Historical events from 1 January 1900 to 31 December 1929

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday)

 

22/12/1929. Sunday (-5,616) (1) The All-India National Congress demanded Indian independence.

(2) China and Russia agreed to withdraw troops from the border as their dispute over the eastern railway ended.

9/12/1929, Monday (-5,629) Bob Hawke, Australian Labour Prime Minister 1983-91, was born.

8/12/1929. Sunday (-5,630) Hitler’s Nazi Party won municipal elections in Bavaria.

7/12/1929, Saturday (-5,631)

6/12/1929, Friday (-5,632) US marines were sent to Haiti to quell a revolt there.

5/12/1929, Thursday (-5,633) 94 mph winds swept across Britain, killing 26 people.

4/12/1929, Wednesday (-5,634)

2/12/1929. Monday (-5,636) Britain got its first 22 public phone boxes.

1/12/1929. Sunday (-5,637) Major Thames floods.

29/11/1929. Friday (-5,639) US Admiral Richard Byrd, with pilot Bernt Balchen, became the first to fly over the South Pole.

21/11/1929. Thursday (-5,647) Henry Ford raised workers wages in all his car plants.

13/11/1929, Wednesday (-5,655) (1) The Toronto stock market crashed.

(2) The Bank for International Settlements was founded.

11/11/1929, Monday (-5,657) Anti-Japanese occupation protests in Korea.

8/11/1929, Friday (-5,660) The Museum of Modern Art in New York opened.

2/11/1929, Saturday (-5,666) The first News Theatre Cinema opened in New York, the Embassy.

1/11/1929, Friday (-5,667) The Pony Club movement was founded in Britain.

31/10/1929, Thursday (-5,668)

29/10/1929, Tuesday (-5,670) The Montreal stock market crashed.

28/10/1929, Monday (-5,671) The London stock market crashed.

26/10/1929, Saturday (-5,673) All London buses to be painted red. Earlier trials with yellow and red proved unpopular.

24/10/1929. Thursday (-5,675) New York stock market crash. See 22/5/1933. The Stock market opened to brisk selling and as the ticker tape was unable to cope with the volume of shares trading (12 million shares were traded that day), prices fell further, and worried investors sold more as prices fell. By 11.30 am. There was total chaos on the market. There were eleven suicides from ruined investors in New York alone. On 28/10/1929 the London Stock Exchange also fell sharply, and New York stocks fell further on 29/10/1929.

23/10/1929, Wednesday (-5,676) A sudden and unanticipated rush of selling hit the New York stock market.

21/10/1929, Monday (-5,678) (1) Irish rural electrification received a boost when the Shannon hydroelectric scheme began operating this day. Until now only about a third of Dublin and a quarter of Cork had electricity; the new scheme, at a cost of £5 million, would greatly increase the electricity supply.

(2) The BBC began transmitting regional services.

18/10/1929, Friday (-5,681) Violeta Chamorro, President of Nicaragua, was born.

14/10/1929, Monday (-5,685) The R101 airship went on its first trials above London from its Cardington hangar in Bedfordshire.  The airship was 732 feet long and held 5 million cubic feet of hydrogen; power was from 5 diesel engines.

12/10/1929, Saturday (-6,687) (1) The last British troops left the Rhineland, moving out of their base in Wiesbaden.

(2) Magnus Magnusson, British writer and TV presenter, was born in Reykjavik, Iceland.

3/10/1929. Thursday (-5,696) The name of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was changed to Yugoslavia.

1/10/1929, Tuesday (-5,698) Britain resumed diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia.

30/9/1929, Monday (-5,699) The first experimental TV broadcast was made by the BBC.

27/9/1929, Friday (-5,702)

25/9/1929, Wednesday (-5,704) Ronnie Barker, English comedy actor, was born in Bedford, UK.

24/9/1929. Tuesday (-5,705) Workers in the USSR were given 2 days off a week.

22/9/1929. Sunday (-5,707) Communists and Nazis fought on the streets of Berlin.

16/9/1929. Monday (-5,713) Bolivia and Paraguay signed an agreement to end their 10 month border dispute.

10/9/1929. Tuesday (-5,719) A British seaplane reached a record speed of 355.8 mph.

9/9/1929. Monday (-5,720) Heavy fighting between Russia and China on their border.

6/9/1929, Friday (-5,723)

5/9/1929. Thursday (-5,724) Aristide Briand, the French Prime Minister, proposed a United States of Europe.

4/9/1929, Wednesday (-5,725) The German airship Graf Zeppelin completed its 20-day round the world trip from Friedrichshafen on the shore of lake Constance via Tokyo, Los Angeles, and Lakehurst.

3/9/1929. Tuesday (-5,726) The New York Stock Exchange reached a new high of 381.17.

25/8/1929. Sunday (-5,735) Britain declared martial law in Jerusalem as Arabs and Jews continued fighting. Arabs killed 8 Jews and then burned whole streets of houses; the rioting was sparked by Arab hostility to Jewish access to the Wailing Wall, situated in the heart of Arab east Jerusalem. Order was not restored by the British until 31/8/1929.

24/8/1929, Saturday (-5,736) Georges Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France, died.

8/8/1929, Thursday (-5,752) Ronald Biggs, great train robber, was born in Lambeth, south London.

6/8/1929, Tuesday (-5,754) Britain and Egypt agreed a draft treaty for the withdrawal of British troops from Egypt, except from the Canal Zone.

3/8/1929, Saturday (-5,757) Emile Berliner, US inventor of the flat phonographic record, died.

31/7/1929, Wednesday (-5,760) World Boy Scouts jamboree opened at Arrowe Park, Merseyside.

29/7/1929, Monday (-5,762) Britain’s Foreign Secretary, Arthur Henderson, had talks with his Soviet counterpart about restoring Anglo-Soviet diplomatic relations.

28/7/1929, Sunday (-5,763) Jacqueline Onassis, widow of President Kennedy, was born in Southampton, New York State, as Jacqueline Lee Bouvier.

25/7/1929. Thursday (-5,766) Pope Pius XI became the first Pope for 59 years to leave the Vatican.

17/7/1929. Wednesday (-5,774) Russia broke off diplomatic relations with China and began to mobilise troops on the border.

16/7/1929, Tuesday (-5,775) In Dublin, the Censorship of Publications Act came into force, to control obscenity.

7/7/1929, Sunday (-5,784) The railway from Wimbledon to Sutton opened as far south as South Merton, see 5/1/1930.

1//7/1929. Monday (-5,790) Britain refused Leon Trotsky asylum.

26/6/1929. Wednesday (-5,795) The Japanese government signed the anti-war Kellogg-Briand pact, the last government to sign it.

12/6/1929. Wednesday (-5,809) Birth of Anne Frank, Dutch Jewish schoolgirl who wrote her famous dairies before going to her death in a Nazi concentration camp.

8/6/1929. Saturday (-5,813) (1) At The Hague, Germany’s war debts were rescheduled. Germany was no longer required to pay for the reconstruction of France’s war-damaged provinces. The Young Plan, named after its American author Owen Young, removed controls on the German economy. However Germany must still repay £1.65 billion over the next 40 years, including £2 million a year that Britain insists upon to cover its American debt. Militant Germans, including the Nazis, demonstrated against these payments.

(2) Margaret Bondfield became the first British woman Cabinet Minister when she was appointed Minister of Labour.

7/6/1929. Friday (-5,814) The Papal State, extinct since 1870, was revived as the Vatican City State in Rome under the Lateran Treaty.

30/5/1929. Thursday (-5,822) UK General Election. Labour secured its first Parliamentary majority – see 22/1/1924. The Labour Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald, running Britain’s second Labour government, appointed Margaret Bondfield as Britain’s first woman minister. She was Minister of Labour, a key post, given the lengthening dole queues Britain faced. Labour won 288 seats, the Conservatives 260.

21/5/1929, Tuesday (-5,831) Lord Roseberry, British Liberal Prime Minister, died.

5/5/1929. Sunday (-5,847) In Bombay a curfew was imposed to quell Hindu-Moslem fighting.

3/5/1929. Friday (-5,849) Severe civil unrest in Berlin.

1/5/1929, Wednesday (-5,851) Communists in Berlin attacked policemen.

29/4/1929, Monday (-5,853) The future Liberal Party leader, Jeremy Thorpe, was born.

26/4/1929. Friday (-5,856) The first non-stop flight from England to India of 4,130 miles in 50 hours 37 minutes was made by two RAF officers. They were Squadron leader A G Jones-Williams and Flight Lieutenant N H Jenkins.

24/4/1929, Wednesday (-5,858) Denmark elected a socialist government.

20/4/1929. Saturday (-5,862) The first Italian Parliament composed exclusively of Fascists led by Benito Mussolini was opened by King Victor Emmanuel III.

15/4/1929, Monday (-5,867) Chancellor Winston Churchill, in his budget, abolished the 325-year-old tea duty, knocking 4d off the price of a pound of tea.

14/4/1929. Sunday (-5,868) (1) The first air mail from India arrived at Croydon.

(2) The Monte Carlo Grand Prix was run for the first time, 76 laps round the narrow streets and harbour of Monte Carlo.

11/4/1929. Thursday (-5,871) (1) Germany refused asylum to Leon Trotsky.

(2) Popeye the cartoon character first appeared in a comic strip in a New York newspaper.

4/4/1929. Thursday (-5,878) The engineer Carl Benz, who built the first internal combustion car, died aged 84.

30/3/1929, Saturday (-5,883) The first commercial air service between London and Karachi began.

24/3/1929. Sunday (-5,889) Mussolini’s single party Fascist state claimed it had won 99% of the vote in elections.

23/3/1929, Saturday (-5,890) Roger Bannister, the first man to run a mile in under 4 minutes (3 minutes, 59.4 seconds), was born in Harrow, London.

20/3/1929. Wednesday (-5,893) The French military commander Marshal Ferdinand Foch died aged 68.

11/3/1929. Monday (-5,902) Major H O D Seagrave reached 231.36 mph in his racing car at Daytona Beach.

10/3/1929. Sunday (-5,903) Egyptian women were granted limited rights of divorce.

5/3/1929, Tuesday (-5,908)

4/3/1929. Monday (-5,909) Herbert Hoover was inaugurated as the President of the USA.

3/3/1929, Sunday (-5,910) The southern branch line from Tooting to Wimbledon was closed to passengers, see 1/10/1868.  It closed to goods traffic on 5/8/1968.

21/2/1929. Thursday (-5,920) France refused asylum to Leon Trotsky, Stalin’s most feared opponent, now exiled from the USSR.

18/2/1929, Monday (-5,,923) The First Academy Awards, known as Oscars from 1931, were announced.

15/2/1929. Friday (-5,926) German unemployment was over 3 million.

14/2/1929. Thursday (-5,927) The St Valentines Day Massacre took place in Chicago. Seven members of Bugsy Moran’s gang were machine-gunned to death by a rival gang.

11/2/1929. Monday (-5,930) The 109 acres of the Vatican in Rome were made an independent state under the Lateran Treaty, which was signed by Benito Mussolini and Pietro Gasparri, Pope Pius XI.

6/2/1929, Wednesday (-5,935) Germany ratified the Kellogg-Briand anti war pact.

4/2/1929, Monday (-5,937) The first Green Belt area was approved, a five-mile wide strip near Hendon.

31/1/1929. Thursday (-5,941) Leon Trotsky was expelled from Russia by Stalin. He found asylum in Mexico.

15/1/1929 Tuesday (-5,957) (1) US civil rights leader Martin Luther King was born in Atlanta, Georgia, son of a Baptist pastor.

(2) The USA ratified the Kellogg-Briand anti war pact.

9/1/1929, Wednesday (-5,963) Fleming treated his assistant Stuart Craddock for an infection by washing it out with a penicillin solution; this cleared the infection.

6/1/1929, Sunday (-5,966) King Alexander of Yugoslavia became dictator.

1/1/1929. Tuesday (-5,971) In the UK, there were now 3.6 telephones per 100 people.

20/12/1928. Thursday (-5,983) (1) Harry Ramsden started his first fish and chip restaurant in a hut near Bradford, West Yorkshire, which soon became the most famous in the world.

(2) The UK recognised the Kuomintang government of China.

11/12/1928, Tuesday (-5,992) Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian author, was born.

10/12/1928, Monday (-5,993) In London, the new Underground Station at Piccadilly Circus opened.

29/11/1928, Thursday (-6,004) In Britain the Government was concerned at the rising toll of road accidents. In 1927 there were 133,943 accidents and 5,329 deaths on Britain’s roads. The number of private cars was just 200,000 in 1920 but forecast to reach one million by 1930. However anyone aged 17 could drive with no more than a self-certification of physical fitness. The speed limit of 20 mph was widely ignored. Motoring had been the preserve of the wealthy but the Austin Seven car, introduced in 1921, cost just £225, within the reach of many people.

26/11/1928, Monday (-6,007) The first twins to be born by Caesarean section in Britain were delivered in Manchester.

17/11/1928, Saturday (-6,016) Lala Rajpat Raj, Indian politician, died.

6/11/1928. Tuesday (-6,027) Herbert Hoover, Republican, was elected 31st President of the USA.

5/11/1928. Monday (-6,028) Mount Etna erupted.

3/11/1928. Saturday (-6,030) Turkey abolished the use of the Arabic script and adopted the Roman alphabet.

30/10/1928, Tuesday (-6,034) Static pictures were first transmitted by radio. Receivers required a special device called a Fultograph, attached to the radio set. This utilised a revolving drum upon which a stylus marked half-tone lines on special paper. The result was about as good as a mediocre picture in an underfunded local newspaper, and the device never became popular.

15/10/1928. Monday (-6,049) The German airship Graf Zeppelin, captained by Hugo Eckener, completed its first transatlantic flight.  It flew from Friedrichshafen, Germany, to Lakehurst in New York.

12/10/1928. Friday (-6,052) The first iron lung was used at the Boston Children’s Hospital, Massachusetts.

10/10/1928. Wednesday (-6,054) The King and Queen opened the new Tyne road bridge.

7/10/1928, Sunday (-6,057) In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ras Tafari was crowned Emperor.

6/10/1928. Saturday (-6,058) Chiang Kai-Shek became President of Nationalist China.

1/10/1928. Monday (-6,063) Stalin’s first Five Year Plan began. The idea was for rapid industrialisation of the USSR, especially in coal, iron, oil, steel, and machine building. Output of consumer goods was                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 also to rise sharply. Agriculture was to be collectivised, which meant disempowering the wealthy rural peasantry, or Kulaks. On 5/1/1930 Stalin sent thousands of government agents to the Russian countryside to persuade the Kulaks to join the new collectives. Under Stalin’s scheme, every poor farmer who turned his land over to the collective would be allowed to own a house, stable, garden, and one car, and to keep the income from any sales of garden vegetables.

20/9/1928, Thursday (-6,074) In Rome the supreme legislative body, the Chamber of Deputies, was taken over by the Fascists.

19/9/1928. Wednesday (-6,075) The first cartoon talking picture, Walt Disney’s Steamboat Willie, with Mickey Mouse (originally called Mortimer Mouse), was shown in New York.

18/9/1928, Tuesday (-6,076)

16/9/1928,  Sunday (-6,078) In Glasgow the P&O liner Viceroy of India was launched; she was the first to have oil-fired electric turbines.

15/9/1928. Saturday (-6,079) Alexander Fleming reported the discovery of penicillin.

11/9/1928, Tuesday (-6,083) In New York the world’s first television drama was broadcast. It was a 40 minute two-character play called The Queen’s Messenger.

1/9/1928. Saturday (-6,093) Zogu was proclaimed King Zog I of Albania.

28/8/1928, Tuesday (-6,097) In Britain the Dangerous Drugs Act (1925) was amended to make the use of cannabis illegal.

27/8/1928. Monday (-6,098) In Paris, 15 nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, outlawing war. The USSR signed the pact on 6/9/1928.

25/8/1928, Saturday (-6,100) Anfield’s famous Kop terrace at Liverpool football ground opened.  It was probably named after the Battle of Spion Kop in the Boer War (1899-1902); ‘kopje’ means ‘small hill’.

19/8/1928, Sunday (-6,106) Lord Haldane, who founded the Territorial Army in 1908, died in London.

14/8/1928. Tuesday (-6,111) (1) The world’s first scheduled television programmes were broadcast by WRNY in New York.

(2) The world’s first coach service to have sleeping bunks began, between London and Liverpool.

10/8/1928, Friday (-6,115) British cigarette smoking was rising fast. In 1924 the country consumed 77,458,000 lbs of tobacco, up from 23,766,000 lbs in 1907, according to figures from the Imperial economic Committee. In 1927 Britons consumed 3.4 lbs of tobacco per head. All the increase was from cigarettes; pipe smoking and cigars have declined. Cigarette sales were boosted by marketing techniques such as free cards, and cigarette smoking had become a powerful symbol of female emancipation. Younger females also saw the habit as romantic. However some doctors were concerned about links to the rise in various cancers.

6/8/1928, Monday (-6,119) Andy Warhol, US artist, was born.

1/8/1928, Wednesday (-6,124) The Morris Minor car was launched.

28/7/1928, Saturday (-6,128) The 9th Olympic Games opened in Amsterdam.

22/7/1928. Sunday (-6,134) Japan severed all relations with China.

7/7/1928, Saturday (+6,149) Sliced bread was first produced

6/7/1928, Friday (-6,150) The first all-talking feature film, Lights of New York, was presented at The Sound Theatre, New York.

3/7/1928. Tuesday (-6,153) The first TV sets went on sale in the USA, at $75 each. John Logie Baird made the first colour TV transmission, from the Baird Studios, London.

18/6/1928. Monday (-6,168) (1) Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer who was the first to reach the South Pole in 1911, was lost in the North Sea after a flying accident..

(2) American aviator Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly the Atlantic. She and her two male companions landed safely in Wales.

15/6/1928. Friday (-6,171) A race between a train and a plane from London to Edinburgh was won by the train, the ‘Flying Scotsman’.

14/6/1928. Thursday (-6,172) (1) Birth of the Argentine revolutionary, Che Guevara, at Rosario, Argentina.

(2) Emmeline Pankhurst, suffragette, born 13/2/1858, died.

8/6/1928, Friday (-6,178) (1) Charles Kingsford-Smith and Captain Ulm completed the first flight across the Pacific, landing at Brisbane, Australia.  They had taken off from Oakland, California, and flew via Hawaii and Fiji in their plane, the Southern Cross.

(2) Beijing fell to Nationalist forces under Chiang Kai Shek, ending the Chinese civil war.

30/5/1928, Wednesday (-6,187) In Germany, Socialists won the elections.

29/5/1928. Tuesday (-6,188) In the USA, the Chrysler and Dodge motor companies merged.

21/5/1928. Monday (-6,196) In Italy, Catholics were told to disassociate themselves from Fascism.

15/5/1928. Tuesday (-6,202) Australia began the flying doctor service. It began at Cloncurry, Queensland; the first doctor was Dr Vincent Welsh.

12/5/1928. Saturday (-6,205) The Italian electorate was reduced from 10 million to 3 million, under Mussolini.

7/5/1928. Monday (-6,210) In Britain, women aged between 21 and 30 won equal suffrage in elections. This was known as the ‘flapper’s vote’. The women’s voting age in Britain had previously been 30.

3/5/1928, Thursday (-6,214) Chinese Nationalist forces suffered major losses against the Japanese.

2/5/1928. Wednesday (-6,215) Croydon Airport officially opened.

1/5/1928. Tuesday (-6,216) Ebenezer Howard, founder of the New Towns movement, knighted in 1927, of Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City, died in the latter town.

28/4/1928, Saturday (-6,219)

27/4/1928. Friday (-6,220) The Piccadilly Theatre, London, opened.

26/4/1928, Thursday (-6,221) Madame Tussauds waxworks museum re-opened on Marylebone Road, after its previous address in Baker Street burnt down.

22/4/1928. Sunday (-6,225) Earthquake in Corinth left 50,000 homeless.

19/4/1928. Thursday (-6,228) The Japanese occupied Shantung, China.

9/4/1928. Monday (-6,238) Turkey abolished Islam as the State religion.

7/4/1928, Saturday (-6,240) Chinese Nationalists launched an offensive to capture Beijing.

6/4/1928, Friday (-6,241) In Italy, handshaking was banned as it was deemed unhygienic.

28/3/1928. Wednesday (-6,250) France shortened its term of compulsory military service to one year.

25/3/1928, Sunday (-6,253) James Lovell, American astronaut, was born in Cleveland, Ohio.

19/3/1928, Monday (-6,259) In Britain, the Revised Book of Common Prayer was published.

13/3/1928, Tuesday (-6,265) In Los Angeles, 450 died when a dam burst.

22/2/1928. Wednesday (-6,285) Mr Bert Hinkler arrived in Port Darwin, having set a record time for the flight from England, 15 ½ days.

20/2/1928. Monday (-6,287) Britain recognised the independence of the Kingdom of Transjordan (now Jordan).

19/2/1928. Sunday (-6,288) A new world land speed record of 206.35 mph was set by Malcolm Campbell in the US.

15/2/1928. Wednesday (-6,292) (1) Herbert Harry Asquith, Liberal Prime Minister in the UK from 1908 to 1916, died.

(2) The Oxford English Dictionary was completed after 70 years of work.

12/2/1928. Sunday (-6,295) The British colony of Malta gained Dominion status.

6/2/1928. Monday (-6,301) 50,000 fled as Communists raided Peking.

1/2/1928. Wednesday (-6,306) In the USA, Dr Herbert Evans discovered vitamin E.

30/1/1928, Monday (-6,308) Croydon Aerodrome began operations, see 29/3/1920 and 2/5/1928.

29/1/1928, Sunday (-6,309) General Earl Haig, WW I Commander and founder of the British Legion, died in London. He was buried at Dryburgh Abbey.

25/1/1928, Wednesday (-6,313) Edvard Shevardnadze, Soviet Foreign Minister under Gorbachev, was born.

21/1/1928, Saturday (-6,317) George Washington Goethals, American, chief engineer of the Panama Canal, died.

17/1/1928, Tuesday (-6,321) Vidal Sassoon, English hair stylist, was born in London.

14/1/1928. Saturday (-6,324) Clashes between Italians and tribesmen in Libya, 100 tribesmen killed.

13/1/1928. Friday (-6,325) Allied military control in Bulgaria ended.

12/1/1928, Thursday (-6,326)

11/1/1928. Wednesday (-6,327) Thomas Hardy, English poet and novelist, author of Tess of the D’Ubervilles, died in his native Dorset aged 87.

10/1/1928. Tuesday (-6,328) (1) Stalin purged his opponents. Many were arrested by his security police, the OGPU, and sent to exile in Siberia.  Trotsky was exiled from the USSR.

(2) Aviators Hood and Moncrieff were lost whilst attempting the first flight across the Tasman Sea, from Australia to New Zealand.

7/1/1928. Saturday (-6,331) Fourteen people drowned when the River Thames flooded parts of London, including the Palace of Westminster. A sudden thaw swelled the river as high tides and strong winds also drove up water levels.

5/1/1928. Thursday (-6,333) The first over 65s in the UK received their State Pensions. The sum was 10 shillings a week.

Walter Mondale, US Vice-President, was born in Ceylon, Minnesota.

3/1/1928, Tuesday (-6,335) US troops went to Nicaragua to fight the Sandinistas.

31/12/1927, Saturday (-6,338) (1) In Britain the Electricity Supply Act provided for the setting up of a Central Electricity Board, which will create a uniform national supply via a national grid. At the time, there were many small competing power companies, delaying the spread of electrification, and only about 10% of UK homes could run the new electrical gadgets such as vacuum cleaners.

(2) The use of the lance was abandoned by the British Army, except for ceremonial purposes.

25/12/1927, Sunday (-6,344) A White Christmas in London.

19/12/1927, Monday (-6,350) In China, 600 Communists were executed by the Nationalists.

15/12/1927, Thursday (-6,354) China broke off diplomatic relations with the USSR.

14/12/1927. Wednesday (-6,355) Chiang Kai Shek’s forces suppressed an attempted Communist coup in Canton.

10/12/1927, Saturday (-6,359) As greyhound racing grew in popularity, London’s third racecourse opened, at Wembley, to join those at Haringey and White City. Harringey stadium closed in 1987 to make way for a Sainsbury superstore.

2/12/1927, Friday (-6,367) Ford’s Model A car went on sale as the successor to the Model T.

22/11/1927, Tuesday (-6,377) 200 unemployed Welsh miners marched to London, but Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin refused to meet them.

18/11/1927. Friday (-6,381) The head of the International Football Association announced the creation of a World Cup.

15/11/1927, Tuesday (-6,384) Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party, USSR.

13/11/1927, Sunday (-6,386) The Holland Tunnel, linking New York City to New Jersey, was opened.

12/11/1927. Saturday (-6,387) (1) The first automatic telephone exchange opened, in Holborn, London.

(2) The first London to Brighton veteran car rally, sponsored by the Daily Sketch.  It was won by John Bryce, from amongst 51 competitors.

11/11/1927, Friday (-6,388) France and Yugoslavia made a friendship treaty.

10/11/1927. Thursday (-6,389) General Motors announced the largest dividend in history, US$ 62million.

8/11/1927, Tuesday (-6,391) Nguyen Khanh, Prime Minister of South Vietnam, was born.

5/11/1927. Saturday (-6,394) The UK’s first set of automatic traffic lights began operating, at the Prince Square crossroads in Wolverhampton.

31/10/1927, Monday (-6,939) Kemal Ataturk, founder of the modern Turkish Republic, abolished the Fez in favour of western headgear.

29/10/1927, Saturday (-6,401) Russian archaeologist Peter Kozlof discovered the tomb of Genghis Khan.

18/10/1927. Tuesday (-6,412) Dancing bears were banned from the streets of Berlin.

17/10/1927, Monday (-6,413) Norway elected its first Labour government.

15/10/1927. Saturday (-6,415) (1) Britain’s Public Morals Committee attacked the use of contraceptives for ‘causing poor hereditary stock’.

(2) Iraq made its first oil strike, at Kirkuk.

13/10/1927, Thursday (-6,417) Britain’s first veteran car rally took place.  It was organised by the Daily Sketch, and took place in London, with 43 entrants.                              

6/10/1927. Thursday (-6,424) The first full length talking picture, The Jazz Singer, opened in New York. The soundtrack was almost entirely music. The biggest problem with sound movies was synchronising speech with mouth movements.

5/10/1927. Wednesday (-6,425) The Labour Party voted to nationalise the coal mines at its party conference at Blackpool.

22/9/1927. Thursday (-6,438) Sierra Leone abolished domestic slavery.

16/9/1927. Friday (-6,444) President Von Hindenburg repudiated German responsibility for the Great War (World War One).

8/9/1927, Thursday (-6,452) In Edinburgh, the  Trades Union Congress voted to cut ties with Soviet trades unions.

2/9/1927, Friday (-6,458) Mustafa Kemal made Turkey a one-party state.

18/8/1927, Thursday (-6,473) Rosalynn Carter, wife of Jimmy Carter, 39th US President, was born in Plains, Georgia, as Rosalynn Smith.

12/8/1927, Friday (-6,479) Eamon de Valera took his seat in the Irish Dail.

7/8/1927, Sunday (-6,484) The Peace Bridge opened between Canada and the USA.

24/7/1927, Sunday (-6,498) The Menin Gate, a memorial at Ypres to the soldiers of the British Empire, was unveiled by Lord Plumer.

20/7/1927, Wednesday (-6,502) King Ferdinand of Romania died.

16/7/1927. Saturday (-6,506) First train ran on the Romney, Hythe, and Dymchurch railway.

15/7/1927. Friday (-6,507) Vienna faced a General Strike as Socialists rioted. The left wing was upset that Austrian courts were much more lenient on offences committed by right-wing offenders, even up to murder.

11/7/1927. Monday (-6,511) The LNER (London and North Eastern Railway) inaugurated a non-stop service between London and Newcastle on Tyne. On 1/5/1928 the LNER inaugurated the longest non-stop train service in the world, from London Kings Cross to Edinburgh, 392 ½ miles. The 392 mile journey took 7 hours, 27 minutes.

7/7/1927. Thursday (-6,515) Christopher Stone became the first disc jockey on British radio when he presented his record round up from Savoy Hill.

6/7/1927, Wednesday (-6,516) The Church of England approved revisions to the Book of Common Prayer.

23/6/1927. Thursday (-6,529) Britain passed the Trades Disputes Act, making sympathetic strikes illegal. This was a consequence of the General Strike, to support the miners, which began on 3/5/1926.

21/6/1927, Tuesday (6,531)

20/6/1927, Monday (-6,532) (1) Fighting between Communists and Fascists in Hyde Park, London.

(2) Greyhound racing began at London’s White City Stadium.

(3) Naval disarmament conference began, between UK, USA, and Japan.  The conference ended on 4/4/1927 without agreement.

4/6/1927. Saturday (-6,548) In Indonesia, Ahmed Sukarno founded the Indonesian Nationalist Party.

31/5/1927. Tuesday (-6,552) The last ‘tin lizzie’, came off the production line, almost unchanged since the model was introduced as the Model T Ford in 1908. 15,007,003 Model Ts were produced. It was replaced by the Model A. The Model T had become outdated, and Ford had lost first place in the market to General Motors. The first Model T made in 1908 cost US$ 850 but by 1927 they cost under US$ 300. Ford had also lost sales to the second hand market; other car manufacturers countered this by changing the model slightly each year.

24/5/1927. Tuesday (-6,559) Britain severed relations with the USSR amid allegations of subversion and espionage throughout the British Empire. On 9/6/1927 the USSR executed 20 people accused of being British spies.

22/5/1927, Sunday (-6,561) Earthquake in China killed 200,000.

21/5/1927. Saturday (-6,562) Charles A Lindbergh completed the first solo Atlantic flight. He took off from Roosevelt Field, Long Island, flew his monoplane Spirit of St Louis for 33 ½ hours, and landed at Le Bourget airfield, Paris. Landing in Paris, he won the US$ 25,000 prize for the first solo flight across the Atlantic.

20/5/1927. Friday (-6,563) Britain recognised the independence of Saudi Arabia, under the Treaty of Jeddah.

16/5/1927, Monday (-6,567) Eamon de Valera, former President of Sinn Fein, inaugurated the new political party of Fianna Fail (‘Soldier of Destiny’) at the La Scala theatre in Dublin. His main aim was the reunification of Ireland.

14/5/1927. Saturday (-6,569) The BBC broadcast its first cricket commentary, from the Essex vs. New Zealand match at Leyton, east London.

9/5/1927. Monday (-6,574) Parliament House, Canberra, opened. Canberra became the new capital of Australia, replacing Melbourne.

1/5/1927, Sunday (-6,582) The first airline cooked meals were served, from a galley aboard the Imperial Airways Silver Ewing London to Paris flights. The galley could serve up to 18 passengers.

21/4/1927. Thursday (-6,592) The National Museum of Wales opened in Cardiff.

19/4/1927, Tuesday (-6,594) The US actress Mae West was convicted of obscenity for writing, producing and directing a Broadway musical called Sex.

7/4/1927, Thursday (-6,606) The comedian A Dolan was televised in Whippany, New Jersey, making him the first televised comedian.

6/4/1927, Wednesday (-6,607) Chinese police raided the Soviet Embassy in Beijing, seizing incriminating evidence of subversion. Several Communist leaders were later executed.

5/4/1927, Tuesday (-6,608) (Italy, East Europe) Hungary signed a ‘Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation’ with the Italian leader, Mussolini. Hungary needed allies, and Italy strengthened its influence in the Danube Basin.

2/4/1927, Saturday (-6,611) The Oxford and Cambridge boat race was first broadcast.

29/3/1927. Tuesday (-6,615) A new land speed record of 203.841 mph was set by Major Harry Seagrave at the Daytona Beach racetrack, Florida.

26/3/1927. Saturday (-6,618) The Gaumont British Film Corporation was founded.

21/3/1927. Monday (-6,623) The victorious army of Chiang Kai-Shek entered Shanghai. In April 1927 he mounted an offensive against trade unionists and Communists, driving them into the countryside.

8/3/1927 Tuesday (-6,636) Archaeologists discovered a 5,000-year-old manicure kit in Iran.

8/2/1927. Tuesday (-6,664) The revised book of common prayer introduced sex equality to the Church of England wedding service.

4/2/1927. Friday (-6,668) Malcolm Campbell set a new world land speed record of 174.224 mph in his car, Bluebird, on Pendine Sands.

3/2/1927, Thursday (-6,669) In Portugal, a revolt began against dictator General Carmona; the revolt was defeated on 13/2/1927.

31/1/1927, Monday (-6,672) 12,000 British troops were ordered to China to defend British nationals in Shanghai, where the civil war was posing a threat to foreigners.

29/1/1927. Saturday (-6,674) In London the Park Lane Hotel opened, the first with en-suite bathrooms.

24/1/1927, Monday (-6,679) The British Medical Association warned that cancer deaths, especially of the chest and tongue, had risen sharply in the past 20 years. Smoking had become much more popular over this period.

22/1/1927. Saturday (-6,681) The BBC broadcast its first football match; between Arsenal and Sheffield United.  The result was a draw, 1-1.

21/1/1927, Friday (-6,682) Telly Savalas, American film actor who played ‘Kojak’, was born in Garden City, New York.

15/1/1927. Saturday (-6,688) Winston Churchill met Mussolini in Italy.

9/1/1927. Sunday (-6,694) Greta Garbo and John Gilbert  -real life lovers – shocked cinemagoers in New York by their uninhibited kissing in the silent film Flesh and the Devil.

8/1/1927. Saturday (-6,695) The first scheduled flight from London to Delhi arrived in India.

7/1/1927. Friday (-6,696) (1) The transatlantic telephone service between London and New York began. The charge was £15 for three minutes.

(2) The Harlem Globetrotters basketball team was founded.

1/1/1927. Saturday (-6,702) (1) In China the Kuomintang established a government at Hankow.

(2) The British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, came into being. It had formerly been the British Broadcasting Company.

(3) Hungary reformed its currency with a new unit, the Pengo, equivalent to 12,500 paper Crowns. The country had suffered rampant inflation in the early 1920s, and the League of Nations now helped with economic reconstruction.

25/12/1926. Saturday (-6,709) Emperor Hirohito ascended the Japanese throne after the death of his father Emperor Yoshihito.  He died in January 1989 after 62 years as Emperor.

20/12/1926, Monday (-6,714) Sir Geoffrey Howe, British Conservative politician, was born.

15/12/1926. Wednesday (-6,719) The Italian fascist party adopted the Roman symbol of authority, the fasces, or bundle of sticks, and origin of the word ‘fascist,, as its symbol.

6/12/1926. Monday (-6,728) The impressionist painter Claude Monet died as a recluse in Coventry, aged 86.

27/11/1926. Saturday (-6,737) Vesuvius erupted.

20/11/1926. Saturday (-6,744) The Commonwealth was born out of the British Empire. Britain decided that the self-governing dominions of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Newfoundland should have equal status with Britain as members of a ‘commonwealth of nations’. Ireland also became independent. The status of India was unchanged.

19/11/1926. Friday (-6,745) British striking miners returned to work, after a six-month strike, agreeing to work longer hours in return for no pay cut.

13/11/1926, Saturday (-6,751) In Italy, Mario de Bernardi set a new seaplane speed record of 246 mph.

2/11/1926. Tuesday (-6,762) Imperial Chemical Industries, ICI, was formed.

31/10/1926. Sunday (-6,764) (1) The USA magician and escapologist Harry Houdini died, aged 52. He was born as Ehrich Weisz in Hungary and adopted his later name from the conjuror Robert Houdin whose autobiography he read as a young boy. .Determined to match Houdin’s achievements and to haul his family out of poverty, Houdini ran away to New York to begin a life in magic and entertainment which would enthral thousands. He escaped from handcuffs in an underwater nailed packing crate, and later exposed many psychic frauds. Whilst giving a lecture on spiritualism in Montreal, Houdini was asked if he could withstand a blow to the abdomen. Before he had a chance to prepare himself, Houdini was struck three times by a student. Despite this he managed to perform again, but died of peritonitis in a Detroit hospital a few days later.

(2) Jimmy Savile, British radio and TV presenter, was born in Leeds, Yorkshire.

(3) An attempt was made on Mussolini’s life. This gave him the excuse to remove more civil liberties.

23/10/1926, Saturday (-6,772) In Russia, Leon Trotsky and Zinoviev were ousted from the Politburo.

14/10/1926. Thursday (-6,781) In Britain, A A. Milne published Winnie the Pooh, a children’s book.

11/10/1926. Monday  (-6,784) Children’s Hour started on BBC Radio.

7/10/1926. Thursday (-6,788) Mussolini decreed the Fascist party to be the state Party; all opposition was banned.

3/10/1926, Sunday (-6,792) At Chiswick, London, Violet Percy became the first woman to run a marathon. She took 3 hours 4o minutes.

1/10/1926, Friday (-6,794) Alan Cobham made a round the world flight in 58 days.

13/9/1926, Monday (-6,812) In London, the Underground extensions from Charing Cross (Embankment) to Kennington and from Clapham Common to Morden (5 miles) were opened.

8/9/1926. Wednesday (-6,817) The League of Nations voted to admit Germany as a member. On 11/9/1926 Spain left the League in protest at Germany joining.

7/9/1926. Tuesday (-6,818) Spain left the League of Nations after being denied a permanent seat on the council.

6/9/1926, Monday (-6,819) In China, Chiang Kai Shek captured Hankow.

1/9/1926, Wednesday (-6,824) Adbur Rahman Biswas, President of Bangladesh, was born.

29/8/1926. Sunday (-6,827) A Nazi Party rally was held at Nuremberg.

13/8/1926. Friday (-6,843) Cuban revolutionary and leader Fidel Castro was born near Biran, the son of a sugar planter.

7/8/1926. Saturday (-6,849) The first motor racing Grand Prix in Britain was held at Brooklands, with the winning car averaging 71.61 mph.  The race was over 110 laps, or 287 miles.

6/8/1926, Friday (-6,850) The first LP record discs, at 33.3 rpm, went on sale.

5/8/1926. Thursday (-6,851) Houdini, the famous escapologist and magician, survived for 1 ½ hours in a bronze coffin in a hotel swimming pool in Los Angeles.

3/8/1926. Tuesday (-6,853) Britain’s first traffic lights went into operation in Piccadilly Circus, London.

24/7/1926. Saturday (-6,863) The first greyhound racing track was opened by Brigadier Critchley, at Belle Vue in Manchester.

29/6/1926. Tuesday (-6,888) In Italy, Mussolini increased the working day by one hour.

12/6/1926. Saturday (-6,905) Brazil left the League of Nations.

10/6/1926, Thursday (-6,907) Spanish architect Gaudi y Cornet died. His most famous building is the Sagrada Familia cathedral in Barcelona.

5/6/1926, Saturday (-6,912) At the Treaty of Angora, Turkey accepted the Brussels line, setting the northern boundary of Iraq, and including Mosul within Iraq.  Turkey was to receive a share of oil revenues from Mosul for the next 25 years, and to be compensated for public works carried out around Mosul.

4/6.1926, Friday (-6,913) Frederick Spofforth, Australian cricketer, died.

3/6/1926, Thursday (-6,914) Allan Ginsberg, US poet, was born.

1/6/1926, Tuesday (-6,916) Marilyn Monroe, American film actress, was born in Los Angeles, California, as Norma Jean Baker.

23/5/1926, Sunday (-6,925) In Morocco, the French seized Rif, and the rebel leader Abd El Krim surrendered.

12/5/1926. Wednesday (-6,936) (1) Striking miners in Britain resolved to carry on alone, after the TUC called off a general strike in support. See 1/5/1926.

(2) Roald Amundsen flew in the airship Norge over the North Pole. They had left Spitsbergen on 11/5 and landed on 14/5/1926 at Teller, Alaska.

10/5/1926. Monday (-6,938) Striking UK miners grew angry as the army moved food from the docks by rail (see 1/5/1926). The Flying Scotsman was derailed in Northumberland, partly because the volunteer driver refused to heed warnings that the track ahead had been lifted. No serious injuries were caused, but the miners responsible got prison sentences of up to eight years.

9/5/1926, Sunday (-6,939) Richard Byrd, American explorer, made the first flight over the North Pole, with pilot Floyd Bennett.

8/5/1926, Saturday (-6,940) The naturalist and broadcaster Sir David Attenborough was born.

3/5/1926, Monday (-6,945) The General Strike began in Britain.

1/5/1926. Saturday (-6,947) In Britain, a coal strike began over proposed pay cuts and longer working hours by the mine owners, faced with a slump in the coal trade (see 25/7/1925). The miners were locked out, and voted overwhelmingly for strike action. The first General Strike In British history began on 4/5/1926 when the TUC (Trades Union Congress) voted to back the striking miners. There were worries about a Communist revolution in Britain. On 11/5/1926 the engineering and shipworkers unions called their men out on strike, but at this time negotiations were going on to end the strike. The TUC agreed to government terms but the miners did not. The TUC called off the General Strike on 12/5/1926 leaving the miners on their own. Many trains were run by volunteers, especially undergraduates and rail enthusiasts, and troops took over the unloading of food at London’s docks (see 10/5/1926). Students also drove lorries, trams, and buses, the illegality of this being ignored. On 23/6/1927 the Trades Disputes Act was passed, outlawing sympathetic strikes. The Trade Union movement suffered a setback; membership had been falling from a peak of 8.3 million in 1920 to 5.3 million in 1926, and further fell to 4.3 million by 1933. See 12/5/1926.

24/4/1926. Saturday (-6,954) Germany signed a friendship treaty with the USSR.

21/4/1926. Wednesday (-6,957) Queen Elizabeth II, crowned 1952, was born at 17 Bruton Street London. She was then called Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, the eldest daughter of George VI.

12/4/1926, Monday (-6,966) The Halesworth to Southwold narrow gauge (3-foot) line in Suffolk, 8 miles, closed.  The Board of Trade speed limit on the line of 16 mph meant it could not compete with road buses.

7/4/1926. Wednesday (-6,971) Mussolini survived an assassination attempt.

6/4/1926, Tuesday (-6,972) The Northern Ireland politician, MP for Antrim, Ian Paisley was born.

4/4/1926, Sunday (-6,974)

3/4/1926, Saturday (-6,975) Virgil Grissom, third man in space, was born.

2/4/1926. Friday (-6,976) In India, riots broke out between Hindus and Moslems. On 4/4/1926 martial law was declared in Calcutta.

30/3/1926, Tuesday (-6,979) American physicist Robert Goddard successfully tested the world’s first liquid-propellant rocket.

13/3/1926. Saturday (-6,996) Germany was refused a place on the League of Nations Council.

6/3/1926. Saturday (-7,003) Fire destroyed the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford on Avon. Only a blackened shell was left.

18/2/1926, Thursday (-7,019) An Anglo-Persian oil treaty was signed, giving another 25-year oil exploration contract to the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.

12/2/1926. Friday (-7,025) Mussolini outlawed strikes in Italy.

9/2/1926, Tuesday (-7,028) Dr Garret Fitzgerald, Irish Prime Minister, was born in Dublin.

8/2/1926. Monday (-7,029) Germany applied to join the League of Nations.

6/2/1926, Saturday (-7, 031)

3/2/1926. Wednesday (-7,034) Czech became the official language of Czechoslovakia.

2/2/1926, Tuesday (-7,035) Giscard D’Estang, French President, was born.

30/1/1926. Saturday (-7,038) British troops ended a 7-year occupation of the Rhineland.

27/1/1926. Wednesday (-7,041) Scottish inventor John Logie Baird, aged 38, demonstrated the principle of transmitting moving images by radio. The demonstration was to members of the Royal Institution, at his workshop in Soho, London. He called this ‘television’.

13/1/1926, Wednesday (-7,055) Wyatt Earp, American lawman and hero of the OK Corral, died peacefully aged 81.

12/1/1926. Tuesday (-7,056) In Paris, the Pasteur Institute announced the discovery of an anti-tetanus vaccine.

8/1/1926. Friday (-7,060) The new King, Ibn Saud, renamed Hejaz as Saudi Arabia.

6/1/1926. Wednesday (-7,062) The German airline Lufthansa was founded.

5/1/1926. Tuesday (-7,063) In the UK the Widow's Pension began to be paid at Post Offices.

1/1/1926, Friday (-7,067) The nationalist government was established in China.

21/12/1925. Monday (-7,078) Battleship Potemkin, a film by Sergei Eisenstein, opened in the USSR.

18/12/1925. Friday (-7,081) Work began on the Mersey Road Tunnel, Liverpool.  It opened on 18/7/1934.

16/12/1925, Wednesday (-7,083) The League of Nations voted to uphold the Brussels Line, dividing Mosul villayet, see 21/11/1925, 29/10/1924.

12/12/1925. Saturday (-7,087) The world’s first motel opened in San Luis Obispo, California, starting a trend for overnight stops by motorists in individual accommodation.

6/12/1925, Sunday (-7,093) Italy agreed the frontier of Libya with Egypt.

5/12/1925, Saturday (-7,094) Medina capitulated to Ibn Saud.

3/12/1925. Thursday (-7,096) Stanley Baldwin signed an agreement fixing the Northern Irish frontier with the Irish Free State. See 10/11/1925.

1/12/1925, Tuesday (-7,098) The Peace of Locarno was signed (by UK, France, Italy, and Germany), guaranteeing peace and existing national frontiers in Europe.

30/11/1925, Monday (-7,099) The US sent warships to Hankow, China, to stop attacks by Communist Chinese on foreigners.

25/11/1925, Wednesday (-7,104) In Britain, 12 Communists arrested in October 1925 were jailed for sedition.

21/11/1925, Saturday (-7,108) The Permanent Court of International Justice agreed to the Brussels Line, dividing Mosul villayet, see 29/10/1924, and 16/12/1925.

20/11/1925, Friday (-7,109) British MPs approved a 4-month prison sentence and £50 fine for drunk-driving.

15/11/1925, Sunday (-7,114) In Ireland the Legion of Mary was founded by Frank Duff, civil servant and former active member of the Society of St Vincent de Paul, to combat drunkenness, prostitution, crime and disease. Members went to the poorest parts of Dublin to advise women living in poverty and degradation.

13/11/1925, Friday (-7,116) The South African Government called for more segregation of Black people.

10/11/1925,  Tuesday (-7,119) In Dublin, Eoin McNeill resigned from the boundary commission set up under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 to determine the Northern Irish border, see 10/5/1924. A leaked report and map in the Morning Post of 7/11/1925 indicated that, contrary to the expectations of the Dublin Government, the commission had recommended only very minor changes to the border. Northern Ireland would lose parts of south Armagh, south-west Fermanagh and west Tyrone, and gain small parts of Donegal and Monahan. Overall, Northern Ireland would lose just 1.8% of its population and 3.7% of its territory. Fearing defeat in the Dail, Irish Government leaders sought agreement with the London Government to suppress the commission’s report. Dublin had hoped for a major diminution of Northern Ireland, making it economically unviable so the remainder of it would have to join the South. See 3/12/1925.

9/11/1925. Monday (-7,120) The German Schutzstaffel, or Protection Squad (SS), was formed.

8/11/1925, Sunday (-7,121)

6/11/1925, Friday (-7,123) Khai Dinh, Emperor of Vietnam, died.

5/11/1925. Thursday (-7,124) In Italy, Mussolini banned all left-wing parties.

3/11/1925, Tuesday (-7,126)

31/10/1925, Saturday (-7,129) Persian Majles deposed the Shah, Sultan Ahmad.

30/10/1925. Friday (-7,130) In his workshop in London, John Logie Baird achieved the first TV pictures using a dummy’s head. He then persuaded a 15 year old office boy, William Taynton, to sit in front of the camera to become the first live person captured on TV.

29/10/1925, Thursday (-7,131) Greek troops withdrew from Bulgaria, on orders from the League of Nations.

22/10/1925. Thursday (-7,138) Border dispute flared between Greece and Bulgaria.

18/10/1925. Sunday (-7,142) French fleet bombards Damascus following a Druze insurrection that began on 18/7/1925.

16/10/1925, Friday (-7,144) (1) France and Germany concluded the Locarno Treaty, guaranteeing their mutual frontier. Italy and Britain also signed.  Germany reaffirmed its renunciation of Alsace-Lorraine and guaranteed not to attack France or Belgium.  Russia feared the Locarno Treaty ,meant an alliance of western powers against it, see 24/4/1926.

(2) Britain began regular broadcasts to Continental Europe, on a weekly basis.

13/10/1925, Tuesday (-7,147) The future Conservative leader, Margaret Thatcher, was born as Margaret Roberts.  She was born in Grantham, the daughter of a grocer. She was Prime Minister 1979-90.

12/10/1925, Monday (-7,148) Germany and the USSR signed a commercial treaty.

5/10/1925, Monday (-7,155) The Locarno Conference opened, to decide the German border and future of the Rhineland.

2/10/1925, Friday (-7,158) London’s iconic red double-decker buses went into service. See 9/4/1909.

29/9/1925, Tuesday (-7,161) In Britain, white lines were to be painted on roads to reduce accidents.

16/9/1925, Wednesday (-7,174) Charles Haughey, Irish Fianna Fail politician and Prime Minister, was born.

7/9/1925. Monday (-7,183) Anti-British rioters were shot in Shanghai. Protests had begun in May over working conditions in Japanese owned factories in Shanghai, and British police shot and killed demonstrating workers on 30/5/1925.

20/8/1925. Thursday (-7,201) Rome’s underground railway opened.

16/8/1925. Sunday (-7,205) Charlie Chaplin’s film Gold Rush was premiered in America.

12/8/1925. Wednesday (-7,209) Norris and Ross McWhirter, the British twins who founded the Guinness Book of records, were born. After the Bible, it is the best selling book in the world (2002). Ross McWhirter was murdered by the IRA.

8/8/1925. Saturday (-7,213) The first national congress of the Klu Klux Klan opened in Washington, with a big Klan march.

7/8/1925. Friday (-7,214) The Summer Time Act in the UK was made permanent. See 17/5/1916.

5/8/1925, Wednesday (-7,216) The first public meeting of Plaid Cymru, the Welsh Nationalist Party. Founder-member Saunders Lewis planned a wholly-Welsh-speaking summer school at Machynlleth to open in August 1926.

2/8/1925, Sunday (-7,219) Alan Whicker, widely-travelled TV reporter, was born in Cairo, Egypt.

28/7/1925, Tuesday (7.224)

27/7/1925, Monday (-7,225) The railway from Torrington to Halwell Junction, Devon, opened.

25/7/1925. Saturday (-7,227) The railworkers, transport, and seamens unions supported the mine workers against pay cuts and longer hours (see 30/6/1925). On 31/7/1925 the UK government offered a subsidy to the mine owners to enable them to continue with existing wages. Discussions between the mine owners, mine workers, and a government commission continued until April 1926 (see 30/4/1926).

24/7/1925. Friday (-7,228) Insulin (patented 12/6/1922) was first used to successfully treat a patient, 6 year old Patricia Cheeseman, at Guy’s Hospital London.

18/7/1925, Saturday (-7,234) Insurrection by the Druze in Syria, against French rule.

13/7/1925. Monday (-7,239) French troops begin to withdraw from the Rhineland.

12/7/1925, Sunday (-7,240) The first veteran car rally was held, in Munich.

11/7/1925, Saturday (-7,241)

10/7/1925, Friday (-7,242) The Scopes trial began in Dayton Tennessee.  Mr Scopes, a science teacher, was accused of teaching evolution and so breaching State laws against teaching ideas contradicting the Bible.  The real issue was the role of the State in determining the religious nature of school education.  The outcome was inconclusive.  Scopes was found guilty on 21/7/1925 but the US$100 penalty was set aside on a technicality.

9/7/1925, Thursday (-7,243) In Dublin, Oonagh Keogh, 22, became the first female member of a stock exchange.

7/7/1925, Tuesday (-7,245)

30/6/1925. Tuesday (-7,252) The British mining industry faced a crisis. During 1923 and 1924 German coal exports had been halved because of French occupation of the Ruhr following a reparations dispute between France and Germany. Settlement of this, and a return to the Gold Standard by Britain at a rate which effectively raised UK export prices by 10% mean that in the first 6 months of 1925 the UK coal industry made a loss of £2.1 million. On 30/6/1925 the mine workers were given a month’s notice of the cancellation of a pay award made in 1924 and the option of returning to an 8 hour day or further wage cuts ranging from 13% to 38%. Even after the 1924 pay rise, miners’ wages were very low, in real terms lower than they had been in 1914. The Miners Union rejected the pay cut and the longer hours. See 25/7/1925.

29/6/1925. Monday (-7,253) South Africa passed laws, the Mines and Works Act, excluding ‘Coloured, Indian, and Black people from all skilled jobs. In the late 19th century, skilled mining jobs in South Africa could only be filled by Whites. By the 1920s Black people had acquired the necessary skills for these jobs, and White employees feared their wages would be undercut, so they lobbied the Government for these racist laws.

20/6/1925. Saturday (-7,262) In Germany, a wireless telephone for cars was demonstrated.

18/6/1925. Thursday (-7,264) France accepted German proposals for a security pact.

6/6/1925. Saturday (-7,276) Walter P Chrysler founded the Chrysler Motor Company in Detroit.

3.6.1925, Wednesday (-7,279) Tony Curtis, US actor, was born.

2/6/1925. Tuesday (-7,280) The Canadian government claimed all land between Greenland and Alaska up to the North Pole.

30/5/1925. Saturday (-7,283) King George V opened the Great West Road at Brentford, London. It was seen as a model for post-War development.

23/5/1925, Saturday (-7,290) British publishing magnate Sir Edward Hulton died after falling off his penny-farthing bicycle.

22/5/1925, Friday (-7,291) Sir John French, British general who led the British Expeditionary Force in France and Belgium, died.

19/5/1925, Tuesday (-7,294) Malcolm X, US militant Black civil rights leader, was born in Omaha, Nebraska, as Malcolm Little.

11/5/1925. Monday (-7,302) Direct telephone communication between London and Rome began for the first time.

8/5/1925, Friday (-7,305) Ali Hassan Mwinyi, President of Tanzania, was born.

7/5/1925, Thursday (-7,306) William Lever, Viscount Leverhulme, British entrepreneur and founder of the Lever Brothers corporation, died.

2/5/1925, Saturday (-7,311)

1/5/1925. Friday (-7,312) Cyprus became a British Crown Colony. It had been annexed by Britain from Turkey in 1914 when Turkey supported Germany in World War One.

30/4/1925. Thursday (-7,313) The Distillers Whisky Group was formed.

28/4/1925. Tuesday (-7,315) Britain returned to the Gold Standard. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Winston Churchill, told the House of Commons he will not renew the Act of 1919 which suspended the Standard. Symbolically, this measure signalled a return to pre-War stability and a Victorian era in which Britain was pre-eminent. However Cambridge economist John Maynard Keynes warned that the USA was not actually adhering to a Gold Standard; it was manipulating the price of gold, at great expense, to ensure it stayed level with the US Dollar. For Britain to return to the Standard meant subjugating UK economic policy to that of the USA.

25/4/1925. Saturday (-7,318) Hindenburg became President of Germany.

16/4/1925. Thursday (-7,327) In Turkey, the Kurdish uprising ended.

15/4/1925, Wednesday (-7,328) Sir James Barrie donated the copyright of Peter Pan to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children in London.

8/4/1925. Wednesday (-7,335) (1) The Australian Government and the British Colonial Office offered low interest rate loans for Britons to emigrate to Australia; the aim was for 450,000 Britons a year to migrate to Australia over the next 10 years. In the first decade of the 20th century, an average 284,000 Britons emigrated annually, mostly to the USA or the Dominions.

(2) Italian Catholic bishops banned scantily clad or bare legged women from churches.

6/4/1925. Monday (-7,337) The first in-flight movie was shown; The Lost World.

3/4/1925, Friday (-7,340) Anthony Wedgewood Benn, British Labour politician, was born.

1/4/1925, Wednesday (-7,342) The Hebrew University at Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, was opened.

30/3/1925, Monday (-7,344) Rudolf Steiner, Austrian educator who founded the Anthroposophical Society, died aged 64.

29/3/1925. Sunday (-7,345) Japan passed a Bill for universal male suffrage.

28/3/1925, Saturday (-7,346) In the Boat Race, the Oxford boat sank.

27/3/1925, Friday (-7,347)

26/3/1925, Thursday (-7,348) Hindenburg was elected President of Germany.

25/3/1925. Wednesday (-7,349) The new fast London-Southend road was opened.

23/3/1925. Monday (-7,351) US Tennessee law prohibited the teaching of evolution.

19/3/1925. Thursday (-7,355) Britain established a large naval base at Singapore. This reinforced links with the British colonies such as Hong Kong, but Japan saw it as a threat.

13/3/1925, Friday (-7,361) British MPs approved the Summer Time Bill, making annual daylight saving time permanent,

12/3/1925, Thursday (-7,362) In China, Kuomintang leader Dr Sun Yat Sen died.  General Chiang Kai Shek became the new leader.

2/3/1925. Monday (-7,372) Austria introduced a new currency, the schilling.

28/2/1925. Saturday (-7,374) Kurdish uprising in Turkey. The rebellion ended on 16/4/1925.

27/2/1925, Friday (-7,375) Hitler spoke at a Nazi meeting at a Munich beer hall.

24/2/1925, Tuesday (-7,378) Joseph Rowntree, chocolate manufacturer in York, died in that city.

14/2/1925. Saturday (-7,388) The ban on the Nazi Party in Bavaria was lifted.

4/2/1925, Wednesday (-7,398) Robert Koldeway, the archaeologist who excavated Babylon, died.

21/1/1925, Wednesday (-7,412) Benny Hill, English comedian, was born in Southampton.

20/1/1925, Tuesday (-7,413) The UK and China made the Treaty of Peking.

5/1/1925. Monday (-7,428) Mrs Nellie Taylor Ross became governor of Wyoming, the first woman Governor in the USA. This followed the death of her husband.

3/1/1925. Saturday (-7,430) Mussolini assumed full dictatorial control in Italy.  He nominated his cabinet on 5/1/1925.

1/1/1925. Thursday (-7,432) Norway’s capital, Christiana, was renamed Oslo.

29/12/1924, Monday (-7,435) John D Rockefeller donated US$ 1 million to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

28/12/1924, Sunday (-7,436) Milton Obote, President of Uganda, was born.

24/12/1924. Wednesday (-7440) Albania was declared a republic.

20/12/1924. Saturday (-7,444) Adolf Hitler was freed from prison on parole after serving just 8 months of his jail term for high treason.

18/12/1924, Thursday (-7,446) Pope Pius XI denounced the USSR.

2/12/1924, Tuesday (-7,462) The UK and Germany signed a trade pact.

30/11/1924, Sunday (-7,464) (1) The last French and Belgian troops left the Ruhr.

(2) Radio photographs were first transmitted from Britain to the USA.

26/11/1924. Wednesday (-7,468) The Communist party of the USSR denounced Trotsky.

21/11/1924, Friday (-7,473) The new Conservative Government of Britain repudiated a treaty made by the previous Labour administration with the USSR.

8/11/1924, Saturday (-7,486) The Irish Government offered an amnesty to those involved in the civil conflict between IRA and Government. See 12/1/1922.

6/11/1924. Thursday (-7,488) The new Conservative prime Minister of Britain, Stanley Baldwin, appointed Winston Churchill as Chancellor of the Exchequer.

5/11/1924, Wednesday (-7,489) The last Manchu Emperor, Pu-Yi, 18, was evicted from his palace in Beijing by the Christian warlord Feng Xuyiang who took control of the city. Pu-Yi had been compelled to abdicate in 1912, when he was aged 6, by the Revolutionary Government in Nanking after the Wuchang uprising, ending 268 years of Manchu rule and over 2000 years of imperial tradition. He was allowed to continue living in his palace in the Forbidden City, and was temporarily restored to the throne by General Xun’s coup in 1917, but was dethroned after 12 days. Pu-Yi now sought refuge in the Japanese concession at Tien-Tsin.

4/11/1924. Tuesday (-7,490) Texas elected its first woman state governor.

3/11/1924, Monday (-7,491)

2/11/1924. Sunday (-7,492) The first crossword appeared in a British newspaper, the Sunday Express. It was bought from an American paper, operated by C W Shepherd, where crosswords had appeared 11 years earlier, see 21/12/1913.

1/11/1924, Saturday (-7,493) (1) Eamon de Valera was jailed for one month for entering Northern Ireland illegally. He was a devout Roman Catholic and Britain did not want him proselytising in Protestant Northern Ireland. See 16/7/1924.

(2) The British Empire Exhibition at Wembley, London, closed (opened 23/4/1924).

30/10/1924, Thursday (-7,495)

29/10/1924, Wednesday (-7,496) The Council of Brussels drew the Brussels Line, dividing the villayet of Mosul into Turkish and Iraqi areas.  See 21/11/1925, 16,12,1925.

28/10/1924. Tuesday (-7,497) France recognised the USSR.

9/10/1924. Thursday (-7,516) Britain’s minority Labour government fell after a vote of censure in the Commons; the vote was 364 against the Government, 198 in favour. On 29/10/1924 the Conservatives won a large victory following a scare over the ‘Zinoviev letter’. This was a forged letter allegedly from Moscow, urging a Communist revolution in Britain. A General Election was held on 30/10/1924 and the result was 413 seats to the Conservatives, against 151 for Labour and 40 for the Liberals. Stanley Baldwin became Prime Minister.

7/10/1924, Tuesday (-7,518) The British Labour Party banned Communists from becoming members.

2/10/1924, Thursday (-7,523) Trotsky took command of the Red Army in Georgia.

1/10/1924. Wednesday (-7,524) US Democrat and 39th President James Earl (Jimmy) Carter, peanut farmer, was born in Plains, Georgia.

28/9/1924, Sunday (-7,527) Lieutenants Smith and Nelson, in US Army Douglas airplanes, completed the first circumnavigation of the globe.  They flew a total of 26,103 miles, with 57 stops.

18/9/1924. Thursday (-7,537) Mohandas Ghandi, serving 6 years in prison for sedition, began a 21-day hunger strike, to try and dissuade Hindus and Moslems from rioting.

15/9/1924, Monday (-7,540) The BBC began broadcasting from Belfast.

2/9/1924, Tuesday (-7,553) Daniel Arap Moi, President of Kenya, was born.

30/8/1924, Saturday (-7,556) The German Reichsbank was made independent of the government.  It issued a new currency, the ReichsMark, at 1,000,000 million to the old Mark.

19/8/1924, Tuesday (-7,567)

18/8/1924, Monday (-7,568) London’s Northern Line opened from Hendon Central to Edgware, 3 miles, see 19/11/1923.  The line was to have been extended to Bushey Heath and on to Watford but this never materialised.

17/8/1924. Sunday (-7,569) French and Belgian troops agreed to withdraw from the Ruhr within 1 year following Germany’s agreement on war reparations.

16/8/1924, Saturday (-7,570) The Allies and Germany accepted the Dawes Plan, for a revised timetable of reparations.

8/8/1924, Friday (-7,578) A ten-nation summit agreed a plan drawn up by US banker Charles Dawes, designed to assist Germany’s economy and fulfil reparation payments.

19/7/1924. Saturday (-7,598) Liverpool Cathedral was consecrated, although it was not yet finished. Construction had begun in 1904.

16/7/1924, Wednesday (-7,601) Eamon de Valera was released after 11 months in Kilmainham Prison. Hundreds of other activists continued to be held, many without trial. Free State troops continued to carry out raids and arrests, causing much bitterness. See 1/11/1924, 8/11/1924.

11/7/1924. Friday (-7,606) Hindus and Muslims rioted in Delhi.

8/7/1924, Tuesday (-7,609) Adolf Hitler resumed leadership of the Nazi Party.

5/7/1924, Saturday (-7,612) The 8th Olympic games opened in Paris.

12/6/1924, Thursday (-7,635) George Bush, Republican and US President, was born in Milton, Massachusetts.

10/6/1924, Tuesday (-7,637) Italian socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated by Mussolini’s fascists. He had replaced Filippo Turati as leader of Italy’s reformed Socialist Party, and on 30/5/1924 he denounced the Italian elections of April 1924, in which Mussolini’s Fascists had done well, as fraudulent.

8/6/1924. Sunday (-7,639) George Mallory, on his third attempt to conquer Everest, was seen for the last time at a point 800 feet from the summit.

5/6/1924, Thursday (-7,642) The UK Government appointed a Northern Ireland representative to the Border Commission, see 10/5/1924.

3/6/1924, Tuesday (-7,644) German novelist Franz Kafka died in a sanatorium at Kierling, near Vienna,. After a seven year battle with tuberculosis.

31/5/1924. Saturday (-7,647) China recognised the USSR.

30/5/1925, Friday (-7,648) The British colony of Southern Rhodesia became self-governing; its assembly met for the first time.

26/5/1924. Monday (-7,652) The US passed a bill to limit immigration and bar Japanese.

10/5/1924, Saturday (-7,668) Under the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty (6/12/1921) a Boundary Commission was to determine the borders of Northern Ireland. The Irish Government believed that such a commission would give them at least 3 of the 6 Northern counties, and an economically unviable North would then join the South. Now the Northern Irish Government refused to appoint a member to the commission. Both the London and Dublin governments could fall over this issue. However on 5/6/1924 the UK Government appointed a representative for Northern Ireland. See 20/11/1925.

8/5/1924, Thursday (-7,670) Afrikaans became the official language of South Africa.

1/5/1924, Thursday (-7,677) Greece proclaimed itself a republic.

28/4/1924, Monday (-7,680) (1) Kenneth Kaunda, Zambia’s first President, was born in Lubwa.

(2) The US sent troops to Honduras amidst electoral unrest.

24/4/1924. Thursday (-7,684) Train ferry service between Harwich and Zeebrugge was opened by King George V.

23/4/1924. Wednesday (-7,685) King George V opened the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley Stadium, London. It closed on 1/11/1924.

20/4/1924, Sunday (-7,688) The interchange at Camden Town between the City and South London Lines and the Northern Line to Golders Green, Highgate, came into use.

17/4/1924. Thursday (-7,691) Mussolini’s Fascist Party won a sweeping victory in the Italian general election.

16/4/1924. Wednesday (-7,692) The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film corporation was formed by merger.

10/4/1924. Thursday (-7,698) The first crossword puzzle book was published in New York.

1/4/1924. Tuesday (-7,707) (1) Adolf Hitler was jailed for 5 years for his part in the abortive Munich beer hall putsch.

(2) The first gramophone to automatically change records went on sale, produced by HMV.

(3) Britain’s national airline, Imperial Airways, was created by amalgamating four smaller aviation companies. These were Handley Page Transport, Daimler Airway, Instone Airline and British Marine Air Navigation. These four companies were unprofitable, and the government realised that, as in other countries, they way forward was a national carrier, with strong financial support from public funds.

28/3/1924, Friday (-7,711) Total was founded as the Compagnie Française des Pétroles (CFP), the "French Petroleum Company". Petroleum was seen as vital in the case of a new war with Germany.

15/3/1924. Saturday (-7,724) The first Egyptian Parliament opened.

2/3/1924, Sunday (-7,737) The Turkish National Assembly abolished the caliphate, disestablishing the Islamic religion.

26/2/1924, Tuesday (-7,742) Adolf Hitler was charged with treason for his part in the abortive Munich beer hall putsch.

21/2/1924, Thursday (-7,747) Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe, was born.

12/2/1924, Tuesday (-7,756) Calvin Coolidge became the first US President to deliver a speech on radio.

8/2/1924. Friday (-7,760) The first execution by gas chamber, in Carson City’s Nevada State Prison. Chinese gang member Gee John’s execution took some six minutes after the hydrocyanic gas was introduced.

7/2/1924, Thursday (-7,761) Italy recognised the USSR.

6/2/1924. Wednesday (-7,762) The USA granted full citizenship to American Indians.

5/2/1924. Tuesday (-7,763) The BBC ‘pips’ or time signals, were heard for the first time. They were set by a clock at Greenwich.

3/2/1924, Sunday (-7,765) Woodrow Wilson, Democrat and 28th President of America from 1913 to 1921, also Nobel Prize winner, died and was buried in Washington Cathedral.

1/2/1924. Friday (-7,767) Britain’s Labour Government recognised the USSR.

29/1/1924. Tuesday (-7,770) The ice cream cone making machine was patented by Carl Taylor.

27/1/1924. Sunday (-7,772) (1) Mussolini signed a pact with Yugoslavia, and Italy annexed the free city of Fiume.

(2) Rauf Denktash, Turkish-Cypriot politician, was born,

26/1/1924. Saturday (-7,773) Petrograd was renamed Leningrad.

25/1/1924. Friday (-7,774) The first Winter Olympics were held, at Chamonix, France.

23/1/1924, Wednesday (-7,776)

22/1/1924. Tuesday (-7,777) The Labour Party won 288 seats against the Conservatives 266, but had no overall majority as the Liberals held 59. Ramsay MacDonald became Britain’s first Labour Prime Minister, succeeding the Conservative, Stanley Baldwin. See also 26/7/1945. The first Labour government in Britain was elected. King George V sent for Ramsay MacDonald (born 12/10/1866) following the Conservative defeat on a censure motion in the Commons the previous day. The state of the Commons was then, previous to the election, Conservative 259 seats, Labour 191, and Liberals 159. Labour secured its first UK Parliamentary majority on 30/5/1929.

The new Labour government was to prioritise unemployment; slum clearance and house building would also be tackled.

21/1/1924. Monday (-7,778)  (1) Vladimir Illitch Lenin died, aged 53. The middle-class lawyer who made a revolution on behalf of the workers died of a series of debilitating strokes. A power struggle then ensued between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin, who won.

(2) The Chinese Kuomintang Congress admitted the Communists.

16/1/1924, Wednesday (-7,783) The BBC broadcast the first play written specifically for radio, Danger, by Richard Hughes.

7/1/1924. Monday (-7,792) Direct communication by transatlantic cable and land wire was opened by the Western Union Telegraph Company between London and Chicago.

31/12/1923. Monday (-7,799) The chimes of Big Ben were broadcast by the BBC for the first time.

28/12/1923. Friday (-7,802) Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, who designed the 300 metre Eiffel Tower, Paris, died aged 91.

27/12/1923, Thursday (-7,803) Emperor Hirohito of Japan narrowly escaped assassination.

23/12/1923, Sunday (-7,807) The BBC began regular radio broadcasts for entertainment, as opposed to information.

18/12/1923, Tuesday (-7,812) The International Zone of Tangier was set up.

17/12/1923. Monday (-7,813) The Greek Army deposed King George II.

10/12/1923, Monday (-7,820) The Kraft Company started as National Dairy Products Corporation (National Dairy), formed on December 10, 1923, by Thomas H. McInnerney.

8/12/1923. Saturday (-7,822) In the UK 8 women were now MPs. The British general election resulted in a hung Parliament.

25/11/1923. Sunday (-7,835) The first transatlantic wireless broadcast from the UK to the USA was made.

19/11/1923, Monday (-7,841) London’s Northern Line opened from Golders Green to Hendon Central, 1 ¾ miles, see 18/8/1924.

18/11/1923, Sunday (-7,842) Alan Shepard, the first US astronaut in space, was born in East Derry, New Hampshire.

15/11/1923. Thursday (-7,845) (1) Rampant German inflation peaked with the Mark worth 4,200,000 Million to the US Dollar, and 10,000,000 Million to the UK Pound – if you could find anyone willing to change your marks for dollars. It had been 4.2 to the Dollar in 1914, 350,000 to the pound (1 pound was 5 dollars) on 1/6/1923, and 622,000 to the pound on 22/6/1923. A loaf of bread cost 63 pfennigs in 1918, and 250 pfennigs in January 1923. But by July 1923 a loaf cost 3,465 pfennigs, and by November 1923, 201,000 million marks. Workers were paid twice a day and by the evening a loaf of bread would cost what a house was worth in the morning.

Money had effectively become worthless; trade was done by barter. Middle class families with cash in the bank had been ruined. The problem had been that, after French troops occupied the Ruhr to enforce war reparations, the German Government began to print marks in huge numbers. German industry was unable to produce the goods  to match the vast increase in money supply. On 15/11/1923 Germany introduced the Rentemark, tied to the country’s real estate. Each rentemark was worth 1,000 million old marks.

(2) Poland was also in the grip of hyperinflation, though not as bad as Germany’s. The Polish mark went from 9.8 to the US$ in November 1918 to 580 by end-December 1920, and to 17,800 to the US$ by December 1922. By November 1932 the rate stood at 2,300,000 Polish Marks to the US$.

13/11/1923, Tuesday (-7,847) In Italy, Mussolini introduced a Bill giving women the vote.

9/11/1923. Friday (-7,851) The Munich beer hall putsch marked the start of Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. This putsch against the Bavarian Government failed and Hitler was arrested on 11/11/1923 in a village outside Munich and imprisoned.  Hitler then spent several months in prison in Landsberg Am Lech, Bavaria, where he dictated part of his Mein Kampf to Rudolf Hess.

30/10/1923, Tuesday (-7,861) Andrew Bonar-Law, Canadian-born UK Prime Minister, died.

29/10/1923. Monday (-7,862) Mustapha Kemal proclaimed Turkey a Republic and himself as its first President, called Kemal Ataturk.

23/10/1923, Tuesday (-7,868) A Communist uprising occurred in Hamburg.

21/10/1923, Sunday (-7,870) The world’s first planetarium opened, in Munich.

12/10/1923. Friday (-7,879) The Turkish capital was officially moved from Istanbul to Ankara.

10/10/1923. Wednesday (-7,881) Rhodesia, formerly administered by the British South African Company, became a self-governing British colony.

1/10/1923, Monday (-7,890) The German mark reached 242,000,000 to the US$

30/9/1923, Sunday (-7,891) A German uprising in Dusseldorf against French occupation of The Ruhr.

29/9/1923. Saturday (-7,892) The British mandate in Palestine officially began.

28/9/1923. Friday (-7,893) (1) Ethiopia joined the League of Nations.

(2) The Radio Times was first published.

27/9/1923. Thursday (-7,894) Martial law was proclaimed in Germany.

10/9/1923. Monday (-7,911) The Irish Free State was admitted to the League of Nations.

6/9/1923, Thursday (-7,915) King Peter of Yugoslavia was born.

4/9/1923. Tuesday (-7,917) Birth of Birmingham politician Lord Howell, Britain’s first Minister for Sport.

3/9/1923, Monday (-7,918) The US recognised the Mexican government.

2/9/1923, Sunday (-7,919) Hitler fiercely denounced the Weimar Republic.

1/9/1923. Saturday (-7,920) An earthquake magnitude 7.9 in Japan left the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama in ruins and killed over 300,000 people. The epicentre was just outside Tokyo. Half of Tokyo’s houses were destroyed, a million of its people made homeless, and 132,807 killed in Tokyo alone. Altogether 143,000 died and 2.5 million were made homeless.

31/8/1923. Friday (-7,921) Italy seized the Greek island of Corfu.  This followed an incident in which an Italian General and 4 members of his staff were shot whilst determining the Albanian-Greek border on 27/8/1923.  Mussolini saw the incident as a national insult.  Greece appealed to the League of Nations on 3/9/1923, and under pressure from France and the UK, Italy withdrew from Corfu on 27/9/1923.  Greece was compelled to pay a considerable indemnity to Italy.

21/8/1923, Tuesday (-7,931) In London, a 7-week dockworkers strike ended.

17/8/1923. Friday (-7,935) The defence treaty between Japan and the UK (see 30/1/1902 and 23/8/1914) was replaced by a four power agreement between the USA, France, Japan, and the UK.

16/8/1923, Thursday (-7,936) Shimon Peres, Prime Minister of Israel 1984-86, was born in Poland.

13/8/1923. Monday (-7,939) Mustapha Kemal, (Ataturk), was elected President of Turkey.

9/8/1923, Thursday (-7,943) In Ireland, the 1923 Land Law Act, introduced by Agriculture Minister Paul Hogan, reformed landholdings in favour of tenants. This Act completed the work of William Gladstone, British Prime Minister, who in 1870 introduced legislation allowing tenant farmers to borrow two thirds of the price of buying their landholding from the government, to be repaid with interest over 35 years. Hogan’s Act made compulsory the sale of all land still owned by landlords. Rents fixed before 1911 were reduced by 35%, those fixed after 1911 by 30%. All rent arrears pre-1920 were cancelled and rent arrears post 1920 were reduced by 25%. Current sub-tenants were recognised as legitimate owners and further subdivision or subletting of land was made illegal.

5/8/1923, Sunday (-7,947) C V Devan Nair, President of Singapore, was born.

3/8/1923, Friday (-7,949) John Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) became 30th (Republican) President of the USA, going on to win the election of 1924.  He declined to stand for election in 1928 but retired, just before the Wall Street crash.

2/8/1923, Thursday (-7,950) Warren Harding, American Republican and 29th President from 1921, died in San Francisco on return from a trip to Alaska.  The remainder of his term was completed by Calvin Coolidge.

30/7/1923, Monday (-7,953) The Ross Dependency in Antarctica was created, under New Zealand rule.

27/7/1923, Friday (-7,956)The BBC radio transmission station at Daventry opened.

25/7/1923, Wednesday (-7,958) 100 killed in Bulgarian train crash.

24/7/1923. Tuesday (-7,959) The Treaty of Lausanne was signed. This restored Adrianople to Turkey after the Greco-Turkish was of 1923. Turkey regained the territories lost after World War One, including the eastern Aegean and Armenia.

16/7/1923. Monday (-7,967) Mussolini banned gambling in Italy.

13/7/1923, Friday (-7,970) Britain made sales of alcohol to under-18s illegal.

10/7/1923, Tuesday (-7,973) Francisco ‘Pancho’ Villa, Mexican revolutionary leader, born 1878, son of a farm worker, was shot dead. His killers were members of the Herrera family, four of whom Pancho had executed during the Revolution.

1/7/1923, Sunday (-7,982) The German Mark reached 160,000 to the US$.  Pre 1914 it had been 4.20; during 1922 the rate fell from 162 to over 7,000 to the US$.

30/6/1923. Saturday (-7,983) The Klu Klux Klan claimed to have a million members. Founded after Black slaves gained freedom in the American Civil War, it gradually widened its targets to include Jews, Catholics, foreigners; anyone not Protestant and White. It was disbanded in 1869 but revived in 1915, under its ‘imperial wizard’, a dentist called Hiram Evans.

15/6/1923. Friday (-7,998) Earthquake in Iran killed 20,000.

10/6/1923. Sunday (-8,003) (1) Switzerland and Liechtenstein formed a customs union.

(2) Robert Maxwell, newspaper owner, was born in Solotvino, eastern Czechoslovakia, as Ludvick Hoch.

9/6/1923, Saturday (-8,004) In Italy, the Vatican ordered the Catholic Party to disband, and many of its members joined Mussolini’s Fascist party. The Catholic Party, or Partito Popolare Italiano (Italian People’s Party), had been formed in 1919;before then the Vatican had forbidden Catholics to vote. In Italian elections in 1919 and in 1921 the Catholic Party received 20% of the vote, second only to the Italian Socialist Party. Following Mussolini’s victory in 1922 Cardinal Gasparri, the Vatican’s Secretary of State, made a deal with Mussolini that the Catholic Church would support him; in return Mussolini would restore the historic privileges of the catholic Church in Italy. In 1927 Mussolini was baptised as a Catholic, and in 1929 he signed the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican a separate sovereign State. He also made Catholicism the State religion of Italy, and paid the Vatican 750 million lire as compensation for the Vatican’s loss of the ancient Papal States territory in Italy.

8/6/1923, Friday (-8,005) In the UK, wives were now allowed to divorce their husbands for adultery.

4/6/1923, Monday (-8,009) In Spain, the Archbishop of Saragossa was murdered.

31/5/1923, Thursday (-8,013) Prince Ranier III, prince of the House of Grimaldi, was born in Monaco.

27/5/1923. Sunday (-8,017) Henry Kissinger, American Secretary of State, was born in Furth, Germany. Kissinger shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Le Duc Thuo for their part in ending the Vietnam War.

26/5/1923, Saturday (-8,018) The annual Le Mans 24-hour race for sports cars was first held, on the Sarthe circuit. The winners, Andre Lagache and Rene Leonard, averaged 57.2 mph.

25/5/1923, Friday (-8,019) The State of Transjordan, now Jordan, became independent.

22/5/1923. Tuesday (-8,022) Stanley Baldwin became Conservative Prime Minister after the resignation of Andrew Bonar Law due to illness. Baldwin was to serve as PM for three terms.  See 23/10/1922.

2/5/1923, Wednesday (-8,042) The BBC radio programme ‘Woman’s Hour’ began.

30/4/1923. Monday (-8,044) The US only permitted alcohol consumption on ships 3 miles or more out at sea.

28/4/1923. Saturday (-8,046) The first major sporting event was held at Wembley Stadium; the FA Cup Final.

27/4/1923, Friday (-8,047) After the death of IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch (see 10/4/1923), Eamon de Valera called off his armed struggle against the Treaty that partitioned Ireland. Speaking to his Republican followers, termed ‘irregulars’ or ‘rebels’ by the Irish Free State Government, de Valera said “Further sacrifice of life would now be in vain. Military victory must be allowed for to rest for the moment with those who have destroyed the Republic”. The struggle had taken 4,000 lives and cost £30 million in damage to property. Republicans had regarded the entire State apparatus of the Free State government, courts, police, judges, illegal and therefore legitimate military targets. In turn the Free Government had reacted with a strong crackdown on the IRA.

26/4/1923, Thursday (-8,048) King George V, then the Duke of York, married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in Westminster Abbey.

10/4/1923, Tuesday (-8,064) Liam Lynch, head of the IRA, died in police custody after being wounded in fighting with Free State troops. See 27/4/1923.

31/3/1923, Saturday (-8,074) Rioting German workers at the Krupps works in Essen in French-occupied Ruhr were shot by French troops.

27/3/1923, Tuesday (-8,078) (1) The astronomer and broadcaster Patrick Moore was born in Pinner.

(2) Sir James Dewar, Scottish scientist, inventor of the vacuum flask, died aged 80.

26/3/1923. Monday (-8,079) (1) The world’s first inter-urban motorway opened, in Italy. It was formally opened by the King of Italy on 21/9.1924. It ran from Milan to Varese and the Lombardy Lakes.

(2) Regular daily weather forecasts began to be broadcast on BBC radio. See 14/11/1922.

24/3/1923. Saturday (-8,081) The salt tax in India was restored.

21/3/1923. Wednesday (-8,084)  Scientists in Paris claimed smoking is beneficial.

15/3/1923, Thursday (-8,890) Fuad I was proclaimed King of Egypt.

14/3/1923. Wednesday (-8,891) The Allies recognised Vilna and East Galicia as Polish.

12/3/1923, Monday (-8,093) The foundation stone of the Australian Federal Parliament Building at Canberra was laid.

9/3/1923. Friday (-8,096) Vladimir Illitch Lenin retired from the Bolshevik leadership of the USSR because of a second stroke.

3/3/1923. Saturday (-8,102) The US magazine Time was first published. Republican-leaning, the magazine was to condense the news for time-pressed Americans, and could be distributed by rail in a country with no true national newspaper.

2/3/1923, Friday (-8,103) (1) In Britain the Matrimonial Causes Bill, passed by 231 votes to 27, changed the inequality whereby a man could divorce his wife simply for adultery, but a woman had to prove cruelty or desertion as well.

(2) Cardinal Basil Hume, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster from 1976, was born.

1/3/1923, Thursday (-8,104) The Czechoslovak national airline, CSA, was set up.

24/2/1923, Saturday (-8,109) The Flying Scotsman train began scheduled 4-hour services between Kings Cross, London, and Edinburgh, at a record 100 mph.

21/2/1923, Wednesday (-8,112) In Italy the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Vincenzo Cardinal Vanutelli, said ‘Mussolini had been chosen to save the nation and restore her fortune.

17/2/1923. Saturday (-8,116) Tutenkhamen’s tomb opened by the Egyptologist Howard Carter. Carter was born in Swaffham, Norfolk, on 9/5/1873, and joined the British – sponsored archaeological survey of Egypt at the age of 17. He died in London in 1939.

13/2/1923, Tuesday (-8,120) Charles ‘Chuck’ Yeager, American pilot, first to fly at supersonic speed, was born.

10/2/1923. Saturday (-8,123) William Konrad Von Roentgen, German physicist who discovered X rays in 1895, died.

9/2/1923, Friday (-8,124) The Soviet national airline, now called Aeroflot, was established; then known as Dobrolet.

5/2/1923, Monday (-8,128)

1/2/1923. Thursday (-8,132) Inflation in Germany continued; £1 was now worth 220,000 Marks. On 2/1/1922 £1 had been worth 30,000 Marks.

31/1/1923, Wednesday (-8.133) Hungary was admitted to the League of Nations.

27/1/1923. Saturday (-8,137) The German Nazi Party held its first rally, in Munich.

12/1/1923  Friday (-8,152) Germany protested at the occupation of the Ruhr (see 11/1/1923) and ceased all coal reparations shipments to France.  The French erected customs posts and economically divided the region from the rest of Germany.  This was a serious blow to the German economy, especially after the loss of the industrial Upper Silesia to Poland.  The resultant economic disruption hit the German economy and its currency began to collapse.  See 31/7/1925.

11/1/1923. Thursday (-8,153) Germany defaulted on reparations payments (see 26/12/1922), and French and Belgian troops occupied Essen and The Ruhr.

10/1/1923, Wednesday (-8,154) The last US troops left Germany.

1/1/1923, Monday (-8,163) (1) Britain’s railways were regrouped according to the Railways Act of 1921. The railways had been nationalised during the War, but ambitious plans for electrification and redevelopment had been abandoned in favour foa return to private ownership. However the multiple overlapping companies of pre-War Britain were now organised into four regional monopolies, the Great Western, the London and North Western, the London and North eastern, and the Southern.

(2) A French pilot set a new air speed record of 217 mph.

(3) 100 acres of Ken Wood Estate were bought for the nation to extend Hampstead Heath.

30/12/1922. Saturday (-8,165) Soviet Russia was officially renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or USSR.

23/12/1922, Saturday (-8,172) Birth of Helmut Schmidt, German Chancellor.

17/12/1922, Sunday (-8,178) The last British troops left Dublin.

16/12/1922, Saturday (-8,179) The Reparation Commission accused Germany of intentional shortfalls in wood and coal deliveries to France.  See 11/1/1923.

13/12/1922, Wednesday (-8,182) Hannes Hafstein, Prime Minister of Iceland, died.

5/12/1922. Tuesday (-8,190) The Irish Free State was officially proclaimed. The last British troops left on 17/12/1922.

26/11/1922. Sunday (-8,199) (1) The tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamen was discovered by Howard Carter and his patron, Lord Carnarvon.

(2) Birth of the American cartoonist Charles Schultz. At an arts instruction school in St Paul, Minnesota, Schultz asked fellow student Charlie Brown if he could use his name . He also used Brown’s moon-face looks to create the friendly loser-kid in the comic strip Peanuts, which featured in some 2,600 newspapers in 75 countries, translated into 21 languages. Schultz died in Santa Rosa, California, in 2000.

21/11/1922. Tuesday (-8,204) Ramsay MacDonald was elected leader of the Labour Party.

17/11/1922, Friday (-8,208) Siberia voted for union with the USSR.

16/11/1922. Thursday (-8,209) In Britain, the Tories under Bonar Law won the General Election with a majority of 77. The Conservatives got 345 seats. Labour won 142 to become the main opposition party for the first time, and the Liberals had 117 seats.

14/11/1922. Tuesday (-8,211) The British Broadcasting Corporation began daily news broadcasts from 2LO in The Strand, London. This had formerly been Marconi’s London broadcasting station. At 6pm the news was read by Arthur Burrows, once at normal speed and once at slow speed. See 14/2/1922, 18/10/1922 and 26/3/1923.

8/11/1922, Wednesday (-8,217) Dr Christian Barnard, South African surgeon who pioneered heart transplants, was born in Beaufort West, Cape Province.

1/11/1922. Wednesday (-8,224) (1) Mustafa Kemal announced a new Turkish Republic.

(2) The first radio licences went on sale in Britain. They cost 10 shillings (50p). They were abolished on 1/2/1971. Some people built their own radios; others bought them from the BBC, costing between £2 and £4, with headphones.

31/10/1922, Tuesday (-8,225) (1) Mussolini’s supporters organised a mass rally in Rome.

(2) Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia, was born.

30/10/1922. Monday (-8,226) Benito Mussolini took power in Italy.

29/10/1922, Sunday (-8,227) King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy invited Mussolini to travel to Rome from Milan to form a government. Mussolini’s Fascist Party had been founded in March 1919, and was dissolved on 28/7/1943.

27/10/1922, Friday (-8,229)

25/10/1922, Wednesday (-8,231) The last Japanese troops left Vladivostok.  With all anti-Bolshevik forces gone, Soviet rule was established there

24/10/1922, Tuesday (-8,232) (1) A mass rally of 40,000 Fascists at Naples.

(2) George Cadbury, English chocolate manufacturer and social reformer, died in Birmingham aged 83.

23/10/1922, Monday (-8,233) A Bonar Law became UK Conservative Prime Minister, succeeding Austin Chamberlain.  He was replaced by Stanley Baldwin on 22/5/1923, becoming the shortest term of office in the 20th century.

21/10/1922, Saturday (-8,235)

19/10/1922, Thursday (-8,237) At the Carlton Club Meeting, in Britain, the Tories decided to quit the coalition with the Liberals.

18/10/1922. Wednesday (-8,238) The BBC, the British Broadcasting Company, was officially formed, at Marconi House, The Strand, London (2LO). See 14/11/1922.

16/10/1922, Monday (-8,240) The world’s longest main-line railway tunnel, the Simplon II under the Alps, was completed after four years work.

6/10/1922. Friday (-8,250) Alcohol was banned on all US ships in port.

27/9./1922. Tuesday (-8,260) Following Greece’s defeat in Turkey, King Constantine abdicated (see more at 18/3/1913). He was succeeded by King George II.

18/9/1922. Monday (-8,268) Hungary applied to join the League of Nations.

13/9/1922, Wednesday (-8,273) A record temperature of 58 C, or 136.4 F, was recorded at El Azizia, Libya.

11/9/1922. Monday (-8,275) The British Mandate in Palestine began; Britain took over rulership from the Ottoman Turks.

9/9/1922, Saturday (-8,277) The Turkish Army entered Smyrna, and its Christians fled in chaos.  Central Smyrna was burnt on 13/9/1922.

5/9/1922, Tuesday (-8,281) American aviator James Doolittle made the first coast to coast flight across the USA, taking 21 hours 19 minutes.

26/8/1922. Saturday (-8,291) Turkey began an offensive against Greece to recover land lost after World War One. The Russian government was sending military aid to Turkey. On 9/9/1922 Greece lost Smyrna, ending its presence on the eastern Aegean coast. Turkish forces now threatened British forces occupying the southern Dardanelles at Chanak; the British government authorised an ultimatum to Turkey, but the local British commander delayed its delivery until local Turkish agreement to respect the British zone had been secured.  As the Greek Army retreated it burnt Turkish towns.

25/8/1922, Friday (-8,292) William T Cosgrave became head of the provisional government of the Irish Free State, replacing Arthur Griffith who died of a brain haemorrhage on 12/8/1922.

24/8/1922. Thursday (-8,293) Arabs at Nablus rejected the British Mandate for Palestine.

22/8/1922, Tuesday (-8,295) Michael Collins, Irish revolutionary, died.

14/8/1922, Monday (-8,303) Lord Alfred Harmsworth, British newspaper publisher who launched the London Evening News, Daily Mirror, and The Times, died.

6/8/1922, Sunday (-8,311) Freddie Laker, British airline operator, was born.

2/8/1922. Wednesday (-8,315) Death of Alexander Graham Bell, aged 75, at his home near Baddock, Nova Scotia. He was born on 3/3/1847 and patented the telephone on 7/3/1876. Many others had been working on the idea of sending speech by wire but Bell was the first to succeed. With his assistant Thomas Walsop, Bell began making improvements to the telegraph system, and formed the Bell Telephone Company in 1872. Bell also invented the photophone transmission of sound, precursor of fibre-optics, as well as techniques of teaching speech to the deaf.

29/7/1922. Saturday (-8,319) The Allies forbade Greece to occupy Constantinople.

13/7/1922, Thursday (-8,335) Montenegro joined Yugoslavia.

22/6/1922, Thursday (-8,356) Marshall Sir Henry Wilson, former chief of the General Staff and an Irishman, was shot dead by IRA gunmen, acting without IRA authority.

16/6/1922, Friday (-8,362) In the first elections in the Irish Free State, pro-Treaty Sinn Fein won 58 seats, anti-treaty Sinn Fein won 36 seats, and others took 34 seats.

12/6/1922, Monday (-8,366) (1) The Mallory expedition succeeded in getting within 3,200 feet of the summit of Everest.

(2) Insulin, the treatment for diabetes, was patented by Frederick Banting. See 27/7/1921 and 24/7/1925.

31/5/1922, Wednesday (-8,378) The Royal Ulster Constabulary was formed.

29/5/1922. Monday (-8,380) Minimum postage for letters reduced to 1 ½ d.

15/5/1922. Monday (-8,394) Germany ceded Upper Silesia to Poland.

10/5/1922. Wednesday (-8,399) Dr Ivy Williams became the first woman to be called to the English Bar.

16/4/1922. Sunday (-8,423) (France/Germany, Russia) Germany restored relations with the USSR, signing the Second Treaty of Rapallo. Secretly, the USSR agreed to let Germany build and test weapons in Soviet territory that were forbidden within Germany under the Treaty of Versailles.

7/4/1922, Friday (-8,432) The first collision between airliners. A Farman Goliath operated by French airline Grands Express flew into the path of a Daimler Airways DH 18 over Foix, northern France.

3/4/1922, Monday (-8,436) Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party.

2/4/1922, Sunday (-8,437) Jack Sanderson became the world’s first airline steward, on the London-Paris route.

31/3/1922, Friday (-8,439) In Britain, the Irish Free State Bill received the Royal Assent.

24/3/1922. Friday (-8,446) Only 3 of the 32 horses in the Grand National finished the race.

21/3/1922. Tuesday (-8,449) Queen Mary opened the new Waterloo Station, London.

20/3/1922. Monday (-8,450) President Harding recalled US troops from the Rhineland.

18/3/1922. Saturday (-8,452) Ghandi was jailed for 6 years for civil disobedience.

15/3/1922, Wednesday (-8,455) Britain abolished its protectorate over Egypt and recognised its independence.

12/3/1922, Sunday ( -8,458) White Nationalists seized control of The Rand, South Africa’s industrial area, in protest at job losses as Whites lost their jobs to cheaper Black labour.

8/3/1922, Wednesday (-8,462) 100 mph winds battered England’s south coast.

28/2/1922, Tuesday (-8,470) The British Protectorate over Egypt ended, and Ahmed Fuad was proclaimed King.

26/2/1922, Sunday (-8,472) Britain and France concluded a 20-year alliance.

18/2/1922,  Saturday (-8,480) The notorious Black and Tans were disbanded, following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. They had acquired ill repute for their brutal treatment of suspected IRA members.

15/2/1922. Wednesday (-8,483) (1) A cycle of reciprocal violence spread fear across Ireland, North and South. In Belfast Loyalists threw a bomb at a group of Catholic children, killing 6, in revenge for the murder of four policemen in Clones, County Monaghan. The IRA had launched a terrorist offensive in January 1922. In Belfast, Catholics bombed trams bound for the shipyards, where many Protestants worked.

(2) The first session of the Permanent Court of International Justice was held in The Hague, Netherlands.

14/2/1922. Tuesday (-8,484) Marconi began first regular radio broadcasts from England (Writtle, Essex). This invention had been patented by Marconi on 22/6/1896. See 14/11/1922.

13/2/1922, Monday (-8,485) Francis Pym, British politician, was born.

11/2/1922. Saturday (-8,487) Honduras became an independent Republic.

6/2/1922, Monday (-8,492) The Limitation of Armaments Conference at Washington ended.

5/2/1922. Sunday (-8,493) The Readers Digest was first published, in the USA.

1/2/1922, Wednesday (-8,497) Death of the Japanese statesman Yamagata Aritomo (born 14/6/1838). He played a key role in the rise of Japan as a military power in the early 20th century. He was Chief of Staff during the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. Because of this War he developed the ‘Plan of National Defence’ in case of another war with either Russia or America. This Plan formed the basis of Japan’s entry into World War Two. Yamagata died in disgrace after public censure for meddling in the Crown Prince’s marriage.

12/1/1922, Thursday (-8,517) The UK Government declared an amnesty for Irish political prisoners. See 8/11/1924.

11/1/1922, Wednesday (-8,518) Leonard Thompson became the first patient to be treated with insulin for his diabetes, at Toronto General Hospital. He lived for another 13 years before dying of pneumonia at age 27.

10/1/1922, Tuesday (-8,519) Arthur Griffith was elected President of the newly formed Irish Free State.

7/1/1922, Saturday (-8,522) The Irish Dail voted 64 votes 57 to accept the Anglo-Irish Treaty, see 6/12/1921.

5/1/1922. Thursday (-8,524) The British explorer Ernest Shackleton died on the island of South Georgia. He was on an expedition to Enderby Land, Antarctica.

2/1/1922. Monday (-8,527) As inflation soared in Germany, £1 bought over 30,000 German Marks. See 1/2/1923.

25/12/1921, Sunday (-8,535) Ghandi organised a successful mass boycott of the Prince of Wales as he arrived in Calcutta.

22/12/1921, Thursday (-8,538) US Congress set aside US$ 20 million for food aid to starving children in the USSR.

16/12/1921, Friday (-8,544) French composer and organist Camille Saint-Saens died aged 86.

15/12/1921. Thursday (-8,545) Germany sought a moratorium on reparations.

14/12/1921, Wednesday (-8,546) A (somewhat dubious) plebiscite resulted in the retention by Hungary of the Sopron district, which would otherwise have gone to Austria.

10/12/1921, Saturday (+8,550) Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize for Physics, for his work on Relativity.

6/12/1921. Tuesday (-8,554) Under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, Britain granted the 26 counties of Southern Ireland dominion status within the Empire, as the Irish Free State. 6 of the 9 counties of Ulster remained part of the United Kingdom. Britain retained certain naval bases within Southern Ireland. See 7/1/1922 and 25/4/1938.

1/12/1921, Thursday (-8,559) The US Navy airship Goodyear became the first such craft to fly using helium gas. This was much safer than hydrogen; however the gas was then only found within the US, and for military reasons its use was denied to other countries. Use of hydrogen in 1937 caused the Hindenburg airship disaster in 1937, and finally doomed airships as a means of transport.

27/11/1921, Sunday (-8,563) Alexander Dubcek, Czechoslovak politician, was born in Uhrovek.

25/11/1921. Friday (-8,565) Hirohito became Regent in Japan.

23/11/1921, Wednesday (-8,567) In the US, President Harding banned doctors from prescribing beer.

22/11/1921. Tuesday (-8,568) Britain recognised the independence of Afghanistan, under the Anglo-Afghan Treaty, signed by the Dobbs Mission in Kabul.

21/11/1921. Monday (-8,569) Troops were sent to quell rioting in Belfast.

17/11/1921, Thursday (-8,573) The Polish Constitution was established.

12/11/1921, Saturday (-8,578) The Limitation of Armaments Conference began in Washington.

11/11/1921, Friday (-8,579) The British Legion held its first Poppy Day.

7/11/1921, Monday (-8,583) Benito Mussolini, the 38 year old son of a blacksmith from the Romagna, became leader of the Italian National Fascist Party, with its 35 seats in Parliament. Black-shirted Fascist sqaudristi roamed the country disrupting Communist meetings.

4/11/1921. Friday (-8,586) The German currency began to collapse.

25/10/1921, Tuesday (-8,596) King Michael of Romania was born, son of King Carol II.

23/10/1921. Sunday (-8,598) John Boyd Dunlop, who invented pneumatic tyres, died.

21/10/1921. Friday (-8,600) Anglo-Irish peace talks began.

20/10/1921, Thursday (-8,601) The Silesia Crisis (see 20/3/1921) was settled by the League of Nations.  The League awarded two thirds of Upper Silesia to Germany, but Poland gained the coal mines, much of the industry, and a substantial German minority in its share.

19/10/1921, Wednesday (-8,602) Portuguese PM Antonio Granjo was assassinated.

18/10/1921. Tuesday (-8,603) Russia granted independence to the Crimea.

17/10/1921, Monday (-8,604) Ludwig III, King of Bavaria, died.

13/10/1921, Thursday (-8,608) Turkey, Russia, and the Caucasian Republics signed a treaty in Kars.  Turkey retained Kars, Ardahan, and Artvin, and Russia took Batum.

4/10/1921. Tuesday (-8,617) League of Nations rejected Russian entry.

30/9/1921. Friday (-8,621) French troops pulled out of the Ruhr.

25/9/1921, Sunday (-8,626) Sir Robert Muldoon, Prime Minister of New Zealand 1975-84, was born.

22/9/1921. Thursday (-8,629) The Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia joined the League of Nations.

11/9/1921, Sunday (-8,640) The Klu Klux Klan took control of a university faculty in Atlants, Georgia, for the purposes of teaching ‘Americanism’.

10/9/1921. Saturday (-8,641) Completion of the first motorway (autobahn) in Germany. The 6 ¼  mile (10 km) route ran from Grunwald, Berlin, to the suburb of Wannsee, was exclusively for motor vehicles, and had controlled limited access. It had been planned in September 1909 and was nearly complete when the outbreak of World War One delayed its completion. Intended to double as a motor racing track, it has a loop at either end where competitors could turn round without stopping. It had 2 carriageways 26 feet wide and a 26 feet wide grassed central reservation, and ten concrete flyovers spanned it. Known as the Avus Autobahn, it is still in use today as route 115.

9/9/1921, Friday (-8,642) Charlie Chaplin arrived at Waterloo Station, London, on the boat train from Southampton, to a rapturous welcome. He was staying at the Ritz Hotel, socially a million miles from his childhood days in Lambeth.

8/9/1921, Thursday (-8,643)

7/9/1921. Wednesday (-8,644) The first Miss America beauty contest was held in Atlantic City.  The winner was 15 year old, blonde, Margaret Goorman, of Washington DC.

6/9/1921, Tuesday (-8,645) Five female councillors in Poplar faced jail for refusing to set a domestic rate (property tax). Labour-controlled Poplar, led by George Lansbury, objected to a central rate equalisation scheme which, it says, meant poor areas like Poplar paid more than wealthier areas.

1/9/1921, Thursday (-8,650)

25/8/1921. Thursday (-8,657) Peace treaty (Treaty of Berlin) signed between Germany and the USA.

24/8/1921. Wednesday (-8,658) An R38 airship crashed into the Humber at Hull, killing 44 of the 49 crew and passengers.

23/8/1921. Tuesday (-8,659) (1) The 1921 Census of Britain showed the population had increased by almost 2 million to 42,767,530. 7.4 million of these lived in London. War losses affected the total, but the loss due to emigration was greater. Women exceeded men by 2 million, much the same as in 1911.

(2) Emir Faisal was crowned King of Iraq with British consent. However he then asserted his independence from Britain, demanding independent nation status rather than British mandate status. In October 1921 a compromise was reached under which Iraq became independent but tied to Britain for the duration of the mandate, till 1930. After 1930 Iraq accepted a continued British presence at the airbases of Basra and Habbaniya, useful staging posts en route to India. Iraq remained a political client of Britain until 1958 when King Feisal II was overthrown in a coup.

17/8/1921, Wednesday (-8,667)

16/8/1921. Tuesday (-8,666) (1) The Times exposed as a fake the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”, which purported to be a manifesto for a Jewish conspiracy for world domination.

(2) King Peter of Yugoslavia died at Belgrade.

15/8/1921. Monday (-8,667) Government control of Britain’s railways ended.

14/8/1921. Sunday (-8,668) De Valera rejected Dominion status for Ireland.

11/8/1921, Thursday (-8,671) Alex Hailey, US author of Roots, was born.

3/8/1921, Wednesday (-8,679) The first aerial crop spraying took place at Troy Ohio, to clear a catalpa grove infested with leaf caterpillars. Powdered arsenate of lead was sprayed over the trees. 99% of the insects were killed.

2/8/1921. Tuesday (-8,680) Death of the Italian tenor Enrico Caruso, whose funeral in Naples was attended by 50,000 people.

31/7/1921, Sunday (-8,682)

29/7/1921 Friday (-8,684) Hitler became President of the National Socialist Party.

28/7/1921, Thursday (-8,,685) The All-India Congress Party voted to boycott a visit to India by the Prince of Wales, and also urged a boycott of imported cloth.

27/7/1921. Wednesday (-8,686) Insulin was isolated by Dr Frederick Banting at the University of Toronto medical School, helped by his assistant Charles Best, and tested on a de-pancreatised dog the same day. It was first used successfully on a human on 11/1/1922. See 12/6/1922.

26/7/1921, Tuesday (-8,687)

23/7/1921. Saturday (-8,690) The first congress of the Chinese Communist Party was held in Beijing.

22/7/1921, Friday (-8,691) A truce was called in the ‘Troubles’ in Ireland.

21/7/1921, Thursday (-8,692) The Spanish army was defeated by Moroccan nationalists at Annual.  The Spanish sustained over 12,000 casualties.  Adb-E-Krim, nationalist leader, was eventually defeated by a Franco-Spanish force in 1926. Abd E Krim was held on the island of Reunion till 1947 but was then given permission to live in France.  However he succeeded in escaping to Egypt where he became an inspiration to Arab nationalism generally.

18/7/1921, Monday (-8,695) John Glenn, US astronaut and first man to orbit the Earth, was born in Cambridge, Ohio.

11/7/1921. Monday (-8,702) (1) The British Government and Sinn Fein agreed a truce.

(2) The Iraqi Council of State unanimously voted for Faisal to be King.

10/7/1921. Sunday (-8,703) Mongolia declared its independence as a People’s Republic, becoming the world’s second Communist state after Russia.

8/7/1921. Friday (-8,705) King George V opened the King George V Dock in east London.

6/7/1921, Wednesday (-8,707) Nancy Reagan, wife of President Reagan, was born as Nancy Davis.

29/6/1921, Wednesday (-8,714) Lady Randolph Churchill, American mother of Winston Churchill, died.

23/6/1921, Thursday (-8,720) Emir Faisal arrived at Basra.

22//6/1921. Wednesday (-8,721) King George V opened the first Northern Ireland Parliament asking for peace and reconciliation.

12/6/1921. Sunday (-8,731) Last Sunday deliveries by British postmen.

10/6/1921, Friday (-8,733) Prince Philip, husband of Queen Elizabeth II, was born on the Greek island of Corfu.

6/6/1921. Monday (-8,737) Southwark Bridge opened by the King.

4/6/1921, Saturday (-8,739) In the US, floods killed 500 in eastern Colorado.

27/5/1921. Friday (-8,747) Anti-Bolshevik forces took Vladivistok.

25/5/1921. Wednesday (-8,749) (1) Sinn Fein burned down the Dublin Customs House.

(2) Miss Olive Clapham qualified as Britain’s first woman barrister.

24/5/1920, Tuesday (-8,750) Sinn Fein won 124 out of the 128 seats in the new Southern Irish Parliament. In the Northern Irish Parliament, Unionists won 40 seats, Nationalists 6 and Sinn Fein 6.

23/5/1921. Monday (-8,751) British troops entered Alexandria, Egypt, to quell nationalist rioting.

22/5/1921. Sunday (-8,752) The US city of Chicago planned to fine women for wearing short skirts and exposed arms.

21/5/1921, Saturday (-8,753) Andrei Sakharov, Russian physicist and human rights campaigner, was born.

19/5/1921. Thursday (-8,755) The USA introduced quotas for immigration, setting these at 3% of the each nationality in the US as it was in 1910. This favoured the British, Irish, Scandinavians, and Germans, and worked against the southern Europeans and Asians. The measure was backed by organised labour, worried about unemployment, by reformers worried about the poverty and slums in the US, and by those who felt that the Asian races were inferior to Europeans.

14/5/1921. Saturday (-8,760) (1) The British Legion was founded in London by Earl Haig. It was renamed the Royal British Legion in 1971.

(2) Fascists won seats in Italian elections.

8/5/1921. Sunday (-8,766) Sweden abolished capital punishment.

4/5/1921. Wednesday (-8,770) France invaded the Ruhr to enforce reparations.

27/4/1921, Wednesday (-8,777) The Allies claimed £6,650 million (132,000 million gold Marks) compensation from Germany. Germany reluctantly agreed, but it would put a great strain on the German economy.  The Fehrenbach German government at once resigned.  The Allies threatened that if Germany did not agree, they would occupy the Ruhr.

26/4/1921. Tuesday (-8,778) The first police motorcycle patrols began in London.

24/4/1921. Sunday (-8,780) Germany pleaded in vain to the USA for aid on reparations. On 27/4/1921 reparations were set at £6.65 billion.

15/4/1921, Friday (-8,789) Less than a day before it was due to begin, a rail and transport workers strike in support of the striking coalminers was called off. The miners had been locked out of the pits since 1/4/1921. The miners wanted higher wages, and wage equality across the country; the pit owners wanted to reduce wages. The owners proposed a compromise of continuing with present wages, but this was rejected by the miner’s executive this day by a majority of one vote. The miners called this day ‘Black Friday’.

14/4/1921. Thursday  (-8,790) Air services between London and Amsterdam resumed.

12/4/1921, Tuesday (-8,792) US President Harding rejected joining the League of Nations.

10/4/1921, Sunday (-8,794) Sun Yat Sen was elected President of China.

2/4/1921, Saturday (-8,802) The IRA first obtained Tommy guns, from a gunsmith in Hartford, Connecticut.

1/4/1921. Friday (-8,803) In Britain, a coal strike began; a state of emergency was proclaimed. Coal rationing began on 3/4/1921. However the strike became a lockout, and the coal miner's traditional allies, the railway and transport unions, failed to support them. The miners had to return on humiliating terms, including a wages cut. The strike was settled on 4/7/1921, after the UK government promised to subsidise the coal industry. Wage reductions in other industries followed and neither Lloyd George or any other politician ever again had the chance to make Britain 'a land fit for heroes'.

28/3/1921. Monday (-8,807) Dirk Bogarde, English film actor, was born in Hampstead, London.

23/3/1921. Wednesday (-8,812) Germany defaulted on reparations.

21/3/1921. Monday (-8,814) Austen Chamberlain succeeded Andrew Bonar Law as Conservative leader (who had resigned due to ill-health).

20/3/1921, Sunday (-8,815) A plebiscite in Upper Silesia resulted in a majority vote for remaining with Germany.  Germany tried to claim that the whole territory should therefore remain as German, no part passing to Poland.  The resultant crisis, with France supporting Poland, was passed to the League of Nations, see 20/10/1921.

19/3/1921. Saturday (-8,816) Daily air service between Paris and London resumed.

17/3/1921. Thursday (-8,818) First birth control clinic opened in Holloway, London, by Marie Stopes.

15/3/1921. Tuesday (-8,820) Belgium ceded Rwanda to Britain.

12/3/1921. Saturday (-8,823) Lenin announced that state planning of the economy will end and free enterprise would be permitted. This was a move forced by the Russian famine on 1921. The famine was caused by a drought in 1920 which wiped out the crops but revolution and civil war exacerbated the situation. The USA responded to Lenin’s appeal and sent 800,000 tons of food.

11/3/1921, Friday (-8,824) Queen Mary became the first woman to be awarded an Oxford Degree.

8/3/1921. Tuesday (-8,827) Because of Germany’s failure to give a satisfactory response to demands for war reparations, Allied troops occupied the Ruhr towns. Germany agreed to pay war reparations on 11/5/1921. These consisted of £10 billion in gold over the next 42 years plus a 12.5% tax on Germany’s exports.

3/3/1921, Thursday (-8,832) Poland signed an alliance with Romania. This resulted in a decline in previously-close Hungarian-Polish relations.

1/3/1921, Tuesday (-8,834) Allied troops entered Germany to enforce war reparations payments.

27/2/1921. Sunday (-8,836) Communists and Fascists rioted in Italy.

25/2/1921, Friday (-8,838)

22/2/1921, Tuesday (-8,841) Jean-Bedel Bokassa, ruler of the Central African Republic, was born.

21/2/1921, Monday (-8,842) Reza Khan (born 1878, of the Pahlevan clan), an officer in the Iranian Army who had risen from the rank of Private to General, occupied Tehran with 1,200 men. Iran was in chaos after the ravages of World War One and its ruler Ahmad Shah, the last of the Qajar dynasty, was young and incompetent, and the cabinet was weak and corrupt. Subsequently known as Reza Shah Pahlavi, he modernised the country, organised its transport links, and retook control of Iran’s finances from foreign investors. His foreign policy was to play the principal foreign powers in the region, the Soviet Union and Britain, off against each other. This policy failed when Britain and Russia became allies in World War Two in 1941. Britain and Russia jointly occupied Iran in August 1941 so the Soviet war effort could be supplied. Reza Shah then abdicated so his son, Mohammed Reza Shah, could adapt Iranian foreign policy to the new situation, and continue the dynasty. Reza Shah died in Johannesburg, South Africa, in June 1944.

18/2/1921. Friday (-8,845) The first helicopter flew, designed in France by Etienne Oemichen.

16/2/1921, Wednesday (-8,847) Eight Sinn Fein supporters were shot dead in a gun battle with British soldiers.

9/2/1921. Wednesday (-8,854) A peace treaty was signed between Poland and Russia, at Riga.

8/2/1921. Tuesday (-8,855) Jan Smuts was elected prime Minister of South Africa.

5/2/1921. Saturday (-8,858) Anti-Soviet sailors mutiny at Kronstadt naval base, outside Petrograd. The rebellion was crushed by Red Army troops on 17/3/1921.

25/1/1921, Tuesday (-8,869) Six women were sworn in as jurors in a divorce trial, the first women to serve in this type of case.

24/1/1921, Monday (-8,870) The Reparations Conference in Paris fixed German war reparations at US$ 56 billion, to be paid over 42 years; of this sum, France would get 52%. German politician reacted with outrage, seeing this as ‘enslavement of the German economy’, and defaulted on repayments on 23/3/1921. Under pressure from the US, the Allies reduced their claim but when Germany defaulted on this, too, they reoccupied the Rhineland.

22/1/1921. Saturday (-8,872) British tanks were sent into Dublin, as a hunt for the police killers got underway.

20/1/1921, Thursday (-8,874) Six policemen were shot dead by the IRA in Dublin.

8/1/1921, Saturday (-8,886) Lloyd George became the first Prime Minister to occupy Chequers, the house near Wendover given to the nation by Lord Lee of Fareham.

7/1/1921. Friday (-8,887) The first woman was elected as foreman of a jury in Britain, in Dudley, Birmingham.

3/1/1921, Monday (-8,891) (1) The airships R 36 and R 37 were built; they could carry 50 passengers.

(2) India's first parliament met.

(3) Turkey concluded a peace with the Republic of Armenia at Alexandropol.  Armenia had been raiding Turkish frontier villages, which had led Turkey to attack Armenia.  Turkey took Kars and Alendropol.

1/1/1921, Saturday (-8,893) (1) Car tax discs for obligatory display on windscreens were introduced in Britain.

(2) The Navy, Army, and Air Force Institute, or NAAFI, was founded in Britain.

23/12/1920. Thursday (-8,902) The Bill for the division of Ireland into North and South became law. Northern and Southern Ireland got their own Parliaments.

18/12/1920.. Saturday (-8,907) (1) Britain and France agreed on the borders of Syria and Palestine.

(2) King Constantine was restored to the Greek throne.

16/12/1920. Thursday (-8,909) (1) Permanent Court of International Justice established at The Hague.

(2) Earthquake in China killed 180,000.

15/12/1920. Wednesday (-8,910) China and Austria were admitted to the League of Nations.

14/12/1920, Tuesday (-8,911) The first aeroplane disaster. A Handley page Continental Air Services flight from Cricklewood Aerodrome, London, to Paris crashed into the back of a newly built house at 6, Basinghill, The Ridgeway, and fell in flames in the garden. 4 of the 6 passengers managed to jump clear and escaped major injury; the other 2 passengers and 2 crew were killed.

11/12/1920. Saturday (-8,914) Martial law was declared in Ireland. Britain had 40,000 soldiers in Ireland, plus 7,000 of the hated ‘Black and Tans’ (ex-soldiers serving as police), who were often accused of brutality. They would burn down entire villages in their search for IRA gunmen. Recently, both sides escalated the conflict with IRA hit and run tactics countered by increased British army intervention.

8/12/1920. Wednesday (-8,917) Cambridge University refused to admit women to full-time studentships.

5/12/1920, Sunday (-8,920) A Greek referendum result called for the return of King Constantine, deposed by the Allies in 1917.

4/12/1920. Saturday (-8,921) An attempt to introduce Prohibition to Scotland failed.

2/12/1920, Thursday (-8,923) Armenia was forced to conclude a peace treaty with Turkey that not only annulled the Wilson Line but gave the district of Kars, formerly Russian/Armenian, to Turkey.  This treaty also stated that ‘there were no Armenian majorities anywhere in Turkey’.

22/11/1920, Monday (-8,933) US President Wilson set a proposed border (The Wilson Line) between Turkey and Armenia that would have given Armenia lands as far west as Trebizond, Erzingan, and Bitlis.  However on the ground both Turkey and the USSR were advancing into Armenia and the Wilson line never materialised.  See 2/12/1920.

21/11/1920. Sunday (-8,934) 21 British officers and officials were killed in their beds by IRA members, setting off a day of killing and bloodshed in Ireland. This was in retaliation for an attack by the Black and Tans, an auxiliary police force, at a Gaelic football match, where 12 died.

19/11/1920, Friday (-8,936) 100,000 White Russian refugees from the Crimea arrived in Constantinople.

16/11/1920. Tuesday (-8,939) The Bolsheviks defeated the White Russians in the Crimea, so ending the Russian Civil War. The white Russian General, Baron Wrangel, fled with his men to Turkey.

15/11/1920. Monday (-8,940) Danzig was declared a free city.

14/11/1920, Sunday (-8,941) Sebastopol was captured by the Red Army.

13/11/1920.  Saturday (-8,942) The first full session of the League of Nations opened, attended by 5,000 representatives from 41 countries worldwide.

12/11/1920, Friday (-8,943) The first Treaty of Rapallo was signed, between Italy and Yugoslavia, settling territorial disputes in the Adriatic and pledging collaboration to prevent a Hapsburg restoration.

11/11/1920,  Thursday (-8,944) (1) The Labour politician Roy Jenkins was born at Abersychan.

(2) The 35-foot Cenotaph war memorial (Greek cenos taphos = empty tomb) in Whitehall, London, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, was unveiled by King George V. Londoners doffed their hats when passing it.

10/11/1920, Wednesday (-8,945) The body of an unknown British soldier was brought to London for burial at Westminster Abbey.

8/11/1920. Monday (-8,947) The first Rupert Bear cartoon appeared in the Daily Express.

3/11/1920, Wednesday (-8,952) Britain’s miners returned to work, see 18/10/1922.

2/11/1920, Tuesday (-8,953) The first regular radio programme began, KDKA, in Pittsburgh.

18/10/1920. Monday (-8, 968) Britain's miners walked out over a claim for 2 shillings (10p) more a week, work did not resume until 3/11/1920.

16/10/1920, Saturday (-8.970) US Marines killed the Haitian rebel leader.

14/10/1920. Thursday (-8,972) Russia recognised the independence of Finland.  Russia ceded the port of Petsamo to Finland, giving Finland access to the Arctic Ocean.

7/10/1920, Thursday (-8,979) (Education, Women’s Rights) Oxford University admitted its first 100 women, to study for full degrees.  They had been permitted to sit Oxford examinations before this day.

6/10/1920. Wednesday (-8,980) Poland and Russia signed an armistice at Riga, Latvia.

22/9/1920, Wednesday (-8,994) The Metropolitan Police ‘Flying Squad’ was formed.

15/9/1920. Wednesday (-9,001) New air mail services began in Europe, from Copenhagen to Amsterdam, London, and Hamburg.

10/9/1920, Friday (-9,006) The Indian National Congress voted to adopt Mahatma Gandhi’s policy of non-co-operation with Britain’s colonial administration.

1/9/1920. Wednesday (-9,015) France proclaimed the creation of the state of Lebanon, with Beirut as its capital.

31/8/1920, Tuesday (-9,.016) Under the decree of General Giraud, France enlarged the Sanjak of Lebanon (Mount Lebanon) at Syria’s expense, adding Tripoli, Sidon, Tyre and the Bekaa plain. Greater Lebanon now had a small Christian majority, but the Muslim population had a higher birth rate.

26/8/1920. Thursday (-9,021) Under the 19th Amendment, women received the vote in the USA.

19/8/1920, Thursday (-9,028) The Russian army was defeated by the Poles at Warsaw.

16/8/1920. Monday (-9,031) As Russian troops closed in on Warsaw, US warships were sent to Danzig. On 23/8/1920, with the support of British airmen, the Poles repelled the Russian advance on Warsaw.

14/8/1920, Saturday (-9,033) The 7th Olympic Games opened in Antwerp.

11/8/1920, Wednesday (-9,036) A Latvian-Soviet peace treaty gave Latvia independence from Soviet Russia.

10/8/1920. Tuesday (-9,037) (1) The Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Sevres, ceding 80% of its land area.  (see also 30/10/1917).

(2). Other post-war provisions included the creation of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia,  Galicia was given to Poland, Transylvania to Romania, and Istria, Trentino, and South Tyrol to Italy. Greece and Yugoslavia acquired parts of Bulgaria.  German East Africa went to Britain, the Samoan Islands to New Zealand, and South West Africa to South Africa.  Germany itself lost territory to Poland, France, Denmark, and Lithuania.

6/8/1920, Friday (-9,041)

1/8/1920, Sunday (-9,046) (1) Ghandi began his campaign of resistance to British rule in India.

(2) The Communist Party of Great Britain was founded. 

31/7/1920. Saturday (-9,047) Russia postponed peace talks and marched on Warsaw.

30/7/1920, Friday (-9,048)

24/7/1920. Saturday (-9,054) A French expeditionary force occupied Damascus and the port of Aleppo. The Emir Faisal, installed by the British in March, fled.

23/7/1920, Friday (-9,055) Poland sought peace with Russia.

21/7/1920, Wednesday (-9,057) Sinn  Fein and the Ulster Unionists rioted in Belfast.

13/7/1920, Tuesday (-9,065) The LCC banned the employment of foreigners in council jobs.

10/7/1920, Saturday (-9,068), (1) After a referendum amongst the inhabitants, northern Schleswig was returned to Denmark from Germany.

(2) Lloyd George proposed the Curzon Line as a Polish-Russian frontier.  Subsequent correspondence was handled by the UK Foreign Secretary, George Curzon.  The line, from Grodno through Brest-Litovsk and Przemysl to the Carpathians, excluded from Poland lands mainly inhabited by Ukrainians, Lithuanians, and Russians.  Poland rejected the Curzon proposal, subsequently securing twice as much as Lloyd George suggested.  In September 1939 the Russian and Germans divided Poland along, approximately, the Curzon line and in 1945 it became the eastern frontier of Poland.

8/7/1920, Thursday (-9,070) British troops set up road blocks in Dublin.

6/7/1920. Tuesday (-9,072) Major offensive by Red Army against Poland. Poland sought peace with Russia on 23/7/1920. On 31/7/1920 the Russians postponed peace talks and marched on Warsaw.

3/7/1920. Saturday (-9,075) The first RAF air display took place at Hendon.

1/7/1920, Thursday (-9,077) (1) The British civil administration of Palestine began.

(2) Germany surrendered her largest airship, the L-71 to Britain.

24/6/1920. Thursday (-9,084) Riots in Londonderry put down by the British Army.

16/6/1920. Wednesday (-9,092) At The Hague, the League of Nations Permanent Court of Justice opened.

4/6/1920. Friday (-9,104) At Versailles, the Treaty of Trianon cut Hungary to 25% of its former size.  The population of Hungary was cut from 21 million in 1914 to under 8 million after this Treaty.

1/6/1920. Tuesday (-9,107) UK postal rates raised from 1 ½ d to 2 d for a letter.

29/5/1920. Saturday (-9,110) Lincolnshire hit by major flooding.

28/5/1920. Friday (-9,111) (1) The foundation stone of the London School of Economics was laid.

21/5/1920, Friday (-9,118)

20/5/1920. Thursday (-9,119) Charles Lindbergh took off on the first transatlantic solo flight.

19/5/1920. Wednesday (-9,120) The Red Army invaded northern Iran.

18/5/1920. Tuesday (-9,121) Pope John Paul II was born as Karolum Wojtyla in the market town of Wadowice, near Krakow, Poland. He was the son of a junior officer in the Polish Army.

17/5/1920. Monday (-9,122) KLM, the national airline of The Netherlands, began its first scheduled service, between Amsterdam and London.  See 7/10/1919.

16/5/1920, Sunday (-9,123) Joan of Arc was canonised.

12/5/1920, Wednesday (-9,127)

11/5/1920. Tuesday (-9,128) Oxford University agreed to start awarding degrees to women.

10/5/1920, Monday (-9,129) John Wesley Hyatt, US inventor who discovered celluloid, the first synthetic plastic, died.

7/5/1920. Friday (-9,132) Polish and Ukrainian troops seized Kiev from the Red Army. Poland wanted to bring the Ukraine under its influence, to weaken Russia.

5/5/1920, Wednesday (-9,134) Britain and France rejected a declaration of Syrian independence and, hastily convening a meeting of the Supreme Council of the League of Nations, they declared the intention of dividing Lebanon from Syria (both under French control) and Iraq (undivided) under British control.

30/4/1920. Friday (-9,139) Britain abolished conscription.

27/4/1920, Tuesday (-9,142) Soviet Russian troops invaded Azerbaijan, ending its independence (see 28/5/1918).  On 28/5/1920 the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan was declared.

25/4/1920, Sunday (-9,144) The UN conformed the British mandate to control Palestine and Mesopotamia.

23/4/1920. Friday (-9,146) Turkish Nationalists set up a provisional government at Ankara, with Mustapha Kemal as President.

19/4/1920, Monday (-9,150) The Conference of San Remo opened.  Following on from the London Conference (see 12/1/2920), post World War One frontiers in Europe were settled.

13/4/1920, Tuesday (-9,156) 300,000 workers went on strike at the treatment of Sinn Fein hunger strikers; on 14/2/1920 89 hunger strikers were released from Dublin Prison.

4/4/1920, Sunday (-9,165) Rioting broke out in Jerusalem (then under British control) as fighting occurred between Arabs and Jews. The Arabs were angry at the arrival of Jewish immigrants, and anti-Zionist speeches led to unrest. Martial law was declared as 5 Jews and 4 Arabs died in the riots, and 281 Jews, 18 Arabs, and 7 British soldiers were injured.

1/4/1920, Thursday (-9,168) The Nazi Party was officially founded in Germany.

29/3/1920, Monday (-9,171) Croydon was designated as London’s official airport, and Hounslow abandoned, see 30/1/1928.

26/3/1920. Friday (-9,174) 800 special constables, the Black and Tans, arrived in Ireland to put down the Republican revolt in the south of the country, where public order was rapidly deteriorating.

20/3/1920. Saturday (-9,180) In response to the Syrian claim of 8/3/1920, the Lebanese Christians proclaimed their independence, choosing as their flag the French tricolour with a Lebanese cedar at its centre.

19/3/1920. Friday (-9,181) (1) In Germany, Socialists rebelled and captured Essen.

(2) The US Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, and the US refused to join the League of Nations.

16/3/1920. Tuesday (-9,184) Allied troops occupied Istanbul.

13/3/1920. Saturday (-9,187) A pro-Royalist coup was attempted in Berlin, led by Dr Wolfgang Kapp. The German Government had to retreat to Stuttgart but the German workers opposed the coup and began a general strike; the coup plotters had to flee.

8/3/1920. Monday (-9,192) Syria proclaimed independence from Ottoman Turkey, with Emir Faisal, hero of the Arab revolt, as King. He claimed not just the smaller Syria agreed by Britain and France, but of ‘natural Syria’, extending to the Euphrates and including Lebanon and Palestine. See 20/3/1920.

24/2/1920. Tuesday (-9,205) (1) The National Socialist Workers party, led by Adolf Hitler, published a programme for a Third Reich.

(2) Viscountess Lady Astor became the first woman to speak in the British Parliament. Her husband, Conservative MP Waldorf Astor, succeeded her father as Viscount Astor in 1932 and moved to the House of Lords; she won his seat in a by-election 2 months ago. This day she spoke in opposition to a move to abolish the Liquor Control Board.

23/2/1920, Monday (-9,206) The first regular broadcasting service in Britain began, from Chelmsford.

20/2/1920. Friday (-9,209) (1) The Red Army captured Archangel.

(2) Robert Peary, American Arctic explorer and first man to reach the North Pole in 1909, died in Washington DC.

12/2/1920, Thursday (-9,217) A conference began in London to settle the main frontiers of Turkey to be demarcated in the Treaty of Sevres.  This conference ended on 23/2/1920, see 19/4/1920.

11/2/1920, Wednesday (-9,218) King Farouk, last King of Egypt, was born in Cairo, son of King Fuad I.

10/2/1920, Tuesday (-9,219)

9/2/1920, Monday (-9,220) By a treaty signed in Paris, Norway was given sovereignty over Svalbard (Spitsbergen).

8/2/1920. Sunday (-9,221) The Bolsheviks captured Odessa.

7/2/1920. Saturday (-9,222) The Bolsheviks executed the White Russian, Commander Koltchak.

6/2/1920, Friday (-9,223)

5/2/1920, Thursday (-9,224) (1) Germany refused to hand over alleged war criminals to the Allies.

(2) The Royal Air Force College at Cranwell opened to the first batch of apprentices.

4/2/1920, Wednesday (-9,225) (1) Aviators Pierre van Ryneveld and C J Quinton took off from Brooklands airfield on the first flight from London to cape Town, South Africa.

(2) Norman Wisdom, British comedian, was born as Norman Wisden .

3/2/1920, Tuesday (-9,226)

2/2/1920. Monday (-9,227) Estonia proclaimed its independence from Russia.

1/2/1920, Sunday (-9,228) (1) The North West Mounted Police changed their name to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

(2) The first full session of the League of Nations opened at St James Palace, London, overseen by the British Prime Minister, Arthur Balfour. Plans were made for an International Court of Justice.

22/1/1920, Thursday (-9,238) Sir Alf Ramsey, England international footballer and manager, was born.

20/1/1920, Tuesday (-9,240) Peace Talks in Paris concluded, see 18/1/1919.

19/1/1920, Monday (-9,241) Javier Perez de Cuellar, Secretary of the United Nations from 1982, was born.

16/1/1920. Friday (-9,244) (Morals, USA) Prohibition began in the USA (18th Amendment), and the sale, manufacture, or involvement with alcohol was banned. See 16/1/1919, 5/12/1933.

10/1/1920. Saturday (-9,250) The League of Nations, whose function was defined on 28/4/1919, legally came into being at Geneva. It first met in Paris on 16/1/1920, but was boycotted by the USA, partly over the votes given to Britain and the dominions, partly over the obligation by one member to defend another if attacked in war.

9/1/1920. Friday (-9,251) (1) The UK Government announced plans for the construction of 100,000 new houses in 1920.

(2) Bolshevik troops defeated White Russians under Admiral Koltchak. See 16/11/1920.

5/1/1920. Monday (-9,255) Radio Corporation of America was formed for world-wide broadcasting.

2/1/1920. Friday (-9,258) (1) Major US crackdown on suspected Communists began. The ‘Palmer Raids’ in over 30 cities across the USA resulted in the arrest of almost 3,000 anarchists, communists and other radicals. These raids were the idea of Attorney-General A Mitchell Palmer. The raids were controversial; some protested at the disregard for civil liberties, but some on the Right wanted those detained to be executed. Palmer himself, a Democrat, lost the Presidential nomination  in late 1920 but maintained he had foiled a Bolshevik plot to overthrow the US Government.

(2) Isaac Asimov was born.

30/12/1919, Tuesday (-9,261) In London, the first female bar student was admitted to Lincoln’s Inn.

22/12/1919. Monday (-9,269) David Lloyd George, the Prime Minister, announced plans for the partition of Ireland.

19/12/1919, Friday (-9,272) The Irish Republican Army (formerly Irish Volunteers) made an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Lord French, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

18/12/1919, Thursday (-9,273) Death of British aviation expert Sir John Alcock in a flying accident, six months after his pioneering transatlantic flight with Sir Arthur Brown.

17/12/1919. Wednesday (-9,274) Pierre Auguste Renoir died. He was born on 26/2/1841.

16/12/1919, Tuesday (-9,275) German troops left Latvia and Lithuania.

3/12/1919, Wednesday (-9,288) Pierre Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter, died near Cannes, aged 78.

30/11/1919, Sunday (-9,291) Women were allowed to vote for the first time in French elections.

28/11/1919. Friday (-9,293) (1) Viscountess (Nancy) Astor became Britain’s first woman MP. She took her seat in the House of Commons on 1/12/1919, elected by a substantial majority. She won the seat of Plymouth Sutton in a by-election caused by the elevation of her husband to the peerage. She retired from Parliament in 1945.

(2) Latvia declared war on Germany. German troops left Latvia and Lithuania on 16/12/1919.

27/11/1919. Thursday (-9,294) (1) Bulgaria signed the Treaty of Neuilly, recognising the independence of Yugoslavia.  Western Thrace was ceded to Greece, thereby cutting off Bulgaria from the Mediterranean, and two small regions were ceded to Yugoslavia.  The southern Dobruja was  retained by Romania.  Bulgaria was liable to pay reparations and its army limited to 20,000 men.

(2) A large meteor landed in Lake Michigan.

24/11/1919, Monday (-9,297) Proposals to divide Ireland in two, Ulster and the South, were submitted to the UK Cabinet.

19/11/1919, Wednesday (-9,302) In Italy, Benito Mussolini and 37 Fascists were arrested after rioting at the election of the Socialists.

15/11/1919. Saturday (-9,306) The Red Army captured Omsk.

12/11/1919. Wednesday (-9,309) Captain Ross Smith, his brother, and two others began the first flight from Britain to Australia. They arrived in Port Darwin, Australia, on 10/12/1919, winning a £10,000 prize from the Australian government for doing this.

26/10/1919. Sunday (-9.326) Shah of Iran, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, was born.

18/10/1919, Saturday (-9,334) Pierre Trudeau, Canadian Liberal and Prime \Minister, was born in Montréal, Quebec.

13/10/1919. Monday (-9,339) Dock strike in New York.

12/10/1919. Sunday (-9,340) British troops pulled out of Murmansk, Russia.

11/10/1919. Saturday (-9,341) The first airline meals were served, on a Handley-Page flight from London to Paris. They were pre-packed lunch boxes priced at 3 shillings (15p).

10/10/1919, Friday (-9,342) British teachers, their salaries still at pre war levels, asked for a doubling of their pay.

8/10/1919,

7/10/1919, Tuesday (-9,345) KLM, the Dutch national airline, the oldest established air carrier, was established.  It began flights on 17/5/1920.

6/10/1919. Monday (-9,346) Norway adopted alcohol Prohibition.

2/10/1919, Thursday (-9,350) US President Wilson suffered a massive stroke, leaving his left side paralysed.

22/9/1919. Monday (-9,360) Major steel strike in the USA.

15/9/1919. Monday (-9,367) China ended its war with Germany.

10/9/1919, Wednesday (-9,372) (1) The TUC favoured nationalising the coal industry.

(2) The Treaty of St Germain was signed by the Allies with Austria at the Paris Peace Conference.

2/9/1919, Tuesday (-9,380) White Russian forces under Denikin captured Kiev, and came within 250 miles of Moscow, with backing from the UK.  However a Red Army counter attack in December 1919 forced Denikin out of Kharkov and eventually back to the Caucasus, where he held on until March 1920.  Denikin had a narrow Russophile view, and failed to see the need to link with Ukrainian and Polish anti-Bolshevik forces; he even blockaded Georgia and Azerbaijan, fearing these states would set up independent Republics.

1/9/1919, Monday (-9,381) The first intercontinental air service began, from Toulouse to Barcelona and Tangier.  Services were extended to Casablanca in April 1920.

31/8/1919. Sunday (-9,382) The US Communist Party was founded.

29/8/1919, Friday (-9,384)

28/8/1919, Thursday (-9,385) Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, who invented the EMI scanner and winner of the Nobel prize for psychology in 1979, was born.

27/8/1919, Wednesday (-9,386) Louis Botha, South African Boer general and first Prime Minister from 1910, died.

25/8/1919. Monday (-9,388) Air service between London (Hounslow) and Paris (Le Bourget) inaugurated. This was the first international scheduled air service from Britain. The single fare was £21 for the 2 ½ hour journey, compared to the cost of rail and boat at £3 8s 5d. By 1/1/1920 three British companies were operating regular daily air services across The Channel, to Paris, Brussels, and Amsterdam, for passengers, freight, and mail.

21/8/1919, Thursday (-9,392) Afghanistan became independent.

12/8/1919, Tuesday (9,401)

8/8/1919, Friday (-9,405) (1) The Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed. This ended the Third Afghan War, which had begun on 3/5/1919.

(2) F W (Frank Winfield) Woolworth, US merchant and founder of Woolworth stores in 1879, died.

3/8/1919, Sunday (-9,410) Riots in Liverpool during the policemen’s strike.

31/7/1919. Thursday (-9,413) Germany adopted the Weimar Constitution, named after the town where the constitution was drafted.

27/7/1919. Sunday (-9,417) Large scale race riots in Chicago.

22/7/1919, Tuesday (-9,422) British MPs formally approved the Treaty of Versailles. Only 4 MPs voted against, 3 of them Irish Nationalists objecting to the omission of Home Rule for Ireland.

20/7/1919. Sunday (-9,424) Sir Edmund Hillary, who conquered Mount Everest in 1953 with Tenzing Norgay, was born in Auckland, North Island, New Zealand.

18/7/1919, Friday (-9,426) The first Cenotaph, a temporary structure of wood and plaster, was erected in Whitehall, London, for a parade celebrating the Treaty of Versailles. It was so popular the Government decided to erect a permanent version.

13/7/1919, Sunday (-9,431) The British airship R34 arrived back in Pulham, Norfolk, having made the first transatlantic aerial round trip; she set out from East Fortune, Scotland, on 2/7/1919.

6/7/1919. Sunday (-9,438) The British airship R34 became the first to cross the Atlantic, flying from Edinburgh to New York in 108 hours. She had set out from East Fortune, near Edinburgh, on 2/7/1919. She set off from Long Island on 9/7/1919 on the return journey, arriving in Pulham, Norfolk, on 13/7/1919.

4/7/1919. Friday (-9,440) France demobilised its troops.

30/6/1919, Monday (-9,444) Lord Rayleigh, British scientist who discovered the inert gas argon in 1894 and won the Nobel prize, died in Witham, Essex, aged 76.

28/6/1919. Saturday (-9,446) The Treaty of Versailles was signed. This peace treaty between the Allies and the Germans was signed at Versailles and officially ended World War One, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand started it. Alsace Lorraine was returned to France, German colonies were under mandate, German East Africa went to Britain and German South West Africa (Namibia) to South Africa.  The west bank of the Rhine and a zone 30 miles deep on its east bank was demilitarised. See 7/5/1919.

23/6/1919, Monday (-9,451) The British Government recommended nationalising the coal mines.

21/6/1919. Saturday (-9,453) German sailors unexpectedly scuttled the captive German fleet, 72 warships, at Scapa Flow. See 19/11/1918.

15/6/1919. Sunday (-9,459) John Alcock and Arthur Brown completed the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic. It took them 16 hours, 12 minutes, to fly from Lester’s Field, St John’s Newfoundland, to Derrygimla Bog, near Clifden, Ireland. They were both knighted for this achievement.

6/6/1919. Friday (-9,468) Finland declared war on Russia.

3/6/1919. Tuesday (-9,471) More British troops arrived at Archangel, Russia.

27/5/1919. Tuesday (-9,478) Lieutenant Commander Read and a crew of five, flying a Curtiss NC 4 seaplane, arrived in Lisbon via The Azores to complete the first flight across the Atlantic.  They had left Trepassy, Newfoundland, on 16/5/1919.

26/5/1919, Monday (-9,479) North Sea Aerial Navigation Co inaugurated passenger flights between Hartlepool and Hull. In June further routes began, between Hull, Leeds and Hounslow (for London), and Scarborough, Leeds, Harrogate. Businesspeople liked the new fast link between London and the North.

24/5/1919. Saturday (-9,481) Having defeated Afghan raiders on the Indian border, the British bombed Jalalabad and Kabul.

16/5/1919. Friday (-9,489) Waldzin Valentino Liberace was born in Wisconsin. His father wanted him to be an undertaker.

15/5/1919, Thursday (-9,490) The Greek Army landed at Smyrna, under the protection of British, French, and US fleets, beginning an occupation of the area by massacring Turkish civilians.

14/5/1919. Wednesday (-9,491) Death of the American food manufacturer Henry John Heinz. Heinz founded his company in Pittsburgh in 1869 as a partnership to market and prepare horseradish. This company collapsed in the business panic of 1875 but Heinz reorganised it in 1876 and it re-emerged as a major food company by 1900. By 1905 the Heinz company was the USA’s largest manufacturer of pickles, vinegar, and ketchup, and employed thousands. The company was headed by members of the Heinz family until 1969.

13/5/1919, Tuesday (-9,492)

11/5/1919, Sunday (-9,494) The population of Vorarlberg, the westernmost province of Austria, voted for union with Switzerland by a large majority.  However this transfer was not supported by the Allies or the Swiss Government, and Vorarlberg became one of the nine Austrian Bundeslander.

10/5/1919, Saturday (-9,495) The first airline in Britain started. It flew the 50 miles between Alexander Park, Manchester, and Blackpool in a 2-seater single engine Avro biplane. Services lasted until 30/9/1919, and cost £2 2s single or £4 4s return..

8/5/1919, Thursday (-9,497)

7/5/1919, Wednesday (-9,498) Peace terms were dictated to Germany.  Germany had to ceded Alsace-Loraine to France; Upper Silesia, most of Poznan, and West Prussia went to Poland.  This separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany as Poland gained a corridor to the sea at Danzig.  North Schleswig went to Germany and Memel went to Lithuania. See 28/6/1919.

6/5/1919. Tuesday (-9,499) Peace conference shared out former German colonies.

5/5/1919, Monday (-9,500)

4/5/1919. Sunday (-9,501) Anti-foreigner demonstrations in China. Over 3,000 students gathered in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, to protest at Japan’s continued occupation of Shantung after World War One had ended.

3/5/1919. Saturday (-9,502) Fighting broke out between Britain and Afghanistan, The Third Afghan War, see 8/8/1919.

2/5/1919. Friday (-9,503) German troops entered Munich to crush the fledgling Soviet Republic in Bavaria.

1/5/1919, Thursday (-9,504) The reclamation of the Zuyder Zee began.

20/4/1919, (-9,515) A Polish army under Pilsudski took the city of Vilnius, Lithuania, from the Soviets.

15/4/1919, Tuesday (-9,520) Passenger air services on a route between Berlin, Hanover and Rotthausen began, also Berlin to Warnemunde.

13/4/1919. Sunday (-9,522) The British fired on and massacred Indian Nationalist rioters in Amritsar, Punjab. A British officer panicked and ordered his troops to fire at point-blank range into a large crowd. 380 of Ghandi’s followers were killed and over 1200 injured. This massacre turned even moderate Indians against the British. The army had been called in by the police after several days of rioting against new security laws, in which some Europeans had been killed.

11//4/1919. Friday (-9,524) The International Labour Organisation was established.

10/4/1919, Thursday (-9,525) Rioting by Sikhs began at Amritsar, see 13/4/1919.

8/4/1919. Tuesday (-9,527) (1) The Red Army invaded the Crimea.

(2) Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, was born in Selukwe, then Southern Rhodesia.

5/4/1919. Saturday (-9,530) Eamon De Valera became Sinn Fein’s president.

4/4/1919. Friday (-9,531) At Versailles, the Germans agreed to make Danzig a ‘free city’.

1/4/1919,  Tuesday (-9,534) British troops supporting White Russian troops defeated a Bolshevik force.

23/3/1919. Sunday (-9,543)  The Italian Fascist Party (Fascio di Combattimento) was founded by Benito Mussolini. The party aimed to fight both Liberalism and Communism. The Fascists wanted land for the peasants, abolition of the Senate, a seizure of Church property, and tax reform. However most of this agenda was already offered by the Socialists and by December 1919 the Fascists only had 870 members. During 1926 Party membership rose from 600,000 to 938,000. By the end of 1933 there were 1,400,000 members, a figure that went up to 2,633,000 by 1939.

22/3/1919. Saturday (-9,544) Bela Kun declared Hungary a Soviet Republic.

20/3/1919. Thursday (-9,546) Wireless telephone communication established between Ireland and Canada.

11/3/1919. Tuesday (-9,555) The Allies agreed to supply famine-hit Germany with food.

10/3/1919, Wednesday (-9,556) The UK Government was reported to favour the idea of a Channel Tunnel.

4/3/1919, Tuesday (-9,562) The Comintern was formed. This was the ‘Communist International’, to spread Communism worldwide.

1/3/1919, Saturday (-9,565) (1) Passenger air services between Berlin and Hamburg began.

(2) Anti Japanese colonialism demonstrations in Seoul, Korea.

22/2/1919. Saturday (-9,572) After the murder of the Bavarian Prime Minister, Kurt Eisner, a Soviet Republic was declared in Bavaria.

6/2/1919, Thursday (-9,588) The first regular passenger air service. Planes flew from Berlin to Weimar, carrying mainly mail and newspapers, but some passengers also.

5/2/1919, Wednesday (-9,589) Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, was born.

3/2/1919, Monday (-9,591) (1) US President Woodrow Wilson attended the first meeting of the League of Nations in Paris.

(2) London tube workers went on strike for shorter hours.

31/1/1919, Friday (-9,594) In Glasgow, a sheriff hit by a bottle as he read the Riot Act; 40 injured in clashes with police.

25/1/1919. Saturday (-9,600) The League of Nations was founded.

23/1/1919. Thursday (-9,602) The socialists won the German elections.

22/1/1919, Wednesday (-9,603) (1) The Red Army occupied Kiev, capital of the Ukraine.

(2) Czechoslovakia occupied Teschen (Tesin).

21/1/1919. Tuesday (-9,604) A Sinn Fein congress declared Irish Independence. Two Royal Ulster Constabularies were also murdered this day in Tipperary.

20/1/1919, Monday (-9,605)

19/1/1919. Sunday (-9,606) A pro-monarchist uprising in Portugal; the monarchy was proclaimed at Oporto.

18/1/1919, Saturday (-9,607)  Peace talks opened at Versailles.  See 20/1/1920. 27 nations attended; Germany was excluded

16/1/1919, Thursday (-9,609) The US ratified the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors after one year. See 16/1/1920.

13/1/1919. Monday (-9,612) Satyendra Prasano Sinha became the first Indian peer of Britain and so the first Indian member of the House of Lords.

12/1/1919, Sunday (-9,613) Delegates arrived in Paris for the Peace talks, see 18/1/1919.

11/1/1919. Saturday (-9,614) Romania annexed Transylvania.

7/1/1919, Tuesday (-9,618)

6/1/1919. Monday (-9,619) US President Theodore Roosevelt died at Sagamore Hill, Oyster Bay, New York State. He was the 24th President, from 1901 to 1909, and won the Nobel Prize in 1906. Starting his career as Chief of New York Police, he became President in 1901 when William McKinley was assassinated; he was elected in 1904 for a further term.

5/1/1919. Sunday (-9,620) (1) The Nazi (National Socialist) Party was founded in Germany. Adolf Hitler, a soldier in World War One who was awarded the Iron Cross for bravery, and who was angry at the armistice terms imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles, and extremely opposed to Communism, headed the new Party. Hitler was a poor student in the Austrian secondary school system. He became an artist but failed to gain entry to the Academy of Fine Arts; Hitler was a melancholic character, obsessed by fears that Jews, linked to communists, would take over the world.

(2) The Spartacus League initiated a week of revolt in Berlin. Led by Rosa Luxembburg and Karl Leibknecht, they wanted a Communist workers State  in Germany

(3) Soviet forces entered Vilnius, Lithiania.

3/1/1919, Friday (-9,622) Part of the Latvian Army defected to the Communists and Communist forces occupied Riga, capital of Latvia.

31/12/1918, Tuesday (-9,625) The British War Cabinet met for the last time.

30/12/1918, Monday (-9,626) The German Communist Party was founded.  However within a fortnight, irregular German troops had murdered its leaders.

29/12/1918, Sunday (-9,627) In Britain the Sunday Express newspaper was first published.

28/12/1918. Saturday (-9,628) Lloyd George’s coalition was re-elected to government. Lloyd George had the support of 478 MPs; the Opposition had 229 MPs, of whom 63 were Labour. One women was elected, Countess Markievicz, for a Dublin constituency. However as Sinn Fein candidate she would not take the oath of allegiance to the King and did not take her seat in the House.

27/12/1918, Friday (-9,629) (1) King George V and Queen Mary greeted President and Mrs Wilson of the United States.

(2) Poznan rebelled against the Germans, ending a 103-year-old German occupation.

26/12/1918, Thursday (-9,630)

25/12/1918, Wednesday (-9,631) Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, was born in Talah Minufiya.

24/12/1918, Tuesday (-9,632) A UK commission on poverty recommended an end to workhouses.

20/12/1918, Friday (-9,636)

15/12/1918, Sunday (-9,641) The Portuguese President Sidonio Paes was assassinated.

14/12/1918, Saturday (-9,642) (1) Women aged over 30 voted in a general Election in Britain for the first time. Women could also stand as candidates in UK General Elections for the first time. 17 stood but only one was elected. See 6/2/1918.

(2) President Woodrow Wilson arrived in Paris for peace talks.

11/12/1918, Wednesday (-9,645), Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian novelist, was born in Rostov.

6/12/1918. Friday (-9,650) Allied troops occupied Cologne.

4/12/1918. Wednesday (-9,652) The proclamation of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, or Yugoslavia.

2/12/1918, Monday (-9,654) One of the last acts of the British War Cabinet; it demanded the extradition of the German Kaiser Wilhelm.

1/12/1918. Sunday (-9,655) (1) Denmark granted independence to Iceland; a 25-year union with Denmark was instituted.

(2) The British Second Army entered Germany.

30/11/1918. Saturday (-9,656) German occupation of Bucharest, capital of Rumania, ended, see 6/12/1916.

29/11/1918. Friday (-9,657) King Nicholas of Montenegro was deposed and his country was united with Serbia under King Peter.

27/11/1918, Wednesday (-9,659)

25/11/1918, Monday (-9,661) French troops entered Strasbourg.

24/11/1918, Sunday (-9,662) (1) Serbia took control of the Backsa, Baranya and western Banat regions from Hungary.

(2) The Communist Party of Hungary (Kommunistik Magyarorszagi Partja) was founded, and soon after, started publishing its own newspaper, Voros Ujsag (Red News)

23/11/1918, Saturday (-9,663)

22/11/1918, Friday (-9,664) (1) In London, 100 women police officers went on street patrol for the first time.

(2) The Poles took Lvov.

21/11/1918. Thursday (-9,665) Surrender of the German Fleet to the Allies at Scapa Flow, for internment. On 21/6/1919 it was scuttled at Scapa Flow, in the Orkneys.

20/11/1918, Wednesday (-9,666)

19/11/1918, Tuesday (-9.667) The UK government revealed that the War had cost 767,000 deaths and some 2.3 million injured.

18/11/1918. Monday (-9,668) (1) The German occupation of Brussels ended, see 20/8/1914.

(2) Latvia gained independence from Russia, then ruled by Lenin and soon to be known as the USSR.

16/11/1918, Saturday (-9,670) Hungary was proclaimed an independent Republic.

14/11/1918. Thursday (-9,672) Tomas Masaryk was elected first President of Czechoslovakia.

12/11/1918, Tuesday (-9,674) The Republic of Austria was declared, ending the Hapsburg Dynasty, as Emperor Charles abdicated.

11/11/1918. Monday (-9,675) (Britain, France-Germany, US) Armistice Day. World War One ended. Fighting ceased on the Western Front, and Austro-Hungary signed an armistice with the Allies. See 29/9/1918.  Church bells rang out across Britain in celebration. The Allies had not expected such a sudden collapse of Germany; in September 1918 they were planning campaigns for 1919. However General Ludendorff was shaken by the sudden Allied advance (see 8/8/1918) and begged Kaiser Wilhelm to seek an armistice immediately. The Armistice was signed in Marshal Foch’s railway carriage, near Compiegne.  Warsaw became the capital of a restored Polish State. The armistice required Germany to relinquish 5,000 heavy guns, 30,000 machine guns, 2,000 aircraft, all U-boats, 5,000 locomotives,  150,000 wagons and 5,000 lorries. The surface fleet was to be interned (see 21/11/1918), the Allies were to occupy the Rhineland, and the blockade of German ports would continue. World War One cost 9 million lives, with a further 27 million injured. Britain alone had lost 750,000 men, and a further 200,000 from the Empire, with another 1.5 million seriously injured. The War had cost the Allies an estimated US$ 126 billion, and the Central Powers a further US$ 60 billion. Britons now celebrated, and wages rose, although higher food prices eroded some of those gains. Women, at least those over 30, finally had the vote, and smoking, gambling and movies boomed, with Charlie Chaplin as movie star.

The US was the greatest beneficiary of the War. US losses amounted to 53,000 men, a small number compared to 8,500,000 casualties of the European combatants. US industry had become more efficient, and key sectors such as chemicals had learned to do without Europe; the US aviation industry had been transformed. Economically, The US had needed European capital before 1914; by 1918 Europe owed the US some US$ 10,000 million.

9/11/1918. Saturday (-9,677)  Kaiser William II abdicated and fled to Holland, and a German Republic was founded. On 11/11/1918 the Emperor of Austria, Karl, abdicated and a Republic was founded.

7/11/1918. Thursday (-9,679) Billy Graham, US evangelist, was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, the son of a dairy farmer.

6/11/1918. Wednesday (-9,680) Republic of Poland proclaimed.

5/11/1918, Tuesday (-9,681) The Poles occupied Lvov, Galicia.

4/11/1918, Monday (-9,862) Italian troops occupied Trieste.  Under the Treaty of London (25/4/1915), The UK, France, and Russia agreed to give Trieste to Italy after the War.

3/11/1918. Sunday (-9,683) German fleet mutinied at Kiel. Austria signed an armistice with the Allies.

2/11/1918, Saturday (-6,984)

1/11/1918, Friday (-9,685) (1) In Lvov, the last Austrian Governor, Count Huyn, armed the Ukrainians who proclaimed an independent Republic of West Ukraine, in opposition to the Bolsheviks.

(2) Anglo-French troops took Constantinople.

31/10/1918. Thursday (-9,686) Ottoman Turkey surrendered to the Allies; the Dardanelles were reopened to Allied shipping. Anglo-French troops occupied Constantinople.

30/10/1918. (1) Wednesday (-9,687) An armistice was concluded aboard the British warship Agamemnon, at Mudros, between Britain and Turkey.  However Turkey was to face some four more year’s fighting with Greece, and effectively with the Western Allies.

(2) Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lawrence, ‘Lawrence of Arabia’, shocked King George V by turning down the Order of the Bath and Distinguished Service Order. Lawrence was disappointed at how the Arabs had not achieved independence after World War One but their land had been carved up between Britain and France.  France, Catholic, took the Christian sites of Lebanon and Syria; Britain took Jordan and Iraq.

(3) Austria completed the evacuation of its troops from Italian territory. Austria became an independent German speaking state.  See 23/10/1918.

(4) The Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed.  It was led by Jan Masaryk and Eduard Benes.

29/10/1918, Tuesday (-9,688) Croatia declared its independence.

28/10/1918, Monday (-9,689) Czechoslovakia declared its independence.

27/10/1918. Sunday (-9,690) Poland declared its independence.

26/10/1918. Saturday (-9,691) (1) In London alone, in the past week, Spanish flu claimed 2,225 lives.

(2) Aleppo, Syria, was captured from the Turks by British and Arab troops advancing from the south.

23/10/1918, Wednesday (-9,694) (1) The House of Commons voted to allow women MPs, by a margin of 274 to 25 votes.

(2) Italian forces counterattacked against the Austrians near Vittorio Veneto, reaching the Piave River on 27/10/1918,  By 30/10.1918 the Italians, with the aid of British forces, had the Austrians in full retreat.

21/10/1918. Monday (-9,696) The Spanish Flu epidemic began in Britain. 150,000 died of this disease in the last quarter of 1918.. It killed twice as many as died in World War One.

20/10/1918. Sunday (-9,697) Germany stopped U-boat warfare.

19/10/1918 , Saturday (-9,698)

18/10/1918. Friday (-9,699) Lille was recaptured from the Germans.

17/10/1918. Thursday (-9,700) (1) Yugoslavia became independent from Austro-Hungary.

(2) Hungary declared its independence from Austria.

15/10/1918, Tuesday (-9,702) Britain’s first oil well was sunk, at Hardstoft in Derbyshire.

13/10/1918, Sunday (-9,704) British troops occupied Tripoli, Lebanon.

11/10/1918, Friday (-9,706) In Puerto Rico a major earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale

10/10/1918, Thursday (-9,707) 587 died when the Irish mailboat Leinster was torpedoed by a German U-boat.

9/10/1918, Wednesday (-9,708)

8/10/1918, Tuesday (-9,709) The French retook Cambrai, see 26/8/1914.

7/10/1918. Monday (-9,710)  British troops took Beirut and Sidon.

3/10/1918, Thursday (-9,714) Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria abdicated.

1/10/1918. Tuesday (-9,716) Arab forces under Emir Faisal, including the British officer T E Lawrence, captured Damascus from the Turks.

30/9/1918. Monday (-9,717) Slovak Nationalist parties in Hungary voted to join with Czechoslovakia.  However the Slovaks soon found the Czech government more centralist than they expected, or desired, and pressure grew for Slovak separation from Czechoslovakia.

29/9/1918. Sunday (-9,718) (1) Allied troops captured part of the Hindenburg Line. Ludendorff called for an armistice to avert a  catastrophe for Germany. Negotiations opened with President Woodrow Wilson of the USA on 4/10/1918 but fighting continued till 11/11/1918.

(2) Bulgaria signed an armistice with the Allies.

26/9/1918, Thursday (-9,721) General Allied offensive on the Western Front; the Germans were fighting now only to cover their retreat.

22/9/1918. Sunday (-9,725) Turkish resistance in Palestine collapsed.

20/9/1918. Friday (-9,727) The British captured Nazareth.

19/9/1918, Thursday (-9,728) In Britain a Government commission investigated equal pay for women.

18/9/1918, Wednesday (-9,729) The British under General Allenby started a major offensive against the Turks, pushing them north out of Palestine.

15/9/1918, Sunday (-9,732) Mr C Chubb gave Stonehenge to the nation.

13/9/1918. Friday (-9,734) In the USA, 14 million men had registered for conscription.

9/9/1918. Monday (-9,738) Allied victory at Megiddo.

4/9/1918. Wednesday (-9,743) The Germans retreated to the Siegfried Line.

30/8/1918. Friday (-9,748) (1) London police went on strike. Prisoners had to be taken to court in taxis, but a major crime wave did not materialise. Bus drivers did traffic duty at major junctions. 2,000 police officers marched to a rally at Tower Hill, demanding wage rises and the reinstatement of a colleague dismissed for political activities. The key issue, however, was trade union recognition. Trade Unions had grown significantly during the War, from 4,145,000 members in 1914 to 6,533,000 members in 1918. Now working-class policemen, who kept union disputes in check, wanted their own union representation.

(2) British troops crossed the Somme.

25/8/1918. Sunday (-9,753) The Hungarian government expelled the Jews and confiscated their assets.

15/8/1918. Thursday (-9,763) The US severed diplomatic relations with the Bolshevik government of Russia.

13/8/1918, Tuesday (-9,765)

8/8/1918. Thursday (-9,770) General Haig initiated a surprise offensive against the Germans at Amiens which started a continuous retreat of the Germans through to Armistice Day on 11/11/1918. The lessons of The Somme (see 13/11/1916) had finally been learnt. Low flying aircraft drowned out the noise of tank manoeuvres, ammunition dumps were camouflaged, and decoy tank movements distracted the Germans. When the Allies began a major creeping bombardment, the tanks moved in behind to crush the barbed wire and infantry swiftly followed to consolidate the territorial gains. On their part, the Germans were demoralised by the stalling of their great Spring offensive (see 13/4/1918) and also by news of hunger, rioting and strikes back in Germany. Reinforced by US troops, the Allies found the Germans ready to retreat, and advanced eight miles on the first day.  The battle lines had become mobile again, and were moving east. In Ludendorff’s words, it was a black day for the German Army.

The Allies were reinforced by US troops and further British troops were returning from Palestine. The British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, agreed to release reserve divisions of conscripts, which he had held back, now convinced he was not simply sending them into another meat grinder like The Somme or Passchendaele. With an assembly of 456 tanks and 2,000 guns and howitzers the Allies forced the Germans back on a 14-mile front, for 8 miles. 400 German guns were captured, along with 12,000 prisoners. The new Allied tactics continued to work against stiff German resistance and by mid September the Germans had retreated to the massive defences of their Hindenburg Line, 3 miles in depth. However the Germans were demoralised and after 10 days of fighting the Hindenburg Line was broken through at Saint Quentin. German soldiers going on home leave, passing fresh troops travelling west to the front, taunted them with calls of ‘you’re only prolonging the war’. However casualties on all sides were very high. In the three months following Amiens, August 1918, 531,000  French soldiers died or were wounded or captured, as many as in the eight months of Verdun 1916. The figure for US soldiers for those three months was 127,000, over twice as many as lost in Vietnam. For British and Empire troops, the toll was 411,000, the same as during the 4 ½ months of The Somme. German losses were even higher; 785,000 killed and wounded, and 386,000 prisoners taken by the Allies.

A major issue for Germany was lack of food. Germany had been over 80% self-sufficient in food in 1914, but the military had removed labour from the farms without compensatory inputs of fertiliser or mechanisation. German food production  plummeted and by 1918 German citizens had just 64% of pre-war cereals, 18% of the meat, and 12% of the fats they had consumed in 1913.

On the German Home Front, Ludendorff and the other Generals knew the War was lost weeks before the November 1918 Armistice. Although by then Germany was effectively a military dictatorship, the military pretended that surrender was only due to the wishes of civilian politicians. This perpetuated a post-War myth that the German Army had not been defeated at all, but betrayed by left-wing politicians, that the German Army was in fact invincible. Less than 20 years later that myth helped fuel the rise of the Nazis.

2/8/1918. Friday (-9,776) British, French, and US forces landed at Archangel to support White Russians against the Bolsheviks. Japan invaded Siberia.

29/7/1918. Monday (-9,780) Germany severed diplomatic relations with Ottoman Turkey.

18/7/1918. Thursday (-9,791) (1) Allied forces launched a counter offensive on the Marne, capturing Soissons (see 9/4/1918).

(2) Nelson Mandela, South African Black Rights campaigner and leader, was born (died 2013).

16/7/1918. Tuesday (-9,793) The last Tsar, Nicholas II, was murdered by the Bolsheviks along with his entire family, his daughters Olga, Tatiana, Marie, Anastasia, and his son Alexis, and domestic staff, and even his dog, in the cellar of a house in Ekaterinburg. Their bodies were thrown down a disused mineshaft. The Bolshevik government was afraid that anti-Bolshevik White Russians or Czechoslovak troops would liberate the Romanov family and restore them to power.

15/7/1918, Monday (-9,794) The Second Battle of the Marne began, when General Ludendorff attempted an advance; this was thwarted by British, French, and US troops.  Marshall Ferdinand Foch of France  launched an offensive on the Marne which led the Germans to seek an armistice in November 1918.

14/7/1918, Sunday (-9,795)

10/7/1918. Wednesday (-9,799) A provisional government of Siberia was set up.

9/7/1918, Tuesday (-9,800) America experienced its worst train accident.  101 were killed in Nashville, Tennessee.

8/7/1918, Monday (-9,801) National Savings Stamps went on sale in Britain.

1/7/1918, Monday (-9,808) A catastrophic explosion at the Chilwell munitions plant near Nottingham killed 134 workers. The women who worked there making nitrogen-based explosives were known as ‘Canary Girls’, because the chemicals turned theor skin yellow and hair green. The blast was heard 30 miles away, but news of it was suppressed. The Chilwell factory had produced 19 million shells, half of those used by British forces during the First World War. Of the 7,000 surviving workers, all but 12 were back working at Chilwell the day after.

26/6/1918. Wednesday (-9,813) The Bolshevik government in Russia faced enemies on all; sides. In the south, General Anton Denikin had seized large parts of the Caucasus and Ukraine. In the north bands of anti-Bolsheviks roamed at will. Former Czech prisoners of war had organised themselves into the Czech legion and had seized Osmk on the Trans-Siberian railway. Over 100 British marines had landed at Murmansk to keep the Bolsheviks out of that port.

20/6/1918, Thursday (-9,819) After protests, the UK Government cancelled Irish conscription. See 18/4/1918.

18/6/1918, Tuesday (-9,821) The UK Government asked for a further War Loan of £500 million. General rationing in the UK began on 19/6/1918.

15/6/1918, Saturday (-9,824) The Austrians began an offensive against the Italians along the Piave River Front; they were attempting to break through to the fertile farmlands of the Veneto.  See 23/10/1918.

13/6/1918. Thursday (-9,826) A Turkish offensive in Palestine was halted.

10/6/1918, Monday (-9,829) The Battle of Belleau Wood ended.

6/6/1918, Thursday (-9,833) Battle of Belleau Wood began.

3/6/1918. Monday (-9,836) British postal charges were raised from 1d to 1 ½ d for a letter and 1d for a postcard.

28/5/1918, Tuesday (-9,842) Azerbaijan officially proclaimed its independence.  Se 27/4/1920.

27/5/1918, Monday (-9,843) The Germans took Soissons in a thrust towards Paris.

26/5/1918, Sunday (-9,844) The short-lived Transcaucasian Republic broke up.

23/5/1918. Thursday (-9,847) Georgia declared independence from Russia.

19/5/1918. Sunday (-9,851) Britain jailed 500 Sinn Fein members, including Eamon De Valera.

18/5/1918, Saturday (-9,852) To curb growing revolutionary power in Ireland, the British Government declared Sinn Fein and the Irish Volunteers (now IRA) to be illegal organisations.

15/5/1918, Wednesday (-9,855) The US inaugurated the world’s first regular air mail service between New York and Washington. The US Navy operated the service, for the US Post Office.

12/5/1918, Sunday (-9,858) Julius Rosenberg was born (see 19/6/1953).

9/5/1918, Thursday (-9,861) British troops averted a German attack on Ostend, Belgium.

7/5/1918. Tuesday (-9,863) Romania signed a peace treaty with Germany (The Fourth Treaty of Bucharest).  Southern Dobruja was transferred from Romania to Bulgaria; Bulgaria had been seeking the whole of the Dobruja.  See 27/11/1919.

29/4/1918. Monday (-9,871) The last big German offensive on the Western Front petered out.

26/4/1918, Friday (-9,874) The Turks captured Kars, Caucasus, from Russia, however their cause was doomed as General Allenby made major gains in Palestine.

23/4/1918. Tuesday (-9,877) (1) In Ireland, a one-day strike against conscription was widely supported, except in Ulster.

(2) British forces raided Zeebrugge. They accomplished their objective of sinking concrete-filled British ships in the harbour entrance to block it, bottling up German submarines.

22/4/1918, Monday (-9,878) Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan united to form the short-lived Transcaucasian Republic, see 26/5/1918.

21/4/1918, Sunday (-9,879) Manfred von Richtofen, the ‘Red Baron’, German World War One air ace, was shot down and died in his famous red tri-plane behind British lines.

18/4/1918, Thursday (-9,882) In Britain, the age of military conscription was raised to 50, and extended to cover Ireland. See 20/6/1918. Sinn Fein, the Nationalists and the British labour Party all resisted this.

14/4/1918, Sunday (-9,886) (1) Following the collapse of the Russians, Turkey captured Batumi on the Black Sea.  See 26/4/1918.

(2) In Finland, German General Goltz captured Helsinki from the Communists, see 3/3/1918.

9/4/1918. Tuesday (-9,891) (1) Germany launched a major offensive at Ypres. Reinforced by the arrival of 70 divisions freed up on the eastern front by the capitulation of Russia, Germany tried to knock the western Allies out of the war before new American troops could arrive. However instead of concentrating his attack here on the British forces, Ludenforff ordered secondary attacks on the French sector of the front at Chemin des Dames on 27/5/1918 and west of Reims on 15/7/1918. The Allied line held and a major counter offensive was launched on 18/7/1918,

(2) Latvia declared its independence.

6/4/1918. Saturday (-9,894) (1) US, British, and Japanese troops landed at Vladivostock.

(2) In Finland, the German General Mannerheim captured Tampere from the Communists, see 3/3/1918.

1/4/1918. Monday (-9,899) The Royal Air Force was formed, by amalgamating the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service.  Lord Rothermere at the Air Ministry in The Strand, London, was in charge.

29/3/1918, Friday (-9,902) In Quebec, Canada, the Compulsory Military Service Act of September 1917 provoked such severe rioting from this day until 2/4/1917 that 4 civilians were killed.

25/3/1918, Monday (-9,906) Claude Debussy, French composer, died of cancer in London aged 55.

23/3/1918. Saturday (-9,908) (1) German troops shelled Paris from a distance of 75 miles, using a large gun called ‘Big Bertha’.

(2) Lithuania declared its independence.

22/3/1918, Friday (-9,909) Cheddi Jagan, President of Guyana, was born.

21/3/1918. Thursday (-9,910) Major German offensive began on the Somme. This was Ludendorff’s desperate bid for victory before American troops could become effective.  British casualties were over 300,000, and the Germans advanced on a 50 mile-wide front, in an attempt to reach the Channel ports, and drive a wedge between the British and French Armies,  but the German advance was halted.

13/3/1918, Wednesday (-9,918) In Britain, it was announced that the minimum school leaving age was to be raised to 14, from 13; this measure was implemented in December 1918 under the Education Act.

7/3/1918, Thursday (-9,924) Bonar Law asked the UK Commons for another war loan of £600 million.

6/3/1918, Wednesday (-9,925) In Russia, at the 7th Party Congress in Moscow, the Bolshevik Party was renamed the Communist Party.

5/3/1918. Tuesday (-9,926) Moscow was declared the new capital of Russia, in place of Petrograd.

4/3/1918, Monday (-9,927) The railway from Cuffley, Hertfordshire, was extended through Hertford to rejoin the GNR main line at Langley Junction, see 4/4/1910.

3/3/1918. Sunday (-9,928) The Bolshevik government in Russia assigned the Treaty of Brest Litovsk with the Germans. Lenin insisted on signing, against the wishes of Trotsky.  Trotsky wanted the Communist Revolution to spread throughout Germany, but Lenin feared the rapid advance of German troops into Russia, approaching Petrograd.

Russia lost heavily in terms of land and industry (Russia lost 56 million inhabitants, 79% of its iron, and 89% of its coal production), but the Bolsheviks needed peace at any cost before their new and shaky administration was overthrown, by Germany or by anti-Bolshevik White Russians and Czechoslovak troops.  Under this Treaty, Finland regained its independence from Russia.  The Baltic Republics were ceded to Germany.  Communists (recruited from Finnish labourers) joined Red Guards  to try and re-establish Communist control in Finland.  Germany moved in to repulse them.  See 6/4/1918.  Turkey regained territories lost to Russia even in 1877.

26/2/1918, Tuesday (-9,933)

25/2/1918. Monday (-9,934) (1) Rationing of meat, butter, and margarine began in London and the Home Counties.

(2) Minsk was occupied by the Germans.

24/2/1918. Sunday (-9,935) Estonia declared its independence.

23/2/1918, Saturday (-9,936)

22/2/1918. Friday (-9,937) The world’s tallest man, Robert Wadlow, was born, weighing 8 ½ lbs. He grew to 8 foot 11 ½ inches in height and weighed 31 stone 5 lbs, when he died in 1940.

21/2/1918. Thursday (-9,938) Australian cavalry captured Jericho from the Turks.

18/2/1918, Monday (-9,941) Germany launched a big offensive on the Russian Front.

16/2/1918, Saturday (-9,943) Lithuania declared its independence from Russia.

9/2/1918. Saturday (-9,950) Ukraine signed a separate peace treaty with Germany.

6/2/1918. Wednesday (-9,953) (1) Married women in Britain aged over 30 got the vote, as did all men over 21, under the Representation of the People Act. See 14/12/1918.

(2) A deposit of £150 was required from UK Parliamentary candidates.

30/1/1918, Wednesday (-9,960) The Commons rejected the Lords’ proposal for proportional representation.

28/1/1918. Monday (-9,962) (1) A general workers strike began in Berlin.

(2) Lenin created a Red Army and the Cheka, a security police force.

23/1/1918, Wednesday (-9,967) The UK Government ordered restaurants to have two ‘meatless’ days a week.

17/1/1918, Thursday (-9,973) Sir Keith Joseph, British politician, was born.

15/1/1918, Tuesday (-9,975) Gamal Nasser, the first President of Egypt, was born in Alexandria.

10/1/1918, Thursday (-9,980) In Britain the House of Lords approved the Representation of the People Bill, giving women the vote. In Washington the House of Representatives also voted in favour of suffrage for women.

8/1/1918, Tuesday (-9,982) Recruiting began in Britain for the WRNS; the Women’s Royal Naval Service.

31/12/1917, Monday (-9,990) During the year 1917 German submarines sank 6,500,000 tons of Allied shipping whilst only 2,700,000 tons was built. In April 1917 Britain had only two months’ worth of food stocks. However with US destroyer patrols searching for German submarines, escorted transatlantic convoys and the mining of the seas between Scotland and Norway, Allied losses were dramatically reduced and after April 1918 never exceeded 200,000 tons a month.

27/12/1917, Thursday (-9,994) The US Government took over the American railways.

22/12/1917. Saturday (-9,999) The Bolsheviks opened peace talks with Germany and Austria. The Allies accused |Russia of betrayal.

18/12/1917, Tuesday (-10,003) The United States Congress submitted Prohibition legislation to the states. The 18th Amendment was known as the Volstead Act, after its chief sponsor, Andrew Volstead of Minnesota. It took a further 13 months for the necessary three quarters of US states to ratify the Act for it to become law, see 16/1/1919.

17/12/1917. Monday (-10,004) Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, Britain’s first woman doctor, died.

16/12/1917, Sunday (-10,005) Arthur C Clarke, British science-fiction writer, was born.

12/12/1917, Wednesday (-10,009) The world’s worst train accident occurred, at Modane, France.  534 were killed.

9/12/1917. Sunday (-10,012) Jerusalem was surrendered by the Turks to the British under General Allenby.

7/12/1917. Friday (-10,014) The USA declared war on Austria.

6/12/1917. Thursday (-10,015) (1) Finland became independent from Russia. 

(2) As the Russian Army disintegrated after the October Revolution into bands of raiders, Romania and Russia signed an armistice.

5/12/1917. Wednesday (-10,016) Russia signed an armistice with Germany, at Brest-Litovsk.

3/12/1917, Monday (-10,018) (1) The Quebec Bridge over the St Lawrence River opened.  87 lives were lost during its construction.

(2) Britain refused to recognise Bolshevik Russia.  Meanwhile German and Austrian delegates met at Brest-Litovsk to end Russian participation in World War One, see 3/3/1918.

1/12/1917. Saturday (-10,020) German East Africa cleared of German forces.

29/11/1917, Thursday (-10,022) The Inter Allied War Conference opened. Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France and Baron Sidney Sonnino of Italy were concerned that US soldiers and material quickly reach the front lines against Germany, since post-Revolution Russia had ceased fighting.

20/11/1917. Tuesday (-10,031) (1) Major British tank offensive at Cambrai.  The Battle of Cambrai ended on 3/12/1917.

(2) The Republic of the Ukraine was declared.

19/11/1917. Monday (-10,032) (1) A Revolutionary Council was established in Petrograd, with Leon Trotsky as leader.

(2) Indira Ghandi born in Allahabad.  India’s first woman Prime Minister, she was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru.

18/11/1917, Sunday (-10,033)

17/11/1917, Saturday (-10,034) Death of the sculptor Auguste Rodin, aged 77.

16/11/1917. Friday (-10,035) Bolshevik troops took Moscow.

15/11/1917, Thursday (-10,036)

14/11/1917. Wednesday (-10,037) Jaffa (Joppa) was captured by the British, under General Allenby, from the Turks.

13/11/1917. Tuesday (-10,038) In London, bankers and Chambers of Commerce called for the decimalisation of the British currency.

12/11/1917, Monday (-10,039)

11/11/1917, Sunday (-10,040) Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, died.

10/11/1917, Saturday (-10,041) The Third Battle of Ypres ended, see 31/7/1917. The plans of British General Haig to break through the German lines was in tatters; all the Allies had gained was a few square miles of swamp and an obliterated village, after 156 days of fighting and 250,000 deaths, at Paschaendaele. The tremors from the mining of the  Messines Ridge had been felt in Downing Street. That August had been the wettest in living memory, turning the ground into an impassable quagmire; Allied troops faced death by drowning as much as by gunfire. The constant shelling had disrupted the system of dykes and streams which drained the flat fields of Flanders. Meanwhile in Palestine, British forces captured Tel-Aviv.

9/11/1917. Friday (-10,042) Arthur Balfour, the British Foreign Secretary, unveiled plans for a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. The message was conveyed to the Zionist representative, Baron Rothschild. The British Wear cabinet, under David Lloyd George, believed that Zionist support would help the war effort, especially against the Ottoman Turks. Arabs outnumbered Jews by ten to one in Palestine but Zionist leaders like Dr Chaim Weizmann would try and build up their numbers.

8/11/1917, Thursday (-10,043)

7/11/1917 (25/10 in Russia). Wednesday (-10,044) The Bolshevik Revolution, which led to the world’s first Communist Government under Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov Lenin. Prime Minister Alexander Kerensky’s government was overthrown. See 6/3/1918.

6/11/1917. Tuesday (-10,045) Canadian troops captured the village of Paschendaele, during the Third Battle of Ypres.

5/11/1917. Monday (-10,046) American troops under General Pershing went into action for the first time on the Western Front.

2/11/1917. Friday (-10,049) UK foreign secretary Arthur Balfour stated British support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine, to Lord Rothschild. The Balfour Declaration gained Jewish support during World War I, and in 1945 sparked a flood of Jewish refugees to Palestine after World War II. This led to clashes with both Arabs and the British administration. Britain withdrew in 1948; the State of Israel was proclaimed on 14/5/1948.

31/10/1917. Wednesday (-10,051) (1) The Italian army was shattered unexpectedly by a German onslaught in northern Italy and was retreating towards the Piave River, just 15 miles from Venice. The Italian Second Army had held the Austrians off during 1916 and had captured the fortress of Monte Santo only 2 months earlier. The Italians had seemed well dug in around the mountains of Caporetto and Udine. However a heavy creeping artillery barrage by the Germans and gas attacks drove the Italians back. Morale collapsed within the Italian army, and despite roadblocks and court martials, up to half a million soldiers deserted.  A further 300,000 Italian soldiers were captured by the Germans, and the Italians lost 10,000 dead and 30,000 wounded in the German attacks.

(2) British forces under General Allenby captured Beersheba from the Turks. This opened the way for the British capture of Jerusalem and the rest of Palestine.

Meanwhile in 1916 Britain and France had secretly signed the Sykes-Picot agreement to divided up the Ottoman Lands in the Middle East after the War. France was to get the north-western half of the Fertile Crescent, that is Syria and Lebanon; Britain was to get the south-east, Jordan and Iraq. The Catholic church wanted French control of the Mediterranean coast, where many Maronite Christians lived, and Britain wanted French lands between them and the Russians to the north. Britain retained an air corridor to Iraq through Jordan; Britain was dropping poison gas on rebellious Iraqi Arabs. France divided off Lebanon as a Christian Republic from Syria; it also divided off Hatay and gave that to Syria, due to lobbying from Hatay’s Turkish minority. The Allies also considered giving Palestine to Belgium. They also, at the Treaty of Sevres (10/8/1920) backed the formation of a Kurdish State, but refused to allow the Kurds in Iraq or Syria to be part of this State; the idea never materialised.

24/10/1917, Wednesday (-10,058) The Austrian offensive against Italy was halted on the Piave River.  Boroevics army was so reduced by Italian forces during August and September 1917  that Germany and Austria feared a collapse of Austro-Hungary.

23/10/1917, Tuesday (-10,059) The Battle of Caporetto began.

22/10/1917, Monday (-10,060) The Trans-Australia Railway opened, from Kalgoorlie to Port Augusta.

20/10/1917. Saturday (-10,062) 4 Zeppelins were shot down over France after raids on the UK.

15/10/1917. Monday (-10,067) The legendary Dutch spy Mata Hari, who danced in the nude, was executed by a firing squad in Paris, having been found guilty of espionage by the Germans.

13/10/1917, Saturday (-10,069) The ‘Miracle of Fatima’ occurred in Portugal.

9/10/1917, Tuesday (-10,073) Stalin joined the Bolshevik Committee.

5/10/1917. Friday (-10,077) Sir Arthur Lee donated Chequers to the nation as a country retreat for British Prime Ministers.

4/10/1917, Thursday (-10,078) British victory on Passchendaele Ridge.

2/10/1917, Tuesday (-10,080)

1/10/1917. Monday (-10,081) (1) Air raids on London.

(2) Damascus fell to General Allenby.

30/9/1917. Sunday (-10,082) The ex-Tsar and family were exiled to Siberia.

20/9/1917. Thursday (-10,092) The first RSPCA animal clinic was opened in Liverpool.

17/9/1917. Monday (-10,095) The Germans captured the port of Riga from the Russians.

15/9/1917. Saturday (-10,097) (1) Russia was declared a Republic with a provisional government, by Soviet Party Prime Minister Aleksandr Kerenski.

(2) China offered the Allies 15,000 troops to fight on the Western Front.

14/9/1917. Friday (-10,098) German submarine shelled Scarborough.

11/9/1917, Tuesday (-10,101) Ferdinand Marcos, President of the Philippines, was born.

2/9/1917, Sunday (-10,110) Major German night time air raid on Dover.

30/8/1917. Thursday (-10,113) Denis Healey, British Labour politician, was born.

20/8/1917, Monday (-10,123) (1) Over 100 killed in an air raid on Thanet and Sheppey.

(2) The French broke through the Verdun front on an 11 mile wide offensive.

18/8/1917, Saturday (-10,125) Caspar Weinberger, US Republican politician and Secretary of Defence for Ronald Reagan, was born in San Francisco.

15/8/1917, Wednesday (-10,128) In Lausanne Dmowski formed a Polish National Committee, It was almost a government-in-exile, recognised by the Allies as representing Polish interests.

14/8/1917. Tuesday (-10,129) China declared war on Germany and Austria.

4/8/1917. Saturday (-10,139) The US said avoiding conscription could be punished with execution.

31/7/1917. Tuesday (-10,143) The Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) began, see 10/11/1917.

29/7/1917, Sunday (-10,145) Taking advantage of Revolutionary chaos, the Finns declared their independence from Russia.

28/7/1917, Saturday (-10,146) The formation of the Royal Tank Corps in the British Army was authorised.

26/7/1917, Thursday (-10,148)

25/7/1917, Wednesday (-10,149) Mata Hari, a Dutchwoman called Margaretha Geetruida Macleod (nee Zelle), aged 41, who used her charms to tempt French Army officers to betray military secrets, was found guilty of spying by a military court (despite very little evidence of her guilt) and sentenced to death by firing squad. She was initially hired by the French to spy in German-occupied Belgium.

24/7/1917, Tuesday (-10,150) UK MPs were alarmed to discover the war was costing Britain £7 million per day.

22/7/1917, Sunday (-10,152)

20/7/1917, Friday (-10,154) The Pact of Corfu proclaimed the Union of South Slavs, or Yugoslavia.  When Serbia was invaded in World War One, the Serbs established a government in exile on Corfu.  The Serbian Prime Minister Paslic agreed with the leader of the south Serbs, Ante Trumbic, that the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and Montenegrins, should unite to form a single state; Yugoslavia.  In the 1920s, Serbia came to dominate this union, and other national groups claimed Paslic had tricked Trumbic at Corfu.

19/7/1917. Thursday (-10,155) Mutinies broke out in the German Navy. The German Reichstag passed a motion to end the war.

18/7/1917, Wednesday (-10,156)

17/7/1917. Tuesday (-10,157) Churchill returned to UK government as Minister for Munitions.

16/7/1917. Monday (-10,158) The provisional government in Petrograd, Russia, crushed the Bolshevik uprising. The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, fled to Switzerland. However on 7/11/1917 Kerensky, leader of the Russian provisional government, was ousted by Lenin.

15/7/1917, Sunday (-10,159) US Congress passed the Espionage Act. Section 1  introduced heavy penalties, of up to 20 years in prison, for anyone causing insubordination or disloyalty in the armed forces, or obstructing recruitment; 2,000 prosecutions were brought under this measure. The Act also empowered the US Postmaster to exclude from the mail any material in violation of Section 1.

14/7/1917, Saturday (-10,160) General Pershing, 57, arrived in Paris to set up the headquarters of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF).

7/7/1917. Saturday (-10,167) Air raids on London and Margate killed 97 and injured 193.

5/7/1917, Thursday (-10,169) Joe Gormley, President of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), was born.

29/6/1917. Friday (-10,175) Ukraine declared its independence. Greece declared war on Germany.

27/6/1917. Wednesday (-10,177) 14,000 American troops arrived in France to fight with the Allies.  The American expeditionary force was commanded by General John Pershing.

19/6/1917, Tuesday (-10,185) (1) Large Commons vote in favour of giving women over 30 the vote.

(2) All German titles and names are renounced by the British Royal Family, who adopted the name Windsor. The old name had been Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

16/6/1917. Saturday (-10,188) The first pan-Soviet Congress opened in Petrograd.

14/6/1917. Thursday (-10,190) Air raid on London, the first by German fixed-wing aircraft. In a daylight raid, 162 Londoners died and 432 were injured. 16 children died in a Poplar school.

13/6/1917, Wednesday (-10,191) Large German air raid on Folkestone, Shorncliffe and other Kent towns. 95 died and 260 were injured.

12/6/1917. Tuesday (-10,192) The pro-German King Constantine of Greece, who dismissed the pro-Allied government of Venizelos, was himself forced to abdicate by the Allies.

10/6/1917. Sunday (-10,194) Sinn Fein uprising in Dublin.

8/6/1917. Friday  (-10,196) Haig launched a new Flanders offensive.

7/6/1917, Thursday (-10,197) The British captured the Messines Ridge. The British had begun tunnelling under the Ridge from august 1915, and placed high explosives in the tunnels, detonated at 3.10 am. A million pounds of explosive was used, and the explosion was heard in London and Dublin.

6/6/1917, Wednesday (-10,198)

4/6/1917. Monday (-10,200) (1) In France, with the co-operation of the provisional Russian government, a Polish army was formed to fight Germany.

(2) Brazil declared war against Germany and seized all German ships in its ports.

3/6/1917. Sunday (-10,201) Italy declared Albania a protectorate.

29/5/1917. Tuesday (-10,206) US Democrat and 35th President, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, the second of nine children. He was America’s first Roman Catholic President, and the youngest to date.

25/5/1917. Friday (-10,210) Air raid on Folkestone.

18/5/1917. Friday (-10,217) (1) Trotsky returned to Russia from the USA

(2) The US introduced selective conscription.

17/5/2017, Thursday (-10,218) Kerensky became head of the Soviet interim government.

15/5/1917. Tuesday (-10,220) Henri Petain became French Commander in Chief.

13/5/1917, Sunday (-10,222) At Fatima, a small town in north east Portugal, three shepherd girls aged 10 -  13 saw a vision of a lady outside the town.  The vision reappeared at monthly intervals and on 13/10/1917 declared itself to be ‘Our Lady of the Rosary’.

12/5/1917. Saturday (-10,223) The British army began to accept men aged 41-50.

10/5/1917, Thursday (-10,225)

5/5/1917. Saturday (-10,230) The Battle of Arras, 9 April to 5 May. The Allied Spring offensive against the Germans pushed them back 3 to 4 miles from the eastern suburbs of Arras, capturing several important hills.

4/5/1917. Friday (-10,231) Widespread mutiny amongst French units on the Front.

3/5/1917, Thursday (-10,232) US destroyers arrived to join the British navy.

2/5/1917, Wednesday (-10,233) King George V called for national restraint in bread consumption.

26/4/1917. Thursday (-10,239) German naval raid on Ramsgate.

20/4/1917. Friday (-10,245) The US broke off relations with Turkey.

17/4/1917. Tuesday (-10,248) On his return to Russia (from Zurich) with the other Bolshevik leaders, Vladimir Illyich Lenin demanded a transfer of power to workers Soviets.

15/4/1917, Sunday (-10,250)

14/4/1917, Saturday (-10,251) Dr Zamenof, Polish linguist and inventor of Esperanto, died.

13/4/1917, Friday (-10,252) Stalin was released from exile in Siberia (imposed 1913).

12/4/1917, Thursday (-10,253)

11/4/1917. Wednesday (-10.254) (1) Brazil broke off relations with Germany after the steamer Parana was torpedoed off France. On 1/6/1917 Brazil revoked its neutrality in the War as a mark of ‘continental solidarity and friendship with the USA’. After more Brazilian shipping was sunk, Brazil declared war on Germany on 26/10/1917. Brazil’s direct contribution to the war was the dispatch of part of its fleet to European waters and the sending of a medical mission and some aviators to the Western Front. The main contribution was placing its food supplies and other resources at the disposal of the Allies.

(2)  British general Sir Edmund Allenby, commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, occupied Jerusalem following his victory in Palestine over the Turks.

10/4/1917.Tuesday (-10,255)  Canadian troops captured Vimy Ridge in northern France, with heavy casualties. This was a major assault during the Battle of Arras, World War One.

9/4/1917, Monday (-10,256) The Canadians stormed Vimy Ridge, see 10/4/1917.

8/4/1917, Sunday (-10,257)

7/4/1917. Saturday (-10,258) Cuba declared war on Germany.

6/4/1917. Friday (-10,259) The USA declared war against Germany, with a declaration signed by President Woodrow Wilson. This followed the revealing by the British on 1/3/1917 of the Zimmerman Telegram, a missive from Germany to Mexico urging it to declare war on the USA and recover its lost territories. The German Foreign Minister, Arthur Zimmerman, had sent a coded telegram to the German Ambassador in Mexico offering an alliance against the US, in which Mexico would recover its territories of New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. British naval intelligence intercepted and decoded the message and passed it to President Wilson. American shipping bound for Britain had also been attacked by German submarines.

The Germans did not believe that the US could raise and equip an effective army quickly enough to make a difference in Europe, and that even if they did, it could not be transported across a submarine-infested ocean. They seriously underestimated the determination and resources of the US. The US did indeed have only a relatively small standing army, 300,000 men including the National Guard and reserves, but conscription was introduced and many willingly signed up.

Meanwhile this day the King and Queen of England attended a Thanksgiving service at St Pauls Cathedral for the US’s entry into the ‘war for freedom’.

4/4/1917, Wednesday (-10,261)

3/4/1917, Tuesday (-10,262) Vladimir Illyich Lenin returned to Moscow from exile.

2/4/1917, Monday (-10,263) US President Wilson asked the US Congress to pass a resolution to declare war on Germany.

1/4/1917, Sunday (-10,264) Scott Joplin, American composer, died in poverty in an asylum.

30/3/1917, Friday (-10,266)

29/3/1917, Thursday (-10,267) In Britain, Lloyd George announced plans to give women over 30 the vote.

28/3/1917. Wednesday (-10,268) The first women’s service unit, the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps, was formed.

26/3/1917. Monday (-10,270) Britain attacked the Turks at Gaza (First Battle of Gaza).

21/3/1917. Wednesday (-10,275) Ex-Tsar Nicholas II and his family were arrested.

20/3/1917. Tuesday (-10,276) (1) A German U-boat sank a fully-lit hospital ship.

(2) Dame Vera Lynn was born.

19/3/1917, Monday (-10,277)

18/3/1917. Sunday (-10,278) Ramsgate and Broadstairs shelled from the sea.

17/3/1917. Saturday (-10,279) The British heavily defeated the Turks near Gaza.

16/3/1917, Friday (-10,280) An interim Soviet Russian government was set up.

15/3/1917. Thursday (-10,281) Czar Nicholas II abdicated in Pskov. The 300-year Romanov dynasty ended (see 8/3/1917).

14/3/1917, Wednesday (-10,282) A provisional government was set up in Russia.

13/3/1917, Tuesday (-10,283)

12/3/1917, Monday (-10,284) Izvestia, the official daily newspaper of the USSR, was founded.

11/3/1917. Sunday (-10,285) The Allies captured Baghdad from Ottoman Turkey.

10/3/1917, Saturday (-10,286) A Soviet, or council, of workers and soldiers was set up in Russia.

9/3/1917, Friday (-10.287)

8/3/1917. Thursday (-10,288) (1) The Russian ‘February’ (old style calendar) Revolution began at Petrograd. Widespread demonstrations were sparked by food shortages; more ominously for Tsar Nicholas II, soldiers refused to open fire on the crowds. The Russian army had suffered severe casualties against the Germans and was more on the people’s side. Soldiers were defecting and joining the demonstrators. See 15/3/1917.

(2) US marines landed in Cuba to help the civil authorities.

(3) Graf von Zeppelin, German airship pioneer, died in Charlottenburg, near Berlin.

7/3/1917. Wednesday (-10,289) The Dixie Band One-Step was the world’s first jazz record to be released. Ironically it was by the all-white Original Dixieland Jazz Band.

2/3/1917. Friday (-10,294) The US Congress passed the Jones Act, making Puerto Rico a US territory.

26/2/1917. Monday (-10,298) (1) News of the sinking of the Cunard liner Laconia by German U-boats reached capitol Hill just as Congress was debating measures to protect US shipping from the growing menace of U boats in the Atlantic. Earlier in February 1917  a US ship, the Housatonic was sunk, making a total of 134 neutral ships destroyed by the Germans in the last 3 weeks. The US navy was already mounting patrols to protect its ships in the Atlantic.

(2) US Congress created the McKinley National Park, covering 2,500 square miles. It is now much larger, and known as Denali.

25/2/1917. Sunday (-10,299) The Germans retreated on the Ancre, and on 28/2/1917 the British captured Gommecourt.

20/2/1917, Tuesday (-10,304) The USA bought the Dutch West Indies.

13/2/1917, Tuesday (-10,311) (1) Britain introduced new regulations to allow women to be taxi drivers.

(2) The Dutch spy Mata Hari was arrested by the French.

10/2/1917. Saturday (-10,314) Weizmann and the British Government discussed plans for a Jewish homeland.

7/2/1917. Wednesday (-10,317) All US citizens in Germany were held as hostages.

3/2/1917. Saturday (-10,321) The USA broke off relations with Germany.

2/2/1917, Friday (-10,322) In the UK, bread rationing began.

31/1/1917. Wednesday (-10,324) Germany announced a policy of unrestricted naval warfare. All ships, passenger or cargo, found by Germans could now be sunk without warning. This was a calculated risk by Germany because it was bound to involve US shipping being sunk, and would therefore bring the USA in against Germany. But Germany reckoned on the inevitability of the USA entering the war against here soon anyway, and believed she could win the war before this happened. The German Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Von Holtzendorff, presented a memo to the Kaiser saying that if 600,000 tons of Allied shipping could be sunk each month, within five months Britain would have to surrender. In fact, in the worst month, April 1917, German U-boats sank 869,103 tons of shipping, 373 ships. The British adopted a convoy system, despite fears that a convoy’s speed was limited to that of the slowest ship. The Navy had feared it had too few destroyers for this job but then realised that it had enough if only ocean-going ships, not cross-Channel traffic, was guarded.

Meanwhile the British navy deployed Q-ships, gunships disguised as merchant ships which lured U-boats to the surface then opened their gun hatches at the last moment. The first trial convoy ran from Gibraltar on 10/5/1917. The convoy system worked; of 26,604 vessels convoyed in 1917, only 147 were sunk. Meanwhile the Germans lost 65 of their 139 U-boats. Meanwhile Allied shipping blockaded German trade, creating shortages of tea and coffee, but more seriously, fertiliser shortages too. In the final German land offensive of 1918, advancing German troops discovered their privations were not being endured by the enemy, and German morale fell.

29/1/1917. Monday (-10,326) US immigration policy now required all immigrants to know at least 30 words of English and banned all Asians except Japanese.

22/1/1917, Monday (-10,333) US President Woodrow Wilson delivered a speech to the Senate, ‘Peace Without Victory’, condemning European imperialism and militarism and calling for a League of Nations.

11/1/1917, Thursday (-10,344) The war was costing Britain £5.7 million per day.

10/1/1917, Wednesday (-10,345) William ‘Buffalo Bill’ Cody died, aged 71. He was a pony express rider before the Civil War, in which he fought; after, he supplied meat to the workers of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, hence his name. As chief of scouts for the US military he fought in several battles against the Indians, which made him famous.

9/1/1917. Tuesday (-10,346) The Russian Prime Minister, Aklexander Trepov, resigned in the face of strikes, food shortages, and anti-war protests. He was succeeded by Dimitri Golitzin.

4/1/1917, Thursday (-10,351) Britain and Germany agreed to exchange all internees aged over 45.

1/1/1917, Monday (-10.354) The railway from St Johns, SE London, through Blackheath Hill to Greenwich, closed.

31/12/1916, Sunday (-10,355) By the end of 1916, Russia had seen some 3,600,000 of its citizens killed or wounded in the Great War, and a further 2,000,000 taken prisoner by the Central Powers.

30/12/1916. Saturday (-10,356) In Russia, Gregory Rasputin, the infamous Siberian ‘seer’ and miracle worker, was murdered, aged 44.

23/12/1916, Saturday (-10,363) The Irishmen interned after the Easter Rising were released (see 1/5/1916).

15/12/1916. Friday (-10,371) The Battle of Verdun, which began on 21/2/1916, ended. 364,000 Allied soldiers and 338,000 German soldiers, had died in this battle.

14/12/1916, Thursday (-10,372) After a referendum in favour amongst the Danish electorate, the sale of the Danish West Indies (Virgin Islands) was ratified, to the US, for US$ 25 million.

13/12/1916. Wednesday (-10,373) New British offensive in Mesopotamia.

8/12/1916,

7/12/1916. Thursday (-10,379) In Britain, David Lloyd George succeeded Herbert Asquith as Prime Minister (see 8/4/1908). A Coalition government led by the Liberals was formed.

6/12/1916, Wednesday (-10,380) The Central Powers occupied Bucharest.

5/12/1916, Tuesday (-10,381) An explosion at the Barnbow munitions factory, Leeds, killed 35 women. The incident was censored and went unreported at the time. War production resumed within a week, with wages on £12 a week, equivalent to over £1,000 a week in 2015.

1/12/1916, Friday (-10,385) The lights of the Statue of Liberty were turned on by President Wilson.

24/11/1916, Friday (-10,392) Sir Hiram Maxim, English-born US inventor of the machine gun in 1883, died in London.

21/11/1916. Tuesday (-10,395) Emperor Franz Josef, ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire since 1848, died.

20/11/1916, Monday (-10,396) Railway electrification from London Waterloo reached Claygate.

16/11/1916, Thursday (-10,400) The East Kent Light Railway opened, from Shepherds Well to Wingham, 25 ½ miles.

13/11/1916, Monday (-10,403) The Battle of the Somme ended.  It had begun on 1/7/1916, and succeeded in driving the Germans north towards the coast, but cost over 600,000 Allied lives; 420,000 British and 200,000 French. German casualties were 450,000. At Verdun, ten months of fighting had cost another 400,000 men from both sides. The Allies gained, at the Somme, some two miles of ground for these casualties, about five lives lost per inch gained. The Germans knew the ‘Big Push’ was coming, and had prepared well by stockpiling ammunition then sitting deep in underground bunkers waiting. The Allied bombardment fully announced this push, but did not destroy the German bunkers. After the bombardment the Allied soldiers walked forward over no man’s land carrying their kit, guns, and grenades, at least 30 kg or 60 lbs per person on a hot summer day. The Germans, as soon as the bombardment ended, climbed back up and scythed down the Allies in a hail of machine gun fire. On the first day of that offensive, the Allies lost 19,000 men with a further 57,000 wounded, the greatest loss ever on a single day. Bad communications and slowness meant the few gains made were mostly lost again.

12/11/1916, Sunday (-10,404) Percival Lowell, US astronomer who predicted the existence of the planet Pluto prior to its discovery in 1930, died in Flagstaff, Arizona.

10/11/1916, Friday (-10,406) Theobald von Bethmann, German Chancellor, made a speech to the Reichstag pledging that Germany would join or even lead a peace league after the War, to prevent such a catastrophic war from ever happening again. In part he was responding to anti-war concerns from Social Democrats within Germany. The German Government was also now open to a peace agreement for the same reason as the Allies opposed it – because Germany was now in control of large swathes of Europe from France to Russia.

7/11/1916. Tuesday (-10,409) (1) Woodrow Wilson was re-elected US President.

(2) Janet Rankin became the first woman member of the US Congress.

3/11/1916, Friday (-10,413) London’s bakers were accused of profiteering after raising  the price of bread to 10d a loaf. A price freeze was anticipated following a government commission on wheat prices. There was also concern about rising rates of sexually-transmitted diseases in Britain, with 50,000 cases reported amongst servicemen in 1916.

31/10/1916, Tuesday (-10,416) Charles Taze Russell, who founded the modern-day Jehovah’s Witnesses, died.

26/10/1916. Thursday (-10,421) Francois Mitterand, President of France from 1981, and founder of the French Socialist Party, was born.

24/10/1916. Tuesday (-10,423) French troops broke open a four mile stretch of the German lines at Verdun, and another offensive started there.

16/10/1916. Monday (-10,431) The Allies took Athens.

1/10/1916. Sunday (-10,446) A Zeppelin was brought down at Potters Bar, Hertfordshire.

29/9/1916, Friday (-10,448) The British Government asked people to observe a ‘meatless day’ to prevent food price rises.

27/9/1916. Wednesday (-10,450) Greece declared war on Bulgaria, which itself had declared war on Rumania earlier in the month.

24/9/1916, Sunday (-10,453) The French bombed the Krupp works at Essen.  A second Zeppelin was shot down in England.

17/9/1916, Sunday (-10,460) Manfred von Richtofen, the ‘Red Baron’, Germany’s greatest air ace, won the first of his 80 confirmed kills over Cambrai, France.

16/9/1916. Saturday (-10,461) A provisional ‘government of Czechoslovakia’ was recognised by Britain and France.

15/9/1916. Friday (-10,462) Tanks went into battle for the first time, for the British Army at the battle of Flers on the  Somme.  They were invented by Sir Ernest Swinton, weighed 30 tons, and travelled at 4mph. It was hoped they would break the stalemate of trench warfare. Some German soldiers fled, thinking the Devil had come. The tank forces achieved their objective but infantry reserves could not arrive in time to consolidate the successes.

13/9/1916, Wednesday (-10,464) Roald Dahl, author of children’s books, was born in Llandaff, Glamorganshire.

10/9/1916. Sunday (-10,467) The Allies launched an offensive in Salonika.

8/9/1916, Friday (-10,469) US President Woodrow Wilson promised women the vote.

4/9/1916. Monday (-10,473) British troops took Dar Es Salaam in east Africa.

3/9/1916. Sunday (-10,474) The first Zeppelin was shot down, by Captain Leefe Robinson, at Cuffley, Hertfordshire, using the newly-invented Pomeroy incendiary bullets.

30/8/1916. Wednesday (-10,478) Paul Von Hindenburg became Chief of General Staff in Germany. He became Commander in Chief on the Western Front on 29/11/1916.

28/8/1916. Monday (-10,480) Italy declared war on Germany.

27/8/1916. Sunday (-10,481) Rumania declared war on Germany, see 6/12/1916. Austria declared war on Rumania.

24/8/1916. Thursday (-10,484) Eight people were killed in a Zeppelin raid on London.

22/8/1916, Tuesday (-10,486) Romania declared war on Austro-Hungary.  Its troops crossed the passes into Transylvania but were expelled again by mid-November.

20/8/1916. Sunday (-10,488) The Allies began an offensive against Turkey in Mesopotamia.

19/8/1916. Saturday (-10,489) German warships bombarded the east coast of England.

17/8/1916, Thursday (-10,491) The UK, France, Russia, and Italy guaranteed Romania the Banat, Transylvania, the Hungarian Plain as far as the Tisza River and Bukovina as far as the Prut River, if it declared war on Austro-Hungary.

9/8/1916. Wednesday (-10,499) Italian troops took Glorizia.

7/8/1916. Monday (-10,501) Iran formed an alliance with Britain and Russia.

6/8/1916, Sunday (-10,502) Dom Mintoff, Labour politician and Prime Minister of Malta, was born.

5/8/1916. Saturday (-10,503) The British defeated the Turks in a naval battle off Port Said.

3/8/1916. Thursday (-10,505) Sir Roger Casement, the Irish Nationalist, was hanged in Pentonville |prison, London, for treason, because of his attempts to induce Germany to support the cause of Irish independence. He was a former diplomat who had exposed slavery in the Congo. Casement had been found guilty and sentenced on 29/6/1916. There were intense efforts made for his reprieve, but the prosecution, with the connivance of the British Government, released his ‘black diaries’, with evidence of his homosexuality, making any reprieve impossible.

23/7/1916,  Sunday (-10,516) Sir William Ramsey, chemist who discovered helium, and isolated neon, krypton, and xenon, died in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire.  He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1904.

15/7/1916, Saturday (-10,524) Edward Boeing set up the Pacific Aero Products Company in Seattle.

9/7/1916. Sunday (-10,530) British Prime Minister (1970-74) Edward Heath, was born in Broadstairs, Kent.

6/7/1916. Thursday (-10,533) Russia and Japan signed a peace treaty.

2/7/1916. Sunday (-10,537) Hundreds died in race riots in St Louis, USA.

1/7/1916. Saturday (-10,538) (1) Battle of the Somme began. Britain and France launched a major offensive. This offensive lasted until 8/11/1916, and one million were killed, including 500,000 British. However the Germans were only beaten back ten miles – over one casualty per inch of ground won.  The Germans retained the key rail junction of Bapaume.  On this first day of battle alone, there were over 100,000 casualties, including 60,000 British.  However for the Germans the massive casualties of the Somme made it impossible thereafter to obtain enough trained soldiers, hence it marked the turning point of the War for France.

(2) The US States of Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, and South Dakota brought in Prohibition, bringing the number of states banning alcohol to 24.

(3) Coca Cola introduced its distinctively-shaped bottle

27/6/1916, Tuesday (-10,542) King George V confirmed that women were eligible to receive the Military Medal.

24/6/1916. Saturday (-10,545) A new German offensive began at Verdun.

23/6/1916. Friday (-10,546) A Russian offensive captured most of Galicia.

21/6/1916. Wednesday (-10,548) Hussein, the Grand Sheikh of Mecca, declared war on Ottoman Turkey with the aim of achieving Arabia’s independence from Britain.

9/6/1916. Friday (-10,560) (Greece-Turkey, Islam) Sherif Hussein of Mecca led a revolt against the Ottoman Turks. The Arabs were angered by the Young Turks nationalist and secular policies.

8/6/1916, Thursday (-10,561) Professor Sir Francis Crick, who along with J D Watson discovered DNA, was born.

5/6/1916. Monday (-10,564) Lord Kitchener, British General and conqueror of the Sudan, born 24/6.1850 near Listowel, County Kerry, died when his cruiser HMS Hampshire hit a German mine off the Orkney Islands, en route to Russia. There were no survivors.

2/6/1916. Friday (-10,567) Second Battle of Ypres.

31/5/1916. Wednesday (-10,569) Battle of Jutland. On 31/5/1916 German Admirals Scheer and Hipper set sail from the Jade and Elbe estuaries. British intelligence  picked up on this and Admirals Beatty and Jellicoe set out to engage them. Beatty happened to meet Hipper’s battle cruiser squadron, and the two main fleets began to engage. Although the British suffered larger losses, the British fleet had been much larger to begin with, and Scheer managed to retreat back to the safety of the Jade estuary. The German fleet rarely ventured to sea after this.

28/5/1916, Sunday (-10,572) The Sopwith triplane, first triplane fighter to enter military service, was introduced by the British.

21/5/1916, Sunday (-10,579) (1) Daylight saving time began in Britain. It was introduced by William Willett, to save coal stocks by reducing the demand for electric lighting.

(2) Keadby swing road bridge, Lincolnshire, opened over the River Trent. It was necessary to serve the growing traffic between Immingham Docks (opened 1912) and the developing coalfields of South Yorkshire.

17/5/1916. Wednesday (-10,583) The Daylight Saving Act was passed. Clocks went forward in Britain for the first time on 21/5/1916, causing some confusion. See 7/8/1925.

12/5/1916. Friday (-10,588) James Connolly was the last of the seven rebels who signed the proclamation of an Irish Republic during the Easter Rising (see 29/4/1916) to be executed. Wounded in the Easter Rebellion, he was taken to face the firing squad on a stretcher.

10/5/1916, Wednesday (-10,590) Shackleton reached South Georgia (see 9/4/1916).

8/5/1916. Monday (-10,592) Australian and New Zealand troops arrived in France.

3/5/1916, Wednesday (-10,597) Padraic Pearse, (1879-1916), leader of the 1916 Easter Rebellion against the British in Dublin, was executed at Kilmainham Gaol.

1/5/1916, Monday (-10,599) 400 Irish rebels arrived at Liverpool docks for internment in Britain. See 23/12/1916.

30/4/1916, Sunday (-10,600) The Easter Rebellion in Ireland against the British ended with 450 dead and 3,000 wounded.

29/4/1916. Saturday (-10,601) British troops surrendered to the Ottoman Turks after a siege of 143 days at Kut-el-Amara in Iraq. See 22/11/1915.

26/4/1916 Wednesday (-10.604)

25/4/1916, Tuesday (-10,605) Anzac Day was first celebrated in London.

24/4/1916. Monday (-10,606) Roger Casement was arrested as he landed in Ireland from a German submarine. The Irish wanted Germany to supply arms for a rebellion against the British and even for a German invasion of Ireland; however German support was lukewarm. The Easter Rebellion began in Dublin against British rule, on Easter Monday. The rebellion ended on 30/4/1916. It was followed by British reprisals, led by the notorious Black and Tans. The rebellion had begun almost unnoticed by the British. The arrest of Roger Casement lulled the British into a false sense of security. On Easter Monday few paid attention to the columns of soldiers marching into central Dublin, where they seized the General Post Office for their headquarters. From the steps of this building General Pearce read a proclamation declaring the establishment of the Republic of Ireland. Many British Army officers were on leave to attend a horse race meeting and the city only contained 1,200 British troops. By the time the British authorities realised what was happening the rebels had taken over the entire city centre and established a cordon of fortified posts in the suburbs. However the might of the British Army soon arrived, with heavy artillery, and bombarded  the city centre; the Post Office caught fire and was destroyed. The rebels had no choice but to surrender unconditionally.

17/4/1916. Monday (-10,613) The Boer leader Jan Smuts led an anti-German drive from Kenya.

15/4/1916, Saturday (-10,615) Between November 1914 and this day the British had prosecuted some 500 Irish people under DORA (Defence Of The Realm Act), since World War One broke out. This caused resentment in Ireland, leading to the Easter Rising.

14/4/1916. Friday (-10,616) The Allied bombarded Istanbul.

9/4/1916, Sunday (-10,621) Shackleton and his crew left the ice floe in small boats. They reached Elephant Island on 12/4/1916 (see 10/5/1916).

1/4/1916, Saturday (-10,629) A German Zeppelin airship dropped its bombs on Cleethorpes, Lincolnshire.

24/3/1916. Friday (-10,637) German forces sank a cross-Channel steamer, the Sussex, after a decision in February 1916 that German forces would sink any armed merchant ships on sight. See 31/1/1917.

21/3/1916. Tuesday (-10,640) Austrian soldiers killed 10,000 Serbian civilians.

20/3/1916. Monday (-10,641) Food scarcities in Germany caused rationing to begin.

19/3/1916. Sunday (-10,642) German seaplane raids on Deal, Dover, Margate, and Ramsgate.

15/3/1916. Wednesday (-10,646) The US mounted a punitive raid into Mexico in revenge for the raids of Pancho Villa into New Mexico on 9/3/1916.

11/3/1916. Saturday (-10,650) British Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson was born in Huddersfield, Yorkshire.

10/3/1916, Friday (-10,651) The UK War Office urged women to be less extravagant in their dress. From now until the end of the war there would be no imports of spirits, pianos, or motors.

9/3/1916. Thursday (-10,652) Germany declared war on  Portugal.

2/3/1916, Thursday (-10.659) The Russians took Bitlis, in Turkestan, from the Ottoman Turks.

23/2/1916, Wednesday (-10,667) The British Government urged well-off families to release their servants for ‘more useful purposes’.

22/2/1916. Tuesday (-10,668) Tsar Nicholas II opened the Duma (Parliament).

21/2/1916 Monday (-10,669) Battle of Verdun began. The Germans launched an all-out attack on the fortress of Verdun, but Petain took over the defence and repulsed the Germans, achieving victory by June 1916. See 15/12/1916. The previous commander, General Joseph Joffre, had ignored intelligence reports and, believing the German attack would come at Champagne, failed to reinforce Verdun.

19/2/1916, Saturday (-10,671) (1) In Britain, National Savings Certificates went on sale.

(2) Ernst Mach, Austrian scientist after whom the speed of sound in air is named, died the day after his 78th birthday.

16/2/1916, Wednesday (-10,674) The Russians captured Erzerum, in the Caucasus, from Turkey.

11/2/1916, Friday (-10,679) Kaiser Wilhelm II ordered an escalation of the U-boat warfare.

8/2/1916. Tuesday (-10,682) Food shortages caused riots in Berlin. Food rationing began in Germany on 20/3/1916.  The British blockade deprived Germany of food imports.

31/1/1916. Monday (-10,690) Zeppelin raids on Shrewsbury killed 59 persons.

29/1/1916. Saturday (-10,692) (1) Zeppelins bombed Paris for the first time.

(2) Military tanks were trialled at Hatfield, Hertfordshire.

28/1/1916. Friday (-10,693) British and Belgian troops took Yaounde, capital of the German colony of Cameroon.

27/1/1916. Thursday (-10,694) In Berlin, the German Communist Party, Spartacus, was formed.

25/1/1916, Tuesday (-10,696)

24/1/1916. Monday (-10,697) Conscription started in Britain. It was for single men aged 19-30.

23/1/1916, Sunday (-10,698) London’s Natural History Museum and British Museum were closed for the duration of the War.

17/1/1916. Monday (-10,704) Russia began an offensive against Turkey.

14/1/1916. Friday (-10,707) Zuider Zee dam in the Netherlands collapsed, causing extensive flooding.

12/1/1916, Wednesday (-10,709) Pieter Botha, South African President, was born in Paul Roux in the Orange Free State.

8/1/1916. Saturday (-10,713) Gallipoli was evacuated by Allied troops. This was the end of an unsuccessful attempt to capture Constantinople. See 20/12/1915.

6/1/1916, Thursday (-10,715) The Commons voted in favour of conscription by 403 votes to 103, although the Home Secretary Sir John Simon resigned over the issue. Single men were to be conscripted first; armed service became compulsory for single men aged between 18 and 41. Many British soldiers had been killed in the War, and volunteering rates had dropped off sharply.

1/1/1916, Saturday (-10,720) In Britain, women’s employment had risen by two million over the past 12 months.

31/12/1915, Friday (-10,721) On the Western Front, positions have scarcely changed for a year amongst the trenches, despite appalling casualties. Major attacks became bogged down in bad weather, and tens or hundreds of thousands died for little territorial gain by either side. France had seen, during 1915, 330,000 soldiers killed and a further one million wounded, in addition to the 900,000 killed or wounded during 1914. In 1915 alone, 170,000 German soldiers were killed and 680,000 wounded. In 1915 alone, Britain saw 73,000 soldiers killed and 240,000 wounded.

20/12/1915. Monday (-10,732) Australian, New Zealand, and British troops were evacuated from the ill-fated Gallipoli expedition. See 25/4/1915. The aim had been to capture the Dardanelles and Constantinople, and so knock Turkey out of the war, and link up with the Russian Black Sea Fleet. However disease, flies, fever, and mosquitoes, and the incompetence of the Allied commanders, were compounded by the fact that landings were not made until two months after Turkish positions here had been bombarded. Hence the element of surprise was lost, and the Turks had ample time to prepare strong defences. Evacuation was completed by 8/1/1916, without casualties. An ingenious plan involved loading provisions onto the Gallipoli beaches in daylight, but at night men, guns and horses were evacuated, leaving rifles set to fire automatically at intervals. At the last moment an Allied destroyer trained a searchlight on the Turkish lines, the Turks fired back, and under this exchange of fire the Allies slipped away undetected.

13/12/1915, Monday (-10,739) B J Vorster, President of South Africa, was born.

12/12/1915. Sunday (-10,740) In Germany, Hugo Junkers built the first all-metal aeroplane.  The Junkers J1 first flew at Dessau.

8/12/1915, Wednesday (-10,744) Battle of the Falkland Islands. A British squadron sank four out of five German ships, killing Admiral Von Spree and his two sons.

6/12/1915. Monday (-10,746) Germany occupied Bucharest, capital of Rumania, ending Rumania’s war effort against Germany. See 30/11/1918.

4/12/1915. Saturday (-10,748) The US state of Georgia officially recognised the Klu Klux Klan.

25/11/1915, Thursday (-10,757) (1) The White supremacist society Klu Klux Klan was revived at Stone Mountain, Georgia, by Colonel William Simmons. The original Klan, from Greek kuklos = circle, was formed as a secret Confederate Army. Its ‘night riders’ in their hooded costumes terrorised Blacks. The new Klan also opposed Catholics, Jews, immigration, birth control, the repeal of Prohibition, pacifism and Darwinism, as well as Black people.

(2) General Augusto Pinochet, Chilean dictator who overthrew Allende in 1973, was born.

23/11/1915, Tuesday (-10,759)

22/11/1915. Monday (-10,760) General Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend was advancing by boat on Baghdad with a force of 9,000 men of the 6th Indian Division. The land was roadless, an ‘arid billiard table’ as he described it. At Ctesiphon, 20 miles short of Baghdad, Townshend came up against a large, well supplied force. He was short of supplies because a stingy and over-optimistic government in India expected him to get all the supplies he needed in Baghdad.  Townshend’s forces drove out the Turks but at a loss of 40% of his men. He was now unable to withstand any Turkish counter-attack, let alone advance further, so he retreated to Kut with 1,600 Turkish prisoners of war and 4,500 wounded from both sides.  The Invasion of Mesopotamia was to secure the oil but that only required the occupation of a small area around Basra. This would, keep the Turks away from the Iranian port of Abadan, terminus of the Anglo-Iranian pipeline which supplied the Royal navy with oil. Kut was besieged by the Turks, from 8/12/1915. Townshend had 13,500 inside to feed, including some 2,500 Indian non-combatants and 2,000 sick and wounded. There were also 6,000 Arabs. They had to contend with freezing cold and torrential rain. A relief force never got near enough; three relief attempts were made, at a cost of 23,000 casualties. The Indians would not eat meat, although the oxen were slaughtered for food by the British, then the camels, horses, and finally cats, starlings, dogs, and hedgehogs. Gallipoli had been evacuated by the British on 8/1/1916 and elated by this, and now with troops to spare from there, the Turks refused a ransom of £2million (£67million in 2002 prices) to let the defenders leave. Kut was the first siege in which supplies were dropped by air, including flour for the Indian’s chappatis. However the Turks and their German allies had more and better aircraft. Finally Kut surrendered on 27/4/1916, with rations down to seven ounces of grain a day for the 12,000 men there. More Indian and British soldiers died during the forced march from Kut to captivity in Mesopotamia or even all the way to Turkey. However Townshend was in relatively comfortable captivity near Constantinople.  Kut finally fell to the Allies in February 1917, and Baghdad fell in March 1917.

14/11/1915, Sunday (-10,768) Death of Booker T Washington, first principal of the Tuskegee Institute (Alabama) for Blacks.

13/11/1915. Saturday (-10,769) Churchill resigned from the cabinet over the Dardanelles.

11/11/1915, Thursday (-10,771)

10/11/1915, Wednesday (-10,772) (1) A survey showed that women working in UK factories have enabled production to rise by 250%, see 24/2/.1915 and 20/10/1915.

(2) Britain annexed the Gilbert and Ellice Islands.

9/11/1915, Tuesday (-10,773) British war casualties now totalled 510,000.

25/10/1915, Monday (-10,788) The railway between London Waterloo and East Putney was electrified.

20/10/1915, Wednesday (-10,793) UK Prime Minister Lloyd George allowed women to step into many male employment roles, three months after 30,000 women marched down Whitehall demanding ‘The right to serve’. Trades Unions were concerned in case the move depressed wages.

17/10/1915. Sunday (-10, 796) Russia and Italy followed Britain and France in declaring war on Bulgaria.

16/10/1915. Saturday (-10,797) The Allies blockaded Bulgarian ports.  France declared war on Bulgaria.

15/10/1915. Friday (-10,798) Britain declared war on Bulgaria. France declared war on Bulgaria on 16/10/1915.

14/10/1915. Thursday (-10,799) Bulgaria and Serbia each declared war on the other.

13/10/1915, Wednesday (-10,800) The British Government banned ‘treating’ – buying drinks for another – in an effort to curb drunkenness amongst factory workers.

12/10/1915. Tuesday (-10,801) (1) The UK government broke off relations with Bulgaria.

(2) The British nurse, Edith Cavell, was executed by a German firing squad in Brussels for helping Allied prisoners escape over the Dutch frontier; she had given medical attention to both Allied and German casualties equally.  The Brussels authorities had ordered her execution, which was opposed by the Kaiser and the German High Command as a political mistake, carried out quickly by the German occupation regime in Belgium before Berlin was informed.  Her death aroused patriotic fervour in Britain against Germany.

9/10/1915. Saturday (-10,804) The Serbian capital, Belgrade, fell to the Austro-German army.

5/10/1915. Tuesday (-10,808) Allied troops landed at Salonika, Greece, to help Serbia (see 26/4/1915). These troops probably dissuaded Greece from joining the German side, and in 1918 took part in an offensive against Bulgaria, but otherwise played little role in the war.

28/9/1915. Tuesday (-10,815) (1) The British defeated the Turks at Kut El Amara in Mesopotamia.

(2) Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg was born (see 19/6/1953).

27/9/1915, Monday (-10,816)

26/9/1915. Sunday (-10,817) (1) British and French troops began two big offensives, in Champagne and Flanders.

(2) Kier Hardie, founder of the Labour Party, died.

25/9/1915. Saturday (-10,818) (1) The Battle of Loos began, and the London Regiment’s 18th battalion went over the top kicking a football.

(2) The British forces used poison gas for the first time. Its first use was by the Germans on 22/4/1915.

24/9/1915, Friday (-10,819)

23/9/1915. Thursday (-10,820) King Constantine of Greece began mobilising against Bulgaria, in aid of Serbia.

22//9/1915. Wednesday (-10,821) Bulgaria mobilised its army and declared war on Serbia.

21/9/1915, Tuesday (-10,822) Stonehenge was sold at auction for £6,600. A Mr Chubb bought it as a present for his wife.

20/9/1915, Monday  (-10,823)

19/9/1915. Sunday (-10,824) The Germans took Vilna (Vilnius), capital of Lithuania.

18/9/1915, Saturday (-10,825) (1) The Kaiser gave renewed assurances that passenger ships would not be attacked.

(2) The British government revealed that the war was costing £3.5 million daily.

(3) German forces entered Vilnius, Lithuania.

15/9/1915, Wednesday (-10,828) The Entente (France, UK) promised Bulgaria part of Macedonia if she declared war on Turkey.

14//9/1915, Tuesday (-10,829)

13/9/1915. Monday (-10,830) The process for making cornflakes was patented by Frank Martin. The previous combination of corn, oats, and grain proved indigestible for the public.

11/9/1915. Saturday (-10,832) The first Women’s Institute in Britain was formed, in Anglesey, Wales.  The first Women’s Institute was founded in Canada in 1897.

6/9/1915. Monday (-10,837) (1) The first military tank, the No.1 Lincoln, modified and renamed Little Willie, had its first run.

(2) Bulgaria signed a military accord with Germany and Austria.  Bulgaria was seeking territory held by Greece and Serbia that it felt should be Bulgarian, see 10/8/1913.  See 15/9/1915.

30/8/1915. Monday (-10,844) The great Russian fortress of Brest-Litovsk fell to the Germans.

29/8/1915. Sunday (-10,845) The UK sent £55,000,000 in gold to pay the USA for munitions.

21/8/1915. Saturday (-10,853) Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire.

18/8/1915, Wednesday (-10,856) The Germans took the fortress of Novo Georgievsk.

17/8/1915, Tuesday (-10,857) The Germans took Kovno.

15/8/1915, Sunday (-10,859) The Allied landings at Suvla, Dardanelles, were completed.

6/8/1915. Friday (-10,868) New Allied landings on Gallipoli. See 8/1/1916.

5/8/1915. Thursday (-10,869) Austro-German forces took Warsaw as the Russian abandoned it.

27/7/1915. Tuesday (-10,878) Revolution in Haiti.

15/7/1915. Thursday (-10,890) 200,000 Welsh miners went on strike for more pay.

9/7/1915. Friday (-10,896) German South West Africa (Namibia) was conquered. All German troops surrendered to Botha (South Africa), see 14/4/1915.

3/7/1915, Saturday (-10,902) The war was costing Britain £3 million daily.

1/7/1915. Thursday (-10,904) A packet of aspirin cost 3d (1p) and a pair of silk stockings at Harrods was 3s 11d (19.5p). A British train driver got £2 0s 6d (202.5p) a week. A female cotton weaver got 18s 6d (92.5p) a week. The Secretary of the Lunacy Commission got £800 a year.

24/6/1915, Thursday (-10,911) Professor Fred Hoyle, British astronomer and science fiction writer, was born.

22/6/1915. Tuesday (-10,913) The Austrians retook Lemberg (Lvov), capital of Galicia, which they had lost to Russia on 3/9/1914.

11/6/1915. Friday (-10,924) Serbian troops invaded Albania and took Tirana, the capital.

9/6/1915, Wednesday (-10,926) British troops in France were first issued with hand grenades.

7/6/1915, Monday (-10,928) The British air force downed a German Zeppelin. Sub-Lieutenant Warneford took his aircraft over the airship and dropped six 20-pound bombs, one of which hit its target. For this Warneford was awarded the Victoria Cross.

6/6/1915, Sunday (-10,929) The Kaiser promised that in future the German Navy would not attack passenger vessels. However on 28/6/1915 a German submarine sunk the passenger liner Armenia off Cornwall, and the passenger liner Arabic was sunk on 19/8/1915.

5/6/1915, Saturday (-10,930) French sculptor and draughtsman Henri Gaudier-Brzeska was killed in action in World War One, aged 23.

4/6/1915. Friday (-10,931) Austro-German troops retook Premsyl from the Russians.

31/5/1915, Monday (-10,935) German airship bombing raid on London; Stoke Newington was badly damaged and 7 Londoners died.

27/5/1915. Thursday (-10,939) (1) The Turkish government decided to deport the entire Armenian population to Syria and Mesopotamia, suspecting them of lack of loyalty. The deportation involved much cruelty against the Armenians. Of the total Armenian population of 1.8 million, a third were deported, a third escaped deportation, and a third were killed. The Russians conquered Turkish Armenia in 1916 and proclaimed ‘the liberation of the Armenian people from the Turkish yoke’ but prevented the Armenians from returning to their homeland as they planned to settle the area with Cossacks.

(2) Zeppelin raid on Southend, Essex.

26/5/1915. Wednesday (-10,940) The first Zeppelin raids on London. A ton of bombs was dropped from one airship, killing 7 and injuring 15.

25/5/1915. Tuesday (-10,941) (1) Prime Minister Herbert Asquith of Britain formed a wartime Liberal-Conservative coalition, replacing the former Liberal Government; Asquith remained Prime Minister. The Liberal Government had been shaken by the scandal of British troops in the front line facing a shortage of high explosive shells.

(2) The Austrians bombarded Venice.

24/5/1915. Monday (-10,942).  The Austrian fleet bombarded Ancona, N.E. Italy.

23/5/1915, Sunday (-10,943) Italy entered the war on the Allied side, see 25/4/1915.

22/5/1915. Saturday (-10,944) The Gretna Green troop train disaster, the worst on Britain’s railways, took place; 227 died. Three trains had collided at Quintinshill, and 200 of the casualties were Scots Guards on the way to war. The shocked and dishevelled survivors were mistaken for German POWs and stoned by civilians.

20/5/1915, Thursday (-10,946) Moshe Dayan, Israeli military commander and politician, was born in Deganya.

17/5/1915. Monday (-10,949) Zeppelin raid on Ramsgate, Kent.

13/5/1915, Thursday (-10,953) In Britain, street violence against those suspected of being ‘aliens’ increased following the sinking of the Lusitania on 7/5/1915.

11/5/1915, Tuesday (-10,955) German-owned businesses, shops and restaurants, in the London suburbs of Bethnal Green, Camden Town, Limehouse, Poplar, Stepney and Walthamstow were attacked, burnt and destroyed. Traders at Smithfield Market refused to trade with ethnic Germans, even if they had been naturalised as Britons. An American trader at Smithfield who was inclined to trade with the foreigners was also beaten up. The unrest was in response to the sinking of the Lusitania four days earlier.

10/5/1915. Monday (-10,956) (1) Zeppelin raid on Southend, Essex.

(2) Fierce fighting in the Ypres area.

(3) Denis Thatcher, wife of Margaret, British Prime Minister, was born.

9-25/5/1915, Battle of Aubers Ridge (second battle of Artois); the French advanced three miles at great cost.

7/5/1915. Friday (-10,959) The Lusitania, captained by William Thomas Turner, was torpedoed. 1,400 people drowned 8 miles off the Old Head of Kinsale, near Cork. 128 Americans were among the 1,208 casualties, including friends of President Woodrow Wilson and the millionaire yachtsman Alfred Vanderbilt, as the ship made its way back to Liverpool on a voyage from New York. America condemned the torpedoing of the ship by a German submarine as an act of piracy and this brought the USA into the War.

The 30,000 tonne Lusitania had sailed from New York on 1/5/1915. She carried 1,257 passengers, including 128 Americans; 702 crew; and an estimated 3 stowaways. Her cargo list, later a source of controversy, included small arms cartridges, uncharged shrapnel shells, cheese, furs, and, oddly, 205 barrels of oysters. The Germans later claimed the ‘oysters’ were actually heavy munitions whose explosion had doomed the ship. However there was no second explosion after the torpedo hit; there were no heavy munitions and rifle rounds burned harmlessly, like firecrackers, and did not explode.

Cunard had shut down the Lusitania’s fourth boiler room to save on coal but even at the reduced maximum speed of 21 knots it was reckoned she could outrun any German U-boat. Passengers ignored warnings from the German Embassy published in the New York Press not to cross the Atlantic under a belligerent flag, and the lifeboat drills on board were palpably inadequate. The Lusitania had plenty of lifeboats but most were unlaunchable because the ship listed heavily as water poured through lower deck portholes, opened for air despite orders to close them.  She sank within 18 minutes of being hit.

The sinking of the Lusitania deepened American hostility towards Germany but President Woodrow Wilson’s administration was split between the hawks and doves, and it was another 2 years before America entered the war.

6/5/1915, Thursday (-10,960) Orson Wells, American actor and film director, was born,

5/5/1915, Wednesday (-10,861)

4/5/1915, Tuesday (-10,962) Italy denounced the Triple Alliance (Italy, Germany, Austro-Hungary). This was a preparatory move to her entering the War on the Allied side on 23/5/1915.

3/5/1915, Monday (-10,963) The war was costing Britain £2 million per day.

2/5/1915, Sunday (-10,964) German forces broke through on the Eastern Front at Gorlice.

1/5/1915, Saturday (-10,965) (1) Widespread resentment by British workers at alcohol sales restrictions.

(2) The US ship Gulflight was sunk without warning by a German U-boat.

(3) The Austrian commander Mackensen reversed earlier weaknesses of the Austrian Army, which in Spring 1915 was on the verge of collapse after repeated Russian attacks.  At Dunajec-San, he forced the Russians to retreat.

30/4/1915. Friday (-10,966) (1) Germany invaded the Russian Baltic provinces.

(2) Zeppelin air raids on Ipswich and Bury St Edmunds.

27/4/1915, Tuesday (-10,969)

26/4/1915. Monday (-10,970) Allied forces established themselves on the Gallipoli Peninsula, having landed the previous day, 25/4/1915. This was an attempt to take control from the Dardanelles from Turkey, and open up a supply route to Russia. The Allies hoped, against all evidence, that the landing itself would provoke a coup in Turkey and remove it from the War. Russian Jews, who saw the ottoman Empire as a barrier to a Jewish Homeland, supported the exercise. Forces landed included 27,500 British, 18,100 ANZACs, and 16,800 French. However the landing site was fully exposed to Turkish fire, and evacuation of Allied troops was the only option. Also on 25/9/1915 the Germans attacked Serbia and Allied forces had to go to Salonika to buttress Serbian resistance (see 5/10/1915). Evacuation began on 8 December 1915 and was completed by 9 January 1916. The Dardanelles expedition cost 70,700 British casualties (26,000 dead), 25,700 Australians (7,800 killed), 23,000 French (8,000 killed), 7,100 New Zealanders (2,445 killed) and 5,500 Indians (1,682 killed). However the evacuation was managed with very little loss of life.

25/4/1915. Sunday (-10,971) Italy signed a secret treaty, the Treaty of London, with Britain, France, and Russia.  Italy agreed to enter the war on the Allied side within one month in return for territorial gains.  Italy was to gain the Austrian provinces of Trentino, South Tyrol, Istria, Gorizia, Gradisca, and Trieste, also a large stretch of the Dalmatian coast and islands, some Albanian territory around Valona, full sovereignty over the Turkish-controlled Dodecanese Islands, the Turkish province of Adalia in Asia Minor, colonial gains in Africa, and a share of war indemnities.  The Allies agreed to this because they believed that Italian intervention would soon destroy Austro-Hungary, opening the ‘back door to Germany’.  Italy duly entered the war on 24/5/1915, but the expected breakthrough against Austria never materialised.  When the Bolsheviks t