish Nationalists objecting to the omission of Home Rule for Ireland.
20/7/1919. Sunday (-9,424) Sir Edmund Hillary, who conquered Mount Everest in 1953 with Tenzing
Norgay, was born in
18/7/1919, Friday (-9,426) The first Cenotaph, a temporary structure of wood and plaster, was erected in Whitehall, London, for a parade celebrating the Treaty of Versailles. It was so popular the Government decided to erect a permanent version.
13/7/1919, Sunday (-9,431) The British airship R34 arrived back in Pulham, Norfolk, having made the first transatlantic aerial round trip; she set out from East Fortune, Scotland, on 2/7/1919.
6/7/1919. Sunday (-9,438) The British airship R34 became the first to cross the Atlantic, flying from Edinburgh to New York in 108 hours. She had set out from East Fortune, near Edinburgh, on 2/7/1919. She set off from Long Island on 9/7/1919 on the return journey, arriving in Pulham, Norfolk, on 13/7/1919.
4/7/1919. Friday (-9,440)
30/6/1919, Monday (-9,444) Lord Rayleigh, British scientist who discovered the inert gas argon in 1894 and won the Nobel prize, died in Witham, Essex, aged 76.
28/6/1919. Saturday (-9,446) The Treaty of Versailles was signed. This peace treaty between the Allies and the Germans was signed at Versailles and officially ended World War One, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand started it. Alsace Lorraine was returned to France, German colonies were under mandate, German East Africa went to Britain and German South West Africa (Namibia) to South Africa. The west bank of the Rhine and a zone 30 miles deep on its east bank was demilitarised. See 7/5/1919.
23/6/1919, Monday (-9,451) The British Government recommended nationalising the coal mines.
21/6/1919. Saturday (-9,453) German sailors unexpectedly scuttled the captive German fleet, 72 warships, at Scapa Flow. See 19/11/1918.
15/6/1919. Sunday (-9,459) John Alcock and Arthur Brown completed the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic. It took them 16 hours, 12 minutes, to fly from Lester’s Field, St John’s Newfoundland, to Derrygimla Bog, near Clifden, Ireland. They were both knighted for this achievement.
6/6/1919. Friday (-9,468)
3/6/1919. Tuesday (-9,471) More British troops arrived at Archangel, Russia.
27/5/1919. Tuesday (-9,478) Lieutenant Commander Read and a crew of five, flying a Curtiss NC 4 seaplane, arrived in Lisbon via The Azores to complete the first flight across the Atlantic. They had left Trepassy, Newfoundland, on 16/5/1919.
26/5/1919, Monday (-9,479) North Sea Aerial Navigation Co inaugurated passenger flights between Hartlepool and Hull. In June further routes began, between Hull, Leeds and Hounslow (for London), and Scarborough, Leeds, Harrogate. Businesspeople liked the new fast link between London and the North.
24/5/1919. Saturday (-9,481) Having defeated Afghan raiders on the
Indian border, the British bombed Jalalabad and
16/5/1919. Friday (-9,489) Waldzin
Valentino Liberace was born in
15/5/1919, Thursday (-9,490) The Greek Army landed at Smyrna, under the protection of British, French, and US fleets, beginning an occupation of the area by massacring Turkish civilians.
14/5/1919. Wednesday (-9,491)
Death of the American food
manufacturer Henry John Heinz. Heinz founded his company in Pittsburgh in 1869
as a partnership to market and prepare horseradish. This company
collapsed in the business panic of 1875 but Heinz reorganised it in 1876 and it
re-emerged as a major food company by 1900. By 1905 the Heinz company was the
13/5/1919, Tuesday (-9,492)
11/5/1919, Sunday (-9,494) The population of Vorarlberg,
10/5/1919, Saturday (-9,495) The first airline in Britain started. It flew the 50 miles between Alexander Park, Manchester, and Blackpool in a 2-seater single engine Avro biplane. Services lasted until 30/9/1919, and cost £2 2s single or £4 4s return..
8/5/1919, Thursday (-9,497)
7/5/1919, Wednesday (-9,498)
Peace terms were dictated to
6/5/1919. Tuesday (-9,499) Peace conference shared out former German colonies.
5/5/1919, Monday (-9,500)
4/5/1919. Sunday (-9,501) Anti-foreigner
3/5/1919. Saturday (-9,502) Fighting
broke out between
2/5/1919. Friday (-9,503) German troops entered Munich to crush the fledgling Soviet Republic in Bavaria.
1/5/1919, Thursday (-9,504) The reclamation of the Zuyder Zee began.
20/4/1919, (-9,515) A Polish army under Pilsudski took the city of
15/4/1919, Tuesday (-9,520) Passenger air services on a route between Berlin, Hanover and Rotthausen began, also Berlin to Warnemunde.
13/4/1919. Sunday (-9,522) The British fired on and massacred
Indian Nationalist rioters in
11//4/1919. Friday (-9,524) The International Labour Organisation was established.
10/4/1919, Thursday (-9,525) Rioting by Sikhs began at Amritsar, see 13/4/1919.
8/4/1919. Tuesday (-9,527) (1) The Red Army invaded the Crimea.
(2) Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, was born in
5/4/1919. Saturday (-9,530) Eamon De Valera became Sinn Fein’s president.
4/4/1919. Friday (-9,531) At
1/4/1919, Tuesday (-9,534) British troops supporting White Russian troops defeated a Bolshevik force.
23/3/1919. Sunday (-9,543) The Italian Fascist Party (Fascio di Combattimento) was founded by Benito Mussolini. The party aimed to fight both Liberalism and Communism. The Fascists wanted land for the peasants, abolition of the Senate, a seizure of Church property, and tax reform. However most of this agenda was already offered by the Socialists and by December 1919 the Fascists only had 870 members. During 1926 Party membership rose from 600,000 to 938,000. By the end of 1933 there were 1,400,000 members, a figure that went up to 2,633,000 by 1939.
22/3/1919. Saturday (-9,544) Bela Kun declared Hungary a Soviet Republic.
20/3/1919. Thursday (-9,546) Wireless telephone communication
11/3/1919. Tuesday (-9,555) The
Allies agreed to supply famine-hit
10/3/1919, Wednesday (-9,556) The UK Government was reported to favour the idea of a Channel Tunnel.
4/3/1919, Tuesday (-9,562) The Comintern was formed. This was the ‘Communist International’, to spread Communism worldwide.
1/3/1919, Saturday (-9,565) (1) Passenger air services between Berlin and Hamburg began.
(2) Anti Japanese colonialism demonstrations in Seoul, Korea.
22/2/1919. Saturday (-9,572) After the murder of the Bavarian Prime Minister, Kurt Eisner, a Soviet Republic was declared in Bavaria.
6/2/1919, Thursday (-9,588) The first regular passenger air service. Planes flew from Berlin to Weimar, carrying mainly mail and newspapers, but some passengers also.
5/2/1919, Wednesday (-9,589) Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, was born.
3/2/1919, Monday (-9,591) (1) US
President Woodrow Wilson attended the first meeting of the League of Nations in
31/1/1919, Friday (-9,594) In Glasgow, a sheriff hit by a bottle as he read the Riot Act; 40 injured in clashes with police.
25/1/1919. Saturday (-9,600) The
23/1/1919. Thursday (-9,602) The socialists won the German elections.
22/1/1919, Wednesday (-9,603) (1) The Red Army occupied Kiev, capital of the Ukraine.
21/1/1919. Tuesday (-9,604) A Sinn Fein congress declared Irish Independence. Two Royal Ulster Constabularies were also murdered this day in Tipperary.
20/1/1919, Monday (-9,605)
19/1/1919. Sunday (-9,606) A
pro-monarchist uprising in
18/1/1919, Saturday (-9,607) Peace talks opened at Versailles. See 20/1/1920. 27 nations attended; Germany was excluded
16/1/1919, Thursday (-9,609) The US ratified the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors after one year. See 16/1/1920.
13/1/1919. Monday (-9,612) Satyendra
Prasano Sinha became the first Indian peer of
12/1/1919, Sunday (-9,613)
11/1/1919. Saturday (-9,614)
7/1/1919, Tuesday (-9,618)
6/1/1919. Monday (-9,619) US
President Theodore Roosevelt died at Sagamore Hill,
5/1/1919. Sunday (-9,620) (1) The Nazi (National Socialist) Party was founded in Germany. Adolf Hitler, a soldier in World War One who was awarded the Iron Cross for bravery, and who was angry at the armistice terms imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles, and extremely opposed to Communism, headed the new Party. Hitler was a poor student in the Austrian secondary school system. He became an artist but failed to gain entry to the Academy of Fine Arts; Hitler was a melancholic character, obsessed by fears that Jews, linked to communists, would take over the world.
(2) The Spartacus League initiated a week of revolt in Berlin. Led by Rosa Luxembburg and Karl Leibknecht, they wanted a Communist workers State in Germany
(3) Soviet forces entered
3/1/1919, Friday (-9,622) Part of the Latvian Army defected to the Communists and Communist forces occupied Riga, capital of Latvia.
31/12/1918, Tuesday (-9,625) The British War Cabinet met for the last time.
30/12/1918, Monday (-9,626) The German Communist Party was founded. However within a fortnight, irregular German troops had murdered its leaders.
29/12/1918, Sunday (-9,627) In Britain the Sunday Express newspaper was first published.
28/12/1918. Saturday (-9,628) Lloyd George’s coalition was re-elected to government. Lloyd George had the support of 478 MPs; the Opposition had 229 MPs, of whom 63 were Labour. One women was elected, Countess Markievicz, for a Dublin constituency. However as Sinn Fein candidate she would not take the oath of allegiance to the King and did not take her seat in the House.
27/12/1918, Friday (-9,629) (1) King George V and Queen Mary greeted President and Mrs Wilson of the United States.
26/12/1918, Thursday (-9,630)
25/12/1918, Wednesday (-9,631) Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, was born in Talah Minufiya.
24/12/1918, Tuesday (-9,632) A UK commission on poverty recommended an end to workhouses.
20/12/1918, Friday (-9,636)
15/12/1918, Sunday (-9,641) The Portuguese President Sidonio Paes was assassinated.
14/12/1918, Saturday (-9,642) (1) Women aged over 30 voted in a general Election in Britain for the first time. Women could also stand as candidates in UK General Elections for the first time. 17 stood but only one was elected. See 6/2/1918.
(2) President Woodrow Wilson arrived in
11/12/1918, Wednesday (-9,645), Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian
novelist, was born in
6/12/1918. Friday (-9,650) Allied troops occupied
4/12/1918. Wednesday (-9,652) The proclamation of the Kingdom of
the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, or
2/12/1918, Monday (-9,654) One of the last acts of the British War Cabinet; it demanded the extradition of the German Kaiser Wilhelm.
1/12/1918. Sunday (-9,655) (1) Denmark granted independence to Iceland; a 25-year union with Denmark was instituted.
(2) The British Second Army entered
30/11/1918. Saturday (-9,656) German
29/11/1918. Friday (-9,657) King
27/11/1918, Wednesday (-9,659)
25/11/1918, Monday (-9,661) French troops entered
24/11/1918, Sunday (-9,662) (1) Serbia took control of the Backsa, Baranya and western Banat regions from Hungary.
(2) The Communist Party of Hungary (Kommunistik Magyarorszagi Partja) was founded, and soon after, started publishing its own newspaper, Voros Ujsag (Red News)
23/11/1918, Saturday (-9,663)
22/11/1918, Friday (-9,664) (1) In London, 100 women police officers went on street patrol for the first time.
(2) The Poles
21/11/1918. Thursday (-9,665) Surrender of the German Fleet to the Allies at Scapa Flow, for internment. On 21/6/1919 it was scuttled at Scapa Flow, in the Orkneys.
20/11/1918, Wednesday (-9,666)
19/11/1918, Tuesday (-9.667) The UK government revealed that the War had cost 767,000 deaths and some 2.3 million injured.
18/11/1918. Monday (-9,668) (1) The German occupation of
16/11/1918, Saturday (-9,670)
14/11/1918. Thursday (-9,672) Tomas Masaryk was elected first President of Czechoslovakia.
12/11/1918, Tuesday (-9,674) The Republic of Austria was declared, ending the Hapsburg Dynasty, as Emperor Charles abdicated.
11/11/1918. Monday (-9,675) (Britain, France-Germany, US) Armistice Day. World War One ended. Fighting ceased on the Western Front, and Austro-Hungary signed an armistice with the Allies. See 29/9/1918. Church bells rang out across Britain in celebration. The Allies had not expected such a sudden collapse of Germany; in September 1918 they were planning campaigns for 1919. However General Ludendorff was shaken by the sudden Allied advance (see 8/8/1918) and begged Kaiser Wilhelm to seek an armistice immediately. The Armistice was signed in Marshal Foch’s railway carriage, near Compiegne. Warsaw became the capital of a restored Polish State. The armistice required Germany to relinquish 5,000 heavy guns, 30,000 machine guns, 2,000 aircraft, all U-boats, 5,000 locomotives, 150,000 wagons and 5,000 lorries. The surface fleet was to be interned (see 21/11/1918), the Allies were to occupy the Rhineland, and the blockade of German ports would continue. World War One cost 9 million lives, with a further 27 million injured. Britain alone had lost 750,000 men, and a further 200,000 from the Empire, with another 1.5 million seriously injured. The War had cost the Allies an estimated US$ 126 billion, and the Central Powers a further US$ 60 billion. Britons now celebrated, and wages rose, although higher food prices eroded some of those gains. Women, at least those over 30, finally had the vote, and smoking, gambling and movies boomed, with Charlie Chaplin as movie star.
The US was the greatest beneficiary of the War. US losses amounted to 53,000 men, a small number compared to 8,500,000 casualties of the European combatants. US industry had become more efficient, and key sectors such as chemicals had learned to do without Europe; the US aviation industry had been transformed. Economically, The US had needed European capital before 1914; by 1918 Europe owed the US some US$ 10,000 million.
9/11/1918. Saturday (-9,677) Kaiser William II abdicated and fled to Holland, and a German Republic was founded. On 11/11/1918 the Emperor of Austria, Karl, abdicated and a Republic was founded.
7/11/1918. Thursday (-9,679) Billy
6/11/1918. Wednesday (-9,680)
5/11/1918, Tuesday (-9,681) The
Poles occupied Lvov,
4/11/1918, Monday (-9,862) Italian troops occupied
3/11/1918. Sunday (-9,683) German fleet mutinied at Kiel. Austria signed an armistice with the Allies.
2/11/1918, Saturday (-6,984)
1/11/1918, Friday (-9,685) (1) In Lvov, the last Austrian Governor, Count Huyn, armed the Ukrainians who proclaimed an independent Republic of West Ukraine, in opposition to the Bolsheviks.
(2) Anglo-French troops took
31/10/1918. Thursday (-9,686) Ottoman Turkey surrendered to the Allies; the Dardanelles were reopened to Allied shipping. Anglo-French troops occupied Constantinople.
30/10/1918. (1) Wednesday (-9,687) An armistice was concluded
aboard the British warship Agamemnon,
at Mudros, between
(2) Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lawrence, ‘Lawrence of Arabia’, shocked King George V by turning down the Order of the Bath and Distinguished Service Order. Lawrence was disappointed at how the Arabs had not achieved independence after World War One but their land had been carved up between Britain and France. France, Catholic, took the Christian sites of Lebanon and Syria; Britain took Jordan and Iraq.
(3) Austria completed the evacuation of its troops from Italian territory. Austria became an independent German speaking state. See 23/10/1918.
29/10/1918, Tuesday (-9,688) Croatia declared its independence.
28/10/1918, Monday (-9,689)
27/10/1918. Sunday (-9,690)
26/10/1918. Saturday (-9,691) (1) In London alone, in the past week, Spanish flu claimed 2,225 lives.
(2) Aleppo, Syria, was captured from the Turks by British and Arab troops advancing from the south.
23/10/1918, Wednesday (-9,694) (1) The House of Commons voted to allow women MPs, by a margin of 274 to 25 votes.
(2) Italian forces counterattacked against the Austrians near Vittorio Veneto, reaching the Piave River on 27/10/1918, By 30/10.1918 the Italians, with the aid of British forces, had the Austrians in full retreat.
21/10/1918. Monday (-9,696) The Spanish Flu epidemic began in Britain. 150,000 died of this disease in the last quarter of 1918.. It killed twice as many as died in World War One.
20/10/1918. Sunday (-9,697)
19/10/1918 , Saturday (-9,698)
18/10/1918. Friday (-9,699) Lille was recaptured from the Germans.
17/10/1918. Thursday (-9,700) (1)
15/10/1918, Tuesday (-9,702)
13/10/1918, Sunday (-9,704)
British troops occupied
11/10/1918, Friday (-9,706) In Puerto Rico a major earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale
10/10/1918, Thursday (-9,707) 587 died when the Irish mailboat Leinster was torpedoed by a German U-boat.
9/10/1918, Wednesday (-9,708)
8/10/1918, Tuesday (-9,709) The French retook Cambrai, see 26/8/1914.
7/10/1918. Monday (-9,710) British troops took
3/10/1918, Thursday (-9,714)
Tsar Ferdinand of
1/10/1918. Tuesday (-9,716) Arab
forces under Emir Faisal, including the British officer T E Lawrence, captured
30/9/1918. Monday (-9,717)
Slovak Nationalist parties in
29/9/1918. Sunday (-9,718) (1) Allied troops captured part of the Hindenburg
Line. Ludendorff called for an armistice to avert a catastrophe for
26/9/1918, Thursday (-9,721) General Allied offensive on the Western Front; the Germans were fighting now only to cover their retreat.
22/9/1918. Sunday (-9,725)
Turkish resistance in
20/9/1918. Friday (-9,727) The
19/9/1918, Thursday (-9,728) In Britain a Government commission investigated equal pay for women.
18/9/1918, Wednesday (-9,729) The British under General Allenby started a major offensive against the Turks, pushing them north out of Palestine.
15/9/1918, Sunday (-9,732) Mr C Chubb
13/9/1918. Friday (-9,734) In the
9/9/1918. Monday (-9,738) Allied victory at
4/9/1918. Wednesday (-9,743) The Germans retreated to the Siegfried Line.
30/8/1918. Friday (-9,748) (1) London police went on strike. Prisoners had to be taken to court in taxis, but a major crime wave did not materialise. Bus drivers did traffic duty at major junctions. 2,000 police officers marched to a rally at Tower Hill, demanding wage rises and the reinstatement of a colleague dismissed for political activities. The key issue, however, was trade union recognition. Trade Unions had grown significantly during the War, from 4,145,000 members in 1914 to 6,533,000 members in 1918. Now working-class policemen, who kept union disputes in check, wanted their own union representation.
troops crossed the
25/8/1918. Sunday (-9,753) The Hungarian government expelled the Jews and confiscated their assets.
15/8/1918. Thursday (-9,763) The
13/8/1918, Tuesday (-9,765)
8/8/1918. Thursday (-9,770) General Haig initiated a surprise
offensive against the Germans at
The Allies were reinforced by US troops and further British troops were returning from Palestine. The British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, agreed to release reserve divisions of conscripts, which he had held back, now convinced he was not simply sending them into another meat grinder like The Somme or Passchendaele. With an assembly of 456 tanks and 2,000 guns and howitzers the Allies forced the Germans back on a 14-mile front, for 8 miles. 400 German guns were captured, along with 12,000 prisoners. The new Allied tactics continued to work against stiff German resistance and by mid September the Germans had retreated to the massive defences of their Hindenburg Line, 3 miles in depth. However the Germans were demoralised and after 10 days of fighting the Hindenburg Line was broken through at Saint Quentin. German soldiers going on home leave, passing fresh troops travelling west to the front, taunted them with calls of ‘you’re only prolonging the war’. However casualties on all sides were very high. In the three months following Amiens, August 1918, 531,000 French soldiers died or were wounded or captured, as many as in the eight months of Verdun 1916. The figure for US soldiers for those three months was 127,000, over twice as many as lost in Vietnam. For British and Empire troops, the toll was 411,000, the same as during the 4 ½ months of The Somme. German losses were even higher; 785,000 killed and wounded, and 386,000 prisoners taken by the Allies.
A major issue for Germany was lack of food. Germany had been over 80% self-sufficient in food in 1914, but the military had removed labour from the farms without compensatory inputs of fertiliser or mechanisation. German food production plummeted and by 1918 German citizens had just 64% of pre-war cereals, 18% of the meat, and 12% of the fats they had consumed in 1913.
On the German Home Front, Ludendorff and the other Generals knew the War was lost weeks before the November 1918 Armistice. Although by then Germany was effectively a military dictatorship, the military pretended that surrender was only due to the wishes of civilian politicians. This perpetuated a post-War myth that the German Army had not been defeated at all, but betrayed by left-wing politicians, that the German Army was in fact invincible. Less than 20 years later that myth helped fuel the rise of the Nazis.
2/8/1918. Friday (-9,776) British,
French, and US forces landed at
29/7/1918. Monday (-9,780)
18/7/1918. Thursday (-9,791) (1)
Allied forces launched a counter offensive on the Marne, capturing
(2) Nelson Mandela, South African Black Rights campaigner and leader, was born (died 2013).
16/7/1918. Tuesday (-9,793) The last Tsar, Nicholas II, was murdered by the Bolsheviks along with his entire family, his daughters Olga, Tatiana, Marie, Anastasia, and his son Alexis, and domestic staff, and even his dog, in the cellar of a house in Ekaterinburg. Their bodies were thrown down a disused mineshaft. The Bolshevik government was afraid that anti-Bolshevik White Russians or Czechoslovak troops would liberate the Romanov family and restore them to power.
15/7/1918, Monday (-9,794) The
14/7/1918, Sunday (-9,795)
10/7/1918. Wednesday (-9,799)
A provisional government of
9/7/1918, Tuesday (-9,800) America experienced its worst train accident. 101 were killed in Nashville, Tennessee.
8/7/1918, Monday (-9,801) National
Savings Stamps went on sale in
1/7/1918, Monday (-9,808) A catastrophic explosion at the Chilwell munitions plant near Nottingham killed 134 workers. The women who worked there making nitrogen-based explosives were known as ‘Canary Girls’, because the chemicals turned theor skin yellow and hair green. The blast was heard 30 miles away, but news of it was suppressed. The Chilwell factory had produced 19 million shells, half of those used by British forces during the First World War. Of the 7,000 surviving workers, all but 12 were back working at Chilwell the day after.
26/6/1918. Wednesday (-9,813) The Bolshevik government in Russia faced enemies on all; sides. In the south, General Anton Denikin had seized large parts of the Caucasus and Ukraine. In the north bands of anti-Bolsheviks roamed at will. Former Czech prisoners of war had organised themselves into the Czech legion and had seized Osmk on the Trans-Siberian railway. Over 100 British marines had landed at Murmansk to keep the Bolsheviks out of that port.
20/6/1918, Thursday (-9,819) After protests, the UK Government cancelled Irish conscription. See 18/4/1918.
18/6/1918, Tuesday (-9,821) The UK Government asked for a
further War Loan of £500 million. General rationing in the
15/6/1918, Saturday (-9,824) The Austrians began an offensive
against the Italians along the Piave River Front; they were attempting to break
through to the fertile farmlands of the
13/6/1918. Thursday (-9,826) A Turkish offensive in
10/6/1918, Monday (-9,829) The Battle of Belleau Wood ended.
6/6/1918, Thursday (-9,833) Battle of Belleau Wood began.
3/6/1918. Monday (-9,836) British postal charges were raised from 1d to 1 ½ d for a letter and 1d for a postcard.
28/5/1918, Tuesday (-9,842)
27/5/1918, Monday (-9,843)
The Germans took
26/5/1918, Sunday (-9,844)
23/5/1918. Thursday (-9,847)
19/5/1918. Sunday (-9,851)
18/5/1918, Saturday (-9,852) To curb growing revolutionary power in Ireland, the British Government declared Sinn Fein and the Irish Volunteers (now IRA) to be illegal organisations.
15/5/1918, Wednesday (-9,855) The US inaugurated the world’s first regular air mail service between New York and Washington. The US Navy operated the service, for the US Post Office.
12/5/1918, Sunday (-9,858) Julius Rosenberg was born (see 19/6/1953).
9/5/1918, Thursday (-9,861) British troops averted a German attack on Ostend, Belgium.
7/5/1918. Tuesday (-9,863)
29/4/1918. Monday (-9,871) The last big German offensive on the Western Front petered out.
26/4/1918, Friday (-9,874) The Turks captured Kars, Caucasus, from Russia, however their cause was doomed as General Allenby made major gains in Palestine.
23/4/1918. Tuesday (-9,877) (1) In Ireland, a one-day strike against conscription was widely supported, except in Ulster.
(2) British forces raided Zeebrugge. They accomplished their objective of sinking concrete-filled British ships in the harbour entrance to block it, bottling up German submarines.
22/4/1918, Monday (-9,878) Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan united to form the short-lived Transcaucasian Republic, see 26/5/1918.
21/4/1918, Sunday (-9,879) Manfred von Richtofen, the ‘Red Baron’, German World War One air ace, was shot down and died in his famous red tri-plane behind British lines.
18/4/1918, Thursday (-9,882) In Britain, the age of military conscription was raised to 50, and extended to cover Ireland. See 20/6/1918. Sinn Fein, the Nationalists and the British labour Party all resisted this.
14/4/1918, Sunday (-9,886) (1)
Following the collapse of the Russians,
9/4/1918. Tuesday (-9,891) (1)
6/4/1918. Saturday (-9,894) (1)
1/4/1918. Monday (-9,899) The Royal Air Force was formed, by amalgamating the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. Lord Rothermere at the Air Ministry in The Strand, London, was in charge.
29/3/1918, Friday (-9,902) In Quebec, Canada, the Compulsory Military Service Act of September 1917 provoked such severe rioting from this day until 2/4/1917 that 4 civilians were killed.
25/3/1918, Monday (-9,906) Claude Debussy, French composer, died of cancer in London aged 55.
23/3/1918. Saturday (-9,908) (1) German troops shelled
22/3/1918, Friday (-9,909) Cheddi Jagan, President of Guyana, was born.
21/3/1918. Thursday (-9,910) Major
German offensive began on the
13/3/1918, Wednesday (-9,918) In Britain, it was announced that the minimum school leaving age was to be raised to 14, from 13; this measure was implemented in December 1918 under the Education Act.
7/3/1918, Thursday (-9,924) Bonar Law asked the UK Commons for another war loan of £600 million.
6/3/1918, Wednesday (-9,925) In Russia, at the 7th Party Congress in Moscow, the Bolshevik Party was renamed the Communist Party.
5/3/1918. Tuesday (-9,926) Moscow was declared the new capital of Russia, in place of Petrograd.
4/3/1918, Monday (-9,927) The railway from Cuffley, Hertfordshire, was extended through Hertford to rejoin the GNR main line at Langley Junction, see 4/4/1910.
3/3/1918. Sunday (-9,928) The Bolshevik government in Russia assigned the Treaty of Brest Litovsk with the Germans. Lenin insisted on signing, against the wishes of Trotsky. Trotsky wanted the Communist Revolution to spread throughout Germany, but Lenin feared the rapid advance of German troops into Russia, approaching Petrograd.
Russia lost heavily in terms of land and industry (Russia lost 56 million inhabitants, 79% of its iron, and 89% of its coal production), but the Bolsheviks needed peace at any cost before their new and shaky administration was overthrown, by Germany or by anti-Bolshevik White Russians and Czechoslovak troops. Under this Treaty, Finland regained its independence from Russia. The Baltic Republics were ceded to Germany. Communists (recruited from Finnish labourers) joined Red Guards to try and re-establish Communist control in Finland. Germany moved in to repulse them. See 6/4/1918. Turkey regained territories lost to Russia even in 1877.
26/2/1918, Tuesday (-9,933)
25/2/1918. Monday (-9,934) (1) Rationing
of meat, butter, and margarine began in
24/2/1918. Sunday (-9,935)
23/2/1918, Saturday (-9,936)
22/2/1918. Friday (-9,937) The world’s tallest man, Robert Wadlow, was born, weighing 8 ½ lbs. He grew to 8 foot 11 ½ inches in height and weighed 31 stone 5 lbs, when he died in 1940.
21/2/1918. Thursday (-9,938) Australian
18/2/1918, Monday (-9,941)
16/2/1918, Saturday (-9,943)
9/2/1918. Saturday (-9,950)
6/2/1918. Wednesday (-9,953) (1) Married women in Britain aged over 30 got the vote, as did all men over 21, under the Representation of the People Act. See 14/12/1918.
(2) A deposit of £150 was required from UK Parliamentary candidates.
30/1/1918, Wednesday (-9,960) The Commons rejected the Lords’ proposal for proportional representation.
28/1/1918. Monday (-9,962) (1) A
general workers strike began in
(2) Lenin created a Red Army and the Cheka, a security police force.
23/1/1918, Wednesday (-9,967) The UK Government ordered restaurants to have two ‘meatless’ days a week.
17/1/1918, Thursday (-9,973) Sir Keith Joseph, British politician, was born.
15/1/1918, Tuesday (-9,975) Gamal Nasser, the first President of Egypt, was born in
10/1/1918, Thursday (-9,980) In Britain the House of Lords approved the Representation of the People Bill, giving women the vote. In Washington the House of Representatives also voted in favour of suffrage for women.
8/1/1918, Tuesday (-9,982) Recruiting began in
31/12/1917, Monday (-9,990) During the year 1917 German submarines sank 6,500,000 tons of Allied shipping whilst only 2,700,000 tons was built. In April 1917 Britain had only two months’ worth of food stocks. However with US destroyer patrols searching for German submarines, escorted transatlantic convoys and the mining of the seas between Scotland and Norway, Allied losses were dramatically reduced and after April 1918 never exceeded 200,000 tons a month.
27/12/1917, Thursday (-9,994) The US Government took over the American railways.
22/12/1917. Saturday (-9,999) The Bolsheviks opened peace talks with Germany and Austria. The Allies accused |Russia of betrayal.
18/12/1917, Tuesday (-10,003) The United States Congress submitted Prohibition legislation to the states. The 18th Amendment was known as the Volstead Act, after its chief sponsor, Andrew Volstead of Minnesota. It took a further 13 months for the necessary three quarters of US states to ratify the Act for it to become law, see 16/1/1919.
17/12/1917. Monday (-10,004) Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, Britain’s first woman doctor, died.
16/12/1917, Sunday (-10,005) Arthur C Clarke, British science-fiction writer, was born.
12/12/1917, Wednesday (-10,009) The world’s worst train accident occurred, at Modane, France. 534 were killed.
9/12/1917. Sunday (-10,012)
7/12/1917. Friday (-10,014) The
6/12/1917. Thursday (-10,015)
(2) As the Russian Army disintegrated after the October Revolution into bands of raiders, Romania and Russia signed an armistice.
5/12/1917. Wednesday (-10,016) Russia signed an armistice with Germany, at Brest-Litovsk.
3/12/1917, Monday (-10,018) (1) The
(2) Britain refused to recognise Bolshevik Russia. Meanwhile German and Austrian delegates met at Brest-Litovsk to end Russian participation in World War One, see 3/3/1918.
1/12/1917. Saturday (-10,020)
29/11/1917, Thursday (-10,022) The Inter Allied War Conference opened. Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France and Baron Sidney Sonnino of Italy were concerned that US soldiers and material quickly reach the front lines against Germany, since post-Revolution Russia had ceased fighting.
20/11/1917. Tuesday (-10,031) (1) Major British tank offensive at Cambrai. The Battle of Cambrai ended on 3/12/1917.
(2) The Republic of the
19/11/1917. Monday (-10,032) (1) A Revolutionary Council was established in Petrograd, with Leon Trotsky as leader.
Ghandi born in
18/11/1917, Sunday (-10,033)
17/11/1917, Saturday (-10,034) Death of the sculptor Auguste Rodin, aged 77.
16/11/1917. Friday (-10,035) Bolshevik troops took Moscow.
15/11/1917, Thursday (-10,036)
14/11/1917. Wednesday (-10,037)
13/11/1917. Tuesday (-10,038) In
12/11/1917, Monday (-10,039)
11/11/1917, Sunday (-10,040) Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, died.
10/11/1917, Saturday (-10,041) The Third
9/11/1917. Friday (-10,042) Arthur
Balfour, the British Foreign Secretary, unveiled plans for a Jewish national
8/11/1917, Thursday (-10,043)
7/11/1917 (25/10 in
6/11/1917. Tuesday (-10,045) Canadian
troops captured the
5/11/1917. Monday (-10,046) American troops under General Pershing went into action for the first time on the Western Front.
2/11/1917. Friday (-10,049)
31/10/1917. Wednesday (-10,051) (1) The Italian army was shattered
unexpectedly by a German onslaught in northern Italy and was retreating towards
the Piave River, just 15 miles
from Venice. The Italian Second Army had held the Austrians off during 1916 and
had captured the fortress of Monte Santo only 2 months earlier. The Italians
had seemed well dug in around the mountains of Caporetto and
(2) British forces under General Allenby captured Beersheba
from the Turks. This opened the way for the British capture of
Meanwhile in 1916 Britain and France had secretly signed the Sykes-Picot agreement to divided up the Ottoman Lands in the Middle East after the War. France was to get the north-western half of the Fertile Crescent, that is Syria and Lebanon; Britain was to get the south-east, Jordan and Iraq. The Catholic church wanted French control of the Mediterranean coast, where many Maronite Christians lived, and Britain wanted French lands between them and the Russians to the north. Britain retained an air corridor to Iraq through Jordan; Britain was dropping poison gas on rebellious Iraqi Arabs. France divided off Lebanon as a Christian Republic from Syria; it also divided off Hatay and gave that to Syria, due to lobbying from Hatay’s Turkish minority. The Allies also considered giving Palestine to Belgium. They also, at the Treaty of Sevres (10/8/1920) backed the formation of a Kurdish State, but refused to allow the Kurds in Iraq or Syria to be part of this State; the idea never materialised.
24/10/1917, Wednesday (-10,058) The Austrian
23/10/1917, Tuesday (-10,059) The Battle of Caporetto began.
22/10/1917, Monday (-10,060) The Trans-Australia Railway opened, from Kalgoorlie to Port Augusta.
20/10/1917. Saturday (-10,062) 4 Zeppelins were shot down over France after raids on the UK.
15/10/1917. Monday (-10,067) The legendary Dutch
spy Mata Hari, who danced in the nude, was executed by a firing squad in
13/10/1917, Saturday (-10,069) The ‘Miracle of Fatima’ occurred in Portugal.
9/10/1917, Tuesday (-10,073) Stalin joined the Bolshevik Committee.
5/10/1917. Friday (-10,077) Sir Arthur Lee donated Chequers to the nation as a country retreat for British Prime Ministers.
4/10/1917, Thursday (-10,078) British victory on Passchendaele Ridge.
2/10/1917, Tuesday (-10,080)
1/10/1917. Monday (-10,081) (1) Air raids on London.
(2) Damascus fell to General Allenby.
30/9/1917. Sunday (-10,082) The ex-Tsar and family were exiled to Siberia.
20/9/1917. Thursday (-10,092) The first RSPCA animal clinic was
17/9/1917. Monday (-10,095) The Germans captured the
15/9/1917. Saturday (-10,097) (1)
14/9/1917. Friday (-10,098) German
11/9/1917, Tuesday (-10,101) Ferdinand Marcos, President of the Philippines, was born.
2/9/1917, Sunday (-10,110) Major German night time air raid on Dover.
30/8/1917. Thursday (-10,113) Denis Healey, British Labour politician, was born.
20/8/1917, Monday (-10,123) (1) Over 100 killed in an air raid on Thanet and Sheppey.
(2) The French broke through the Verdun front on an 11 mile wide offensive.
18/8/1917, Saturday (-10,125) Caspar Weinberger, US Republican
politician and Secretary of Defence for Ronald Reagan, was born in
15/8/1917, Wednesday (-10,128) In Lausanne Dmowski formed a Polish National Committee, It was almost a government-in-exile, recognised by the Allies as representing Polish interests.
14/8/1917. Tuesday (-10,129)
4/8/1917. Saturday (-10,139) The
31/7/1917. Tuesday (-10,143) The Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) began, see 10/11/1917.
29/7/1917, Sunday (-10,145) Taking advantage of Revolutionary chaos, the Finns declared their independence from Russia.
28/7/1917, Saturday (-10,146) The formation of the Royal Tank Corps in the British Army was authorised.
26/7/1917, Thursday (-10,148)
25/7/1917, Wednesday (-10,149) Mata Hari, a Dutchwoman called Margaretha Geetruida Macleod (nee Zelle), aged 41, who used her charms to tempt French Army officers to betray military secrets, was found guilty of spying by a military court (despite very little evidence of her guilt) and sentenced to death by firing squad. She was initially hired by the French to spy in German-occupied Belgium.
24/7/1917, Tuesday (-10,150) UK
MPs were alarmed to discover the war was costing
22/7/1917, Sunday (-10,152)
20/7/1917, Friday (-10,154) The Pact of Corfu proclaimed the Union of South Slavs, or Yugoslavia. When Serbia was invaded in World War One, the Serbs established a government in exile on Corfu. The Serbian Prime Minister Paslic agreed with the leader of the south Serbs, Ante Trumbic, that the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and Montenegrins, should unite to form a single state; Yugoslavia. In the 1920s, Serbia came to dominate this union, and other national groups claimed Paslic had tricked Trumbic at Corfu.
19/7/1917. Thursday (-10,155) Mutinies broke out in the German Navy. The German Reichstag passed a motion to end the war.
18/7/1917, Wednesday (-10,156)
17/7/1917. Tuesday (-10,157) Churchill returned to UK government as Minister for Munitions.
16/7/1917. Monday (-10,158) The provisional government in Petrograd, Russia, crushed the Bolshevik uprising. The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, fled to Switzerland. However on 7/11/1917 Kerensky, leader of the Russian provisional government, was ousted by Lenin.
15/7/1917, Sunday (-10,159) US Congress passed the Espionage Act. Section 1 introduced heavy penalties, of up to 20 years in prison, for anyone causing insubordination or disloyalty in the armed forces, or obstructing recruitment; 2,000 prosecutions were brought under this measure. The Act also empowered the US Postmaster to exclude from the mail any material in violation of Section 1.
14/7/1917, Saturday (-10,160) General Pershing, 57, arrived in Paris to set up the headquarters of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF).
7/7/1917. Saturday (-10,167) Air raids on London and Margate killed 97 and injured 193.
5/7/1917, Thursday (-10,169) Joe Gormley, President of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), was born.
29/6/1917. Friday (-10,175) Ukraine declared its independence. Greece declared war on Germany.
27/6/1917. Wednesday (-10,177) 14,000 American troops arrived in France to fight with the Allies. The American expeditionary force was commanded by General John Pershing.
19/6/1917, Tuesday (-10,185) (1) Large Commons vote in favour of giving women over 30 the vote.
(2) All German titles and names are renounced by the British Royal Family, who adopted the name Windsor. The old name had been Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
16/6/1917. Saturday (-10,188) The first pan-Soviet Congress opened in Petrograd.
14/6/1917. Thursday (-10,190) Air raid on London, the first by German fixed-wing aircraft. In a daylight raid, 162 Londoners died and 432 were injured. 16 children died in a Poplar school.
13/6/1917, Wednesday (-10,191) Large German air raid on Folkestone, Shorncliffe and other Kent towns. 95 died and 260 were injured.
12/6/1917. Tuesday (-10,192) The pro-German King Constantine of Greece, who dismissed the pro-Allied government of Venizelos, was himself forced to abdicate by the Allies.
10/6/1917. Sunday (-10,194) Sinn Fein uprising in Dublin.
8/6/1917. Friday (-10,196) Haig launched a new Flanders offensive.
7/6/1917, Thursday (-10,197) The British captured the Messines Ridge. The British had begun tunnelling under the Ridge from august 1915, and placed high explosives in the tunnels, detonated at 3.10 am. A million pounds of explosive was used, and the explosion was heard in London and Dublin.
6/6/1917, Wednesday (-10,198)
4/6/1917. Monday (-10,200) (1) In France, with the co-operation of the provisional Russian government, a Polish army was formed to fight Germany.
(2) Brazil declared war against Germany and seized all German ships in its ports.
3/6/1917. Sunday (-10,201) Italy declared Albania a protectorate.
29/5/1917. Tuesday (-10,206) US Democrat and 35th President, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, the second of nine children. He was America’s first Roman Catholic President, and the youngest to date.
25/5/1917. Friday (-10,210) Air raid on Folkestone.
18/5/1917. Friday (-10,217) (1) Trotsky returned to Russia from the USA
(2) The US introduced selective conscription.
17/5/2017, Thursday (-10,218) Kerensky became head of the Soviet interim government.
15/5/1917. Tuesday (-10,220) Henri Petain became French Commander in Chief.
13/5/1917, Sunday (-10,222) At Fatima, a small town in north east Portugal, three shepherd girls aged 10 - 13 saw a vision of a lady outside the town. The vision reappeared at monthly intervals and on 13/10/1917 declared itself to be ‘Our Lady of the Rosary’.
12/5/1917. Saturday (-10,223) The British army began to accept men aged 41-50.
10/5/1917, Thursday (-10,225)
5/5/1917. Saturday (-10,230) The Battle of Arras, 9 April to 5 May. The Allied Spring offensive against the Germans pushed them back 3 to 4 miles from the eastern suburbs of Arras, capturing several important hills.
4/5/1917. Friday (-10,231) Widespread mutiny amongst French units on the Front.
3/5/1917, Thursday (-10,232) US destroyers arrived to join the British navy.
2/5/1917, Wednesday (-10,233) King George V called for national restraint in bread consumption.
26/4/1917. Thursday (-10,239) German naval raid on Ramsgate.
20/4/1917. Friday (-10,245) The US broke off relations with Turkey.
17/4/1917. Tuesday (-10,248) On his return to Russia (from Zurich) with the other Bolshevik leaders, Vladimir Illyich Lenin demanded a transfer of power to workers Soviets.
15/4/1917, Sunday (-10,250)
14/4/1917, Saturday (-10,251) Dr Zamenof, Polish linguist and inventor of Esperanto, died.
13/4/1917, Friday (-10,252) Stalin was released from exile in Siberia (imposed 1913).
12/4/1917, Thursday (-10,253)
11/4/1917. Wednesday (-10.254) (1) Brazil broke off relations with Germany after the steamer Parana was torpedoed off France. On 1/6/1917 Brazil revoked its neutrality in the War as a mark of ‘continental solidarity and friendship with the USA’. After more Brazilian shipping was sunk, Brazil declared war on Germany on 26/10/1917. Brazil’s direct contribution to the war was the dispatch of part of its fleet to European waters and the sending of a medical mission and some aviators to the Western Front. The main contribution was placing its food supplies and other resources at the disposal of the Allies.
(2) British general Sir Edmund Allenby, commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, occupied Jerusalem following his victory in Palestine over the Turks.
10/4/1917.Tuesday (-10,255) Canadian troops captured Vimy Ridge in northern France, with heavy casualties. This was a major assault during the Battle of Arras, World War One.
9/4/1917, Monday (-10,256) The Canadians stormed Vimy Ridge, see 10/4/1917.
8/4/1917, Sunday (-10,257)
7/4/1917. Saturday (-10,258) Cuba declared war on Germany.
6/4/1917. Friday (-10,259) The USA declared war against Germany, with a declaration signed by President Woodrow Wilson. This followed the revealing by the British on 1/3/1917 of the Zimmerman Telegram, a missive from Germany to Mexico urging it to declare war on the USA and recover its lost territories. The German Foreign Minister, Arthur Zimmerman, had sent a coded telegram to the German Ambassador in Mexico offering an alliance against the US, in which Mexico would recover its territories of New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. British naval intelligence intercepted and decoded the message and passed it to President Wilson. American shipping bound for Britain had also been attacked by German submarines.
The Germans did not believe that the US could raise and equip an effective army quickly enough to make a difference in Europe, and that even if they did, it could not be transported across a submarine-infested ocean. They seriously underestimated the determination and resources of the US. The US did indeed have only a relatively small standing army, 300,000 men including the National Guard and reserves, but conscription was introduced and many willingly signed up.
Meanwhile this day the King and Queen of England attended a Thanksgiving service at St Pauls Cathedral for the US’s entry into the ‘war for freedom’.
4/4/1917, Wednesday (-10,261)
3/4/1917, Tuesday (-10,262) Vladimir Illyich Lenin returned to Moscow from exile.
2/4/1917, Monday (-10,263) US President Wilson asked the US Congress to pass a resolution to declare war on Germany.
1/4/1917, Sunday (-10,264) Scott Joplin, American composer, died in poverty in an asylum.
30/3/1917, Friday (-10,266)
29/3/1917, Thursday (-10,267) In Britain, Lloyd George announced plans to give women over 30 the vote.
28/3/1917. Wednesday (-10,268) The first women’s service unit, the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps, was formed.
26/3/1917. Monday (-10,270) Britain attacked the Turks at Gaza (First Battle of Gaza).
21/3/1917. Wednesday (-10,275) Ex-Tsar Nicholas II and his family were arrested.
20/3/1917. Tuesday (-10,276) (1) A German U-boat sank a fully-lit hospital ship.
(2) Dame Vera Lynn was born.
19/3/1917, Monday (-10,277)
18/3/1917. Sunday (-10,278) Ramsgate and Broadstairs shelled from the sea.
17/3/1917. Saturday (-10,279)
The British heavily defeated the Turks near
16/3/1917, Friday (-10,280) An interim Soviet Russian government was set up.
15/3/1917. Thursday (-10,281) Czar Nicholas II abdicated in Pskov. The 300-year Romanov dynasty ended (see 8/3/1917).
14/3/1917, Wednesday (-10,282) A provisional government was
set up in
13/3/1917, Tuesday (-10,283)
12/3/1917, Monday (-10,284) Izvestia,
the official daily newspaper of the
11/3/1917. Sunday (-10,285) The
10/3/1917, Saturday (-10,286) A Soviet, or council, of workers and soldiers was set up in Russia.
9/3/1917, Friday (-10.287)
8/3/1917. Thursday (-10,288) (1) The Russian ‘February’ (old style calendar) Revolution began at Petrograd. Widespread demonstrations were sparked by food shortages; more ominously for Tsar Nicholas II, soldiers refused to open fire on the crowds. The Russian army had suffered severe casualties against the Germans and was more on the people’s side. Soldiers were defecting and joining the demonstrators. See 15/3/1917.
(3) Graf von Zeppelin, German airship pioneer, died in Charlottenburg, near Berlin.
7/3/1917. Wednesday (-10,289) The Dixie Band One-Step was the world’s first jazz record to be released. Ironically it was by the all-white Original Dixieland Jazz Band.
2/3/1917. Friday (-10,294) The
26/2/1917. Monday (-10,298) (1) News of the sinking of the Cunard liner
(2) US Congress created the McKinley National Park, covering 2,500 square miles. It is now much larger, and known as Denali.
25/2/1917. Sunday (-10,299) The Germans retreated on the Ancre, and on 28/2/1917 the British captured Gommecourt.
20/2/1917, Tuesday (-10,304)
The USA bought the
13/2/1917, Tuesday (-10,311) (1) Britain introduced new regulations to allow women to be taxi drivers.
(2) The Dutch spy Mata Hari was arrested by the French.
10/2/1917. Saturday (-10,314) Weizmann and the British Government discussed plans for a Jewish homeland.
7/2/1917. Wednesday (-10,317) All
3/2/1917. Saturday (-10,321) The USA broke off relations with Germany.
2/2/1917, Friday (-10,322) In the UK, bread rationing began.
31/1/1917. Wednesday (-10,324) Germany announced a policy of unrestricted naval warfare. All ships, passenger or cargo, found by Germans could now be sunk without warning. This was a calculated risk by Germany because it was bound to involve US shipping being sunk, and would therefore bring the USA in against Germany. But Germany reckoned on the inevitability of the USA entering the war against here soon anyway, and believed she could win the war before this happened. The German Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Von Holtzendorff, presented a memo to the Kaiser saying that if 600,000 tons of Allied shipping could be sunk each month, within five months Britain would have to surrender. In fact, in the worst month, April 1917, German U-boats sank 869,103 tons of shipping, 373 ships. The British adopted a convoy system, despite fears that a convoy’s speed was limited to that of the slowest ship. The Navy had feared it had too few destroyers for this job but then realised that it had enough if only ocean-going ships, not cross-Channel traffic, was guarded.
Meanwhile the British navy deployed Q-ships, gunships disguised as merchant ships which lured U-boats to the surface then opened their gun hatches at the last moment. The first trial convoy ran from Gibraltar on 10/5/1917. The convoy system worked; of 26,604 vessels convoyed in 1917, only 147 were sunk. Meanwhile the Germans lost 65 of their 139 U-boats. Meanwhile Allied shipping blockaded German trade, creating shortages of tea and coffee, but more seriously, fertiliser shortages too. In the final German land offensive of 1918, advancing German troops discovered their privations were not being endured by the enemy, and German morale fell.
29/1/1917. Monday (-10,326)
22/1/1917, Monday (-10,333) US President Woodrow Wilson delivered a speech to the Senate, ‘Peace Without Victory’, condemning European imperialism and militarism and calling for a League of Nations.
11/1/1917, Thursday (-10,344) The war was costing Britain £5.7 million per day.
10/1/1917, Wednesday (-10,345) William ‘Buffalo Bill’ Cody died, aged 71. He was a pony express rider before the Civil War, in which he fought; after, he supplied meat to the workers of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, hence his name. As chief of scouts for the US military he fought in several battles against the Indians, which made him famous.
9/1/1917. Tuesday (-10,346) The Russian Prime Minister, Aklexander Trepov, resigned in the face of strikes, food shortages, and anti-war protests. He was succeeded by Dimitri Golitzin.
4/1/1917, Thursday (-10,351)
1/1/1917, Monday (-10.354) The railway from St Johns, SE London, through Blackheath Hill to Greenwich, closed.
31/12/1916, Sunday (-10,355) By the end of 1916, Russia had seen some 3,600,000 of its citizens killed or wounded in the Great War, and a further 2,000,000 taken prisoner by the Central Powers.
30/12/1916. Saturday (-10,356) In
23/12/1916, Saturday (-10,363) The Irishmen interned after the Easter Rising were released (see 1/5/1916).
15/12/1916. Friday (-10,371) The Battle of Verdun, which began on 21/2/1916, ended. 364,000 Allied soldiers and 338,000 German soldiers, had died in this battle.
14/12/1916, Thursday (-10,372) After a referendum in favour amongst the Danish electorate, the sale of the Danish West Indies (Virgin Islands) was ratified, to the US, for US$ 25 million.
13/12/1916. Wednesday (-10,373) New British offensive in Mesopotamia.
7/12/1916. Thursday (-10,379)
6/12/1916, Wednesday (-10,380)
The Central Powers occupied
5/12/1916, Tuesday (-10,381) An explosion at the Barnbow munitions factory, Leeds, killed 35 women. The incident was censored and went unreported at the time. War production resumed within a week, with wages on £12 a week, equivalent to over £1,000 a week in 2015.
1/12/1916, Friday (-10,385) The lights of the Statue of Liberty were turned on by President Wilson.
24/11/1916, Friday (-10,392) Sir Hiram Maxim, English-born
21/11/1916. Tuesday (-10,395) Emperor Franz Josef, ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire since 1848, died.
20/11/1916, Monday (-10,396) Railway electrification from London Waterloo reached Claygate.
16/11/1916, Thursday (-10,400) The East Kent Light Railway opened, from Shepherds Well to Wingham, 25 ½ miles.
13/11/1916, Monday (-10,403) The Battle of the Somme ended. It had begun on 1/7/1916, and succeeded in driving the Germans north towards the coast, but cost over 600,000 Allied lives; 420,000 British and 200,000 French. German casualties were 450,000. At Verdun, ten months of fighting had cost another 400,000 men from both sides. The Allies gained, at the Somme, some two miles of ground for these casualties, about five lives lost per inch gained. The Germans knew the ‘Big Push’ was coming, and had prepared well by stockpiling ammunition then sitting deep in underground bunkers waiting. The Allied bombardment fully announced this push, but did not destroy the German bunkers. After the bombardment the Allied soldiers walked forward over no man’s land carrying their kit, guns, and grenades, at least 30 kg or 60 lbs per person on a hot summer day. The Germans, as soon as the bombardment ended, climbed back up and scythed down the Allies in a hail of machine gun fire. On the first day of that offensive, the Allies lost 19,000 men with a further 57,000 wounded, the greatest loss ever on a single day. Bad communications and slowness meant the few gains made were mostly lost again.
12/11/1916, Sunday (-10,404)
10/11/1916, Friday (-10,406) Theobald von Bethmann, German Chancellor, made a speech to the Reichstag pledging that Germany would join or even lead a peace league after the War, to prevent such a catastrophic war from ever happening again. In part he was responding to anti-war concerns from Social Democrats within Germany. The German Government was also now open to a peace agreement for the same reason as the Allies opposed it – because Germany was now in control of large swathes of Europe from France to Russia.
7/11/1916. Tuesday (-10,409) (1) Woodrow Wilson was re-elected US President.
(2) Janet Rankin became the first woman member of the US Congress.
3/11/1916, Friday (-10,413) London’s bakers were accused of profiteering after raising the price of bread to 10d a loaf. A price freeze was anticipated following a government commission on wheat prices. There was also concern about rising rates of sexually-transmitted diseases in Britain, with 50,000 cases reported amongst servicemen in 1916.
31/10/1916, Tuesday (-10,416) Charles Taze Russell, who founded the modern-day Jehovah’s Witnesses, died.
26/10/1916. Thursday (-10,421) Francois Mitterand, President of France from 1981, and founder of the French Socialist Party, was born.
24/10/1916. Tuesday (-10,423) French troops broke open a four mile stretch of the German lines at Verdun, and another offensive started there.
16/10/1916. Monday (-10,431) The Allies took
1/10/1916. Sunday (-10,446) A Zeppelin was brought down at Potters Bar, Hertfordshire.
29/9/1916, Friday (-10,448) The British Government asked people to observe a ‘meatless day’ to prevent food price rises.
27/9/1916. Wednesday (-10,450)
24/9/1916, Sunday (-10,453)
The French bombed the Krupp works at
17/9/1916, Sunday (-10,460) Manfred von Richtofen, the ‘Red Baron’, Germany’s greatest air ace, won the first of his 80 confirmed kills over Cambrai, France.
16/9/1916. Saturday (-10,461) A
provisional ‘government of
15/9/1916. Friday (-10,462) Tanks went into battle for the first time, for the British Army at the battle of Flers on the Somme. They were invented by Sir Ernest Swinton, weighed 30 tons, and travelled at 4mph. It was hoped they would break the stalemate of trench warfare. Some German soldiers fled, thinking the Devil had come. The tank forces achieved their objective but infantry reserves could not arrive in time to consolidate the successes.
13/9/1916, Wednesday (-10,464) Roald Dahl, author of children’s books, was born in Llandaff, Glamorganshire.
10/9/1916. Sunday (-10,467) The Allies launched an offensive in
8/9/1916, Friday (-10,469) US President Woodrow Wilson promised women the vote.
4/9/1916. Monday (-10,473) British
3/9/1916. Sunday (-10,474) The first Zeppelin was shot down, by Captain Leefe Robinson, at Cuffley, Hertfordshire, using the newly-invented Pomeroy incendiary bullets.
30/8/1916. Wednesday (-10,478) Paul Von Hindenburg became Chief
of General Staff in
28/8/1916. Monday (-10,480) Italy declared war on Germany.
27/8/1916. Sunday (-10,481) Rumania declared war on
24/8/1916. Thursday (-10,484) Eight people were killed in a
Zeppelin raid on
22/8/1916, Tuesday (-10,486)
20/8/1916. Sunday (-10,488)
The Allies began an offensive against
19/8/1916. Saturday (-10,489) German
warships bombarded the east coast of
17/8/1916, Thursday (-10,491) The UK, France, Russia, and Italy guaranteed Romania the Banat, Transylvania, the Hungarian Plain as far as the Tisza River and Bukovina as far as the Prut River, if it declared war on Austro-Hungary.
9/8/1916. Wednesday (-10,499) Italian troops took Glorizia.
7/8/1916. Monday (-10,501)
6/8/1916, Sunday (-10,502) Dom Mintoff, Labour politician and Prime Minister of Malta, was born.
5/8/1916. Saturday (-10,503) The
British defeated the Turks in a naval battle off
3/8/1916. Thursday (-10,505) Sir Roger Casement, the Irish Nationalist, was hanged in Pentonville |prison, London, for treason, because of his attempts to induce Germany to support the cause of Irish independence. He was a former diplomat who had exposed slavery in the Congo. Casement had been found guilty and sentenced on 29/6/1916. There were intense efforts made for his reprieve, but the prosecution, with the connivance of the British Government, released his ‘black diaries’, with evidence of his homosexuality, making any reprieve impossible.
23/7/1916, Sunday (-10,516) Sir
William Ramsey, chemist who discovered helium, and isolated neon, krypton, and
xenon, died in
15/7/1916, Saturday (-10,524) Edward Boeing set up the Pacific Aero Products Company in Seattle.
9/7/1916. Sunday (-10,530) British Prime Minister (1970-74) Edward Heath, was born in Broadstairs, Kent.
6/7/1916. Thursday (-10,533)
2/7/1916. Sunday (-10,537) Hundreds
died in race riots in
1/7/1916. Saturday (-10,538) (1)
(2) The US States of Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, and South Dakota brought in Prohibition, bringing the number of states banning alcohol to 24.
(3) Coca Cola introduced its distinctively-shaped bottle
27/6/1916, Tuesday (-10,542) King George V confirmed that women were eligible to receive the Military Medal.
24/6/1916. Saturday (-10,545) A
new German offensive began at
23/6/1916. Friday (-10,546) A
Russian offensive captured most of
21/6/1916. Wednesday (-10,548) Hussein, the Grand Sheikh of
9/6/1916. Friday (-10,560) (Greece-Turkey, Islam) Sherif Hussein of Mecca led a revolt against the Ottoman Turks. The Arabs were angered by the Young Turks nationalist and secular policies.
8/6/1916, Thursday (-10,561) Professor Sir Francis Crick, who along with J D Watson discovered DNA, was born.
5/6/1916. Monday (-10,564) Lord Kitchener, British General and
conqueror of the
2/6/1916. Friday (-10,567) Second
31/5/1916. Wednesday (-10,569)
28/5/1916, Sunday (-10,572) The Sopwith triplane, first triplane fighter to enter military service, was introduced by the British.
21/5/1916, Sunday (-10,579) (1) Daylight
saving time began in
(2) Keadby swing road bridge, Lincolnshire, opened over the River Trent. It was necessary to serve the growing traffic between Immingham Docks (opened 1912) and the developing coalfields of South Yorkshire.
17/5/1916. Wednesday (-10,583) The Daylight Saving Act was passed. Clocks went forward in Britain for the first time on 21/5/1916, causing some confusion. See 7/8/1925.
12/5/1916. Friday (-10,588) James Connolly was the last of the seven rebels who signed the proclamation of an Irish Republic during the Easter Rising (see 29/4/1916) to be executed. Wounded in the Easter Rebellion, he was taken to face the firing squad on a stretcher.
10/5/1916, Wednesday (-10,590) Shackleton reached
8/5/1916. Monday (-10,592) Australian and
3/5/1916, Wednesday (-10,597) Padraic Pearse, (1879-1916), leader of the 1916 Easter Rebellion against the British in Dublin, was executed at Kilmainham Gaol.
1/5/1916, Monday (-10,599) 400 Irish rebels arrived at Liverpool docks for internment in Britain. See 23/12/1916.
30/4/1916, Sunday (-10,600) The Easter Rebellion in Ireland against the British ended with 450 dead and 3,000 wounded.
29/4/1916. Saturday (-10,601) British
troops surrendered to the Ottoman Turks after a siege of 143 days at
26/4/1916 Wednesday (-10.604)
25/4/1916, Tuesday (-10,605) Anzac Day was first celebrated in London.
24/4/1916. Monday (-10,606) Roger Casement was arrested as he landed in Ireland from a German submarine. The Irish wanted Germany to supply arms for a rebellion against the British and even for a German invasion of Ireland; however German support was lukewarm. The Easter Rebellion began in Dublin against British rule, on Easter Monday. The rebellion ended on 30/4/1916. It was followed by British reprisals, led by the notorious Black and Tans. The rebellion had begun almost unnoticed by the British. The arrest of Roger Casement lulled the British into a false sense of security. On Easter Monday few paid attention to the columns of soldiers marching into central Dublin, where they seized the General Post Office for their headquarters. From the steps of this building General Pearce read a proclamation declaring the establishment of the Republic of Ireland. Many British Army officers were on leave to attend a horse race meeting and the city only contained 1,200 British troops. By the time the British authorities realised what was happening the rebels had taken over the entire city centre and established a cordon of fortified posts in the suburbs. However the might of the British Army soon arrived, with heavy artillery, and bombarded the city centre; the Post Office caught fire and was destroyed. The rebels had no choice but to surrender unconditionally.
17/4/1916. Monday (-10,613) The Boer leader Jan Smuts led an
anti-German drive from
15/4/1916, Saturday (-10,615) Between November 1914 and this day the British had prosecuted some 500 Irish people under DORA (Defence Of The Realm Act), since World War One broke out. This caused resentment in Ireland, leading to the Easter Rising.
14/4/1916. Friday (-10,616) The Allied bombarded Istanbul.
9/4/1916, Sunday (-10,621) Shackleton and his crew left the ice
floe in small boats. They reached
1/4/1916, Saturday (-10,629) A German Zeppelin airship dropped its bombs on Cleethorpes, Lincolnshire.
24/3/1916. Friday (-10,637) German forces sank a cross-Channel
21/3/1916. Tuesday (-10,640) Austrian soldiers killed 10,000 Serbian civilians.
20/3/1916. Monday (-10,641) Food scarcities in
19/3/1916. Sunday (-10,642) German seaplane raids on Deal, Dover, Margate, and Ramsgate.
15/3/1916. Wednesday (-10,646) The
11/3/1916. Saturday (-10,650) British Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson was born in Huddersfield, Yorkshire.
10/3/1916, Friday (-10,651) The UK War Office urged women to be less extravagant in their dress. From now until the end of the war there would be no imports of spirits, pianos, or motors.
9/3/1916. Thursday (-10,652)
2/3/1916, Thursday (-10.659) The Russians took Bitlis, in
23/2/1916, Wednesday (-10,667) The British Government urged well-off families to release their servants for ‘more useful purposes’.
22/2/1916. Tuesday (-10,668) Tsar Nicholas II opened the Duma (Parliament).
21/2/1916 Monday (-10,669)
19/2/1916, Saturday (-10,671) (1) In
(2) Ernst Mach, Austrian scientist after whom the speed of sound in air is named, died the day after his 78th birthday.
16/2/1916, Wednesday (-10,674) The Russians captured Erzerum, in
the Caucasus, from
11/2/1916, Friday (-10,679) Kaiser Wilhelm II ordered an escalation of the U-boat warfare.
8/2/1916. Tuesday (-10,682) Food shortages caused riots in Berlin.
Food rationing began in
31/1/1916. Monday (-10,690) Zeppelin raids on Shrewsbury killed 59 persons.
29/1/1916. Saturday (-10,692) (1) Zeppelins bombed Paris for the first time.
(2) Military tanks were trialled at Hatfield, Hertfordshire.
28/1/1916. Friday (-10,693) British
and Belgian troops took
27/1/1916. Thursday (-10,694) In Berlin, the German Communist Party, Spartacus, was formed.
25/1/1916, Tuesday (-10,696)
24/1/1916. Monday (-10,697) Conscription started in Britain. It was for single men aged 19-30.
23/1/1916, Sunday (-10,698) London’s Natural History Museum and British Museum were closed for the duration of the War.
17/1/1916. Monday (-10,704) Russia began an offensive against Turkey.
14/1/1916. Friday (-10,707) Zuider Zee dam in the
12/1/1916, Wednesday (-10,709) Pieter Botha, South African President, was born in Paul Roux in
8/1/1916. Saturday (-10,713) Gallipoli was evacuated by Allied troops. This was the end of an
unsuccessful attempt to capture
6/1/1916, Thursday (-10,715) The Commons voted in favour of conscription by 403 votes to 103, although the Home Secretary Sir John Simon resigned over the issue. Single men were to be conscripted first; armed service became compulsory for single men aged between 18 and 41. Many British soldiers had been killed in the War, and volunteering rates had dropped off sharply.
1/1/1916, Saturday (-10,720) In Britain, women’s employment had risen by two million over the past 12 months.
31/12/1915, Friday (-10,721) On the Western Front, positions have scarcely changed for a year amongst the trenches, despite appalling casualties. Major attacks became bogged down in bad weather, and tens or hundreds of thousands died for little territorial gain by either side. France had seen, during 1915, 330,000 soldiers killed and a further one million wounded, in addition to the 900,000 killed or wounded during 1914. In 1915 alone, 170,000 German soldiers were killed and 680,000 wounded. In 1915 alone, Britain saw 73,000 soldiers killed and 240,000 wounded.
20/12/1915. Monday (-10,732) Australian,
13/12/1915, Monday (-10,739) B J Vorster, President of South Africa, was born.
12/12/1915. Sunday (-10,740) In
8/12/1915, Wednesday (-10,744)
6/12/1915. Monday (-10,746) Germany occupied Bucharest, capital of
4/12/1915. Saturday (-10,748) The
25/11/1915, Thursday (-10,757) (1) The White supremacist society Klu Klux Klan was revived at Stone Mountain, Georgia, by Colonel William Simmons. The original Klan, from Greek kuklos = circle, was formed as a secret Confederate Army. Its ‘night riders’ in their hooded costumes terrorised Blacks. The new Klan also opposed Catholics, Jews, immigration, birth control, the repeal of Prohibition, pacifism and Darwinism, as well as Black people.
(2) General Augusto Pinochet, Chilean dictator who overthrew Allende in 1973, was born.
23/11/1915, Tuesday (-10,759)
22/11/1915. Monday (-10,760) General Charles Vere Ferrers
Townshend was advancing by boat on
14/11/1915, Sunday (-10,768) Death of Booker T Washington, first principal of the Tuskegee Institute (Alabama) for Blacks.
13/11/1915. Saturday (-10,769) Churchill
resigned from the cabinet over the
11/11/1915, Thursday (-10,771)
10/11/1915, Wednesday (-10,772) (1) A survey showed that women working in UK factories have enabled production to rise by 250%, see 24/2/.1915 and 20/10/1915.
9/11/1915, Tuesday (-10,773) British war casualties now totalled 510,000.
25/10/1915, Monday (-10,788) The railway between London Waterloo and East Putney was electrified.
20/10/1915, Wednesday (-10,793) UK Prime Minister Lloyd George allowed women to step into many male employment roles, three months after 30,000 women marched down Whitehall demanding ‘The right to serve’. Trades Unions were concerned in case the move depressed wages.
17/10/1915. Sunday (-10, 796)
16/10/1915. Saturday (-10,797) The
Allies blockaded Bulgarian ports.
15/10/1915. Friday (-10,798)
14/10/1915. Thursday (-10,799)
13/10/1915, Wednesday (-10,800) The British Government banned ‘treating’ – buying drinks for another – in an effort to curb drunkenness amongst factory workers.
12/10/1915. Tuesday (-10,801) (1) The
(2) The British nurse, Edith Cavell, was executed by a
German firing squad in
9/10/1915. Saturday (-10,804) The Serbian capital,
5/10/1915. Tuesday (-10,808) Allied troops landed at
28/9/1915. Tuesday (-10,815)
(1) The British defeated the Turks at Kut El Amara in
(2) Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg was born (see 19/6/1953).
27/9/1915, Monday (-10,816)
26/9/1915. Sunday (-10,817) (1) British and French troops began two big
(2) Kier Hardie, founder of the Labour Party, died.
25/9/1915. Saturday (-10,818) (1) The Battle of Loos began, and the London Regiment’s 18th battalion went over the top kicking a football.
(2) The British forces used poison gas for the first time. Its first use was by the Germans on 22/4/1915.
24/9/1915, Friday (-10,819)
23/9/1915. Thursday (-10,820)
King Constantine of
22//9/1915. Wednesday (-10,821)
Bulgaria mobilised its army
and declared war on
21/9/1915, Tuesday (-10,822)
20/9/1915, Monday (-10,823)
19/9/1915. Sunday (-10,824) The
Germans took Vilna (
18/9/1915, Saturday (-10,825) (1) The Kaiser gave renewed assurances that passenger ships would not be attacked.
(2) The British government revealed that the war was costing £3.5 million daily.
(3) German forces entered
15/9/1915, Wednesday (-10,828) The Entente (France,
14//9/1915, Tuesday (-10,829)
13/9/1915. Monday (-10,830) The process for making cornflakes was patented by Frank Martin. The previous combination of corn, oats, and grain proved indigestible for the public.
11/9/1915. Saturday (-10,832) The first Women’s Institute in
6/9/1915. Monday (-10,837) (1) The first military tank, the No.1 Lincoln, modified and renamed Little Willie, had its first run.
signed a military accord with
30/8/1915. Monday (-10,844) The great Russian fortress of Brest-Litovsk fell to the Germans.
29/8/1915. Sunday (-10,845) The
21/8/1915. Saturday (-10,853)
18/8/1915, Wednesday (-10,856) The Germans took the fortress of Novo Georgievsk.
17/8/1915, Tuesday (-10,857) The Germans took Kovno.
15/8/1915, Sunday (-10,859)
The Allied landings at Suvla,
6/8/1915. Friday (-10,868) New Allied landings on Gallipoli. See 8/1/1916.
5/8/1915. Thursday (-10,869)
Austro-German forces took
27/7/1915. Tuesday (-10,878) Revolution in
15/7/1915. Thursday (-10,890) 200,000 Welsh miners went on strike for more pay.
9/7/1915. Friday (-10,896) German South West Africa (
3/7/1915, Saturday (-10,902) The war was costing
1/7/1915. Thursday (-10,904) A packet of aspirin cost 3d (1p) and a pair of silk stockings at Harrods was 3s 11d (19.5p). A British train driver got £2 0s 6d (202.5p) a week. A female cotton weaver got 18s 6d (92.5p) a week. The Secretary of the Lunacy Commission got £800 a year.
24/6/1915, Thursday (-10,911) Professor Fred Hoyle, British astronomer and science fiction writer, was born.
22/6/1915. Tuesday (-10,913) The Austrians retook Lemberg (
11/6/1915. Friday (-10,924) Serbian troops invaded
9/6/1915, Wednesday (-10,926) British troops in
7/6/1915, Monday (-10,928) The British air force downed a German Zeppelin. Sub-Lieutenant Warneford took his aircraft over the airship and dropped six 20-pound bombs, one of which hit its target. For this Warneford was awarded the Victoria Cross.
6/6/1915, Sunday (-10,929) The
Kaiser promised that in future the German Navy would not attack passenger
vessels. However on 28/6/1915 a German submarine sunk the passenger liner
5/6/1915, Saturday (-10,930) French sculptor and draughtsman Henri Gaudier-Brzeska was killed in action in World War One, aged 23.
4/6/1915. Friday (-10,931) Austro-German troops retook Premsyl from the Russians.
31/5/1915, Monday (-10,935) German airship bombing raid on London; Stoke Newington was badly damaged and 7 Londoners died.
27/5/1915. Thursday (-10,939)
(1) The Turkish government decided to deport the
entire Armenian population to
(2) Zeppelin raid on Southend, Essex.
26/5/1915. Wednesday (-10,940) The first Zeppelin raids on London. A ton of bombs was dropped from one airship, killing 7 and injuring 15.
25/5/1915. Tuesday (-10,941) (1) Prime Minister Herbert Asquith of
(2) The Austrians bombarded
24/5/1915. Monday (-10,942). The
Austrian fleet bombarded
23/5/1915, Sunday (-10,943)
22/5/1915. Saturday (-10,944) The
Gretna Green troop train disaster, the worst on
20/5/1915, Thursday (-10,946) Moshe Dayan, Israeli military commander and politician, was born in Deganya.
17/5/1915. Monday (-10,949) Zeppelin raid on
13/5/1915, Thursday (-10,953) In Britain, street violence against those suspected of being ‘aliens’ increased following the sinking of the Lusitania on 7/5/1915.
11/5/1915, Tuesday (-10,955) German-owned businesses, shops and restaurants, in the London suburbs of Bethnal Green, Camden Town, Limehouse, Poplar, Stepney and Walthamstow were attacked, burnt and destroyed. Traders at Smithfield Market refused to trade with ethnic Germans, even if they had been naturalised as Britons. An American trader at Smithfield who was inclined to trade with the foreigners was also beaten up. The unrest was in response to the sinking of the Lusitania four days earlier.
10/5/1915. Monday (-10,956) (1) Zeppelin raid on Southend, Essex.
(2) Fierce fighting in the
(3) Denis Thatcher, wife of Margaret, British Prime Minister, was born.
9-25/5/1915, Battle of
Aubers Ridge (second battle of
7/5/1915. Friday (-10,959) The Lusitania, captained by William Thomas Turner, was torpedoed. 1,400 people drowned 8 miles off the Old Head of Kinsale, near Cork. 128 Americans were among the 1,208 casualties, including friends of President Woodrow Wilson and the millionaire yachtsman Alfred Vanderbilt, as the ship made its way back to Liverpool on a voyage from New York. America condemned the torpedoing of the ship by a German submarine as an act of piracy and this brought the USA into the War.
The 30,000 tonne Lusitania had sailed from New York on 1/5/1915. She carried 1,257 passengers, including 128 Americans; 702 crew; and an estimated 3 stowaways. Her cargo list, later a source of controversy, included small arms cartridges, uncharged shrapnel shells, cheese, furs, and, oddly, 205 barrels of oysters. The Germans later claimed the ‘oysters’ were actually heavy munitions whose explosion had doomed the ship. However there was no second explosion after the torpedo hit; there were no heavy munitions and rifle rounds burned harmlessly, like firecrackers, and did not explode.
Cunard had shut down the Lusitania’s fourth boiler room to save on coal but even at the reduced maximum speed of 21 knots it was reckoned she could outrun any German U-boat. Passengers ignored warnings from the German Embassy published in the New York Press not to cross the Atlantic under a belligerent flag, and the lifeboat drills on board were palpably inadequate. The Lusitania had plenty of lifeboats but most were unlaunchable because the ship listed heavily as water poured through lower deck portholes, opened for air despite orders to close them. She sank within 18 minutes of being hit.
The sinking of the Lusitania deepened American hostility towards Germany but President Woodrow Wilson’s administration was split between the hawks and doves, and it was another 2 years before America entered the war.
6/5/1915, Thursday (-10,960) Orson Wells, American actor and film director, was born,
5/5/1915, Wednesday (-10,861)
4/5/1915, Tuesday (-10,962) Italy denounced the Triple Alliance (Italy, Germany, Austro-Hungary). This was a preparatory move to her entering the War on the Allied side on 23/5/1915.
3/5/1915, Monday (-10,963) The
war was costing
2/5/1915, Sunday (-10,964) German forces broke through on the Eastern Front at Gorlice.
1/5/1915, Saturday (-10,965) (1) Widespread resentment by British workers at alcohol sales restrictions.
(3) The Austrian commander Mackensen reversed earlier weaknesses of the Austrian Army, which in Spring 1915 was on the verge of collapse after repeated Russian attacks. At Dunajec-San, he forced the Russians to retreat.
30/4/1915. Friday (-10,966) (1)
(2) Zeppelin air raids on Ipswich and Bury St Edmunds.
27/4/1915, Tuesday (-10,969)
26/4/1915. Monday (-10,970) Allied
forces established themselves on the Gallipoli Peninsula, having landed the
previous day, 25/4/1915. This was an
attempt to take control from the Dardanelles from
25/4/1915. Sunday (-10,971) Italy
signed a secret treaty, the Treaty of London, with Britain, France, and Russia.
24/4/1915. Saturday (-10,972) The arrest in Constantinople (now Istanbul) of 235 Armenian academics,