Chronography of events from 1 January 1880 to 31 December 1899

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

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1/1/1900, Monday (-16,563) Nigeria became a British protectorate. Previously the area had been under control of the Royal Niger Company. Frederick Legard became HighCommissioner of the territory.

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31/12/1899, Sunday (-16,564) Karl Millocker, Austrian composer, died in Baden Bei Wien (born 29/4/1842 in Vienna)

30/12/1899, Saturday (-16,565) (1) A British missionary was murdered in China, close to Tsinan. As a result the British consul in Shanghai ordered that three Chinese should be beheaded, also one to be strangled, another to serve 10 years in prison, and another to be banished; furthermore, three village elders were to be flogged. This incident illustrates the weakness of the Chinese State at the time against British colonialism.

27/12/1899, Wednesday (-16,568) Harry Escombe, South African politician, died (born 25/7/1838).

25/12/1899, Monday (-16,570) In Britain the school leaving age was raised from eleven to twelve; in 1893 it had been raised from ten to eleven.

23/12/1899, Saturday (-16,572) Dorman Eaton, US lawyer, died (born 27/6/1823).

22/12/1899, Friday (-16,573) Dwight Moody, US evangelist, died (born 5/2/1837).

21/12/1899, Thursday (-16,574) Charles Lamoureux, French violinist, died (born 28/9/1834).

19/12/1899, Tuesday (-16,576)

17/12/1899, Sunday (-16,578) Sir Gerald Graham, British General, died (born 27/6/1831).

16/12/1899, Saturday (-16,579) At the end of a bad week for the British in South Africa, 2,000 men and 12 heavy guns had been lost in battles with the Boers.

15/12/1899, Friday (-16,580) The Boers defeated the British, under Sir Redvers Buller, at the Battle of Colenso.

11/12/1899, Monday (-16,584) The Boers under Piet Cronje defeated the British at Magersfontein.

5/12/1899, Tuesday (-16,590) Sir Henry Tate, of Tate and Lyle fame, founder of the Tate gallery, died aged 80.

2/12/1899, Saturday (-16,593) In Washington, the USA, Britain, and Germany signed a treaty dividing the Samoan Islands between the USA and Germany.

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26/11/1899, Sunday (-16,599) Devon Cricket Club was founded

24/11/1899, Friday (-16,601) (1) US forces finally captured Luzon in the Philippines after nine months of jungle warfare. The US was awarded the Philippines in 1898 but found it hard to subdue the territory. Insurrectionist leader Emilio Aguinaldo wanted independence and declared the Malolos Republic in 1898. Aguinaldo continued a guerrilla war from the mountains.

(2) Last Madhi resistance in Sudan was crushed.

23/11/1899, Thursday (-16,602) (Brazil) Manuel dos Reis Machado was born (died 5/2/1974). In 1932 he set up a School of Capoeira, the martial arts/music culture of Quilombo Black Brazilians.

22/11/1899, Wednesday (-16,603) Hoagy Carmichael, US composer, was born in Bloomington, Indiana (died 28/12/1981 in Palm Springs, California)

21/11/1899, Tuesday (-16,604) Garrett Hobart, US Vice-President, died (born 3/6/1844).

18/11/1899, Saturday (-16,607) Henry Hicks, British geologist, died (born 26/5/1837).

17/11/1899, Friday (-16,608) Sir Richard Moon, English railway administrator, died (born 23/9/1814).

16/11/1899, Thursday (-16,609) Julius Busch, German publicist, died (born 13/2/1821)

15/11/1899, Wednesday (-16,610) Sir Winston Churchill was captured by the Boers whilst working as a reporter for the Morning Post. He was on board an armoured train derailed in an ambush, and had persuaded the engine driver to take the remains of the train back with the wounded, and was captured by a Boer horseman with a rifle; Churchill had lost his pistol helping clear the railway line. He escaped a few weeks later.

14/11/1899, Tuesday (-16,611) Britain concluded an agreement with Germany over the frontier between the Gold Coast and the German colony of Togo.

13/11/1899, Monday (-16.612) Arthur Giry, French historical writer, died (born 29/2/1848).

9/11/1899, Thursday (-16,616) Milton Mesirow, US musician, was born in Chicago (died 5/8/1972 in Paris)

6/11/1899, Monday (-16,619) James Packard produced his first car in Warren Ohio USA. This was the origin of the Packard Motor Company.

4/11/1899, Saturday (-16,621) Sigmund Freud�s book, The Interpretation of Dreams, was published in Switzerland. Although only 600 copies of the book were initially printed, it took 8 years to sell them all.

3/11/1899, Friday (-16,622) Bedfordshire Cricket Club was founded.

2/11/1899, Thursday (-16,623) The Boers under Piet Joubert laid siege to Ladysmith, an important railway junction in Natal. See 28/2/1900.

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30/10/1899, Monday (-16,626) Sir Arthur Blomfield, English architect, died (born 6/3/1829).

27/10/1899, Friday (-16,629) Edward Berthon, English naval inventor, died (born in London 20/2/1813).

24/10/1899, Tuesday (-16,632) Grant Allen, English author, died in Hindhead (born 24/2/1848 in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

20/10/1899, Friday (-16,636) Battle at Talana Hill, near Dundee, Natal, in the Boer War

19/10/1898, Thursday (-16,637) Baghdad Railways concession was granted to Deutche Bank again.

18/10/1898, Wednesday (-16,638) The USA took formal possession of Puerto Rico from Spain.

17/10/1899, Tuesday (-16,639) British troops defeated the Boers at Glencoe.

16/10/1899, Monday (-16,640) Milwall beat Tottenham 2 to 1 at the Tottenham ground.

15/10/1899, Sunday (-16,641) The Boers, who surrounded Mafeking on 12/10/1899, laid siege to Kimberley. The siege of Kimberley was lifted by the British on 16/2/1900.

14/10/1899, Saturday (-16,642) Winston Churchill left for South Africa to report for The Morning Post.

13/10/1899, Friday (-16,643) Philip Colomb, English writer, died (born 29/5/1831).

12/10/1899, Thursday (-16,644) The Boers began the siege of Mafeking.Baden Powell defended the town until it was relieved by Colonel Plumer 217 days later.

11/10/1899, Wednesday (-16,645) The Boer War began. (See 31/5/1902). It was between the British Empire and the Republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. President Kruger of the Orange Free State had sent a telegram to Britain on 9/11/1899 demanding that Britain stop sending troops and arms to South Africa. Troubles had begun in the 1890s with the discovery of gold and diamonds in the Transvaal and this prompted many prospectors to arrive in the area. The Boers called them Uitlanders and President Kruger of the Transvaal taxed them heavily and refused them the vote. He feared that if they had the vote, Cecil Rhodes, Premier of Cape Province, who had considerable mining interests, would gain control of the Transvaal. Kaiser William of Germany expressed support for the Boers in the �Kruger Telegram� of 1896; Britain�s imperial ambitions were making her unpopular abroad at this time.

The Boers had 50,000 men against the British with 15,000 regulars in South Africa and another 10,000 due from India.The Boers had better knowledge of the terrain, and their horsemen war more mobile than the ponderous British forces, whose fighting was based on Crimean tactics.However the Boers were to waste their forces in besieging the British in strategically unimportant towns such as Ladysmith, instead of sending the majority of their forces out in to South Africa and depriving the British of naval supplies by capturing the ports.

10/10/1899, Tuesday (-16,646) Billy Ternent, British composer, was born in North Shields (died 23/3/1977 in London)

9/10/1899, Monday (-16,647) The first petrol driven motor bus began operating in London.

5/10/1899, Thursday (-16,651) James Harlan, US politician, died (born 26/8/1820).

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29/9/1899, Friday (-16,657) Billy Butlin, holiday camp owner, was born in South Africa.

28/9/1898, Thursday (-16,658) William Kingsford, English historical writer, died (born 23/12/1819).

24/9/1899, Sunday (-16,662) John Clarke, US actor, died (born 3/9/1833).

21/9/1899, Thursday (-16,665) Frederick Coutts, Salvation Army leader, was born on Kirkcaldy, Scotland.

19/9/1899, Tuesday (-16,667) France finally granted a pardon to Alfred Dreyfus in an attempt to end the controversy over anti-Semitic allegations that threatened the political stability of France. Dreyfus insisted on a total clearing of his name.

13/9/1899, Wednesday (-16,673) The first fatal car accident occurred in the USA. Henry Bliss was hit by an electric taxicab in New York and died the next day

12/9/1889, Tuesday (-16,674) Ronald Poulton, rugby player, was born (died 5/5/1915).

11/9/1899, Monday (-16,675) Jimmie Davis, composer, was born.

6/9/1899, Wednesday (-16,680) The US Secretary of State, John Hay, embarked on an �open door� policy towards China. He also urged the European powers, and Japan, to respect China�s territorial integrity and pursue a policy of free trade with China.

3/9/1899, Sunday (-16,683) Frank MacFarlane, biologist, was born,

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30/8/1899, Wednesday (-16,687) Joachim Menant, French historical writer, died.

27/8/1899, Sunday (-16,690) Emmanuel Hiel, Belgian-Dutch writer, died (born 5/1834).

25/8/1899, Friday (-16,692) Guy Butler, athlete, was born (died 22/2/1981).

22/8/1899, Tuesday (-16,695) Jack Payne, British bandleader, was born in Leamington Spa (died 4/12/1969 in London)

16/8/1899, Wednesday (-16,701) Death of the German chemist Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, inventor of the Bunsen burner

13/8/1899, Sunday (-16,704) Birth of film director Alfred Hitchcock.He was born in Leytonstone, London, the son of a greengrocer.

9/8/1899, Wednesday (-16,708) Sir Edward Frankland, English chemist, died (born 18/1/1825).

7/8/1899, Monday (-16,710) (1) The guilt of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, condemned and deported for treason in 1894, was confirmed by a court-martial at Rennes.

(2) Alexander Bruce, Scottish religious writer, died (born 31/3/1831).

3/8/1899, Thursday (-16,714) Marjorie Pollard, hockey and cricket champion, was born (died21/3/1982).

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31/7/1899, Monday (-16,717) (USA) Daniel Brinton, US archaeologist, died (born 30/5/1837).

29/7/1899, Saturday (-16,719) At The Hague, a conference of 26 countries established a permanent international court of arbitration.

24/7/1899, Monday (-16,724) Sir Arthur Cotton, irrigation engineer in India, died (born 15/5/1803).

21/7/1899, Friday (-16,727) Robert Ingersoll, US author, died (born 11/8/1833).

17/7/1899, Monday (-16,731) James Cagney, actor, was born.

16/7/1899, Sunday (-16,732) The first Tour de France automobile race was held.

14/7/1899, Friday (-16,734) Billy Hill, US composer, was born in Boston (died 24/12/1940 in Boston)

11/7/1899, Tuesday (-16.737) FIAT was founded this day. 24 cars were produced in 1900, 135 in 1904, and 1,146 cars were made in 1906.

5/7/1899, Wednesday (-16,743) Jean Cocteau, film director, poet, artist, novelist, was born in Maisons-Lafitte, France.

3/7/1898, Monday (-16,745) Donald Healey, rally driver, was born (died 15/1/1988).

1/7/1899, Saturday (-16,747) The first juvenile court sat, at Cork County Court, Chicago.

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21/6/1899, Wednesday (-16,757) Herbert Leo Price, hockey champion, was born (died 18/7/1943).

20/6/1889, Tuesday (-16,758) The Peloritana rail tunnel, Italy, 6.5 km long, opened

15/6/1889, Thursday (-16,763)

11/6/1899, Sunday (-16,767) William Blaikie, theological writer, died (born in Aberdeen 5/2/1820).

7/6/1899, Wednesday (-16,771) Augustin Daly, US playwright, died (born 20/7/1838).

5/6/1899, Monday (-16,773) In South Africa the Bloemfontein Conference ended with Britain and the Boers failing to agree on an extension of the franchise to non-Boer Whites, or Uitlanders, in the Transvaal.

3/6/1899, Saturday (-16,775) Johann Strauss the Younger, Austrian composer, violinist, and conductor, who wrote The Blue Danube waltz, died in Vienna.

2/6/1899, Friday (-16,776) Lotte Reiniger, film animator, was born.

1/6/1899, Thursday (-16,777) Klaus Groth, German poet, died (born 24/4/1819).

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31/5/1899, Wednesday (-16.778)

25/5/1899, Thursday (-16,784) Emilio Castelar, Spanish politician, died (born 8/9/1832).

24/5/1899, Wednesday (-16,785) William Esher, English Judge, died (born 13/8/1817).

23/5/1899, Tuesday (-16,786)

22/5/1899, Monday (-16,787) Binnie Hale, British actress, was born in Liverpool (died 10/1/1984 in London)

17/5/1899, Wednesday (-16,792) Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone of the Victoria and Albert Museum.

16/5/1899, Tuesday (-16,793) Sir Frederick McCoy, British palaeontologist, died.

13/5/1899, Saturday (-16,796) All fighting in Samoa now ceased as a tripartite, US-UK-German commission arrived. A settlement was agreed where all firearms were surrendered, compensation given, the Samoan monarchy was abolished, and western Samoa became German whilst the USA obtained the east. The UK pulled out altogether in exchange for recognition of its rights on Tonga and the Solomon Islands.

10/5/1899, Wednesday (-16,799) Fred Astaire, singer, was born.

6/5/1899, Saturday (-16,803) Friedrich von Hayek, economics writer, was born.

2/5/1899, Tuesday (-16,807) Martin Simson, German politician, died (born 10/10/1810)

1/5/1899, Monday (-16,808) The railway reached Beira, Mozambique, from Zimbabwe.

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29/4/1899, Saturday (-16,810) The 100 kph limit was breached, when C Jenatzky attained 105.85 kph (65.6mph) at Acheres, France, in an electric car.

27/4/1899, Thursday (-16,812)

22/4/1899, Saturday (-16,817) Vladimir Nabakov, writer, was born.

21/4/1899, Friday (-16,818) Heinrich Kiepert, German geographical writer, died (born 31/7/1818).

20/4/1899, Thursday (-16,819) Charles Friedel, French chemist, died (born 12/3/1832).

11/4/1899, Tuesday (-16,828) Lascar Catargiu, Romanian politician, died (born 1823).

9/4/1899, Sunday (-16,830) Stephen Field, US jurist, died (born 4/11/1816).

3/4/1899, Monday (-16,836) David Jack, footballer, was born (died 10/9/1958)

1/4/1899, Saturday (-16,838) (Jewish) Maurice de Hirsch, German Jewish philanthropist, died (born 9/12/1831).

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31/3/1899, Friday (-16,839) US forces captured the capital of the Philippines independence fighters, Malolos.

21/3/1899, Tuesday (-16,849) Britain and France reached agreement on the Fashoda Incident, see 17/7/1898.

18/3/1899, Saturday (-16,852) (USA) Othniel Charles Marsh, US palaeontologist, died in new Haven, Connecticut.

17/3/1899, Friday (-16,853) A merchant ship ran aground in the English Channel and sent the first radio distress call.

16/3/1899, Thursday (-16,854) The London erotic illustrator Aubrey Beardsley died aged 26.

15/3/1899, Wednesday (-16,855) US and UK warships shelled the Samoan capital Apia, as Mataafa�s supporters gained the upper hand. Anglo-US troops now occupied Apia but could not oust Mataafa's supporters from the interior.

12/3/1899, Sunday (-16,858) Mary Keeley, English actress, died.

6/3/1899, Monday (-16,864) The painkiller Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) was patented by Felix Hoffman. The active ingredient is derived from willow.

4/3/1899, Saturday (-16,866) Count Gaston de Chasseloup Laubat raised the world land speed record to 57.6 mph (92.96 kph), see 18/12/1898.

1/3/1899, Wednesday (-16,869) Andrew Boyd, Scottish author, died in Bournemouth (born 3/11/1825).

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25/2/1899, Saturday (-16,873) Paul Julius Reuter, German founder of Reuters news agency, died.

22/2/1899, Wednesday (-16,876) Philippines independence fighters under General Antonio Luna (1866-99) attacked US forces at Manila, but were repulsed by US General Arthur MacArthur (1845-1912). Aguinaldo fled to the hills and began guerrilla warfare.

21/2/1899, Tuesday (-16,877) (Britain) Sir George Bowen, British colonial governor, died in Brighton (born 8/9/1811).

20/2/1899, Monday (-16,878) Ernst Lange, German novelist, died (born 21/2/1813).

19/2/1899, Sunday (-16,879)

18/2/1899, Saturday (-16,880) Marius Lie, Norwegian mathematician, died.

17/2/1899, Friday (-16,881) (Britain) Thomas Bridgett, English priest, died (born 20/1/1829).

16/2/1899, Thursday, (-16,882) Francois Faure, President of France, died (born 30/1/1841).

15/2/1899, Wednesday (-16,883) Czar Nicholas II began a process of Russification of Finland. The Finnish Diet was stripped of power.

13/2/1899, Monday (-16,885)

10/2/1899, Friday (-16,888) Cyril Simpson, rackets champion, was born (died 21/12/1981).

9/2/1899, Thursday (-16,889) The Boxer Rebellion gained momentum in China. Lack of rain had caused crops to fail, and Boxer pamphlets blamed the Churches for �standing in the way of Heaven and angering the Gods�. The Boxer publicity blamed �blue-eyed barbarians� for angering the ancestors and said railways, electric wires and ships must be destroyed. Britain, France, Germany and Russia had forced territorial concessions from China. The Boxers, or �society of harmonious fists�, were a secret society, originally formed to promote boxing, who became dedicated to removing foreign influence from China.

6/2/1899, Monday (-16,892) Georg Caprivi, German statesman (born 24/2/1831) died.

5/2/1899, Sunday (-16,893)

4/2/1899, Saturday (-16,894) A rebellion against US rule broke out on the Philippines. The US had backed General Emilio Aguinaldo against Spanish colonial rule (see 10/12/1898), but instead of independence the Philippines came under US rule. Hostilities now began between US troops in The Philippines and loyalists to Aguinaldo, see 20/1/1899.

3/2/1899, Friday (-16,895) Robert John, footballer, was born (died 17/7/1982).

2/2/1899, Thursday (-16,896) The Australian Premier�s Conference agreed to locate the Australian capital between Sydney and Melbourne.

1/2/1899, Wednesday (-16,897)

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31/1/1899, Tuesday (-16,898) (Britain) Charles Berry, English cleric, died (born in Leigh, Lancashire 14/12/1852).

30/1/1899, Monday (-16,899) Harry Bates, British sculptor, died in London (born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire 26//4/1850).

29/1/1899, Sunday (-16,900) French artist Alfred Sisley died.

27/1/1899, Friday (-16,902) Charles Best, Canadian co-discoverer of insulin for treating diabetes, was born in West Pembroke, Maine.

25/1/1899, Wednesday (-16,904) John Adam Estes, US blues singer, was born in Ripley, Tennessee (died 5/6/1977 in Brownsville, Tennessee)

23/1/1899, Monday (-16,906) Lord Denning, British Judge and Master of the Rolls, was born.

21/1/1899, Saturday (-16,908) Rudi Blesh, US author, was born in Guthrie, Oklahoma (died 25/8/1985 in Gilmarton, New Hampshire).

20/1/1899, Friday (-16,909) Aguinaldo set up the Philippine Republic, under the Malolos Constitution, with himself as President. See 2/4/1899.

19/1/1899. Thursday (-16,910) Britain and Egypt established a condominium over Sudan.

17/1/1899, Tuesday (-16,912) (1) Al Capone, American gangster who operated in Chicago, was born in Naples, Italy.

(2) Nevil Shute, English novelist, was born in Ealing, London.

12/1/1899, Thursday (-16,917) Paul Muller, the Swiss chemist who formulated DDT, was born.

8/1/1899, Sunday (-16,921) Solomon Bandaranaike, Sri Lankan Prime Minister 1956-59, was born in the capital, Colombo.

7/1/1899, Saturday (-16,922) Al Bowlly, South African singer, was born in Maputo, Mozambique (died 17/4/1941 in London).

1/1/1899, Sunday (-16,928) The official date on which US military rule succeeded Spanish rule of Cuba.

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29/12/1898, Thursday (-16,931) Jules Bledsoe, US composer, was born in Waco, Texas (died 14/7/1943 in Hollywood).

26/12/1898, Monday (-16,934) (Chemistry) The new element radium was first identified, as radium chloride, by Marie and Pierre Curie. Pure radium was first prepared by Marie Curie and Andre Louis Debierne in 1911.

20/12/1898, Tuesday (-16,940) Irene Dunne, US actress, was born in Louisville, Kentucky (died 4/9/1990 in Los Angeles)

19/12/1898, Monday (-16,941) Francis Napier, British diplomat, died (born 15/9/1819).

18/12/1898, Sunday (-16,942) At Acheres, near Paris, Count Gaston de Chasseloup Laubat set a land speed record of 39.23 mph (63.13 kph) in a Jeantaud electric car.

15/12/1898, Thursday (-16,945)

13/12/1898, Tuesday (-16,947) Paul Hinschius, German legal writer, died (born 25/12/1835).

12/12/1898, Monday (-16,948) The Treaty of Paris ended the US-Spanish war.

11/12/1898, Sunday (-16,949) Sir William Jenner, English physician, died (born 30/1/1815).

10/12/1898. Saturday (-16,950) The war between Spain and the USA ended. The USA acquired Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and. for a US$20million indemnity, the Philippines. See 4/2/1899.

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30/11/1898, Wednesday (-16,960)

29/11/1898, Tuesday (-16,961) CS Lewis, writer, was born.

28/11/1898, Monday (-16,962) Konrad Meyer, Swiss poet, died (born 11/10/1825).

26/11/1898, Saturday (-16,964) Pete DePaolo, racing car driver, was born.

24/11/1898, Thursday (-16,966) (Biology) George James Allman, British biologist, died in Parkstone, Dorset (born 1812).

21/11/1898, Monday (-16,969) Rene Magritte, painter, was born.

20/11/1898, Sunday (-16,970) (Railways GB) Sir John Fowler, British railway engineer, died (born 15/8/1817).

19/11/1898, Saturday (-16,971) (USA) Don Carlos Buell, US soldier, died (born 23/3/1818).

15/11/1898, Tuesday (-16,975) (Brazil) In Brazil, President Moraes was succeeded by Dr Campos Salles, who had previously been Governor of the State of Sao Paulo.

6/11/1898, Sunday (-16,984) Turkey evacuated its forces from Crete.

1/11/1898, Tuesday (-16,989) New Zealand passed the Old Age Pensions Act. Pensions were paid from March 1899, backdated to January 1899, to men over 65 and women over 60.

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31/10/1898, Monday (-16,990) Helena Faucit, English actress, died (born 1817).

30/10/1898, Sunday (-16,991) (Electrical) Josiah Clark, British electrical engineer, died (born 10/3/1822).

25/10/1898, Tuesday (-16,996)

19/10/1898, Wednesday (-17,002) Harold Frederic, Anglo-US novelist, died (born 19/8/1856).

18/10/1898, Tuesday (-17,003) Lotte Lenya, Austrian actress, was born in Vienna (died 27/11/1981 in New York)

16/10/1898, Sunday (-17,005) John Findlay, Scottish newspaper owner, died (born 21/10/1824).

10/10/1898, Monday (-17,011) Pierre C Puvis de Chavannes, painter, died in Paris aged 73.

8/10/1898, Saturday (-17,013) Clarence Williams, US composer, was born in Planquemines, Louisiana (died 6/11/1965 in Queens, New York)

7/10/1898, Friday (-17,014) (Aviation) Aero club de France was established, to represent the country�s fliers.

1/10/1898, Saturday (-17,020)

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28/9/1898, Wednesday (-17,023) (USA) Thomas Bayard, US statesman, died in Dedham, Massachusetts (born in Wilmington, Delaware, 29/10/1828).

27/9/1898, Tuesday (-17,024) Vincent Youmans, US composer, was born in New York (died 5/4/1946 in Denver)

26/9/1898, Monday (-17,025) George Gershwin, composer, was born.

25/9/1898, Sunday (-17,026) (Biology) Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet, French anthropologist, died at St Germain en Laye.

24/9/1898, Saturday (-17,027) Sir Howard Florey, British pathologist and joint discoverer of penicillin with Sir Ernest Chain, was born in Adelaide, Australia.

23/9/1898, Friday (-17,028)

21/9/1898, Wednesday (-17,030) In China the Dowager Empress Tzu Hsi seized power, and began reversing the reformist policies of her nephew Emperor Guangxu.

20/9/1898, Tuesday (-17,031) Theodor Fontane, German novelist, died (30/12/1819).

13/9/1898, Tuesday (-17,038) The Reverend Hannibal Williston Goodwin finally received a patent for his invention of celluloid film, which he developed to illustrate his sermons over a decade earlier (see 7/5/1888). His estate later sued Eastman Kodak for copyright infringement and won US$ 5 million.

10/9/1898, Saturday (-17,041) Elizabeth, consort of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, was stabbed to death by anarchist Luigi Luccheni.

9/9/1898, Friday (-17,042) Stephane Mallarme, French poet, died (born 18/3/1842).

7/9/1898, Wednesday (-17,044) Robert MacGimsey, US composer, was born (died 13/3/1979)

2/9/1898, Friday (-17,049) Sir Herbert Kitchener led the 25,000-strong British forces to victory over the Mahdists at Omdurman, Sudan, killing 10,000 of the Dervish force, for 500 British deaths, and took Khartoum. This ended 14 years of Dervish rule after the Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, had massacred General Charles Gordon and his entire garrison at Khartoum in 1885.

1/9/1898, Thursday (-17,050) Marilyn Miller, US actress, was born in Evansville, Indiana (died 7/4/1936 in New York)

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31/8/1898, Wednesday (-17,051)

28/8/1898, Sunday (-17,054) The Goodyear Tyre and Rubber Company was founded.

27/8/1898, Saturday (-17,055) John Hopkinson, English engineer, died (born 27/7/1849).

26/8/1898, Friday (-17,056) Peggy Guggenheim, art critic, was born.

22/8/1898, Monday (-17,060)

18/8/1898, Thursday (-17,064) Matthew Dawson, jockey, died (born 9/1/1820)

17/8/1898, Wednesday (-17,065) Sir William Fraser, English politician, died (born 10/2/1826).

15/8/1898, Monday (-17,067) Charles Tobias, US composer, was born in New York (died 7/7/1970 in New York)

13/8/1898, Saturday (-17,069) (1) US forces captured Manila, capital of the Philippines

(2) Alfred Hitchcock, film director, was born in Leytonstone.

12/8/1898, Friday (-17,070) The sovereignty of Hawaii was transferred to the USA.

9/8/1898, Tuesday (-17,073)

8/8/1898, Monday (-17,074) London�s Waterloo and City Railway opened.

7/8/1898, Sunday (-17,075) Enrico Cosenz, Italian soldier, died (born 12/1/1812).

6/8/1898, Saturday (-17,076) (Colombia) Colombia and Peru signed a treaty of friendship and extradition of criminals.

3/8/1898, Wednesday (-17,079) Jean Garnier, French architect, died (born 6/11/1825).

===================================================================================

30/7/1898, Saturday (-17,083) William Kellogg invented cornflakes. With his brother, Dr John Kellogg, he had been developing foods to offer patients at their sanatorium.

29/7/1898, Friday (-17,084) (Chemistry) John Alexander Newlands, English chemist, died in London.

28/7/1898, Thursday (-17,085) (1) Puerto Rico surrendered to US forces.

(2) Bismarck died, three years after his wife, at Friedrichsruh.He was a Prussian politician and founder of the modern state of Germany.

25/7/1898, Monday (-17,088) During the Spanish�American War, the U.S. invaded Puerto Rico with a landing at Guanica.

21/7/1898, Thursday (-17,092) William Hunter, Scottish legal writer, died (born 8/5/1844).

18/7/1898, Monday (-17,095) (Chemistry) Polonium was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898, after samples of radium proved more radioactive than expected. They named the metal after their native Poland to highlight the lack of independence of that nation.

17/7/1898. Sunday (-17,096) Frenchman Captain J Marchand reached Fashoda (now Kodok) in the Nile Valley in an attempt to build a continuous belt of French colonial territory from west to east across Africa. However the British similarly wanted a contiguous territory from north to south. Lord Kitchener, advancing south from Egypt to fight the Mahdi from Sudan, conquered the Sudanese on 2/9/1898 and then learned of �white men flying a strange flag at Fashoda�. The British reached Fashoda on 19/9/1898, under General Kitchener. War between France and Britain seemed imminent, neither side being willing to give way until Lord Salisbury was able to announce on 4/11/1898 that the French would back down. On 21/3/1899 a declaration was made that united all French territories in north, west, and central Africa into one unit whilst giving Fashoda to the British.

16/7/1898, Saturday (-17,097)

15/7/1898, Friday (-17,098) Noel Gay, British composer, was born in Wakefield (died 3/3/1954 in London)

14/7/1898, Thursday (-17,099) Eliza Linton, English novelist, died (born 10/8/1822).

7/7/1898, Thursday (-17,106) The USA formally annexed Hawaii.

4/7/1898, Monday (-17,109) Gertrude Lawrence, British actress, was born in London (died 6/9/1952 in New York)

3/7/1898, Sunday (-17.110) (USA) The US navy destroyed a Spanish fleet attempting to escape the US blockade on the port of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba.On 5/7/1898 US forces captured Santiago itself.

1/7/1898, Friday (-17,112) China leased the New Territories (Hong Kong) to Britain for 99 years.

==================================================================================

27/6/1898, Monday (-17,118) Joshua Slocum became the first man to sail solo around the world. He set out from Boston, USA, in his yacht Spray, in 1895, aged 51, and raised funds by giving lectures at the various ports he called at around the globe. He could not swim. In 1909, aged 65, he set out on a similar voyage from Rhode Island on the same boat, and was never heard of again.

26/6/1898, Sunday (-17,117) Wilhelm Messerschmitt, German aviation engineer and designer, was born in Frankfurt.

25/6/1898, Saturday (-17,118) (Biology) German botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn died in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland).

24/6/1898, Friday (-17,119) Jose de Elduayen, Spanish politician, died (born 22/6/1823).

23/6/1898, Thursday (-17,120) Emilio Aguinaldo set up a Revolutionary Government of the Philippines, with himself as President.

22/6/1898, Wednesday (-17,121)

21/6/1898, Tuesday (-17,122) Hector Scarone, Uruguayan footballer, was born.

20/6/1898. Monday (-17,123) The US navy seized the island of Guam.

19/6/1898, Sunday (-17,124)

18/6/1898, Saturday (-17,125) (Cartography) Karl Gumbel, publisher of the first geological map of Bavaria in 1858, died (born 11/2/1823).

17/6/1898, Friday (-17,126) Edward Coley Burne-Jones, painter, died in London aged 64.

14/6/1898, Tuesday (-17,129) At a convention in Paris, the boundaries of the British colony of the Gold Coast, (Ghana) were confirmed, as they stand now. Britain abandoned claims to Ouagadougou (present-day capital of Burkina Faso), further north.

12/6/1898, Sunday (-17,131) The Philippines declared independence from Spain. However Spain ceded the Philippines to the USA in return for a payment of US$ 20 million by the Treaty of Paris. Aguinaldo however refused to recognise this Treaty, wanting full independence for The Philippines.

10/6/1898, Friday (-17,133) Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, was first used as a camp by US troops during the Spanish-American War.

9/6/1898, Thursday (-17,134) Formula One racing car driver Luigi Fagoli was born in Osimo, Italy.

7/6/1898, Tuesday (-17,136)

3/6/1898, Friday (-17,140) Samuel Plimsoll, who devised the Plimsoll Line for the safe loading of ships, died in Folkestone, Kent.

2/6/1898, Thursday (-17,141) (Medical) Paul Louis Simond, fighting bubonic plague in India, theorised that fleas transmitted the disease from rats to humans.

====================================================================================

28/5/1899, Saturday (-17,146) Lew Stone, British composer, was born in London (died 13/2/1969 in London)

24/5/1898, Tuesday (-17,150) (Italy) Benedetto Brin, Italian naval engineer who laid the basis for the Italian navy, died (born 17/5/1833).

22/5/1898, Sunday (-17,152) Edward Bellamy, US writer died in Chicopee Falls (born in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts 25/3/1850).

19/5/1898. Thursday (-17,155) (1) William Ewart Gladstone, born 29/12/1809, four times Liberal Prime Minister, died at Hawarden Castle, north Wales, aged 88.

(2) Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines in 190, and organised resistance forces against the Spanish.

14/5/1898, Saturday (-17,160) Zutty Singleton, US jazz drummer, was born in Bunkei, Louisiana (died 14/7/1975 in New York)

3/5/1898, Tuesday (-17,171) (Jewish) Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel 1969-74, was born.

2/5/1898, Monday (-17,172) Henry Hall, British composer, was born in Peckham, London (died 28/10/1989 in Eastbourne)

1/5/1898. Sunday (-17,173) US forces under George Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, Philippines.

====================================================================================

30/4/1898, Saturday (-17,174)

25/4/1898, Monday (-17,179) Under the Nishi-Rosen Protocol, Russia and Japan agreed that neither would interfere in Korean internal affairs, although Japan would be allowed to develop its economic interests there.

24/4/1898. Sunday (-17,180) The United States declared war on Spain as a result of the sinking of the battleship Maine in Havana harbour on 15 February 1898. Fighting began in the Philippine Islands at the Battle of Manila Bay on 1 May 1898, where Commodore George Dewey destroyed a Spanish fleet. The war ended when the USA and Spain signed a peace treaty in Paris on 10 December 1898. As a result Spain lost control over the remains of its empire, including Cuba.

22/4/1898, Friday (-17.182)

20/4/1898, Wednesday (-17,184) The US demanded the withdrawal of Spanish troops from Cuba.

19/4/1898, Tuesday (-17,185) (Biology) Biologist Charles Naudin died.

18/4/1898, Monday (-17,186) Gustave Moreau, painter, died in Paris aged 72

17/4/1898, Sunday (-17,187) Jules Marcou, Swiss-US geologist, died.

15/4/1898, Tuesday (-17,192) Kepa te Rangihiwiwiniu, Maori leader, died.

10/4/1898, Sunday (-17,194) Easter Sunday

9/4/1898, Saturday (-17,195) Paul Robeson, Us actor, was born in Princeton, New Jersey (died 23/1/1976 in Philadelphia)

8/4/1898, Friday (-17,196) The Battle of Atbara.

3/4/1898, Sunday (-17,201) Henry Luce, US publisher who founded Time, Life, and Fortune magazines, was born.

1/4/1898, Friday (-17,203) Samuel Davidson, Irish religious writer, died (born 1807).

====================================================================================

28/3/1898, Monday (-17,207) Germany passed an Act allowing for substantial expansion of its navy.

27/3/1898, Sunday (-17,208) Gloria Swanson, American silent-film star, was born.

20/3/1898, Sunday (-17,215)

18/3/1899, Friday (-17,217) Othniel Marsh, US paleontological writer, died (born 29/10/1831).

16/3/1898, Wednesday (-17,219) Aubrey Beardsley, English artist, died in Mentone (born in Brighton 24/8/1872).

15/3/1898, Tuesday (-17,220) Sir Henry Bessemer, inventor of a process for converting cast iron into steel in 1856, died aged 85.

13/3/1898, Sunday (-17,222)

11/3/1898, Friday (-17,224) Miff Mole, US jazz trombonist, was born in Long Island, New York (died 29/4/1961 in New York)

10/3/1898, Thursday (-17,225) William Wavell Wakefield, rugby player, was born (died 12/8/1983).

8/3/1898, Tuesday (-17,227)

6/3/1898, Sunday (-17,229) Felice Cavallotti, Italian politician, died (born 6/11/1842)

5/3/1898, Saturday (-17,230) Zhou Enlai, Chinese Premier, was born.

4/3/1898, Friday (-17,231)

2/3/1898, Wednesday (-17,233) Saiyid Ahmed, Indian educationalist, died at Aligarh (born 1817).

1/3/1898, Tuesday (-17,234) The first Communist Party meeting in Russia; the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party met in Minsk.

====================================================================================

23/2/1898, Wednesday (-17,240) Emile Zola was imprisoned for the publication of his letter, �J�Accuse�, which accused the French Government of anti-Semitism and of wrongly imprisoning Captain Dreyfus. See 13/1/1898.

20/2/1898, Sunday (-17,243) Enzio Ferrari, Italian car manufacturer, was born in Modena.

18/2/1898, Friday (-17,245) Enzo Ferrari, racing car driver and manufacturer, was born.

15/2/1898, Tuesday (-17,248)The US warship Maine blew up in Havana harbour, Cuba.Spanish sabotage was suspected.The USA declared war on Spain on 24/4/1898.

14/2/1898, Monday (-17,249) (Astronomy) Swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky was born in Varna, Bulgaria.

13/2/1898, Sunday (-17,250) August Potthast, German historian (born 13/8/1824), died.

12/2/1898, Saturday (-17,251) Henry Lindfield of Brighton became the first British motorist to be killed in a car crash. As a result of a steering failure he had a leg amputated, and died of shock.

11/2/1898, Friday (-17,252) Ferdinand Fabre, French novelist, died (born 1830).

10/2/1898, Thursday (-17,253) Bertold Brecht, writer, was born.

3/2/1898, Thursday (-17,260) Lil Armstrong, US jazz pianist, was born in Memphis (died 27/8/1971 in Chicago).

=====================================================================================

30/1/1898, Sunday (-17,264) (Britain) Chichester Carlingford, British statesman, died (born 1/1823).

18/1/1898, Tuesday (-17,276) Henry Liddell, English writer, died (born 6/2/1811).

14/1/1898, Friday (-17,280) Lewis Carroll, author of Alice�s Adventures in Wonderland, died in Guildford, Surrey

13/1/1898, Thursday (-17,281) The Dreyfus affair in France escalated with the famous novelist Emile Zola accusing the French war office of judicial crime in an open letter on the front page of L�Aurore newspaper. Commandant Ferdinand Esterhazy had been acquitted of betrayal of France�s military secrets to Germany even though his handwriting had been identified as that on a note in the German embassy. Moreover, Georges Picquart, the intelligence chief who made the Esterhazy connection, was reposted to Africa. See 23/2/1898.

12/1/1898, Wednesday (-17,282)

11/1/1898, Tuesday (-17,283) In Paris, Major Esterhazy was wrongly acquitted of forging documents used to establish the guilt of French Army Officer Captain Alfred Dreyfus.

10/1/1898, Monday (-17,284) Arthur James Johnston, US composer, was born in New York (died 1/5/1954 in Coorona del Mar, California)

9/1/1898, Sunday (-17,285) Gracie Fields, singer and music hall star, was born in Rochdale, Lancashire, as Gracie Stansfield.

7/1/1898, Friday (-17,287) (Medical) Ernest Hart, medical journalist, died (born 26/1/1835). He raised membership of the British Medical Association from 2,000 to 19,000, and saw the British Medical Journal expand from 20 to 64 pages.

2/1/1898, Sunday (-17,292) Sir Edward Bond, English librarian, died (born in Hanwell 31/12/1815).

1/1/1898, Saturday (-17,293) The boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, Richmond, Manhattan, and The Bronx united to form Greater New York.

=====================================================================================

31/12/1879, Friday (-17,294)

30/12/1897, Thursday (-17,295) Zululand was annexed to Natal.

29/12/1897, Wednesday (-17,296) William Linton, English wood engraver, died.

27/12/1897, Monday (-17,298) Victor Cazelet, squash player, was born (died 4/7/1943).

18/12/1897, Saturday (-17,309) Sir Frank Lockwood, English lawyer, died.

17/12/1897, Friday (-17,308) Alphonse Daudet, French novelist, died (born 13/5/1840).

16/12/1897, Thursday (-17,309)

15/12/1897, Wednesday (-17,310) A peace settlement, the Pact of Biak-na-bato, was agreed between the Spanish colonisers of The Philippines and the independence movement. Aguinaldo was exiled to Hong Kong, having accepted payment of 400,000 Spanish Pesos and promises by Spain to introduce democratic reforms. However Spain reneged on the payment and the promised reforms, see 19/5/1898.

14/12/1897, Tuesday (-17,311) Kurt Schusnigg, Austrian politician, was born.

13/12/1897, Monday (-17,312) Russia occupied Port Arthur.

9/12/1897, Thursday (-17,316) Hermione Gingold, British actress, was born in London (died 24/5/1987 in New York)

4/12/1897, Saturday (-17,321) Greece and Turkey signed a peace treaty.

1/12/1897, Wednesday (-17,324) Cyril Ritchard, Australian actor, was born in Sydney (died 18/12/1977 in Chicago)

===================================================================================

30/11/1897, Tuesday (-17,325) The Vologda to Archangel railway opened.

29/11/1897, Monday (-17,326) James Legge, British scholarly writer on Chinese, died.

25/11/1897, Thursday (-17,230) William Smith, US jazz pianist, was born in Goshen, New York (died 18/4/1973 in New York)

24/11/1897, Wednesday (-17,231)

19/11/1897, Friday (-17,236) Henry Calderwood, Scottish philosophical writer, died (born 10/5/1830).

18/11/1897, Thursday (-17,237) (Technology) Sir Henry Doulton, English inventor, died (born 25/7/1820).

16/11/1897, Tuesday (-17,339)

15/11/1897, Monday (-17,340) British Labour leader Aneurin Bevan was born in Tredegar, Wales.He was one of 13 children, son of a miner.

14/11/1897, Sunday (-17,341) German forces occupied Qingdao (Tsing-Tao) in China following the murder of several German missionaries. This invasion sparked a rush by other European powers for trade and territorial concessions in China.

9/11/1897, Tuesday (-17,346)

5/11/1897, Friday (-17,350) Warneford Cresswell, footballer, was born (died 20/10/1973).

4/11/1897, Thursday (-17,351) The projected Cape to Cairo Railway reached Bulawayo (now in Zimbabwe).

3/11/1897, Wednesday (-17,352)

2/11/1897, Tuesday (-17,353) The railway from Strome Ferry to Kyle of Lochalsh opened.

1/11/1897, Monday (-17,354) (Geology) Peter Brodie, English geologist, died (born 1815).

===================================================================================

31/10/1897, Sunday (-17,355) Samuel Haughton, Irish scientific writer, died (born 21/12/1821).

30/10/1897, Saturday (-17,356)

29/10/1897, Friday (-17,357) Joseph Goebbels, Nazi political leader and propagandist, was born in Rheydt, son of a factory foreman.

28/10/1897, Thursday (-17,358) Hercules Rosmead, British colonial administrator, died (born 19/12/1824).

24/10/1897, Sunday (-17,362)

20/10/1897, Wednesday (-17,366) The British put down a rebellion by Afghan tribes at the Battle of Durgai.

19/10/1897, Tuesday (-17,367) (1) Henry Sturmey, co-inventor of Sturmey-Archer bicycle gears, completed the first car trip from Land�s End to John O�Groats. It took him ten days, driving a Daimler.

(2) George Pullman, US manufacturer of railway sleeping and dining cars that bear his name, died in Chicago, Illnois, aged 66.

17/10/1897, Sunday (-17,369) Charles Dana, US journalist, died (born 8/8/1819).

11/10/1897, Monday (-17,375) (India) Mohmand tribesmen surrendered to a British punitive attack in Northwest Frontier Province, resultant on earlier raids on British frontier positions.

10/10/1897, Sunday (-17,376) Felix Hoffman, German chemist, invented the painkiller aspirin.

9/10/1897, Saturday (-17,377)

8/10/1897, Friday (-17,378) In America, the Dow Jones company was set up by the financial journalist Charles Henry Dow, 46. He took the price of 12 stocks and averaged their price to create the Dow Jones Index.

7/10/1897, Thursday (-17,379) Francis Newman, English scholarly writer, died (born 27/6/1805).

6/10/1897, Wednesday (-17,380) Sir John Gilbert, English painter, died (born 21/7/1817).

4/10/1897, Monday (-17,382) Pascual Gayangos, Spanish historical writer, died (born 21/6/1809).

2/10/1897, Saturday (-17,384) (Alcohol) Neal Dow, US Temperance campaigner, died (born 20/3/1804).

======================================================================================

27/9/1897, Monday (-17,389) (India) British punitive operations began in the Northwest Frontier area, against Mohmand tribesmen who had harassed British forces, inspired by preaching from the Amir of Afghanistan.

26/9/1897, Sunday (-17,390) Pope Paul V was born in Concessio, as Giovanni Battista Montini.

25/9/1897. Saturday (-17,391) Britain�s first motor bus service began, in Bradford, Yorkshire.

23/9/1897, Thursday (-17,393) Pope Paul VI was born as Giovanni Battista Montini in Concesio, near Brescia, Italy.

21/9/1897, Tuesday (-17,395) (India) British forces attacked by Mohmand tribesmen at Nawagai. The attackers were repulsed and reinforcements under General Elles arrived.

20/9/1897, Monday (-17,396) Karel Bendl, Bohemian composer, died in Prague (born in Prague 16/4/1838).

18/9/1897, Saturday (-17,398) Sammy H Stept, composer, was born in Odessa, Russia (died 2/12/1964 in Los Angeles)

14/9/1897, Tuesday (-17,402) (India) A British punitive expedition into the North West Frontier region of India, against local tribes who had been harassing British forces since the Amir of Afghanistan began rousing anti-Christian sentiments in the region, came under attack and was halted at Nawagai. The commander, Major-general Blood, dug in and awaited reinforcements.

11/9/1897, Saturday (-17,405) Gus Arnheim, US bandleader, was born in Philadelphia (died 19/1/1955 in Los Angeles).

10/9/1897, Friday (-17,406) London taxi driver George Smith was fined �1, at Marlborough Street Court. He was the first Briton to be convicted of drunken driving. The defendant had driven his electric cab onto the pavement and into the front corridor of 165 Bond Street. He was found guilty and fined �1.

9/9/1897, Thursday (-17,407) The Hawaiian Senate approved the US annexation of Hawaii on 16/6/1897. Sugar plantation owners on Hawaii had demanded annexation; however Japan had some 25,000 nationals on Hawaii, and protested at the move.

8/9/1897, Wednesday (-17,408) Jimmie Rodgers, US country and folk singer, was born (died 26/5/1933 in New York)

6/9/1897, Monday (-17,410) Alexander R Armstrong, Australian rugby player, was born.

1/9/1897, Wednesday (-17,415) Boston�s underground railway began operating.

=====================================================================================

31/8/1897, Tuesday (-17,416) World Jewish leaders met in Basle, Switzerland to discuss their hopes for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. 200 delegates from all branches of Judaism came, mainly from east and Central Europe.

29/8/1897, Sunday (-17,418) A New York chef, to appeal to Chinese and American tastes, devised Chop Suey, meaning �various things�, the most famous Chinese dish.

25/8/1897, Wednesday (-17,422) Emile Gautier, French historical writer, died (born 8/8/1832).

24/8/1897, Tuesday (-17,423) Fred Rose, US composer, was born in Evansville, Indiana 9died 1/12/1954 in Nashville)

22/8/1897, Sunday (-17,425)

20/8/1897, Friday (-17,427) Sir Ronald Ross discovered that malaria was spread by mosquitoes.

19/8/1897, Thursday (-17,428) The first taxi cabs began operating in the UK.They were restricted to the City and West End of London.

17/8/1897, Tuesday (-17,430)

13/8/1897, Friday (-17,434) (Innovation) Sir Isaac Holden, British inventor, died (born 7/5/1807).

12/8/1897, Thursday (-17,435) (Astronomy) Otto Struve, Russian-American astronomer, was born in Kharkov, Russia. He discovered thin clouds of dust and gas between stars, suggesting a mechanism for planet formation.

11/8/1897, Wednesday (-17,436) Enid Blyton, author of children�s books, was born in Dulwich.

10/8/1897. Tuesday (-17,437) The Royal Automobile Club was founded, under the name of The Automobile Club of Great Britain.

9/8/1897, Monday (-17,438)

8/8/1897, Sunday (-17,439) (India) Mohmand tribal attack on Shabdakar, British India, inspired by preaching by the Afghan Mullah.

7/8/1897, Saturday (-17,440) The town of Abu Hamid was captured by the British from the Mahdists, Sudan.

6/8/1897, Friday (-17,441) Samuel Laing, British author, died (born 12/10/1810).

4/8/1897, Wednesday (-17,443) Abraham Lyman, US composer, was born in Chicago (died 23/10/1957 in Beverly Hills, California)

3/8/1897, Tuesday (-17,444)

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31/7/1897, Saturday (-47,447) (India) Swati tribal attack on British-India frontier posts, inspired by preaching by an Afghan Mullah

30/7/1897, Friday (-47,448) (Austria) Alfred Arneth, Austrian historian, died (born 10/7/1819).

27/7/1897, Tuesday (-17,451)

26/7/1898, Monday (-17,452) Hubert Fields, US musician, was born in New York (died 24/3/1958 in New York).

24/7/1897, Saturday (-17,454) Amelia Earhart, aviator, was born in Atchison, Kansas.

23/7/1897, Friday (-17,455) Germany and France agreed the border between their colonies of Togo and Dahomey (now Benin).

22/7/1897, Thursday (-17,456)

21/7/1897. Wednesday (-17,457) The Tate Gallery in London was officially opened, on the site of Millbank Prison.

20/7/1897, Tuesday (-17,458) (Biology) Tadeusz Reichstein was born in Wloclawek, Poland. In 1933 he succeeded in synthesising ascorbic acid (vitamin C).

11/7/1897, Sunday (-17,467) The Swedish balloonist S A Andree set off from Spitsbergen with two companions to fly over the North Pole. After a few days all contact with them was lost; their remains were discovered in 1930 on White Island.

7/7/1897, Wednesday (-17,471) (Geology) Samuel Allport, English petrologist, died in Cheltenham (born 23/1/1816 in Birmingham).

===================================================================================

30/6/1897, Wednesday (-17,478) The Shanghai Foot Emancipation Society was founded. It was one of several such organisations dedicated to eliminating the custom of foot-binding which had been practiced on young aristocratic Chinese girls, leaving them in some cases scarcely able to walk. This practice dated from the 10th century AD; in China bound (small) feet were considered a mark of beauty, and also a sign that the woman was wealthy enough not to have to work. It also made her totally dependent upon her husband. As Christianity penetrated China in the 1880s a move to make women equal in status to men began, and to eliminate foot-binding. The Hundred Days Reform in 1898 also aimed to stop this practice. By 1899 some 800,000 Chinese people has joined anti-foot-binding societies. However the practice continued into the 20th century, and in 1949 the Communist administration found it necessary to ban the practice, still underway in remote rural areas. China retains a ban on foot-binding today.

28/6/1897, Monday (-17,480) George Eyston, motor racing champion, was born (died 11/6/1979).

27/6/1897, Sunday (-17,481) Maceo Pinkard, US composer, was born in Bluefield, West Virginia (died 21/7/1062 in New York)

22/6/1897. Tuesday (-17,486) Queen Victoria celebrated her diamond jubilee.

19/6/1897, Saturday (-17,489) Moe Howard, comic actor, was born.

16/6/1897, Wednesday (-17,492) The USA annexed the Hawaiian Islands, see 9/9/1897.

15/6/1897, Tuesday (-17,493) Tirpitz was appointed German Naval Secretary.

14/6/1897, Monday (-17,494)

12/6/1897, Saturday (-17,496) (1) Anthony Eden, Conservative Prime Minister, was born at Windlestone Hall, Bishop Auckland, Durham.He later became the Earl of Avon.

(2) Carl Elsener took out a patent for the Swiss Army Knife.

(3) A magnitude 8.8 earthquake hit Assam, NE India. 1,542 were killed as a plateau in Shillong district suddenly rose 15 metres, throwing boulders, gravestones and even people into the air.

11/6/1897, Friday (-17,497) Karl Fresenius, German chemist, died (born 28/12/1818).

10/6/1897, Thursday (-17,498) (India) Pathan attack on Indian forces escorting a British frontier officer in the Tochi valley. Anti-Christian sentiment amongst Muslims in the area had been building, inspired by Turkish success against Greece and preaching by the Amir of Afghanistan, but the |British were unaware of this.

4/6/1897, Friday (-17,504)

===================================================================================

29/5/1897, Saturday (-17,510) Erich Wolfgang Korngold, composer, was born in Brno, Czechoslovakia (died 29/11/1957 in Hollywood)

27/5/1897, Thursday (-17,512) John Cockroft, nuclear physicist, was born in Yorkshire.

26/5/1897, Wednesday (-17,513) Bram Stoker�s Dracula was first published.

24/5/1897, Monday (-17,515)

22/5/1897. Saturday (-17,517) The Prince of Wales opened the Blackwall Tunnel in London.

21/5/1897, Friday (-17,518) Sir Augustus Franks, English antiquary, died (20/3/1826).

20/5/1897, Thursday (-17,519) With Greek troops demoralised and on the retreat, the Czar of Russia appealed to Turkey, and an armistice was arranged.

19/5/1897, Wednesday (-17,520) Oscar Wilde was released from Reading gaol.

18/5/1897, Tuesday (-17,521) John Winterbottom, bassoonist, died in Putney (born 1817)

17/5/1897, Monday (-17,522) Only now did Turkish troops attack Domokos (see 6/5/1897), this delay having given the Greeks time to entrench good defences.

16/5/1897, Sunday (-17,523)

15/5/1897, Saturday (-17,524) (Railways GB) (1) The Tipton to Budleigh Salterton railway opened.

(2) (Ethiopia) Britain and Abyssinia concluded a Treaty of Friendship.

14/5/1897, Friday (-17,525) Sidney Bechet, US jazz musician, was born in New Orleans (died in Paris 14/5/1959).

10/5/1897, Monday (-17,529) William Best, English organist, died in Liverpool (born 13/8/1826 in Carlisle).

7/5/1897, Friday (-17,532) (France) Henri Aumale, French statesman, died in Zucco, Sicily (born 16/1/1822 in Paris).

6/5/1897, Thursday, (-17,533) The Turks drove the Greeks from their defensive positions in front of Pharsala. The Greeks retreated to Domokos.

5/5/1897, Wednesday (-17,534) (Africa) James Bent, explorer of Africa, died in London (born near Leeds 30/3/1852).

4/5/1897, Tuesday (-17,535)

3/5/1897, Monday (-37,536) Edward Goulburn, English religious writer, died (born 11/2/1818).

2/5/1897, Sunday (-37,537) Fred J Coots, US composer, was born in Brooklyn, New York

1/5/1897, Saturday (-37,538)

=====================================================================================

28/4/1897, Wednesday (-17,541) Felix Bernard, US composer, was born in Brooklyn, New York (died 20/10/1944 in Hollywood).

27/4/1897, Tuesday (-17,542) Turkish forces only now reached Larissa. Neither side showed great military skill, with political considerations interfering with good strategy.

23/4/1897, Friday (-17,546) Turkish forces reached Deliler. The Greeks could have retreated in good order to Larissa, where a defensible position was available, but instead fled south in disorder towards Pharsala.

20/4/1897, Tuesday (-17,549) The first production car was delivered from Daimler, to a Mr Ernest Estcourt.

19/4/1897, Monday (-17,550) Turkish forces occupied the Meluna Pass, threatening the Greek frontier town of Larissa just 10 miles to the southeast.

18/4/1897, Sunday (-17,551) Easter Sunday; Edhem Pasha, Turkish military leader, began a general advance from his headquarters at Elassona against Greece. Turkish troops began bombarding Arta.

17/4/1897, Saturday (-17,552) (Greece-Turkey) War broke out between Greece and the Ottoman Empire.Turkey accused Greece of fomenting revolt in Crete.On 19/5/1897, after several defeats by Turkey and having been forced to withdraw from Crete, Greece signed an armistice with Turkey at Thessaly. Support for Greece by France and the UK saved it from total defeat, but Greece had to pay large war indemnities to Ottoman Turkey, bankrupting the country.

12/4/1897, Monday (-17,557) (Geology) Edward Cope, US palaeontologist, died (born 28/7/1840).

10/4/1897, Saturday (-17,559) Greek irregular troops crossed the frontier into Macedonia, then under Turkish rule, hoping to provoke insurrection there.

6/4/1897, Tuesday (-17,563) Walter Winchell, journalist, was born.

3/4/1897, Saturday (-17,566) Johannes Brahms, German composer, died at his home in Vienna, aged 64.

====================================================================================

31/3/1897, Wednesday (-17,569) Gold was discovered in The Klondike, Canada.

28/3/1897, Sunday (-17,572) The Japanese Yen went on the Gold Standard.

26/3/1897, Friday (-17,574) Louise Groody, US actress, was born in Waco, Texas (died in Canadensis, Pennsylvania, 16/12/1961

11/3/1897, Thursday (-17,389) Henry Drummond, Scottish scholarly writer, died (born 17/8/1851).

7/3/1897, Sunday (-17,393) Gustav Kenncott, mineralogist, died (born 6/1/1818)

4/3/1897, Thursday (-17,396) William McKinley took office as US President.

====================================================================================

22/2/1897, Monday (-17,606) Darius Couch, US soldier, died (born 23/7/1822).

19/2/1897. Friday (-17,609) (1) French tightrope walker Charles Blondin died. He was born on 28/2/1824.

(2) The Women�s Institute organisation was founded at Stoney Creek in Ontario by Mrs Hoodless. The first W I meeting was on 25/9/1897. The W I idea was brought to England by a Mrs Watt during World War One.

17/2/1897, Wednesday (-17,611) In the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo�s forces defeated the Spanish under General Camilo at the Battle of Zapoto Bridge.

13/2/1897, Saturday (-17,615) Carl Erhardt, ice hockey player, was born (died 3/5/1988).

11/2/1897, Thursday (-17,617) (Atomic) Hungarian-US physicist Leo Szilard was born in Budapest. In 1939 he researched self-sustaining nuclear reactions.

10/2/1897. Wednesday (-17,618) Greece sent ships and troops to Crete, 4 days after Crete�s proclamation of union with Greece.

9/2/1897, Tuesday (-17,619) Sir Charles Kingsford Smith, Australian aviator, was born.

4/2/1897, Thursday (-17,624) Christians in Canea, Crete, protested over the slow pace of reform by the island�s Turkish Governor, which reforms were intended to safeguard their rights. Turkish troops fired at the demonstrators, many of who took refuge on European naval ships just offshore, and part of the town was burnt down.

2/2/1897, Tuesday (-17,626) Homer Martin, US artist, died (born 18/10/1836).

1/2/1897, Monday (-17,627) Constantin Ettingshausen, scientific writer, died (born 16/6/1826).

====================================================================================

26/1/1897, Tuesday (-17,633) Karl Holsten, German religious writer, died (born 31/3/1825).

21/1/1897, Thursday (-17,638) The Glasgow subway began operating as a cable-drawn system.

13/1/1897, Wednesday (-17,646) Mr and Mrs Bradley Martin, members of New York�s �top 400�, threw an extremely extravagant party in which the ballroom of the Waldorf Astoria was made into a replica of Versailles. This event, in the face of an economic recession, attracted much criticism in the popular press, and the Martins fled to England.

12/1/1897, Tuesday (-17,647) Sir Isaac Pitman, who invented phonetic shorthand in 1837, died in Somerset aged 84.

8/1/1897, Friday (-17,651) Peter Alliss, British golfer, was born (died 31/5/1975).

1/1/1897, Friday (-17,658)

====================================================================================

30/12/1896, Wednesday (-17,660) Philippines independence fighter Jose Rizal was executed by the Spanish

28/12/1896, Monday (-17,662) Horatio Hale, US ethnological writer, died (born 3/5/1817).

27/12/1896, Sunday (-17,663) (Britain) Sir John Brown, Sheffield armour plate manufacturer, died (born 6/12/1816).

12/12/1896, Saturday (-17,678) Guigliemo Marconi gave his first public demonstration of radio, at Tonybee Hall, east London.

10/12/1896, Thursday (-17,680) Alfred Bernhardt Nobel, Swedish chemist who invented dynamite, died in San Remo, Italy. See 14/7/1867.

6/12/1896, Sunday (-17,684) Ira Gershwin, songwriter, was born.

5/12/1896, Saturday (-17,685) Carl Cori, US biochemist, was born in Prague.

4/12/1896, Friday (-17,686) Heavy gales destroyed the chain pier at Brighton.

1/12/1896, Tuesday (-17,689) Ray Henderson, US composer, was born in Buffalo, New York (died 31/12/1970 in Greenwich, Connecticut)

===================================================================================

26/11/1896, Thursday (-17,694) Mathilde Blind, English author, died (born in Mannheim 21/3/1841).

23/11/1896, Monday (-17,697) Ruth Etting, US actress, was born in David City, Nebraska (died 24/9/1978 in Colorado Springs)

21/11/1896, Saturday (-17,699) (Colombia) Colombia and Venezuela signed a treaty of friendship.

16/11/1896, Monday (-17,704) Birth of British fascist leader Oswald Mosley, in London

14/11/1896, Saturday (-17,706) (1) The speed limit for �horseless carriages� was raised from 4mph, or 2mph in towns, to 14 mph.

(2) Mannie Eisenhower, wife of America�s 34th President, was born in Boone, Iowa, as Mannie Doud.

13/11/1896, Friday (-17,707) The Arnold car, made by Walter Arnold of Peckham, south London, made its first appearance on British roads. This was the first car to have an electric starter; older cars had to be crank-started by hand.

8/11/1896, Sunday (-17,712)

4/11/1896, Wednesday (-17,716) Harry Woods, US composer, was born in North Chelmsford, Massachusetts (died13/1/1970 in Phoenix)

3/11/1896, Tuesday (-17,717) (Chemistry) Eugen Baumann, German chemist, died in Frieburg.

2/11/1896, Monday (-17,718) General Accident issued the first motor insurance policies in Britain.

1/11/1896, Sunday (-17,719)

===================================================================================

31/10/1896, Saturday (-17,720) Ethel Walters, US singer, was born in Chester, Pennsylvania (died 1/9/1977 in Chatsworth, California)

30/10/1896, Friday (-17,721) Ruth Gordon, actress, was born.

26/10/1896, Monday (-17,725) Paul Challemel-Lacour, French politician, died (born 19/5/1827).

21/10/1896, Wednesday (-17,730) (London Underground) James Greathead, engineer whose invention, known as the Greathead Shield, was crucial for the construction of the first London tube lines, died in Streatham, south London (born 6/8/1844 in South Africa).

18/10/1896, Sunday (-17,733) Frederick Hollander, composer, was born in London (died in Munich, 18/1/1976)

14/10/1896, Wednesday (-17,737) Bud Flanagan, British comedian, was born in Whitechapel, London (died 20/10/1968 in London)

11/10/1896, Sunday (-17,740) (Britain) Edward Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury, died in Ireland (born in Birmingham 14/7/1829).

9/10/1896, Friday (-17,742) Ferdinand Muller, explorer of Australia, died (born 30/6/1825).

8/10/1896, Thursday (-17,743) George du Maurier, English writer, died (born 1834).

6/10/1896, Tuesday (-17,745) The Treaty of Addis Ababa ended the Ethiopian War. Italy agreed to withdraw its plans for an Italian Protectorate.

3/10/1896, Saturday (-17,748) Queen Victoria became the first British monarch to be captured on moving film, at Balmoral.

====================================================================================

24/9/1896, Thursday (-17,757) F Scott Fitzgerald, US author, was born.

23/9/1896, Wednesday (-17,758) Ivar Aasen, Norwegian philosopher, died in Christiania, (born in Sondmore, 5/8/1813).

22/9/1896, Tuesday (-17,759 Henry Seagrave, motor racing champion, was born (died 13/6/1930).

21//9/1896, Monday (-17,760) Herbert Kitchener, who took control of the Anglo-Egyptian army in March 1896, with the aim of re-conquering the Sudan, took the town of Dongola.

18/9/1896, Friday (-17,763) (Science) Armand Fizeau, physicist, died (born 23/9/1819)

16/9/1869, Wednesday (-17,765) Thomas Graham, British chemist, died (born 20/12/1805).

14/9/1896, Monday (-17,767) James C Johnson, US composer, was born in Chicago (died 27/2/2981 in New York)

11/9/1896, Friday (-17,770) Francis Child, scholarly writer, died (born 1/2/1825).

10/9/1896, Thursday (-17,771) Elsa Schiaparelli, sportswear designer, was born in Rome.

9/9/1896, Wednesday (-17,772) Surgery was performed on the heart for the first time, at Frankfurt City Hospital, Germany. The 22 year old patient had been stabbed in the heart during a pub brawl and stitches were inserted in the organ.

8/9/1896, Tuesday (-17,773) Howard Dietz, US singer, was born in New York (died 30/7/1983 in New York)

7/9/1896, Monday (-17,774) The first car race in the USA was held, at Cranston Rhode Island.

6/9/1896, Sunday (-17,775) Sir Joseph Crowe, art writer, died (born 25/10/1828).

5/9/1896, Saturday (-17,776) Phil Baxter, US composer, was born in Navarro County Texas (died in Dallas 2/11/1972).

2/9/1896, Wednesday (-17,779) Nathaniel Thompson, cricketer for Australia, died in Sydney (born 21/4/1838 in Birmingham, England).

1/9/1996, Tuesday (-17,780)

=====================================================================================

31/8/1896, Monday (-17,781) Earthquake in Ugo and Rikuchu areas of Japan, 209 killed.

30/8/1896, Sunday (-17,782) Alexis Lobanov-Rostovski, Russian statesman, died (born 30/12/1824).

29/8/1896, Saturday (-17,783) Many Armenians, perhaps 3,000 or more, were being killed in Turkey three days after the Armenians seized the Ottoman Bank in Istanbul, to draw the world�s attention to their fight against Ottoman rule. The Armenian uprising began in 1894, and they hoped to break free of Turkish rule as Bulgaria had done. Some 200,000 Armenians were killed in Anatolia. Britain�s support for Armenia threatened the favoured position it had held for over 40 years in Istanbul. Germany began to manoeuvre to take Britain�s place, eager to secure concessions for its Berlin to Baghdad Railway project.

28/8/1896, Friday (-17,784)

27/8/1896, Thursday (-17,785) The shortest war in history occurred, between Britain and Zanzibar, lasting just 45 minutes.

26/8/1896, Wednesday (-17,786) Christian Armenian Nationalists attacked the ottoman Bank in Constantinople. This provoked a Turkish campaign against the Armenians.

25/8/1896, Tuesday (-17,787)

24/8/1896, Monday (-17,788) Phil Baker, US author, was born in Philadelphia (died 30/11/1963 in Copenhagen).

23/8/1896, Sunday (-17,789) Wendell Woods Hall, US composer, was born in St George, Kansas (died 2/4/1969 in Fairhope, Alaska)

21/8/1896, Friday (-17,791)

19/8/1896, Wednesday (-17,793) Alexander Green, English geologist, died (born 10/10/1832).

18/8/1896, Tuesday (-17,794) (Germany) Richard Avenarius, German philosopher, died in Zurich (born 19/11/1834 in Paris).

17/8/1896. Monday (-17,795) (1) The first pedestrian was killed by a motor vehicle in Britain. A car doing 4 mph killed Mrs Bridget Driscoll of Croydon. She froze in panic as the car approached.

(2) Gold was discovered at Bonanza Creek on the Klondike River in Canada�s Yukon Territory. This led to the great Gold Rush of 1898, in which the city of Dawson grew to over 25,000 people.

16/8/1896, Sunday (-17,796) Sir David MacPherson, Canadian politician, died.

15/8/1896, Saturday (-17,797)

13/8/1896, Thursday (-17,799) John Everett Millais, painter, died in London aged 67.

12/8/1896, Wednesday (-17,800) Sir Harry Lumsden, British soldier, died (born 11/12/1821).

11/8/1896, Tuesday (-17,801)

7/8/1896, Friday (-17,805) Ernesto Leucona, Cuban composer, was born (died 29/11/1963)

6/8/1896, Thursday (-17,806) Madagascar was proclaimed a French colony.

1/8/1896, Saturday (-17,811) Sir William Grove, electrical innovator, died (born 11/7/1811).

====================================================================================

28/7/1896, Tuesday (-17,815) The City of Miami was incorporated.It had been a small Indian trading post with two dwellings, a storehouse, and a small fort when the railway was built there in 1896.On incorporation it had a population of 260.By 1910 it had a population of 5,471; by 1920, 29,571.

26/7/1896, Sunday (-17,817) Henry Birkin, motor racing champion, was born (died 22/7/1933).

16/7/1896, Thursday (-17,827) Trygve Lie, Norwegian politician and Secretary General at the United Nations, was born in Oslo.

11/7/1896, Saturday (-17,832) Ernst Curtius, German historical writer, died (born 2/9/1814).

9/7/1896, Thursday (-17,834) Heinrich Beyrich, German geologist, died (born in Berlin 31/8/1815).

2/7/1896, Thursday (-17,841) Isaac Hall, US orientalist writer, died (born 12/12/1837).

====================================================================================

29/6/1898, Monday (-17,844) (Railways) Passenger services began on the first railway in Newfoundland, from St Johns to Hall Bay, Construction of the line had begun on 9/8/1881, against considerable local opposition and violence. The line was completed in 1896.

28/6/1896, Sunday (-17,845) Jenny Hill, British music hall singer, died in Brixton, London (born 1848).

26/6/1896. Friday (-17,847) The world�s first permanent cinema opened in New Orleans; admission was 10 cents. Britain�s first cinema opened in Islington on 5/8/1901, and charged between 6d and 3s for entry. However by World War One most cinemas were only charging 3d or 6d. The first drive in cinema opened on 6/6/1933 in Camden, New Jersey, and could hold 400 cars.

22/6/1896, Monday (-17,851) (USA) Benjamin Bristol, US politician, died (born 20/6/1832).

19/6/1896, Friday (-17,854) Wallis Simpson, Duchess of Windsor, was born.

15/6/1896, Monday (-17,858) A tsunami created a 100 foot wave that struck Sanriku, Japan, killing thousands along 170 miles of coastline. Earthquake in Sanriku, Japan, killed 27,100.

13/6/1896, Saturday (-17,860) (India) Sir James Browne, British engineer in India, died (born 1839).

11/6/1896, Thursday (-17,862) Sir George Dasent, English writer, died born 22/5/1817).

8/6/1896, Monday (-17,865) Muzaffar ed Din was crowned Shah of Persia.

7/6/1896, Sunday (-17,866) Imre Nagy, Prime Minister of Hungary 1953-55 and 1956, was born.

6/6/1896, Saturday (-17,867) Frenchman Captain J Marchand, who explored the River Niger from sea to source, this day began an expedition to claim French possession of southern Sudan.

5/6/1896, Friday (-17,868)

4/6/1896. Thursday (-17,869) Henry Ford took his Ford automobile for a trial run around the streets of Detroit.

3/6/1896, Wednesday (-17,870) King Edward VII (then Prince of Wales) won the Derby on a horse called Persimmon.

2/6/1896, Tuesday (-17,871) Marconi was granted patent no.12039 for his system of communication using radio waves. The maximum communications range was then about 12 miles.

====================================================================================

31/5/1896, Sunday (-17,873)

30/5/1896, Saturday (-17,874) The first car accident in New York city. Driver Henry Wells hit cyclist Eveylin Thomas.

29/5/1896, Friday (-17,875) Gabriel Daubree, French geologist, died (born 25/6/1814).

26/5/1896, Tuesday (-17,878) In the USA, the Dow Jones Industrial Average shares index was first published.

24/5/1896, Sunday (-17,880) Luigi Menabrea, Italian statesman, died (born 4/9/1809).

18/5/1896, Monday (-17,886) The US Supreme Court ruled, in Plessy v. Ferguson, that facilities for Whites and non-Whites could be segregated if they were �equal�.

12/5/1896, Tuesday (-17,892) Henri Cernuschi, Italian politician, died (born 1821).

11/5/1896, Monday (-17,893) Henry Bunner, US writer, died (born 3/8/1855).

10/5/1896, Sunday (-17,894) Luigi Cossa, Italian economics writer, died.

9/5/1896. Saturday (-17,895) The first Horseless Carriage Show opened to the motor trade, with ten models on show at London�s Imperial Institute.

8/5/1896, Friday (-17,896)

7/5/1896, Thursday (-17.897) Kathleen Godfree, tennis player, was born (died 19/6/1992).

6/5/1896, Wednesday (-17,898) In the US, Samuel Pierpoint Langley succeeded in flying a glider 3,300 feet (one kilometre).

5/5/1896, Tuesday (-17,899) Silas Adams, US politician died (born 1839)

4/5/1896. Monday (-17,900) The Daily Mail was first published, founded by Lord Northcliffe.

3/5/1896, Sunday (-17,901) Alfred Hunt, English painter, died (born 1830).

1/5/1896, Friday (-17,903) Nasr-ed-Din, Shah of Persia, was assassinated, aged 65. He was succeeded by his 43-year-old

son, Muzaffar-ed-Din.

====================================================================================

29/4/1896, Wednesday (-17,905) Jean Haureau, French writer, died (born 1812).

20/4/1896, Monday (-17,914) Wop May, aviator, was born.

10/4/1896, Friday (-17,924) Edith Day, US actress, was born in Minneapolis (died 2/5/1971 in London)

6/4/1896, Monday (-17,928) The modern Olympic Games, revived by Pierre de Coubertin, were opened at Athens. The original Olympic Games were first recorded in 776 BC although they had already been played for centuries by then; they were played every four years in honour of the God Zeus.They were abolished by the Christian Roman Emperor Theodosius, to discourage paganism, in AD 394.

5/4/1896, Sunday (-17,929) Easter Sunday. Henri Marion, French philosophical writer, died (born 9/9/1846).

====================================================================================

28/3/1896, Saturday (-17,937) Elizabeth Charles, English author, died (born 2/1/1828).

21/3/1896, Saturday (-17,944) George Denison, English religious writer, died (born 11/12/1805).

12/3/1896, Thursday (-17,953) Jesse Fuller, US blues singer, was born in Jonesboro, Georgia (died 29/1/1976 in Oakland, California)

6/3/1896, Friday, (-17,959) Charles Brady King test-drove a car he had built in Detroit, the first car ever driven in what would become known as Motor City.

1/3/1896. Sunday (-17,964) An Italian force invading Tigre in Ethiopia was crushed by British and Ethiopian forces under Menelik at the Battle of Adowa. 100,000 Ethiopians slaughtered 7,000 Italians. The war was essentially unnecessary for Italy; facing economic depression and anarchy at home, Crispi, the Italian Prime Minister, decided on a �cheap foreign war�. General Baratieri took command of an army of 16,000, and recklessly provoked Ethiopia by occupying northern Tigre. He then lingered there for a year giving the Ethiopians time to muster a large army. Menelik finally lured the Italians into a fight, but the battle was chaotic. Italian orders were misunderstood and brigades became separated, allowing the Ethiopians to cut them down one by one. This defeat ensured that Ethiopia remained independent for another forty years, until avenged by Mussolini.

==================================================================================

29/2/1896, Saturday (-17,965) Ranchhodji Morarji Desai, Indian Prime Minister who was imprisoned with Gandhi, was born.

28/2/1896, Friday (-17,966) (Medical) Philip Showalter Hench was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1948 he discovered that cortisone can be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

27/2/1896, Thursday (-17,967)

26/2/1896, Wednesday (-17,968) Arsene Houssaye, French novelist, died (born 28/3/1815).

25/3/1896, Tuesday (-17,969) Ida Cox, US blues composer, was born in Toccoa, Georgia (died in Knoxville, Tennessee)

22/2/1896, Saturday (-17,972) Nacio Herb Brown, US composer, was born in Deming, New Mexico (died 28/9/1964 in Beverly Hills, California).

19/2/1896, Wednesday (-17,975) Russia �recognised� Bulgaria as an independent state following the conversion of Crown Prince Boris, son of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, to Orthodox Christianity. De facto, however, Bulgaria remained as part of the Ottoman Empire.

18/2/1896, Tuesday (-17,976) Andre Breton, writer, was born.

5/2/1896, Wednesday (-17,989) Dorset Cricket Club was founded.

1/2/1896, Saturday (-17,993) The opera La Boheme premiered in Turin, Italy.

===================================================================================

29/1/1896, Wednesday (-17,996) Hugh Childers, British politician, died (born 25/6/1827).

28/1/1896, Tuesday (-17,997) Arnold Miller, of East Peckham, became the first motorist charged with speeding, at Tonbridge Magistrates Court. He had driven at over the 2 mph speed limit in a built up area past the window of the local constable�s house just as he was about to have dinner. The constable left his meal, grabbed his helmet, and gave chase on a bicycle, catching up the driver after 5 miles. Miller was driving at about 8 mph, according to witnesses. He was fined 1s plus costs.

25/1/1896, Saturday (-18,000) Frederick Leighton, English painter and sculptor, died.

23/1/1896, Thursday (-18,002) (Spain) Juan Camacho, Spanish statesman, died (born 1824).

20/1/1896, Monday (-18,005) Henry Prince of Battenberg died (born 5/10/1859).

19/1/1896, Sunday (-18,006) The first motor vehicle was operated in Japan. It was a motorcycle made in Germany.

18/1/1896, Saturday (-18,007) British troops took Kumasi and took the Ashante King prisoner in the Fourth Ashante (Ghana) War.

17/1/1896, Friday (-18,008)

15/1/1896, Wednesday (-18,010) Britain and France signed an agreement on their spheres of influence in S.E. Asia. Both countries guaranteed the independence of Siam (Thailand) and Britain recognised the French protectorate of Laos.

14/1/1896, Tuesday (-18,011) John Dos Passos, US writer, was born in Chicago, Illinois.

13/1/1896, Monday (-18,012) (Switzerland) Emilie de Morsier, Swiss social activist, died.

12/1/1896, Sunday (-18,013) Tommy Handley, British comedian, was born in Liverpool.

11/1/1896, Saturday (-18,014) Joao de Deus, Portuguese poet, died (born 8/3/1830).

8/1/1896, Wednesday (-18,017) Baron Colin Blackburn, British judge, died (born 1813).

6/1/1896, Monday (-18,019) (1) Cecil Rhodes was forced to resign as Prime Minister of Cape Colony because of his involvement in the Jameson raid.

(2) The Daimler Motor Company was incorporated by Harry Lawson.

5/1/1896, Sunday (-18,020) The German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen gave the first demonstration of X rays.

4/1/1896, Saturday (-18,021) Utah became the 45th state of the USA.

2/1/1896, Thursday (-18,023) The Jameson Raid, into the Boer colony of Transvaal to support British settlers, ended in failure.

1/1/1896, Wednesday (-18,024)

====================================================================================

30/12/1895, Monday (-18,026) George Ware, British composer, died in London (born 1829 in London)

29/12/1895, Sunday (-18,027) (Britain, Germany, South Africa) Leander Starr Jameson, an agent of the British South Africa Company, invaded the Boer Republic of Transvaal with 470 men. On 2/1/1896 Jameson surrendered At Doorn Kop after a defeat at Krugersdorp. On 3/1/1896 Kaiser William II sent a telegram to Paul Kruger congratulating him on the defeat of Jameson. This caused outrage in Britain, which saw the telegram as an attempt by Germany to expand its influence in Africa. Britain mocked the German Navy, saying it would be �child�s play� for the British Navy to wipe it out. Wilhelm I now decided on a course of massive expansion of the German Navy, seeing Britain no longer as an ally but a potential threat.

28/12/1895, Saturday (-18,028) Auguste and Louis Lumiere screened the first true motion picture on their new invention, the cinematographe, which gave us the word cinema.

24/12/1895, Tuesday (-18,032) Carl Brisson, Danish actor, was born in Copenhagen (died in Copenhagen 26/9/1958).

22/12/1895, Sunday (-18,034) The physicist Wilhelm Roentgen made a radiograph (X-ray photograph) of his wife�s hand.

17/12/1895, Tuesday (-18,039) Relations between the US and Britain were under severe strain because of a border dispute between Guiana and Venezuela.

16/12/1895, Monday (-18,040) Andy Razaf, US singer, was born in Washington DC (died 3/2/1973 in Hollywood)

14/12/1895, Saturday (-18,042) The future King George VI was born in Sandringham, Norfolk, second son of George V and Mary, see 11/12/1936.

11/12/1895, Wednesday (018,045) Jean Montegut, French writer, died (born 14/6/1825).

8/12/1895, Sunday (-18,048) Theodore la Villemarque, French writer, died (born 6/7/1815).

3/12/1895, Tuesday (-18,053) Anna Freud, psychoanalyst, was born.

====================================================================================

30/11/1895, Saturday (-18,056) China and Russia made a secret treaty so that Russia could build the Trans-Siberian railway through Manchuria to the port of Vladivostock.

29/11/1895, Friday (-18,057) William Tubman, President of Liberia, was born.

28/11/1895, Thursday (-18,058) Jose Iturbi, Spanish pianist and conductor, was born in Valencia, Spain (died 1980).

27/11/1895, Wednesday (-18,059) Alexandre Dumas II, novelist, died (born 27/7/1824)

26/11/1895, Tuesday (-18,060)

24/11/1895, Sunday (-18,062) (France) Saint Hilaire Barthelemy, French politician, was born in Paris (died 24/11/1895).

23/11/1895, Saturday (-18,063) Mauritz de Haas, US painter, died (born 12/12/1832).

22/11/1895, Friday (-18,064) John de Tabley, English poet, died (born 26/4/1835).

8/11/1895, Friday (-18,078) Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X rays, during an experiment at the University of Wurtzburg. He made the first radiograph, or X-ray, of his wife�s hand, on 22/12/1895. In 1896 Emil Grubbe, having noticed the damage that X-ray exposure did to his own skin, experimented with applying rays to cancerous tissue; he treated a woman with breast cancer, but did not publicise the results until several years later.

5/11/1895, Tuesday (-18,081) In the USA, George B Selden received patent 549 160 for his petrol powered car, effectively giving him a monopoly over the US car industry, until later successfully challenged by Henry Ford.

4/11/1895, Monday (-18,082) Eugene Field, US poet, died (born 2/9/1850).

3/11/1895, Sunday (-18,083)

2/11/1895, Saturday (-18,084) (Roads) The first issue of Autocar, a motoring magazine, was published in Britain.

1/11/1895, Friday (-18,085) (Roads) The first motoring association, the American Motor League, was founded in Chicago, Illinois.

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25/10/1895, Friday (-18,092) Sir Charles Halle, English pianist and conductor, died (born 11/4/1819).

22/10/1895, Tuesday (-18,095) Ruggero Bonghi, Italian writer, died (born in Naples 20/3/1828).

17/10/1895, Thursday (-18,100) (Road Travel) The first motoring offence in the UK resulting in a court summons. John Henry Knight of Farnham was charged with �permitting a locomotive to be at work� in Castle Street Farnham without a licence, and James Pullinger was charged with operating the same �locomotive� during prohibited hours. The prosecution was brought under a Surrey Council by-law requiring all locomotives other than those used in agriculture or road maintenance to be licensed by the Council and to be driven on the public highway only during set hours. The case was heard on 31/10/1895 before R H Combe at Farnham Petty Sessions. The locomotive was a motor vehicle owned by Knight, who watched whilst Pullinger drove it. Both defendants were fined 2s 6d each.

15/10/1895, Tuesday (-18,102) (Road Travel) First UK motor show, at the Agricultural Showground, Tunbridge Wells Kent. Also this day the last turnpike toll was levied on the last remaining stretch of turnpike road in the UK; the Anglesey section of Telford�s Shrewsbury to Holyhead road.

10/10/1895, Thursday (-18,107) (Railway) The Cape Town to Durban railway, South Africa, opened.

8/10/1895, Tuesday (-18,109) (Argentina) Juan Peron, Argentinean general and nationalist dictator, was born in Lobos.

7/10/1895, Monday (-18,110) William Wetmore Story, US poet, died (born 12/2/1819).

6/10/1895, Sunday (-18,111) Sir Henry Wood�s promenade concerts began at Queen�s Hall, London.

4/10/1895, Friday (-18,113) The US Golf Association hosted the first US Open Men�s Golf Championship, on a 9-hole course in Newport, Rhode Island.

2/10/1895, Wednesday (-18,115) Bud Abbott, actor and comedian, was born.

1/10/1895, Tuesday (-18,116) In Constantinople, Muslim Turks massacred Christian Armenians. In response, Russia made plans to take the city.

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30/9/1895, Monday (-18,117) The capital of Madagascar, Tananarive, surrendered to the French.

29/9/1895, Sunday (-18,118)

28/9/1895, Saturday (-18,119) French chemist Louis Pasteur died (see 6/7/1885). He had been born in Dole, France, on 27/12/1822.

27/9/1895, Friday (-18,120) Woolf Barnato, motor racing champion, was born (died 27/7/1948).

24/9/1895, Tuesday (-18,123)

18/9/1895, Wednesday (-18,129) The first chiropractic adjustment was made by Daniel David Palmer, in Iowa, USA.

17/9/1895, Tuesday (-18,130) William McKinney, US bandleader, was born in Cynthia, Kentucky (died 14/10/1969 in Detroit)

11/9/1895, Wednesday (-18,136) Three African Chiefs, Khama of the Ngwato tribe, Bathoen of the Ngwaketse and Sebele of the Kwena, from Bechuanaland (now Botswana) met with the British Prime Minister, Joseph Chamberlain, Their mission was to obtain British protection from the exploitative colonisation of Cecil Rhodes, who was then establishing White economic domination over African lands across much of southern Africa. In fact Rhodes was then preparing for the disastrous Jameson Raid (see 2/1/1896), against Chamberlain�s wishes. This made Chamberlain more sympathetic to the African Chiefs, and British Royal protection was granted to the existing tribal rule in Bechuanaland.

8/9/1895, Sunday (-18.139) Adam Opel, founder of Opel Automobiles, died aged 58.

3/9/1895, Tuesday (-18,144) (1) The first American professional football game was played, at Laitrobe., Pennsylvania. John Brallier, the first player to turn pro, accepted 10$ and expenses to play for the Latrobe YMCA, who won 12-0.

(2) The Duryea Motor Wagon Company was incorporated.

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29/8/1895, Thursday (-18,149) The Rugby League was formed at a meeting at the George Hotel in Huddersfield.

26/8/1895, Monday (-18,152) A hydroelectric plant designed by Nikola Tesla and built by Westinghouse opened at Niagara Falls.

16/8/1895, Friday (-18,162) Mathieu Geffroy, French historical writer, died (born 1820).

15/8/1895, Thursday (-18,163) A train jumped the rails at Preston, Lancashire, carrying holidaymakers to Blackpool. It was speeding through the station at over 70 kph, on a curve that was supposed to be taken at 20kph, although train drivers regularly went through at 40. The railway companies began to stop competing as to who could run the fastest trains, seeing that a rising accident toll was actually putting people off using the trains. Also such competitiveness often did not help the passengers, who simply arrived hours early at a station where they had to change, then faced a long wait for the next train.

14/8/1895, Wednesday (-18,164) Thomas Hovenden, US artist, died (born 28/12/1840)

13/8/1895, Tuesday (-18,165) Bert Lahr, US actor, was born in New York (died 4/12/1967 in New York)

10/8/1895, Saturday (-18,168) Harry Richman, US composer, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio (died3/11/1972 in Hollywood)

6/8/1895, Tuesday (-18,172) (Weather) Francis W Reichelderfer, US meteorologist, was born.

5/8/1895, Monday (-18,173) Engels died in London, aged 74. He was an immigrant businessman who, along with Marx, founded the political philosophy called communism. Marx was the better of the two at theory but Engels could communicate these ideas better to the public.

4/8/1895, Sunday (-18,174) Bobby Howes, British actor, was born in London (died 27/4/1972 in London)

3/8/1895, Saturday (-18,175)

1/8/1895, Thursday (-18,177) The people of Gutian in Fujian Province, destroyed churches and killed more than ten Australian and British missionaries, including women and children.

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31/7/1895, Wednesday (-18,178) The Basque Nationalist Party was founded by Sabino de Arana Goiri (1865-1903). He did much to revive the Basque language, publishing newspapers, magazines, and books on subjects ranging from grammar to history in this language. He also coined the word Euzkadi for the Basque national people, and designed the first Basque national flag, the Ikurrrina.

30/7/1895, Tuesday (-18,179)

29/7/1895, Monday (-18,180) Joseph Derenbourg, Orientalist writer, died (born 1811).

28/7/1895, Sunday (-18,181) In Poland the Peasant Electoral Committee (Ludowy Komitet Wyborcy) assembled in Rzeszow; from this meeting emerged the Polish Peasant Party (Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe). The PSL demandeduniversal suffrage, redistribution of land from the gentry, and an end to peasant service obligations to their landlord.

27/7/1895, Saturday (-18,182)

26/7/1895, Friday (-18,183) (Chemistry) Pierre Curie and Marie Sklodowska married in Sceaux, France. In 1896 Marie began her doctoral thesis on the radioactivity of uranium, and Pierre joined her in this research in 1898.Their daughter, Irene, was born in 1897.

25/7/1895, Thursday (-18,194) Yvonne Printemps, French actress, was born (died 18/1/1977 in Paris)

24/7/1895, Wednesday (-18,185) Robert Graves, writer, was born.

22/7/1895, Monday (-18,187) Heinrich Gneist, German politician, died (born 13/8/1816)

18/7/1895, Thursday (-18,191) Percy Baker, bowls champion, was born (died 3/1/1990)

13/7/1895, Saturday (-18,196) John Carrodus, violinist, died (born 20/1/1836)

12/7/1895, Friday (-18,197) Oscar II Hammerstein, US songwriter, was born in New York (died 23.8/1960 in Doylestown, Pennsylvania)

10/7/1895, Wednesday (-18,799) Carl Orff, composer, was born.

8/7/1895, Monday (-18,201) The opening of the Delagoa Bay railway, from Johannesburg to Maputo Bay, gave the Transvaal access to the sea independent of the British colonies.

4/7/1895, Thursday (-18,205) Irving Caesar, US songwriter, was born in New York

1/7/1895, Monday (-18,208) The pay for a junior civil servant in Britain, aged 17-20, ranged from �70 to �250 per annum, with a possible �100 bonus for efficiency available. In England, a domestic servant was paid �18.80 annually, and received board and lodging worth ca, �12.50 annually with the job. A female Lancashire cotton worker received �37.10 annually (no board and lodging provided).

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29/6/1895, Saturday (-18,210) The foundation stone of Westminster Cathedral, London, was laid.

25/6/1895, Tuesday (-18,214) The Marquess of Salisbury resumed office as Prime Minister.

24/6/1895, Monday (-18,215) Jack Dempsey, world heavyweight boxing champion, was born.

22/6/1895, Saturday (-18,217) Henry Moore, English painter, died (born 7/3/1831).

19/6/1895, Wednesday (-18,220) The 61-mile Kiel Canal between the Baltic and North Sea opened by German Emperor Wilhelm II.

17/6/1895, Monday (-18,222) Sam Wooding, US bandleader, was born in Philadelphia (died 1/8/1985 in New York)

15/6/1895, Saturday (-18,224) Franz Friedrich Richard Genee, Polish composer, died in Baden (born 7/2/1823 in Danzig)

14/6/1895, Friday (-18,225) Cliff Edwards, US singer, was born.

11/6/1895, Tuesday (-18,228) the first pneumatic-tyred car appeared on French roads. This was Edoaurd Michelin�s Peugeot, which was a competitor in the Paris-Bordeaux motor race. This car only came ninth, because it needed 22 inner tube changes, but gave a very smooth ride.

2/6/1895, Sunday (-18,237) Japan took formal possession of Formosa (Taiwan) from China.

1/6/1895, Saturday (-18,238) John Samuel Tucker, rugby player, was born (died 4/1/1973).

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31/5/1895, Friday (-18,239) (Women�s Rights) Emily Faithfull died (born 1835), In 1863 she began publishing a monthly periodical, The Victoria Magazine, campaigning for the right of women to remunerative employment.

30/5/1895, Thursday (-18,240) Maurice Tate, cricketer, was born (died 18/5/1956).

29/5/1895, Wednesday (-18,241) The Japanese landed near Keelung on the northern coast of Taiwan, and in a five-month campaign swept southwards to Tainan.

28/5/1895, Tuesday (-18,242) Walter Gresham, US statesman, died (born 28/5/1895).

26/5/1895, Sunday (-18,244)

25/5/1895, Saturday (-18,245) Oscar Wilde�s second trial ended, and he was sentenced to two year�s hard labour.

24/5/1895, Friday (-18,246) Hugh McCulloch, US financier, died (born 7/12/1808).

23/5/1895, Thursday (-18,247) Franz Neumann, scientific writer, died (born 11/9/1798).

22/5/1895, Wednesday (-18,248)

21/5/1895, Tuesday (-18,249) Franz von Suppe, composer, died in Vienna (born 18/4/1819 in Split)

20/5/1895. Monday (-18,250) The US Supreme court ruled that income tax, introduced in 1894, was unconstitutional.

15/5/1895, Wednesday (-18,255) Joseph Whitaker, who founded Whitaker�s Almanac in 1869, died.

6/5/1895, Monday (-18,264) Rudolph Valentino, actor, was born.

2/5/1895, Thursday (-18,268) Lorenz Milton Hart, US songwriter, was born in New York (died 22/11/1943 in New York)

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30/4/1895, Tuesday (-18,270) Gustav Freytag, German novelist, died (born 13/7/1816)

26/4/1895. Friday (-18,274) At the Old Bailey, the trial of Oscar Wilde for homosexuality, then a crime, began.

25/4/1895, Thursday (-18,275) Stanley Rous, footballer, was born (died 18/7/1986).

23/4/1895, Tuesday (-18,277) (Medical) Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig, German physiologist, died in Leipzig, Saxony.

17/4/1895. Wednesday (-18,283) Japan and China signed the peace treaty of Shimonoseki. China recognised the independence of Korea (although Japan did not have to recognise this), and ceded Formosa (Taiwan), the Pescadores Islands, and the Liaodong Peninsula, to Japan. China also had to pay a huge indemnity to Japan, and allow Japanese trade in four treaty ports, which would be exempt from Chinese taxation. Rivalry between Japan and China over Korea had started this war; the immediate cause was the assassination of a pro-Japanese politician in Korea, which gave Japan an excuse to send in troops. Japan opened hostilities without declaring war, by sinking a Chinese troopship and machine-gunning the survivors. However on 23/4/1895 Russia, France, and Germany intervened, forcing Japan to hand back the Liaodong Peninsula.

14/4/1895, Sunday (-18,286) Easter Sunday; James Dana, US geologist, died (born 12/2/1813).

11/4/1895, Thursday (-18,289) Julius Meyer, German chemistry writer, died (born 19/8/1830).

6/4/1895, Saturday (-18,294) Oscar Wilde was now arrested for the crime of homosexuality (see 5/4/1895). He was sentenced to 2 years hard labour.

5/4/1895, Friday (-18,295) Oscar Wilde sued the Marquess of Queensberry for libel at the Old Bailey. The Marquess was alleged to have left a note at Mr Wilde�s club accusing him of sodomy. The Marquess, keen on boxing, was annoyed that his son, Alfred, had an intimate relationship with Mr Wilde. Oscar Wilde lost his case.

3/4/1895, Wednesday (-18,297) A 16,000 strong British army defeated some 12,000 Chitral tribesmen in the Malakand Pass, NorthWest Frontier region.

1/4/1895, Monday (-18,299) Alberta Hunter, US blues singer, was born in Memphis (died 17/10/1984 in New York)

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31/3/1895, Sunday (-18,300) Sir George Chesney, British General, died (born 30/4/1830).

30/3/1895, Saturday (-18,301) (Britain) Frederick Alcester, British Admiral, died (born 12/4/1821).

28/3/1895, Thursday (-18,303) Sir Patrick Grant, British Field Marshal, died (born 11/9/1804).

26/3/1895, Tuesday (-18,305) Jimmy McMullan, footballer, was born (died 28/11/1964).

25/3/1895, Monday (-18,396) James Seed, footballer, was born (died 16/7/1966).

24/3/1895, Sunday (-18,397) Sir William Martin, English Admiral, died

22/3/1895, Friday (-18,309) The first demonstration of celluloid cinema film was given in Paris by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.

17/3/1895, Sunday (-18,314) Berkshire Cricket Club was founded.

16/3/1895, Saturday (-18,315) Corney Grain, British author, died in London (born 1844)

15/3/1895, Friday (-18,316) Bridget Clary, aged 27, was burnt to death for witchcraft at Battyradhen, County Tipperary.

13/3/1895, Wednesday (-18,318) Robert Dale, English religious writer, died (born 1/12/1829).

11/3/1895, Monday (-18,320) Albert Jenkins, rugby player, was born (died 7/10/1953).

6/3/1895, Wednesday (-18,325) Henry Lazarus, British clarinettist, died (born 1/1/1815).

3/3/1895, Sunday (-18,328) Sir Geoffrey Hornby, British Admiral, died (born 20/2/1825).

2/3/1895, Saturday (-18,329) Stuart Blackie, Scottish writer, died in Edinburgh (born in Glasgow 28/7/1809).

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28/2/1895, Thursday (-18,331)

25/2/1895, Monday (-18,334) (Britain) Henry Aberdare, British statesman and educationalist (born 16/4/1815) died in London).

24/2/1895, Sunday (-18,335) A Cuban revolt against Spanish colonial rule began.

23/2/1895, Saturday (-18,336) Samuel Horton, US economics writer, died (born 16/1/1844).

19/2/1895, Thursday (-18,338)

19/2/1895, Tuesday (-18,340) John Hulke, British geologist, died (born 6/11/1830).

18/2/1895, Monday (-18,341) (Austria) Friedrich Albert, Austrian Field Marshal, died (born 3/8/1817 in Vienna).

17/2/1895, Sunday (-18,342) The ballet Swan Lake by Tchaikovsky was first performed in full length at St Petersburg, Russia.

14/2/1895, Thursday (-18,345) Oscar Wilde�s final play, The Importance of Being Earnest, opened in London.

11/2/1895, Monday (-18,348) Charles Gayarre, US historical writer, died (born 9/1/1805).

9/2/1895, Wednesday (-18,350) Volleyball was invented by William Morgan at the Holyoke YMCA. It was introduced to Europe by US troops during World War One.

7/2/1895, Thursday (-18,352) Irving Aaronson, composer, was born in New York, USA (died 10/5/1963).

6/2/1895, Wednesday (-18,353) Babe Ruth, baseball player, was born

3/2/1895, Sunday (-18,356) Cecil Kershaw, rugby player, was born (died 1/11/1972).

1/2/1895, Friday (-18,358) John Ford, film director, was born.

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31/1/1895, Thursday (-18,359) Ebenezer Hoar, US politician, died (born 21/2/1816).

29/1/1895, Tuesday (-18,361)

28/1/1895, Monday (-18,362) Francois Canrobert, French military leader (born 27/6/1809) died.

27/1/1895, Sunday (-18,363) Sir James Cockle, English mathematician, died (born 14/1/1819).

26/1/1895, Saturday (-18,364) (Mathematics) Arthur Cayley, British mathematician, died in Cambridge.

25/1/1895, Friday (-18,365) Wales lost 3 � 0 to Ireland in the first ever hockey international, held at Rhyl in Wales.

24/1/1895, Thursday (-18,366) Lord Randolph Churchill, founder of the British Conservative Party, died.

22/1/1895, Tuesday (-18,368)

20/1/1895, Sunday (-18,370) (Race Equality) Frederick Douglass, US campaigner for Black Equality, died.

19/1/1895, Saturday (-18,371) Moritz Carriere, German historical writer, died (born 5/3/1817)

18/1/1895, Friday (-18,372)

17/1/1895, Thursday (-18,373) Francois Felix Faure became President of France.

16/1/1895, Wednesday (-18,374) Irene Bordoni, singer, was born in Corsica (died 10/3/1953 in New York).

15/1/1895, Tuesday (-18,375) (Ethiopia) Italian forces defeated the Ethiopians at Senafe, following an Italian victory (13/1/1895) at Koatit. However later in the year the Italian Army pushed too far south, and, lacking support, was defeated at Amba Alagi (7/12/1895) and then at Macalle (23/1/1896).

13/1/1895, Sunday (-18,377) President Jean Casimir Perier of France resigned.

11/1/1895, Friday (-18,379) Thomas Hake, English poet, died (born 10/3/1809).

10/1/1895, Thursday (-18,380) Benjamin Godard, French composer, died (born 18/8/1849).

1/1/1895, Tuesday (-18,389) J Edgar Hoover, American criminologist and founder of the FBI, was born in Washington DC.

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30/12/1894, Sunday (-18,391) Amelia Bloomer, American social reformer, campaigner for temperance and women�s rights, died.

29/12/1894, Saturday (-18,392) Christina Rossetti, English poet, died (born 5/12/1830).

27/12/1894, Thursday (-18,394) (Italy) Former King Francis II of Naples died.

23/12/1894, Sunday (-18,398) Arthur Gilligan, cricketer, was born (died 5/9/1976).

22/12/1894, Saturday (-18,399) The Dreyfus case opened.Alfred Dreyfus, French artillery officer, was convicted of selling army secrets to Germany, and imprisoned on Devil�s Island.Later he was pardoned and completely exonerated.

20/12/1894, Thursday (-18,401) Robert Menzies, Australian Prime Minister, was born.

15/12/1894, Saturday (-18,406) John Lord, US historical writer, (died (born 27/12/1810)

14/12/1894, Friday (-18,407) Eugene Debs, President of the American Railway Union, was jailed for 6 months for ignoring an injunction to end the Pullman strike. The strike began on 11/5/1894 when the Pullman Company reduced wages but did not cut rents for workers living in company housing.The strike turned violent with riots and burning or railroad cars. Attorney-General Richard Olney obtained an injunction to end the strike on the grounds it was obstructing the mail, and when this was ignored federal troops arrived in Chicago to enforce the court order. By 10/7/1894 the strike was broken.

13/12/1894, Thursday (-18,408)

12/12/1894, Wednesday (-18,409) (France) Auguste Burdeau, French politician, died (born 1851).

11/12/1894, Tuesday (-18,410) The first motor show opened in Paris, with nine exhibitors.It closed on 25/12/1894.

10/12/1894, Monday (-18,411)

8/12/1894, Saturday (-18,413) James Thurber, author, was born in Columbus, Ohio.

7/12/1894, Friday (-18,414) Ferdinand de Lesseps, French diplomat and engineer who promoted the Suez Canal, died aged 89.

3/12/1894, Monday (-18,418) Robert Louis Stevenson, who wrote Treasure Island, died.

1/12/1894, Saturday (-18,420) The first motoring journal, La Locomotion Automobile, was published in Paris. According to this publication, cars were unlikely to replace horse drawn traffic and would improve things in cities.

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30/11/1894, Friday (-18,421) William Hall, English legal writer, died (born 22/8/1835).

27/11/1894, Tuesday (-18,424)

25/11/1894, Sunday (-18,426) Jean Duroy, historical writer, died (born 11/9/1811).

24/11/1894, Saturday (-18,427) Herbert Sutcliffe, cricketer, was born (died 22/1/1978).

23/11/1894, Friday (-18,428) Ture Persson, Swedish sprinter, was born.

22/11/1894, Thursday (-18,429) The USA and Japan signed a commercial treaty.

21/11/1894, Wednesday (-18,430) (China-Japan) Japan defeated China at Port Arthur.

19/11/1894, Monday (-18,432)

16/11/1894, Friday (-18,435) James McCosh, philosophical writer, died (born 1/4/1811).

15/11/1894, Thursday (-18,436) (Brazil) In Brazil, General Peixoto was succeeded by Dr Prudente de Moraes Barros. The influence of the military on Brazilian politics was thereafter gradually reduced.

 

13/11/1894, Tuesday (-18,438) Bennie Moten, US composer, was born in Kansas City, Missouri (died 2/4/1935 in Kansas City)

12/11/1894, Monday (-18,439) Cornwall Cricket Club was founded.

 

4/11/1894, Sunday (-18,447) First turbine ship launched

3/11/1894, Saturday (-18,448) Max Darewski, British composer, was born in Manchester (died 26/9/1929 in London)

1/11/1894, Thursday (-18,450) Alexander III, Tsar of Russia, died (24/10).Nicolas II became Tsar of Russia.

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27/10/1894, Saturday (-18,457) Alphons Czibulka, Hungarian composer, died in Vienna (born 14/5/1842 in Szepes Varallya)

26/10/1894, Friday (-18,456) Prince Chlodwig Hohenlohe succeeded Leo von Caprivi as Imperial German Chancellor.

24/10/1894, Wednesday (-18,458) Ted Lewis, boxer, was born (died 20/10/1970).

22/10/1894, Monday (-18,460) Earthquake in Shonai, Japan, killed 726.

20/10/1894, Saturday (-18,462) Jean Challamel, French historical writer, died (born 18/3/1818)

19/10/1894, Friday (-18,463) James Darmesteter, French author, died (born 28/3/1849).

17/10/1894, Wednesday (-18,465)

15/10/1894, Monday (-18,467) Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer, was arrested for betraying military secrets to Germany. A French agent had discovered evidence of betrayal of French secrets in the German embassy. Suspicion fell on Dreyfus; he was ordered to take a handwriting test, his hand shook, and he was arrested. He was sentenced to life imprisonment on Devils Island. Aged 34, Dreyfus was an unlikely spy. Cold, serious, punctilious in his duties, he had no money problems because his father was a wealthy textile manufacturer. He was however Jewish and so was disliked by the militant Catholics who dominated the officer corps. Anti-Semitism was growing in France. At his court-martial evidence was thin and his lawyers were barred from court.

14/10/1894, Sunday (-18,468) e e cummings, poet, was born.

9/10/1894, Tuesday (-18,473) Henry Grey, British statesman, died (born 28/12/1802).

7/10/1894. Sunday (-18,475) Andrew Curtin, US politician, died (born 22/4/1817).

6/10/1894, Saturday (-18,476) Sir Rupert Kettle, English County Court Judge and industrial dispute arbiter, died (born 9/1/1817).

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28/9/1894, Friday (-18,484) The first Marks and Spencer store opened, as a Penny Bazaar at Cheetham Hill, Manchester.

22/9/1894, Saturday (-18,490) Dave Dreyer, US composer, was born in New York.

18/9/1894, Tuesday (-18,494) The Blackpool Tower opened. It is a 500 foot high replica of the Eiffel Tower.

15/9/1894, Saturday (-18,497) Jean Renoir, film director, was born.

13/9/1894, Thursday (-18,499) French composer Alexis Chabrier died (born 18/1/1841).

9/9/1894, Sunday (-18,503) (Egypt) Heinrich Brugsch, German Egyptologist, died (born 18/2/1827).

8/9/1894, Saturday (-18,504) (Biology) Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz died (born 31/8.1821) He researched the relationship between nerve cells and nerve fibres.

5/9/1894, Wednesday (-18.507) Sir Edward Inglefield, British Admiral, died (born 27/3/1820).

1/9/1894, Saturday (-18,511) First use of postcards with adhesive stamps in Britain

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27/8/1894, Monday (-18,516) In the USA, the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act made income tax a law.

24/8/1894, Friday (-18,519) Elisha Scott, footballer, was born (died 16/5/1959).

15/8/1894, Wednesday (-18,528) Harry Akst, US composer, was born in New York (died 31/3/1963 in Hollywood).

14/8/1894, Tuesday (-18,529) Ada Beatrice Smith, US singer, was born in Alderson, West Virginia (died 31/1/1984 in New York)

13/8/1894, Monday (-18,530) (Chemistry) Argon was first discovered by British chemists Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsey. It was the first Noble Gas found. Atmospheric Nitrogen was found to be slightly denser, by 0.47%, than Nitrogen obtained from chemical reactions; this margin was beyond experimental error. Therefore atmospheric Nitrogen had to contain some other gas. Removing Oxygen from the air (by passing over hot metallic Copper) and then also removing the Nitrogen (by passing over hot Magnesium) left an inert gas, which was termed �Argon� meaning un-reactive. Subsequently, 120 tons of air was liquefied and from the Argon so obtained, the other inert gases Krypton, Xenon and Neon were discovered.

7/8/1894, Tuesday (-18,536) The West Highland Railway opened from Craigendoran to Fort William.

5/8/1894, Sunday (-18,538) Giovanni Muzzioli, Italian painter, died (born 10/2/1854).

3/8/1894, Friday (-18,540) George Innes, US landscape painter, died (born 1/5/1825).

2/8/1894. Thursday (-18,541) Death Duties were introduced in Britain.

1/8/1894. Wednesday (-18,542) (China) War was formally declared between China and Japan.

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30/7/1894, Monday (-18,544) (Railway Tunnels) The Cataldo rail tunnel, Italy, 5.1.41 km long, opened on the Agropoli-Supri-Naples-Reggio line.

27/7/1894, Friday (-18,547) (China) Korea declared war on China.

26/7/1894, Thursday (-18,548) Aldous Huxley, novelist, was born.

25/7/1894, Wednesday (-18,549) Japanese forces sank the Kowshing, a British ship carrying Chinese forces to Korea.

22/7/1894. Sunday (-18,552) The first automobile race took place, between Paris and Rouen.

19/7/1894, Thursday (-18,555) Khwaja Nazimuddin, Prime Minister of Pakistan from 16/10/1951, was born in Dhaka, Bengal.

18/7/1894, Wednesday (-18,556) Charles Leconte, French poet, died (born 22/10/1818).

17/7/1894. Tuesday (-18,557) (Ethiopia), Italian forces under Colonel Baratieri captured Kassala.

14/7/1894, Saturday (-18,560) Ted Koehler, US musician, was born in Washington DC (died 17/1/1973 in Santa Monica, California)

10/7/1894, Tuesday (-18,564) James McHugh, US composer, was born in Boston (died 23/5/1969 in Beverly Hills, California)

5/7/1894, Saturday (-18,569) Sir Austin Layard, British author, died.

4/7/1894, Friday (-18,570) The Republic of Hawaii was declared with 50-year old Judge Sanford Dole as President.

====================================================================================

30/6/1894. Saturday (-18,574) London�s Tower Bridge was officially opened to traffic.Sir Horace Jones and J Wolfe Barry designed it.

28/6/1894, Thursday (-18,576) (Arts) Alice DG Miller, US screenwriter, was born (died 24/7/1985).

25/6/1894, Monday (-18,579) Hermann Julius Oberth, designer of the V2 flying rocket bombs that plagued London at the end of World War two, was born.

24/6/1894, Sunday (-18,580) The President of France, Marie Francois Carnot, was stabbed to death at Lyons by an Italian anarchist.

23/6/1894. Saturday (-18,581) King Edward VIII was born at White Lodge, Richmond, Surrey, the eldest son of George V and Queen Mary.

22/6/1894, Friday (-18,582) Dahomey became a French colony.

20/6/1894, Wednesday (-15,584)

18/6/1894, Monday (-18,586) The Turchino rail tunnel, Italy, 6.9 km long, opened.

17/6/1894, Sunday (-18,587) William Hart, US painter, died.

16/6/1894, Saturday (-18,588)

15/6/1894, Friday (-18,589) Robert Russell Bennett, US composer, was born in Kansas City (died in New York, 17/8/1981).

14/6/1894, Thursday (-18,590) John Coleridge, Lord Chief Justice of England, died (born 3/12/1820).

11/6/1894, Monday (-18,593) Don Madrazo, Spanish painter died.

5/6/1894, Tuesday (-18,599) Edward Capern, English poet, died (born 21/1/1819).

4/6/1894, Monday (-18,600) Wilhelm Freund, German scholarly writer, died (born 27/1/1806).

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31/5/1894, Thursday (-18,604) Fred Allen, US actor, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts (died 17/3/1956 in New York).

29/5/1894, Tuesday (-18,606) Beatrice Lillie, Canadian actress, was born in Toronto (died 20/1/1989 in Henley on Thames)

23/5/1894, Wednesday (-18,612) Brian Hodgson, British writer on Buddhism, died (born 1/2/1800)

21/5/1894. Monday (-18,614) The Manchester Ship Canal, which had taken 25 years to build, was officially opened by Queen Victoria (see 1/1/1894). The Queen travelled by rain from Windsor, leaving at 11.10 a.m. and travelling on the Great Western Railway via Reading, Oxford, and Wolverhampton, which she made by 2pm.Continuing via Stafford and Crewe, Queen Victoria arrived at London Road Station, Manchester, at about 4 p.m. The Queen then travelled along the canal by boat.

15/5/1894, Tuesday (-18,620) Stanley Lupino, British actor, was born in London (died 10/6/1942 in London)

14/5/1894, Monday (-18,621) Henry Morley, British writer, died (born 15/9/1822).

13/5/1894, Sunday (-18,622) Asgeir Asgeirsson, President of Iceland, was born.

12/5/1894, Saturday (-18,623) The Congo Treaty, between Britain and Belgium, gave Britain a lease on a corridor between Lakes Tanganyika and Albert. In return Belgium was given a lease on lands west of the upper Nile and north of the Congo-Nile link. This alarmed both France and Germany. Germany interrupted the British aim of a contiguous territorial belt from Cairo to the Cape, and France forced Belgium to cede the lands in the northern area of their lease.

11/5/1894, Friday (-18,624) Martha Graham, choreographer, was born.

10/5/1894, Thursday (-18,625) Dimitri Tiomkin, composer, was born in St Petersburg, Russia (died 11/11/1979 in London)

8/5/1894, Tuesday (-18,627)

1/5/1894, Tuesday (-18,634) David Coxey, who led a march of 100,000 unemployed to the capital, Washington, to demand economic reform, was arrested.

====================================================================================

29/4/1894, Sunday (-18,636) Augusta Drane, English writer, died (born 29/12/1823).

26/4/1894, Thursday (-18,639) Rudolf Hess, Adolf Hitler�s deputy, was born in Alexandria, Egypt.

23/4/1894, Monday (-18,642) Charles Edward Davenport, US composer, was born in Anniston, Alabama (died 3/12/1955 in Cleveland)

17/4/1894, Tuesday (-18,648) Nikita Kruschev, Soviet leader, was born in Kalinovka, near Kursk.

16/4/1894, Monday (-18,649) President Peixoto of Brazil managed, with great difficulty, to defeat the rebels, using warships ordered in from abroad; rebel activity in Rio Grande do Sol (see 8/1893) until August 1895, stopping only when Peixoto died.

15/4/1894, Sunday (-18,650) The Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac died (born 24/4/1817). He researched on atomic weights and isotopes, and explored the chemistry of the rare earths.

14/4/1894, Saturday (-18,651) Edison�s kinetoscope, or moving pictures, were shown to the public for the first time.

13/4/1894, Friday (-18,652) David Field, US lawyer, died (born 13/2/1805).

12/4/1894, Thursday (-18,653) Francisco Craveiro Lopes, 12th President of Portugal (1951-58), was born in Lisbon.

11/4/1894, Wednesday (-18,654) Britain established a protectorate over Uganda.

10/4/1894, Tuesday (-18.655) Charles Bowen, English Judge, died (born in Gloucestershire 1/1/1835).

6/4/1894, Friday (-18,659)

5/4/1894, Thursday (-18,660) Chesney Allen, British comedian, was born in Brighton (died n13/11/1982 in London)

2/4/1894, Monday (-18,663) (Medical) Charles Brown-Sequard, neurologist, died (born 8/4/1817)

1/4/1894, Sunday (-18,664) Henri le Caron, British secret agent, died (born 26/9/1841).

=====================================================================================

31/3/1894, Saturday (-18,665)

30/3/1894, Friday (-18,666) Tommy Green, champion walker, was born (died 29/3/1975).

29/3/1894, Thursday (-18,667) James Hannen, English Judge, died (born 1821).

28/3/1894, Wednesday (-18,668) George Curtis, US lawyer, died (born 28/11/1812).

27/3/1894, Tuesday (-18,669)

25/3/1894, Sunday (-18,671) Easter Sunday

24/3/1894, Saturday (-18,672) Verney Cameron, English explorer of Africa and author (born 1/7/1844) died.

23/3/1894, Friday (-18,673) Arthur Grimsdell, footballer, was born (died 12/3/1963).

20/3/1894, Tuesday (-18,676) Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian nationalist patriot, died in exile in Turin (born 19/9/1802). His son Ferenc returned to Budapest to campaign for Hungarian independence from Austria.

17/3/1894, Saturday (-18.679) (USA) The USA and China signed a Chinese Exclusion Treaty, whereby China consented to the exclusion of Chinese labourers from migration to the USA. This year the US established an Immigration Bureau, and a group of Boston citizens formed an Immigration Restriction League, which campaigned for literacy tests for immigrants to the US. This was aimed against Chinese, Slavs and Latin-Americans.

15/3/1894, Thursday (-18,681) Germany and France signed a treaty outlining their spheres of influence in tropical Africa

13/3/1894, Tuesday (-18,683) The world�s first professional striptease performance took place at the Divan Fayanou Music Hall, Paris. It consisted of a woman getting ready for bed.

12/3/1894, Monday (-18,684) Coca Cola was sold in bottles for the first time.

11/3/1894, Sunday (-18,685) John Selby, cricketer for England, died in Nottingham (born 1/7/1894 in Nottoingham)

10/3/1894, Saturday (-18,686) Paul Jablochkov, Russian electrical engineer, died (born 14/9/1847).

6/3/1894, Tuesday (-18,690)

3/3/1894, Saturday (-18,693) Gladstone resigned after splitting his party over the issue of Irish Home Rule. He was succeeded by Lord Rosebery as Prime Minister.

2/3/1894, Friday (-18,694) (USA) Jubal Anderson Early, US Confederate General (born 3/11/1816 in Franklin County, Virginia) died in Lynchburg, Virginia.

====================================================================================

22/2/1894, Thursday (-18,702)

19/2/1894, Monday (-18,705) Francisco Asenjo Barbieri, Spanish composer, died in Madrid (born 3/8/1823 in Madrid).

14/2/1894, Wednesday (-18,710) Jack Benny, actor, was born.

13/2/1894, Tuesday (-18,711) Auguste and Louis Lumiere patented the Cinematographe, a combination film projector and camera.

11/2/1894, Sunday (-18,713)

10/2/1894, Saturday (-18,714) (1) Harold Macmillan, Lord Stockton, British Conservative Prime Minister, was born in London.

(2) Germany signed a commercial treaty with Russia.

9/2/1894, Friday (-18,715) Adolphe Saxe, the Belgian musical instrument maker who invented the Saxophone, died in Paris.

8/2/1894, Thursday (-18,716) Robert Ballantyne, writer, died in Rome (born in Edinburgh 24/4/1825).

6/2/1894, Tuesday (-18,718) Albert Billroth, surgeon, died (born in Rugen 26/4/1829).

3/2/1894, Saturday (-18,721) George Childs, US publisher, died (born 12/5/1829).

1/2/1894, Thursday (-18,723) Herman Hupfeld, US composer, was born in Montclair, New Jersey (died 8/6/1951 in Montclair)

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31/1/1894, Wednesday (-18,724) Isham Jones, US composer, was born in Coalton, Ohio (died 19/10/1956 in Florida)

30/1/1894, Tuesday (-18,725) Charles King of Detroit received a patent for the pneumatic hammer.

23/1/1894, Tuesday (-18,732) King Lobengula of Matabeleland was killed.

9/1/1894, Tuesday (-18,746) The first battery-powered telephone switchboard was installed in Lexington, Massachusetts.

8/1/1894, Monday (-18,747) Peter Forchhammer, German archaeological writer, died (born 23/10/1801).

6/1/1894, Saturday (-18,749)

4/1/1894, Thursday (-18,751) (France, Russia) Russia and France signed a treaty of mutual defence. Despite huge differences between their political systems, both countries felt threatened by encirclement. France felt threatened by a rare entente between Germany and Britain. Russia saw itself threatened to the south and east by the British Empire in central and eastern Asia.

3/1/1894, Wednesday (-18,752) (1) (Italy) The Italian government ordered the dissolution of the Fasci, and the arrest of their ringleaders. Over 1,000 people were deported to Italian islands, often without trial. The Fasci were small alliances, groups of radical or socialist academics and peasants, and some anarchists, local gentry and Mafiosi. The name derived from the fasces, or bundle, of sticks used in ancient Rome. Starting in Sicily in 1893 the Fasci agitated for political ends, with strikes and riots, alarming the larger landowners.

(2) Elizabeth Peabody, American educator and founder in 1960 of the first kindergarten in the US, died aged 89.

1/1/1894, Monday (-18,754) (Canals) The 35 mile Manchester Ship Canal opened.Its official opening by Queen Victoria was on 21 May 1894.

======================================================================================

30/12/1893, Saturday (-18,756) (Africa) Sir Samuel Baker, explorer of Africa, died in Sandford Orleigh (born in London 8/6/1821).

27/12/1893, Wednesday (-18,759) Charles Merivale, English historical writer, died (born 8/3/1808).
26/12/1893, Tuesday (-18,760) (China) Mao Tse Tung, Chinese Communist leader, was born in Hunan.He was the son of a peasant farmer.

24/12/1893, Sunday (-18,762) Harry Warren, US composer, was born in Brooklyn, New York (died 22/9/1981 in Los Angeles)

22/12/1893, Friday (-18,764) William Lloyd, English writer, died (born 11/3/1813).

21/12/1893, Thursday (-18,765) (Ethiopia) Italian forces under Colonel Arimondi captured Agordat.

18/12/1893, Monday (-18,768) The Chateau Frontenac Hotel opened in Quebec after 18 months construction, with 170 bedrooms.

16/12/1893, Saturday (-18,770) Karl Michelet, German philosophical writer, died (born 4/12/1801).

12/12/1893, Tuesday (-18,774) The French advanced down the valley of the Niger from Kayes in Senegal and captured Timbuktu, capital of Mali.

10/12/1893, Sunday (-18,776) Lew Brown, US singer, was born in Odessa (died in New York 5/2/1958).

2/12/1893, Saturday (-18,784) William Gaxton, US actor, was born in San Francisco (died 2/2/1963 in New York)

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28/11/1893, Tuesday (-18,788) (Women�s Rights, New Zealand) Women first voted in New Zealand, at the General Election, see 19/9/1893.

19/11/1893, Sunday (-18,797) The first newspaper colour supplement produced; a 4-page section of the New York World.

18/11/1893, Saturday (-18,798) Charles Deems, US religious writer, died (born 4/12/1820).

16/11/1893, Thursday (-18,800) Robert Kelly, footballer, was born (died 22/9/1969).

14/11/1893, Tuesday (-18,802) (Railways) The railway from Chicla to Oroya opened.

13/11/1893, Monday (-18,803) The Boer republic of the Transvaal annexed the African State of Swaziland.

12/11/1893, Sunday (-18,804) The Durand Agreement, defining the border between Afghanistan and India, was signed.

11/11/1893, Saturday (-18,805) King Lobengula of the Matabele abandoned his capital Bulawayo and fled into exile, where he died in 1894.

6/11/1893. Monday (-18,810) (1) The Totley rail tunnel, UK, 6 km long, opened.

(2) Composer Peter Illich Tchaikovsky, born.7/5/1840, died of cholera, after drinking infected water.

(3) Edsel Ford, US car executive, only child of Henry Ford, was born in Detroit.

4/11/1893. Saturday (-18,812) The British defeated the Matabele in Zimbabwe and occupied the capital, Bulawayo.

2/11/1895, Thursday (-18,814) Jack Dempsey, boxer, died (born 15/12/1862)

======================================================================================

31/10/1893, Tuesday (-18,816) US Congress repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 and the USA returned to the Gold Standard. Silver prices collapsed.

28/10/1893, Saturday (-18,819) The British Royal Navy�s first destroyer, HMS Havoc, underwent sea trials.

23/10/1893, Monday (-18,824) Forces of the British South African Company under James Starr suppressed a revolt by the Matabele people in what is now southern and western Zimbabwe.

22/10/1893, Sunday (-18,825) Dhuleep Singh, Maharajah of Lahore, died (born 2/1837).

20/10/1893, Friday (-18,827)

18/10/1893, Wednesday (-18,829) Lucy Stone, American campaigner for women�s rights, died.

17/10/1893, Tuesday (-18,830) Marie MacMahon, French President, died (born 13/7/1808).

14/10/1893, Saturday (-18,833) Lilian Gish, actress, was born.

9/10/1893, Monday (-18,838) Sir George Elvey, composer, died (born 27/3/1816)

6/10/1893, Friday (-18,841) Ford Brown, English painter, died (born 16/4/1821).

3/10/1893. Tuesday (-18,844) Siam (Thailand) gave up all its territory east of the Mekong Rover, and recognised Laos as a French protectorate

2/10/1893, Monday (-18,845) David James, English actor, died (born 1839).

1/10/1893, Sunday (-18,846) Henry Crosskey, English geologist, died (born 7/12/1826).

======================================================================================

25/9/1893, Monday (-18,852) Albert Moore, English painter, died (born 4/9/1841).

23/9/1893, Saturday (-18,854) Thomas Hawkesley, English engineer, died (born 12/7/1807).

20/9/1893, Wednesday (-18,857) Charles and Frank Duryea built the first gasoline-powered car in the USA, and took it for a drive in Springfield, Massachusetts.

19/9/1893. Tuesday (-18,858) (Women�s Rights, New Zealand) New Zealand became the first country to allow women the vote. The Women�s Christian Temperance Union had been pressing for this for 8 years, and had presented three petitions to the House of Representatives. Each time the number of signatures rose, until a record 31,872 names swayed the House. Despite an unscrupulous liquor lobby, the WCTU won and intended to press for women�s votes in other countries.See 28/11/1893

18/9/1893. Monday (-18,859) (Railways) In the USA, the Great Northern Pacific Railway opened. This was the most northerly of the USA�s rail routes between the Mississippi River and the Pacific.

16/9/1893, Saturday (-18,861) Some 2.4 million hectares of land in North Oklahoma, formerly owned by the Cherokee People, were declared open to White settlement.

12/9/1893, Tuesday (-18,865) (Railways) The Killorglin to Valentia Harbour line opened.

7/9/1893, Thursday (-18,870) (1) The Featherstone Massacre. In Yorkshire, striking miners campaigning for a living wage were fired upon; soldiers killed 2 and wounded 16.

(2) Leslie Hore-Belisha, British Liberal politician, was born in Devonport.

1/9/1893, Friday (-18,876) Second Irish Home Rule Bill passed in the Commons, but rejected on 8/9/1893 by the Lords

=====================================================================================

31/8/1893, Thursday (-18,877) Leslie Bridgewater, British composer, was born in Halesowen, Worcestershire (died19/3/1975 in Hong Kong).

28/8/1893, Monday (-18,880) Samuel Irving, footballer, was born (died 17/1/1969).

22/8/1893, Tuesday (-18,886) Ernst II, Duke of Saxe Coburg Gotha, died (born 21/6/1818).

19/8/1893, Saturday (-18,889) Julien Havet, French historical writer, died (born 4/4/1853).

17/8/1893, Thursday (-18,891) Actress Mae West was born.

16/8/1893, Wednesday (-18,892) (Medical) Jean Charcot, French physician, died (born 29/11/1825).

15/8/1893, Tuesday (-18,893) John Hatfield, champion swimmer, was born (died 30/3/1965).

14/8/1893. Monday (-18,894) The world�s first car registration plates were introduced, in France. French drivers also were required to have driving licences from this date, for which the passing of a driving test was needed; French tests also began from 14/8/1893. See 13/3/1935 for British tests. From 10/3/1899 French motorists had to carry a driving licence in card form at all times. See 14/1/1903 for the UK

12/8/1893, Saturday (-18,896) Sir Edward Hamley, British military writer, died (born 27/4/1824).

6/8/1893, Sunday (-18,902) The 3 � mile Corinth Canal opened in Greece. Cut up to 300 feet deep, it took ten years to build.

======================================================================================

31/7/1893, Monday (-18,908) In Ireland the Gaelic Language League was founded use of the Irish language.

13/7/1893, Thursday (-18,926) Germany passed a bill to substantially increase the size of its army.

11/7/1893, Tuesday (-18,928) Kokichi Mikimoto harvested the first cultured pearl at his pearl farm, after 5 years work. The pearl was imperfect; it took another 10 years to create a perfectly spherical one.

10/7/1893, Monday (-18,929) Henry Nettleship, English scholarly writer, died.

9/7/1893, Sunday (-18,930)

7/7/1893, Friday (-18,932) Miroslav Krleza, writer, was born.

6/7/1893, Thursday (-18,933) Henri Maupassant, French novelist, died (born 5/8/1850).

======================================================================================

30/6/1893, Friday (-18,939) (Companies) Anthony Drexel, US banker, died (born 13/9/1826).

26/6/1893, Monday (-18,943) Sir Charles Norrie, Governotr-General of New Zealand from 1952, was born.

23/6/1893, Friday (-18,946) Sir William Fox, New Zealand statesman, died (born 9/6/1812).

17/6/1893, Saturday (-18,952) Thomas Mozley, English writer, died.

14/6/1893, Wednesday (-18,955) Jakob Frohschammer, German scholarly writer, died (born 6/1/1821).

13/6/1893, Tuesday (-18,956) The first women�s golf championship was held, at Britain�s Royal Lytham course.

6/6/1893, Tuesday (-18,963) Karl Hefele, German religious writer, died (born 15/3/1809).

======================================================================================

21/5/1893, Sunday (-18,979) Arthur Carr, cricketer, was born (died 7/2/1963).

11/5/1893, Thursday (-18,989) (USA) Samuel Armstrong, US soldier and philanthropist, died in Hampton, Virginia (born 30/1/1839 in Maui, Hawaii)

10/5/1893, Wednesday (-18,990) (1) The British colony of Natal, South Africa, became self-governing.

(2) France formally declared the Ivory Coast to be a colony.

5/5/1893, Friday (-18,995) Panic selling hit the New York Stock exchange. In the ensuing crash, some 500 banks and 15,000 companies went bankrupt.

3/5/1893, Wednesday (-18,997) Golda Meir, Israeli Prime Minister, was born in Kiev, Russia, as Golda Mabovitch, the daughter of a carpenter.

===================================================================================

30/4/1893, Sunday (-19,000) (Germany) Joachim von Ribbentrop, Hitler�s foreign minister, was born.

29/4/1893, Saturday (-19,001) (Atomic) Physicist Harold Clayton Urey was born in Walkerton, Indiana. In 1932 he discovered deuterium or heavy hydrogen.

27/4/1893, Thursday (-19,003)

24/4/1893, Monday (-19,006) Alan Morton, footballer, was born (died 15/12/1971).

23/4/1893, Sunday (-19,007) Billy Smart, British circus proprietor, was born in London, the son of a fairground owner.

20/4/1893, Friday (-19,010) Joan Miro, painter, was born

18/4/1893, Tuesday (-19,012) Belgium introduced pluralism and universal male suffrage.

7/4/1893, Friday (-19,023) Irene Castle, US actress, was born in new Rochelle, New York.

6/4/1893, Thursday (-19,024) Vicat Cole, English painter, died (born 17/4/1833).

4/4/1893, Tuesday (-19,026) Alphonse Candolle, botanical writer, died (born 28/10/1806).

2/4/1893, Sunday (-19,028) Easter Sunday

1/4/1893, Saturday (-19,029) Cicely Courtneidge, British actress, was born in Sydney (died 29/4/1980 in London)

====================================================================================

29/3/1893, Wednesday (-19,032) (Cartography) John Bartholomew, Scottish cartographer, died in London (born in Edinburgh 25/12/1831).

26/3/1893, Sunday (-19,035) (Railways, Britain) Sir George Findlay, English railway manager, died (born 18/5/1829).

23/2/1893, Thursday (-19,038) Rudolf Diesel received a patent for the diesel engine.

18/3/1893, Saturday (-19,043) Wilfred Owen, poet, was born.

17/3/1893, Friday (-19,044) Jules Ferry, French politician, died (born 5/4/1832).

16/3/1893, Thursday (-19,045) Abel Baer, US composer, was born in Baltimore (died 5/10/1976 in New York).

1/3/1893, Wednesday (-19,060) William Minto, Scottish writer, died (born 10/10/1845).

====================================================================================

23/2/1893, Thursday (-19,066) (Road, Scitech) The diesel engine was patented by Rudolf Deisel.

20/2/1893, Monday (-19,069) Pierre Beauregard, American Confederate General, died

15/2/1893, Wednesday (-19,074) Walter Donaldson, US composer, was born in Brooklyn, New York (died 15/7/1947 in Santa Monica, California)

14/2/1893, Tuesday (-19,075) Perry Bradford, US composer, was born in Montgomery, Alabama (died 20/4/1970 in New York).

13/2/1893, Monday (-19,076) A Home Rule Bill (for Ireland) was introduced to the UK Commons.

12/2/1893, Sunday (-19,077)

10/2/1893, Friday (-19,079) Jimmy Durante, actor, was born.

9/2/1893, Thursday (-19,080) The world�s first public striptease took place at the Moulin Rouge, Paris.

1/2/1893, Wednesday (-19,088) In New Jersey, USA, Thomas Edison opened the world�s first film studio.

=====================================================================================

30/1/1893, Monday (-19,090) Charles Bradlaugh, English politician, died (born in Hoxton, London 26/9/1833).

28/1/1893, Saturday (-19,092) Julius Eichberg, German composer, died (born 13/6/1824).

27/1/1893, Friday (-19,093) James Blaine, US statesman, died in Washington DC (born in Pennsylvania 31/1/1830).

26/1/1893, Thursday (-19,094) Abner Doubleday, US soldier, died (born 26/6/1819).

23/1/1893, Monday (-19,097) Phillips Brooks, US author, died (born 13/12/1835).

17/1/1893. Tuesday (-19,103) (1) US troops landed on Hawaii and annexed it to the USA. The annexation was generally peaceful. The US was concerned about the rise of Japan as a world power, the need for the US to have a Pacific base, the anti-US attitude of the Hawaiian Queen, and demands from Hawaiian sugar growers to sell inside the US tariff area.

16/1/1893, Monday (-19,104) Christino Martos, Spanish politician, died.

(2) Rutherford Hayes, US Republican and 19th President from 1877 to 1881, died in Fremont, Ohio.

15/1/1893, Sunday (-19,105) Frances Kemble, author, died (born 27/11/1809)

14/1/1893. Saturday (-19,106) The UK Labour Party was founded in Bradford, W Yorks.

13/1/1893, Friday (-19,107)

12/1/1893, Thursday (-19,108) Hermann Goering, German Nazi leader and founder of the Luftwaffe, was born in Rosenbaum, Bavaria.

11/1/1893, Wednesday (-19,109) (USA) Benjamin Butler, US politician, died (born 5/11/1818).

3/1/1893, Tuesday (-19,117) Nikolai Koksharov, Russian geologist, died (born 5/12/1818).

1/1/1893, Sunday (-19,119)

===================================================================================

20/12/1892, Tuesday (-19,131) The pneumatic car tyre was patented in Syracuse, new York, USA by Alexander Brown and George Stillman.

15/12/1892, Thursday (-19,136) Paul Getty, US oil tycoon, was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

14/12/1892, Wednesday (-19,137) John Lemoinne, French journalist, died.

13/12/1892, Tuesday (-19,138)

12/12/1892, Monday (-19,139) Sir John Burke, British genealogical writer, author of Burke�s Peerage, died (born 5/1/1814).

11/12/1892, Sunday (-19,140) William Milligan, Scottish religious writer, died.

7/12/1892, Wednesday (-19,144) Fred Leslie, English actor, died (born 1/4/1855).

4/12/1892, Sunday (-19,147) General Franco, Spanish dictator, was born in El Ferrol.

3/12/1892. Saturday (-19,148) The French imposed a protectorate on Dahomey (Benin) after they captured its capital, Abomey.

2/12/1892, Friday (-19,149) Jay Gould, US financier, died (born 27/5/1836).

===================================================================================

30/11/1892, Wednesday (-19,151) Fenton Hort, English religious writer, died (born 23/4/1828).

28/11/1892, Monday (-19,153) Harry Carroll, US composer, was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey (died in Santa Barbara, California, 26/12/1962)

26/11/1892, Saturday (-19,155) Simone St-Bon, Italian admiral, died (born 20/3/1823).

25/11/1892, Friday (-19,156) Pierre de Coubertin proposed the revival of the Olympic Games.

24/11/1892, Thursday (-19,157) The first railway in the Philippines, from Manila Bay to Gulf of Linguven, 120 miles, opened.

22/11/1892, Tuesday (-19,159) In the Belgian Congo, a revolt of slave owners that began in 5/1892 was suppressed this day by Belgian troops under Baron Francois Dhanis.

17/11/1892, Thursday (-19,164) Behanzin, King of Dahomey,faced by greatly superior French forces, set fire to his capital Abomey then abandoned it to the French.

10/11/1892, Thursday (-19,171) (Panama) In France the Panama Canal scandal became public, and its designer, de Lesseps, was charged withcorruption and incompetence.

6/11/1892, Sunday (-19,175) Aviator Sir John Alcock was born in Manchester. In 1919 he made the first transatlantic flight, with Sir Arthur Whitten-Brown.

5/11/1892, Saturday (-19,176) John Haldane, pioneer in genetic research, was born.

4/11/1892, Friday (-19,177)

3/11/1892, Thursday (-19,178) Herve, French composer, died in Paris (born 30/6/1825 in Houdain, near Arras)

2/11/1892, Wednesday (-19,179) Marie Hervey, French orientalist writer, died (born 1823).

1/11/1892, Thursday (-19,180) Alexander Alekhine, French chess champion, was born in Moscow (died 24/3/1946 in Estoril, Portugal)

====================================================================================

31/10/1892, Monday (-19,181)

28/10/1892, Friday (-19,184) Oliver (Dink) Johnson, US musician, was born in Biloxi, Missouri (died 29/11/1954 in Portland, Oregon)

27/10/1892, Thursday (-19,185) (Colombia) Colombia and Italy signed a treaty of friendship.

26/10/1892, Wednesday (-19,186)

25/10/1892, Tuesday (-19,187) Leo G Carroll, actor, was born.

24/10/1892, Monday (-19,188) Robert Franz, German composer, died (born28/6/1815).

23/10/1892, Sunday (-19,189) Gummo Marx, actor and comedian, was born.

21/10/1892, Friday (-19,191) Anne Edgren-Leffler, Swedish author, died (born 1/10/1849).

18/10/1892, Tuesday (-19,194) Telephone services began between New York and Chicago.

12/10/1892, Wednesday (-19,200) The USA introduced an oath of allegiance to Flag and State for its schoolchildren.

11/10/1892, Tuesday (-19,201) Xavier Marmier, French author, died (born 24/6/1809).

6/10/1892. Thursday (-19,206) Alfred Lord Tennyson, poet laureate from 1850, died at Aldworth, Surrey. He was born on 6/8/1809.

4/10/1892, Tuesday (-19,208) Engelbert Dolfuss, Austrian dictator, was born.

====================================================================================

24/9/1892, Saturday (-19,218) Patrick Gilmore, US bandmaster, died (born 1829).

19/9/1892, Monday (-19,223) Fred E Ahlert, US composer, was born in New York (died in New York, 20/10/1953).

17/9/1892, Saturday (-19,225) Rudolf von Jhering, German legal writer, died (born 22/8/1818).

16/9/1892, Friday (-19,226) Edward Neale, British Co-operative promoter, died.

12/9/1892, Monday (-19,230) Alfred A Knopf, publisher, was born.

8/9/1892, Thursday (-19,234) Enrico Cialdini, Italian politician, died (born 10/8/1811).

6/9/1892, Tuesday (-19,236) Maxwell Woosnam, tennis champion and footballer, was born (died 14/7/1965).

4/9/1892, Sunday (-19,238) Darius Milhaud, composer, was born.

1/9/1892, Thursday (-19,241) The Metropolitan Railway was extended from Chalfont to Aylesbury.

===================================================================================

31/8/1892, Wednesday (-19,242) George Curtis, US writer, died (born 24/2/1824).

30/8/1892, Tuesday (-19,243)

25/8/1892, Thursday (-19,245) Richard Nettleship, English philosophical writer, died (born 17/12/1846).

24/8/1892, Wednesday (-19,249) Goodison Park, the home of Everton Football Club, Liverpool, opened.

23/8/1892, Tuesday (-19,250) Manoel Fonseca, First President of Brazil, died

22/8/1892, Monday (-19,251) Percy Fender, cricketer, was born (died 15/6/1985).

21/8/1892, Sunday (-19,252)

19/8/1892, Friday (-19,254) Richard Lipsius, German religious writer, died (born 14/2/1830).

18/8/1892, Thursday (-19,255) In Britain, William Ewart Gladstone formed his fourth Liberal government after his election defeat of the Conservatives under Lord Salisbury.

17/8/1892, Wednesday (-19,256) (1) Mae West, US film actress, was born in Brooklyn, New York.She was the daughter of a boxer.

(2) Russia and France signed a military convention.

11/8/1892, Thursday (-19,262) (1) The Marquess of Salisbury left office as Prime Minister

(2) Hugh McDaimid, Scottish poet and founder of the Scottish Nationalist Party, was born.

6/8/1892, Saturday (-10,267) William Gillespie, footballer, was born (died 2/7/1981).

3/8/1892, Wednesday (-16,270) Johann Nauck, German scholarly writer, died (born 18/9/1822).

====================================================================================

30/7/1892, Saturday (-19,274) Joseph Hubner, Austrian writer, died (born 26/11/1811).

29/7/1892, Friday (-19,275) William Powell, actor, was born.

23/7/1892, Saturday (-19,281) Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, was born in Harar Province, as Tafari Makonnen. When the Italians invaded in 1936 he went into exile but resumed full authority after Ethiopia was liberated in 1941.

20/7/1892, Wednesday (-19,284) Leon Cladel, French novelist, died (born 13/3/1835).

18/7/1892, Monday (-19,286) Pioneer travel agent Thomas Cook died.

16/7/1892, Saturday (-19,288) John MacGregor, geographical writer, died (born 24/1/1825).

15/7/1892, Friday (-19,289) (Britain) Thomas Cooper, Chartist, died (born 20/3/1805).

12/7/1892, Tuesday (-19,292) (Communications) Cyrus Field, US capitalist who projected the first transatlantic cable, died (born 30/11/1819).

8/7/1892, Friday (-19,296) Russell, J Robinson, US composer, was born in Indianapolis (died 30/9/1963 in Palmdale, California)

6/7/1892, Wednesday (-19,298) Dadabhai Naoroji became Britain�s first non-White MP. He was elected Liberal representative for Central Finsbury, London, by a majority of 3 votes over his Unionist rival.

4/7/1892, Monday (-19,300) James Kier Hardie, standing in the General Election at Holytown, Lanarkshire, became the first Socialist to win a seat in the British Parliament. He was MP for the London docklands area of West Ham. He was elected as an independent socialist but planned to form a Labour party to represent the workers. See 14/1/1893.

2/7/1892, Saturday (-19,302) Jack Hylton, British bandleader, was born in Great Lever, Lancashire (died 29/1/1965 in London)

=====================================================================================

29/6/1892, Wednesday (-19,305) Jean Courcelle-Seneuil, French economics writer, died (born 22/12/1813).

28/6/1892, Tuesday (-19,306) (Britain) Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, British politician, died.

25/6/1892, Saturday (-19,309) Amedee Mouchez, French astronomer, died (born 24/8/1821).

16/6/1892, Thursday (-19,318) Henry George Lupino, British actor, was born in London (died 10/11/1959 in London)

13/6/1892, Monday (-19,321) Basil Rathbone, actor, was born.

12/6/1892, Sunday (-19,322) Johann Erdmann, German philosophical writer, died (born 13/6/1805).

11/6/1892, Saturday (-19,323) The Limelight Department, one of the world�s first film studios, was established in Melbourne, Australia.

10/6/1892, Friday (-19,324) Martin Broones, US composer, was born in New York (died 10/8/1971 in Beverly Hills, California).

6/6/1892, Monday (-19,328) Ted Lewis, US composer, was born in Circleville, Ohio (died 25/8/1971 in New York)

1/6/1892, Wednesday (-29,333) Henry Mallin, boxer, was born (died 8/11/1969).

====================================================================================

29/5/1892, Sunday (-19,336) Jamie Thompson, Australian footballer, was born (died 12/7/1975).

22/5/1892, Friday (-19,338) Dr Washington Sheffield invented the toothpaste tube.

20/5/1892, Friday (-19,345) The last broad gauge train left Paddington at 5.00 pm for Plymouth.The engine returned to Paddington with the last up train early the next morning.

18/5/1892, Wednesday (-19,347) Ezio Pinza, Italian baritone singer, was born in Rome (died 9/5/1957 in Stamford, Connecticut)

17/5/1892, Tuesday (-19,348) Georg Klapka, Hungarian soldier, died (born 7/4/1820).

16/5/1892, Monday (-19,349) Richard Tauber, compose, was born in Linz, Austria (died 8/1/1948 in London)

12/5/1892, Thursday (-19,353) William James Wilde, boxer, was born (died 10/1/1969).

9/5/1892, Monday (-19,356) George Bramwell, English judge, died (born in London 12/6/1808).

8/5/1892, Sunday (-19,357) (Railways) Gabor Baross, who developed the Austro-Hungarian railway system, died in Hungary (born in Trencsen 6/7/1848).

7/5/1892, Saturday (-19,358) Josip Broz (Marshal Tito), Yugoslav Communist President, was born in Kumrovec, near Klanjec, on the border of Croatia and Slovenia.

6/5/1892, Friday (-19,359) A worker�s uprising began in Lodz, Poland; all workers came out on strike. Order was not restored until 10/5/1893, by which time 217 people had been killed or wounded and 350 arrested.

5/5/1892, Thursday (-19,360) US Congress passed the Geary Chinese Exclusion Act, extending all restrictions on Chinese immigration to the USA for another 10 years, and requiring all existing Chinese immigrants to register or face deportation.

4/5/1892, Wednesday (-19,361)

3/5/1892, Tuesday (-19,362) Broad gauge track construction was abandoned in Britain.

2/5/1892, Monday (-19,363) Baron Mandred von Richtofen, German air ace of World War One, known as the �Red Baron� because he flew a red Fokker, was born in Schweidnitz in Prussia, to aristocratic parents.

====================================================================================

30/4/1892, Saturday (-19,365)

28/4/1892, Thursday (-10,367) John Jacob Niles, US composer, was born in Louisville, Kentucky (died 1/5/1980 in Lexington, Kentucky)

25/4/1892, Monday (-19,370) (Railways, Britain) Sir James Joseph Allport, general manager of the Midland Railway from 1853, died in London (born 27/2/1811 in Birmingham). In 1872 he introduced the concept of standard Third Class travel on the railway at one penny per mile on all trains. Subsequently, most other British railways copied this scheme. He also introduced the Pullman carriage to Britain�s railways.

24/4/1892, Sunday (-19,371) Jack Hulbert, British actor, was born in Ely (died 25/3/1978 in London)

23/4/1892, Saturday (-19,372) Edouard Lalo, French composer, died.

19/4/1892, Tuesday (-19,376) Friedrich Bodenstedt, German author, died in Wiesbaden (born in Hanover 22/4/1819).

17/4/1892, Sunday (-19,378) Easter Sunday; Joaquin Jovellar y Soler, Captain-General of Spain, died (born 28/12/1819).

15/4/1892, Friday (-19,380) Amelia Edwards, English writer on Egyptology, died (born 7/6/1831).

13/4/1892, Wednesday (-19,382) Sir Arthur (Bomber) Harris, RAF Marshal was born. He joined the Royal Flying Corps in 1915, and was appointed Commander in Chief of the RAF Bomber Command in 1942. From 1942 on he developed and applied the technique of �saturation bombing� to Axis occupied cities, totally demolishing them.

12/4/1892, Tuesday (-19,383) Johnny Dodds, US jazz clarinettist, was born.

11/4/1892, Monday (-19,384) Karl Caspari, German writer on the Orient, died (born 8/2/1814).

4/4/1892, Monday (-19,391) Tom Jameson, squash champion, was born (died 6/2/1965)

=================================================================================

26/3/1892, Saturday (-19,400) Walt Whitman, poet, died

22/3/1892, Tuesday (-19,404) (Medical) David Agnew, US surgeon died (born 24/11/1818)

16/3/1892, Wednesday (-19,410) Edward Freeman, English historical writer, died (born 2/8/1823)

15/3/1892, Tuesday (-19,411) The world�s first �escalator� was installed at Coney Island, New York. This had a continuous sloping surface. It was called the �Reno inclined elevator�.The American inventor Charles A Wheeler patented the first escalator with flat steps on 2/8/1892.

12/3/1892, Saturday (-19,414) John Cairns, Scottish religious writer, died (born 23/8/1818).

9/3/1892, Wednesday (-19,417) Vita Sackville West, writer, was born.

4/3/1892, Friday (-19,422) Jean Jurian de la Graviere, French Admiral, died.

2/3/1892, Wednesday (-19,424) (Britain) Sir John Coode, British engineer, died (born 11/11/1816).

1/3/1892, Tuesday (-19,425)

===================================================================================

29/2/1892, Monday (-19,426)

27/2/1892, Saturday (-19,428) (Education-University) Anne Clough, promoter of women�s adult education, died (born 20/1/1820).

20/2/1892, Saturday (-19,435) Hermann Kopp, chemistry writer, died (born 30/10/1817).

17/2/1892, Wednesday (-19,438) James Frederick Hanley, US author, was born in Indiana (died 8/2/1942 in Douglaston, Long Island.

16/2/1892, Tuesday (-19,439) (Biology) Henry Bates, English naturalist, died 16/2/1892 (born in Leicester 8/2/1825).

15/2/1892, Monday (-19,440) Ben Baker, British athletics (high jump) champion, was born (died 10/9/1987)

14/2/1892, Sunday (-19,441)

13/2/1892, Saturday (-19,442) Wilhelm Junker, German explorer of Africa, died (born 6/4/1840).

12/2/1892, Friday (-19,443) Thomas Hunt, US geologist, was born (died 5/9/1826)

11/2/1892, Thursday (-19,444) James Grant, Scottish explorer of eastern Africa in the 1860s, died (born 11/4/1827).

9/2/1892, Tuesday (-19,446) Peggy Wood, US actress, was born in Brooklyn, New York (died 18/3/1978 in Stamford, Conecticut)

7/2/1892, Sunday (-19,448)

5/2/1892, Friday (-19,450) Emilie Flygare, Swedish novelist, died (born 8/8/1807).

3/2/1892, Wednesday (-19,452) Sir Morell MacKenzie, British physician, died (born 7/7/1837).

2/2/1892, Tuesday (-19,453) Clarence Gaskill, US author, was born in Philadelphia (died 29/4/1947 in Fort Hill, new York)

===================================================================================

31/1/1892, Sunday (-19,455) Eddie Cantor, US comedian, was born in New York (died 10/10/1964 in Hollywood)

26/1/1892, Tuesday (-19,460)

24/1/1892, Sunday (-19,462) (France) Henri Baudrillart, French economist, died in Paris (born in Paris 28/11/1821).

21/1/1892, Thursday (-19,465) (Astronomy) John Couch Adams, English astronomer associated with the discovery of the planet Neptune, died.

20/1/1892, Wednesday (-19,466) The game of basketball, devised by Canadian doctor James Naismith, was first played at the YMCA in Springfield, Massachusetts.

18/1/1892, Monday (-19,468) Oliver Hardy, comedian in the Laurel and Hardy duo, was born in Atlanta, Georgia.

14/1/1892, Thursday (-19,472) Henry Manning, clergyman and writer, died.

8/1/1892, Friday (-19,478) Phyllis Monkman, British comedienne, was born in London (died 2/12/1976 in London)

7/1/1892, Thursday (-19,479) (Egypt) Tewfik Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, died; Abbas II (born 1874) became the Khedive of Egypt (ruled to 1914).

5/1/1892, Tuesday (-19,481)

3/1/1892. Sunday (-19,483) Author JRR Tolkien, creator of The Lord Of The Rings and The Hobbit, was born in Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, South Africa. He died in Bournemouth in 1973.

2/1/1892, Saturday (-19,484) Sir George Airy, Astronomer-Royal who modernised the Greenwich Observatory, died at Alnwick, Northumberland.

1/1/1892. Friday (-19,485) New York opened an immigration office on Ellis Island to cope with the flood of immigrants. Many were fleeing political and religious persecution in Russia and Central Europe. Named after Samuel Ellis, who owned the island in the 1770s, the new facility replaced older cramped facilities at The Battery on Manhattan Island.

====================================================================================

31/12/1891, Thursday (-19,486) Samuel Adjai Crowther, African missionary bishop, died.

30/12/1891, Wednesday (-19,487) Antoine Pinay, French statesman, was born

28/12/1891, Monday (-19,489) Alfred Cellier, English composer, died (born 1/12/1844).

26/12/1891, Saturday (-19,491) Henry Miller, writer, was born.

24/12/1891, Thursday (-19,493) Johannes Janssen, German historical writer, died (born 10/4/1829)

22/12/1891, Tuesday (-19,495) Paul Lagarde, German orientalist writer, died (born 2/11/1827).

19/12/1891, Saturday (-19,498) John Morton, English playwright, died (born 3/1/1811).

15/12/1891, Tuesday (-19,502) Alvin Pleasant Carter, collector of Irish and English folk songs, was born in the USA.

12/12/1891, Saturday (-19,505) Charles Freppel, French politician and Bishop, died (born 1/6/1827).

10/12/1891, Thursday (-19,507) Earl Alexander, British Army Commander in North Africa, and Italy in World War II, was born in County Tyrone, Ireland.

9/12/1891, Wednesday (-19,508) Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay, British geologist (born 31/1/1814) died.

5/12/1891, Saturday (-10,512) Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, died.

=====================================================================================

24/11/1891, Tuesday (-19,523) Edward Lytton, English poet, died (born 8/11/1831).

21/11/1891, Saturday (-19,526) Charlie Johnson, US bandleader, was born in Philadelphia (died 13/12/1959 in New York)

19/11/1891, Thursday (-19,528) Gregor Csiky, Hungarian dramatist, died (born 8/12/1842).

15/11/1891. Sunday (-19,532) Birth of German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, commander of the Afrika Corps, in Heidenheim, Germany

14/11/1891, Saturday (-19,533) Sir Frederick Banting, Canadian co-discoverer of insulin with McLeod and Best in 1922, was born in Alliston, Ontario.

12/11/1891, Thursday (-19,535) Richard A Whiting, US composer, was born in Peoria, Illinois (died 10/2/1938 in Beverly Hills, California)

10/11/1891, Tuesday (-19,537) Arthur Rimbaud, poet, died

5/11/1891, Thursday (-19,542) Vinton Freedley, US musicals producer, was born in Philadelphia 9died5/6/1969 in new York)

4/11/1891, Wednesday (-19,543) Tony Hart, US comedian, died (born 25/7/1855).

======================================================================================

31/10/1891, Saturday (-19,547)

29/10/1891, Thursday (-19,549) Fanny Brice, singer, was born.

28/10/1891, Wednesday (-19,550) (Earthquake, Japan) A severe earthquake hit Osaka, Japan; 10,000 were killed.

20/10/1891, Tuesday (-19,558) Sir James Chadwick, who discovered the neutron in 1932, was born in Manchester.

8/10/1891. Thursday (-19,570) The first street collection for charity took place in Britain. It was on the streets of Manchester and Salford, for Lifeboat Day.

7/10/1891, Wednesday (-19,571) Cyril Lowe, rugby player, was born (died 6/2/1983).

6/10/1891, Tuesday (-19,572) (1) Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish politician and campaigner for Home Rule, died in Brighton, Sussex.

(2) Death of W H Smith, the bookseller.

===================================================================================

30/9/1891, Wednesday (-19,578) George Boulanger, French General, committed suicide in Brussels (born in Rennes 29/4/1837).

28/9/1891, Monday (-19,580) Herman Melville, US author, died.

26/9/1891, Saturday (-19,582) David Davies, Welsh religious writer, died (born 11/5/1826).

25/9/1891, Friday (-19,583) The foundation of Blackpool Tower was laid.

22/9/1891, Tuesday (-19,586) Charles Buchan, footballer, was born (died 25/6/1960).

18/9/1891, Friday (-19,590) (Chile) Chilean President Jose Balmaceda (born in Santiago, 1839) committed suicide following the outbreak of the Chilean Civil War.

16/9/1891, Wednesday (-19,592) (1) (Germany) Karl Doenitz, German Admiral, was born in Berlin.

(2) The Sioux national finally formally surrendered to the USA.

9/9/1891, Wednesday (-19,598) Francois Grevy, French President 1879-87, died (born 15/1/1813)

6/9/1891, Sunday (-19,601) Peugeot began marketing cars for public purchase.

3/9/1891, Friday (-19,604) Laddie Cliff, British actor, was born in Bristol (died 8/12/1937 in Montana, Switzerland0)

===================================================================================

28/8/1891, Friday (-16,611) (Chile) Congressional forces now reached La Placilla, south east of Valparaiso, where battle was engaged with Balmacedist forces under Barbosa. The Balmcedist Army was decimated with 941 killed (including Barbosa himself) and 2,402 wounded; the Congressionalists lost over 1800 men. Valparaiso was occupied this day by the Congressionals, and Santiago taken by them soon after. Fighting in Chile now ceased.

24/8/1891, Monday (-16,615) (Chile) Congressional forces, marching south towards Valparaiso after their victory at Concon (21/8), came up against strong Balmacedist defences at Vina del Mar, held by General Barbosa. However the Congressionalist Army now marched inland and around Vina del Mar, see 28/8/1891.

21/8/1891, Friday (-19,618) (Chile) Balmaceda acted quickly in response to the attack on Quinteros and attacked Congressional troops at Concon on the Aconagua River. Congressional troops stormed across the river, losing 1000 killed and wounded. The Balmacedists lost 1600 killed and wounded. However the Congressionalists captured 36 Balmacedist guns, and took 1500 Balmacedist prisoners, most of who then switched sides and joined the Congressionalists, more than making up their losses.

20/8/1891, Thursday (-19,619) (Chile) Quinteros, north of Valparaiso, was successfully occupied by Congressional forces in a surprise attack from the sea. Valparaiso itself was not far out of range of Congressional artillery now.

12/8/1891, Wednesday (-19,627) James Lowell, US author, died

6/8/1891, Thursday (-19,633) The first traveller�s cheque, devised by American Express, was cashed at the Hotel Hauffe, Leipzig, Germany.

4/8/1891, Tuesday (-19,635)

3/8/1891, Monday (-19,636) Leslie Henson, British actor, was born in London (died 2/12/1957 in Harrow)

====================================================================================

31/7/1891, Friday (-19,639) Britain claimed African territory north of the Zambezi, up to the Congo basin, to be in its sphere of influence.

28/7/1891, Tuesday (-19,642)

26/7/1891, Sunday (-19,644) Rajendra Mitra, Indian Orientalist writer, died (born 15/2/1824).

21/7/1891, Tuesday (-19,649)

20/7/1891, Monday (-19,650) (Arts) Pedro Alarcon, Spanish writer, was died in Madrid (born 10/3/1833 in Guadix).

19/7/1891, Sunday (-19,651) Sir Prescott Hewett, British surgeon, died (born 3/7/1812)

16/7/1891, Thursday (-19,654) Blossom Seeley, US entertainer, was born in San Francisco (died 17/4/1974 in new York)

4/7/1891, Saturday (-19,666) Hannibal Hamlin, Vice-President of the USA, died (born 27/8/1809).

=====================================================================================

23/6/1891, Tuesday (-19,677) (London) The population of the London Borough of Hornsey was 61,097, up from 19,387 in 1871.

20/6/1891, Saturday (-19,680) (Ireland) John A Costello, Prime Minister of Ireland, was born.

18/6/1891, Thursday (-19,682) Conrad K Dober, US composer, was born in New York (died 28/9/1938 in Van Nuys, California)

13/6/1891, Saturday (-19,687) Richard Jones, US composer, was born (died 8/12/1945 in Chicago)

11/6/1891, Thursday (-19,689) (Women�s Rights) Barbara Bodichon, who promoted education and other rights for women, died in Robertsbridge Sussex (born in Watlington, Norfolk 8/4/1827).

10/6/1891, Wednesday (-19,690) Albert Dubin, US singer, was born in Zurich, Switzerland (died 11/2/1945 in New York)

9/6/1891, Tuesday (-19,691) Cole Porter, composer, was born.

8/6/1891, Monday (-19,692) Carlo Curci, Italian theological writer, died (born 1810).

6/6/1891, Saturday (-19,694) (Canada) Sir John Alexander Macdonald, first Prime Minister of Canada, died

4/6/1891, Thursday (-19,696) Ermo Rapee, composer, was born in Budapest (died 26/6/1945 in New York)

3/6/1891, Wednesday (-19,697) Benson Lossing, US historical writer, died.

2/6/1891, Tuesday (-19,698) Sir John Hawkshaw, British engineer, died (born 1811).

1/6/1891, Monday (-19,699) (Unions) German workers were given the right to form committees to negotiate with employers on terms of employment

===================================================================================

31/5/1891, Sunday (-19,700) Sir Antoine Dorion, Canadian politician, died (born 17/1/1816).

30/5/1891, Saturday (-19,701) Ben Bernie, US bandleader, was born in Bayonne, New Jersey (died 20/10/1943 in Beverly Hills, California).

28/5/1891, Thursday (-19,703) (Sport) The first world weightlifting championships were held at the Cafe Monico in Piccadilly, London.

19/5/1891, Tuesday (-19,712) Harold Wagstaff, rugby player, was born (died 19/7/1939).

16/5/1891, Saturday (-19,715) (Romania) Ion Bratianu, Romanian statesman, died (born 2/6/1821).

15/5/1891, Friday (-19,716) A Papal Encyclical urged employers to fulfil their moral duty to improve conditions for their workers.

14/5/1891, Thursday (-19,717) Grant Clarke, US singer, was born in Akron, Ohio (died 16/5/1931)

11/5/1891, Monday (-19,720) Karl Naegeli, Swiss botanical writer, died (born 27/3/1817).

8/5/1891, Friday (-19,723) (Russia) Helena Blavatsky, Russian theosophist, died in London (born at Ekatirnoslav 31/7/1831).

6/5/1891, Wednesday (-19,725) The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy was renewed.

5/5/1891, Tuesday (-19,726) (Arts) New York�s Carnegie Hall opened on west 57th Street. Until 1962 it was the city�s premier concert hall.

3/5/1891, Sunday (-19,728)

2/5/1891, Saturday (-19,729) Douglas Clark, rugby player, was born (died 1/2/1951).

1/5/1891, Friday (-19,730) In a violent clash between striking French workers and French troops, nine workers, including two children, were killed as troops opened fire. 60 more workers were injured. The workers were campaigning for an 8 hour day.

====================================================================================

30/4/1891, Thursday (-10,731) Joseph Leidy, naturalist writer, died (born 9/9/1823).

27/4/1891, Monday (-10,734)

24/4/1891, Friday (-10,737) Helmuth von Moltke, Prussian general, died.

23/4/1891, Thursday (-19,738) (Chile) In the Chilean Civil war, the Balmacedists had now acquired naval torpedo ships previously constructed in Europe. This day these torpederas sank the Congressional ship Blanco Encalada in Caldera Bay, severely weakening their naval forces. The Congressionalists only hope of victory now lay, not in a systematic conquest of Chile as a whole, but in a drastic strike at Balmaceda in the capital Valparaiso itself. See 20/8/1891.

22/4/1891, Wednesday (-19,739) (Geology) Harold Jeffreys, geologist, was born at Fatfield, England. In 1940 he published research on the travel of seismic waves through the Earth.

15/4/1891, Wednesday (-19,746) Thomas Edison publicly demonstrated his �kinetoscope�, or moving picture machine, in New York.

13/4/1891, Monday (-19,748) Charlotte Leitch, golfer, was born (died 16/9/1977)

9/4/1891, Thursday (-19,752) Denmark established a system of old age pensions, for those aged over 60.

8/4/1891, Wednesday (-19,753) Edmond Dehault de Pressense, French cleric (born 7/1/1824), died.

7/4/1891, Tuesday (-19,754) (1) Ole Kirk Christiansen, Danish toymaker who invented Lego, was born.

(2) Phineas T Barnum, American circus showman, died aged 80.

5/4/1891, Sunday (-19,756) Arnold Jackson, athlete, was born (died 13/11/1972).

3/4/1891, Friday (-19,758) Edward Rodgerson , English footballer, was born (died 8/1/1962).

2/4/1891, Thursday (-19,759) Max Ernst, artist, was born.

1/4/1891, Wednesday (-19,760) Pauline Craven, French author, died (born 12/4/1808).

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31/3/1891, Tuesday (-19,761) (Railways) The Tralee and Dingle railway opened.

29/3/1891, Sunday (-19,763) Easter Sunday. Georges Pierre Seurat, painter, died.

21/3/1891, Saturday (-19,771) Joseph Johnston, US Confederate General, died.

20/3/1891, Friday (-19,772) Lawrence Barratt, US actor, died born in Paterson, New Jersey 4/4/1838).

19/3/1891, Thursday (-19,773)

18/3/1891, Wednesday (-19,774) The London-Paris telephone link opened.The first call was between the Prince of Wales and President Carnot. The link opened to the public on 1/4/1891.

17/3/1891, Tuesday (-19,775) The British battleship Amson collided with the passenger ship Utopia in the Bay of Gibraltar during a storm. The Utopia was taking Italian migrants to the USA, and 576 of her passengers and crew drowned.

16/3/1891, Monday (-19,776) A boundary dispute between Colombia and Venezuela was resolved via mediation by Spain.

15/3/1891, Sunday (-19,777) Sir Joseph William Bazalgette, engineer, died

14/3/1891, Saturday (-19,778) The submarine Monarch laid the first telephone cable across the English Channel.

12/3/1891, Thursday (-19,780)

10/3/1891, Tuesday (-19,782) US undertaker Almon Brown Strowger patented the Strowger Switch, enabling automated dialling. He was motivated by the fact that the wife of a rival undertaker worked at the local phone exchange, and was diverting calls for his business to her husband.

9/3/1891, Monday (-19,783) A very heavy blizzard hit the West Country, England, It lasted for four days, and roofs collapsed under the weight of snow, which entirely filled a 90 metre deep valley on Dartmoor. 200 people and huge numbers of livestock froze to death. At sea gales caused the loss of 65 ships and some 220 people drowned. An express train left London at 3pm for Plymouth but hit the snow near Dartmoor and was stuck for days. A farmer noticed the steam engine funnel poking out of the snow and dug through to rescue the passengers who had been without food, water of heat. The train was dug out and eventually reached Plymouth 8 days later. Cold continued, with snow into May, along with frosts , heavy rain and hail. There was a flu epidemic, and snow persisted in Dartmoor even into June.

7/3/1891, Saturday (-19,785) (Chile) Battle of Pozo Almonte, Chilean Civil War; Congressional forces under Del Canto had superior numbers, and the Balmacedists were defeated. Robles himself was killed. Balmacedist forces in northern Chile now began to give up the conflict.

4/3/1891, Wednesday (-19,788) US Congress passed the Copyright Act, to protect authors, composers and artists.

3/3/1891, Tuesday (-19,789) US Congress voted to establish a US Office of Superintendent of Immigration.

2/3/1891, Monday (-19,790)

1/3/1891, Sunday (-19,791)

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28/2/1891, Saturday (-19,792) Giovanni Morelli, Italian art critic, died (born 16/2/1816).

27/2/1891, Friday (-19,793)

26/2/1891, Thursday (-19,794) Fortune du Boisgobey, French fiction writer (born in Granville 11/9/1824) died.

25/2/1891, Wednesday (-19,795) The new Provisional Government of Brazil, having excersised dictatorial powers for a year, now held elections. Manoel Fonseca was elected First President.

24/2/1891, Tuesday (-19,796)

22/2/1891, Sunday (-19,798) Agostino Magliani, Italian financier, died.

21/2/1891, Saturday (-19,799) Karl King, US composer, was born in Painterville, Ohio (died 31/3/1971 in Fort Dodge, Iowa)

19/2/1891, Thursday (-19,801) John White, cricketer, was born (died 2/5/1961).

17/2/1891, Tuesday (-19,803) (Chile) Robles fell back along the railway, called up reinforcements from Iquque, and defeated the Congressional forces at Haura.

16/2/1891, Monday (-19,804) (Chile) In the Chilean Civil War, Iqique fell to Congressional forces.

15/2/1891, Sunday (-19,805) (Chile) Balmacedist forces under Eulojio Robles (who had been expecting reinforcements from Tacna that never came) was defeated at San Francisco.

14/2/1891, Saturday (-19,806) William Sherman, Union Army commander in the American Civil War, died in New York City.

13/2/1891, Friday (-19,807) Grant Wood, US painter, was born in Iowa.

12/2/1891, Thursday (-19,808) Maurice Yvain, French composer, was born in Paris (died 28/7/1965 in Paris)

11/2/1891, Wednesday (-19,809) John Hearne, cricketer, was born (died 14/9/1965).

10/2/1891, Tuesday (-19,810) Sophie Kovalevsky, Russian mathematician, died (born 15/1/1850).

2/2/1891, Monday (-19,818)

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27/1/1891, Tuesday (-19,824) Jervis McEntee, US artist, died (born 14/7/1828).

26/1/1891, Monday (-19,825) (Chile) Congress forces retook the Chilean town of Pisagua. By now some army personnel, along with munitions supplies, had been gained by Congressional forces.

24/1/1891, Saturday (-19,827) Alexander Kennedy, cricketer, was born (died 15/11/1959).

21/1/1891, Wednesday (-19,830) Jean Messonier, French painter, died (born 21/2/1815).

20/1/1891, Tuesday (-19,831) King David Kalalahua of Hawaii died, aged 54, and was succeeded by his 52-year sister, Queen Lydia Liliuokalani. White settlers who now owned 80% of the land in Hawaii, formed a Hawaiian League to oppose the accession of Queen Liliuokalani, and sought annexation to the USA.

19/1/1891, Monday (-19,832)

17/1/1891, Saturday (-19,834) (USA) George Bancroft, US politician, died in Washington (born in Worcester, Massachusetts 3/10/1800).

16/1/1891, Friday (-19,835) Clement Delibes, French composer, died (born 21/2/1836).

15/1/1891, Thursday (-19,836) Buckinghamshire Cricket Club was founded.

11/1/1891, Sunday (-19,840) Baron Georges-Eugene Haussman, the architect who designed the broad straight boulevards of Paris, died in poverty.

7/1/1891, Wednesday (-19,844) Charles Devens, US lawyer, died (born 4/4/1820).

6/1/1891, Tuesday (-19,845) Ted McDonald, Australian cricketer was born in Launceston, Australia (died 1937)

5/1/1891, Monday (-19,846) (Arts) Emma Abbot, US opera singer, died in Salt Lake City.

4/1/1891, Sunday (-19,847) Pierre de Decker, Belgian statesman, died (born 1812).

3/1/1809, Saturday (-19,848)

2/1/1891, Friday (-19,849) Alexander Kinglake, English historical writer, died (born 5/8/1809).

1/1/1891, Thursday (-19,850) (1) In Germany, Bismarck�s pension scheme came into operation. Pension age was 70. The rate was graduated with income, the lowest being 7 pfennings a week for those earning under 300 marks a year (�15).

(2) (Chile) The Chilean Civil War broke out. It was caused by a dispute between the Chilean President and the National Representatives, leading to the President, Jose Balmaceda, attempting to govern and collect taxes on his own authority.

=====================================================================================

29/12/1890, Monday (-19,853) The Battle of Wounded Knee in South Dakota. This was the last major conflict between Indigenous Americans (the Sioux) and US troops.

21/12/1890, Sunday (-19,861) Niels Gade, Danish composer, died (born 22/2/1817).

15/12/1890, Monday (-19,867) Chief Sitting Bull, Sioux leader (born ca.1831), was shot dead in a scuffle with police in South Dakota whilst resisting arrest. He had fled to Canada after his victory over General Custer at Little Bighorn in 1876. He returned to the USA in 1881 and was jailed for 2 years. He performed for several years with Buffalo Bill�s travelling Wild West Show, but the suffering of his people led him to join the new Ghost Dance Movement, dedicated to destroying the Whites and restoring the lost Indian world. The US Government sent troops to suppress the Ghost Dance Movement and arrest its leaders; Sitting Bull was shot in the skirmish.

12/12/1890, Friday (-19,870) Sir Joseph Boehm, British sculptor, died in South Kensington (born in Vienna 4/7/1834).

9/12/1890, Tuesday (-19,873) Richard Church, English religious writer, died (born 25/4/1815).

5/12/1890, Friday (-19,877) Fritz Lang, film director, was born.

3/12/1890, Wednesday (-19,879) William Evans Midwinter, cricketer for Australia, died in Melbourne (born 19/6/1851 in St Briavels, Gloucestershire, England).

2/12/1890, Tuesday (-19,880) Fate Marable, US bandleader, was born in Paducah, Kentucky (died 16/1/1947 in St Louis, Missouri)

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29/11/1890, Saturday (-19,883) In Japan, the Meiji constitution came into effect.

24/11/1890, Monday (-19,888) (USA) August Belmont, US financier, died in New York (born in Prussia 8/12/1816).

23/11/1890, Sunday (-19,889) Death of King William III of the Netherlands (born 1817). He was succeeded by his 10-year-old daughter who ruled as Queen Wilhelmina from 1898. The duchy of Luxembourg separated from the Netherlands because no woman could inherit the ducal title.

22/11/1890, Saturday (-19,890) Charles de Gaulle, French President, was born in Lille (died 1970).

21/11/1890, Friday (-19,891) The Lincoln Judgment, concerning the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury, was delivered.

17/11/1890, Monday (-19,895) Irish nationalist John Parnell was cited as co-respondent in a divorce suit brought by William Henry O�Shea, whose wife Katharine had been Parnell�s mistress since 1880. Parnell�s political career was destroyed by the revelation.

13/11/1890, Thursday (-19,899) Henry Dexter US religious writer, died (born 13/8/1821).

11/11/1890, Tuesday (-19,901)

9/11/1890, Sunday (-19,903)

8/11/1890, Saturday (-19,904) Cesar Franck, French composer, died (born 10/12/1822).

7/11/1890, Friday (-19,905) Zanzibar became a German Protectorate.

6/11/1890, Thursday (-19,906) Bentley Collingwood Hillier, British author, was born in Scarborough (died 19/12/1968 in London)

1/11/1890, Saturday (-19,911) The US State of Mississippi adopted a constitutional amendment designed to exclude Black people from voting. They adopted a qualification for voting that included being able to read a section of the constitution and explain it, knowing that many Black people in the State had not received a basic education and so were illiterate.

===================================================================================

28/10/1890, Tuesday (-19,915) The German East Africa Company ceded all its powers and assets to the German government.

20/10/1890, Monday (-19,923) Sir Richard Burton, writer on the Orient, died (born 19/3/1821).

17/10/1899, Friday (-19,926) Maximilian Gagern, German politician, died (born 26/3/1810).

16/10/1890, Thursday (-19,927) Michael Collins, fighter for Irish independence, was born.

15/10/1890, Wednesday (-19,928)

14/10/1890, Tuesday (-19,929) Birth of US President Dwight Eisenhower. He was the 34th President, who led the US during World War Two, and was known as �Ike�.He was born in Denison, Texas (died 1969).

13/10/1890, Monday (-19,930) (USA) William Belknap, US politician, died in Washington DC (born in Newburgh, New York, 22/9/1829).

9/10/1890, Thursday (-19,934) Clement Ader, Frenchman, flew his monoplane, the Ecole, 165 feet. However it was not a truly sustained or controllable flight.

6/10/1890, Monday (-19,937) The Mormons in Utah renounced polygamy.

3/10/1890, Friday (-19,940) Joseph Hergenrother, German religious writer, died (born 15/9/1824)

2/10/1890, Thursday (-19,941) Julius Groucho Marx was born (died 1977).

1/10/1890, Wednesday (-19,942) US import duties reached record levels after the protectionist McKinley Tariff act was passed.

===================================================================================

29/9/1890, Monday (-19,944) Jean Karr, French novelist, died (born 24/11/1808).

25/9/1890, Thursday (-19,948)

18/9/1890, Thursday (-19,955) Dion Boucicault, Irish playwright, died in New York (born in Dublin 26/12/1822).

17/9/1890, Wednesday (-19,956) Jules Joffrin, French politician, died (born 16/3/1846).

15/9/1890, Monday (-19,958) Agatha Christie, crime writer, was born in Torquay, Devon, as Agatha Mary Clarissa.She died on 12/1/1976.

12/9/1890. Friday (-19,961) (Zimbabwe) The British South Africa Company founded the town of Salisbury, now Harare, after a pioneer march from South Africa.It was named after the British Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury.

9/9/1890, Tuesday (-19,964) Henry Liddon, English religious writer, died (born 20/8/1829).

====================================================================================

27/8/1890, Wednesday (-19,977) Ray Mann, artist, was born.

26/8/1890, Tuesday (-19,978) (Football), Weymouth football club, Dorset, was founded.

22/8/1890, Friday (-19,982) Duke Kahanamoku, Hawaiian surfer, was born.

15/8/1890, Friday (-19,989) Phyllis Dare, English actress, was born in London (died 27/4/1975 in Brighton)

12/8/1890, Tuesday (-19,992) Alfred Goodman, US composer, was born in Nikopol, Russia (died 20/1/1972 in New York)

11/8/1890, Monday (-19,993) Cardinal Newman (born 1801) died in Birmingham, UK. He was appointed as a Cardinal in 1879, and believed in the romantic vision of the Mediaeval Church.

9/8/1890, Saturday (-19,995) Heligoland was formally transferred from Britain to Germany.

6/8/1890, Wednesday (-19,998) (Capital Punishmnent, USA) In New York�s Auburn prison, the electric chair was used for the first time on the murderer William Kemmler. This method of execution was attacked as constituting �cruel and unusual punishment� but was upheld in the US State and Federal Courts. By 1906 115 murderers had been executed by �electrothanasia�, and the method was had also adopted by the US States of Ohio (1896), Massachusetts (1898), New Jersey (1906), Virginia (1908) and North Carolina (1910).

5/8/1890, Tuesday (-19,999) Britain agreed to recognise Madagascar as a French colony and France recognised Zanzibar as a British protectorate. France gave up claims to the lower Niger and retained the desert territories of the Sahara.

2/8/1890, Saturday (-20,002) Louise Ackermann, French poet (born 30/11/1813) died.

====================================================================================

29/7/1890, Tuesday (-20,006) Vincent Van Gogh, born 30/3/1853, died after prolonged insanity. He went to the spot where he had painted Cornfield with flight of birds and shot himself in the chest, on 27/7/1890, dying 2 days later.

21/7/1890, Monday (-20,014) Lord Rosebery opened Battersea Bridge.

17/7/1890, Thursday (-20,018) Cecil Rhodes became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony.

15/7/1890, Tuesday (-20,020) Gottfried Keller, German novelist, died (born 19/7/1819).

13/7/1890, Sunday (-20,022) John Fremont, explorer of the US Midwest, died (21/1/1813).

11/7/1890, Friday (-20,024) The first ever elections in Japan; the electorate comprised only 450,000 people. It covered males over 25 who paid at least 15 yen per annum in taxes.

10/7/1890, Thursday (-20,025) Wyoming was admitted as the 44th state of the USA.

6/7/1890, Sunday (-20,029) Sir Edwin Chadwick, British reformer, died.

3/7/1890, Thursday (-20,032) Idaho became the 43rd State of the Union.

2/7/1890, Wednesday (-20,033) (1) The US government passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, banning trade monopolies. With more than 90% of the US oil trade in the hands of the Rockefeller family, and sugar, wheat, and alcohol prices also governed by mysterious �trusts�, the US government felt that these trusts threatened the economic structure of the USA. A judge, Mr Justice Harlan, said that these trusts were another form of slavery, as capital became concentrated in the hands of a few.

(2) In Brussels, an International Convention for Suppression of the African Slave Trade was signed.

1/7/1890, Tuesday (-20,034) Britain and Germany signed the Heligoland Treaty, by which Germany gave up claims in East Africa, including Zanzibar, in return for the British island of Heligoland in the Elbe estuary. Germany soon made Heligoland a major naval base for the defence of the newly constructed Kiel Canal.

===================================================================================

21/6/1890, Saturday (-20,044) William Davies, rugby player, was born (died 26/4/1967).

16/6/1890, Monday (-20,049) Stan Laurel, of the Laurel and Hardy duo, was born as Arthur Stanley Jefferson in Ulverston, Lancashire (now Cumbria). Oliver Hardy was born in America on 18/1/1892.

12/6/1890, Thursday (-20,053) Egon Schiele, painter, was born.

2/6/1890, Monday (-20,063) (Marine) Sir George Burns, operator of the Cunard Line from 1838, died (born 10/12/1795).

1/6/1890, Sunday (-20,064) The US Census Bureau began using Herman Hollerith�s tabulating machine to count census returns.Hollerith�s company eventually became IBM.

====================================================================================

28/5/1890, Wednesday (-20,068) Victor Neszler, German composer, died.

21/5/1890, Wednesday (-24,075) Harry Austin Therney, US composer, was born in Perth Amboy, New Jersey (died 22/3/1965 in New York)

19/5/1890, Monday (-20,077) Birth of Ho Chi Minh, President of North Vietnam (died 1969)

12/5/1890, Monday (-20,084) In the UK, the first ever official County Championship cricket match began in Bristol.Yorkshire beat Gloucestershire by eight wickets.

11/5/1890, Sunday (-20,085) William Applegarth, athletics champion, was born (died 5/12/1958).

7/5/1890, Wednesday (-20,089) James Nasmyth, inventor of the first steam hammer, died in London.

2/5/1890. Friday (-20,094) The Federal territory of Oklahoma was created; it was formerly known as the Indian Territory. On 22/4/1889 the US government, via a single shot fired at noon, had signalled the start of a great race for land by white settlers. An estimated 200,000 people crossed into the land once home to 75,000 Indians, who had to move on. By nightfall 22/4/1889 almost all of Oklahoma�s 2 million acres had been claimed.

====================================================================================

27/4/1890, Sunday (-20,099) William Blades, English writer, died in Sutton, Surrey (was born in Clapham, London 5/12/1824).

14/4/1890, Monday (-20,112) The Pan-American Union was established at the first International Congress of American States.

11/4/1890, Friday (-20,115) Birth of Donna Rachele Mussolini, wife of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini (died 1979)

6/4/1890, Sunday (-20,120) Easter Sunday. Birth of Anthony Fokker, Dutch aircraft manufacturer (died 1939).

4/4/1890, Friday (-20,122) Edmond Hebert, French geologist, died (born 12/6/1812).

1/4/1890, Tuesday (-20,125)

====================================================================================

29/3/1890, Saturday (-20,128) Armand Pontmartin, French writer (born 16/7/1811) died.

28/3/1890, Friday (-20,129) Washington State University was established in Pullman, Washington.

27/3/1890, Thursday (-20,130) Spain adopted universal (male) suffrage.

24/2/1890, Monday (-20,133) Marjorie Main, actress, was born.

18/3/1890, Tuesday (-20,139) (Germany) Prince Otto von Bismarck was dismissed from the German Chancellorship by Kaiser Wilhelm II, after 29 years as Germany�s first Chancellor. Bismarck�s foremost achievement had been the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership. He had held Germany back from a damaging competitive rush for colonies that would cause conflict with other European powers, and he negotiated the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia that limited the possibility for conflict between them. However when Wilhelm II succeeded his father Kaiser Frederick III, German policy changed. Bismarck was replaced by Leo von Caprivi, who allowed the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia to lapse. This pushed Russia into closer relations with France, Germany�s enemy. Meanwhile Germany pursued a fruitless attempt to make a friendship treaty with Britain.

9/3/1890, Sunday (-20,148) Molotov, Soviet politician, was born in Kukaida under the surname Skriabin.

8/3/1890, Saturday (-20,149) North Dakota State University was founded in Fargo, North Dakota.

4/3/1890, Tuesday (-20,153) The 1,170 foot Forth Railway Bridge, the longest railway bridge so far built at 1,710 feet, was officially opened by the Prince of Wales.The bridge was designed and built by Benjamin Walker and John Fowler.57 workers were killed during its construction. The bridge used 8 million rivets and 55,000 tons of steel.

====================================================================================

27/2/1890, Thursday (-20,158) Freddie Keppard, US jazz cornetist., was born in New Orleans (died 15/7/1933 in Chicago)

18/2/1890, Tuesday (-20,167) (Hungary) Julius Andrassy, Hungarian statesman, died.

17/2/1890, Monday (-20,168) Christopher Sholes, American inventor of the typewriter, died in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

10/2/1890, Monday (-20,175) Boris Pasternak, Russian writer, author of Dr Zhivago, was born in Moscow.

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30/1/1890, Thursday _20,186) Khaireddin, Turkish statesman, died.

29/1/1890, Wednesday (-20,187) Sir William Gull, English physician, died (born 31/12/1816).

25/1/1890, Saturday (-20,191)

22/1/1890, Wednesday (-20,194) Francis Bowen, US philosophical writer, died in Boston, Massachusetts (born in Charlestown, Massachusetts 8/9/1811).

21/1/1890, Tuesday (-20,195) Nathan Marcus Adler, British chief rabbi (born 15/1/1803) died.

20/1/1890, Monday (-20,196) Boris Mikhailovich Kozo-Polyansky, Russian biologist, was born (died 21/4/1957).

18/1/1890, Saturday (-20,198) Death of King Amadeus I of Spain (born 1845)

14/1/1890, Tuesday (-20,202) Johann Dollinger, German religious writer, died (born 28/2/1799).

10/1/1890, Friday (-20,206) Cleopatra�s tomb was discovered.

8/1/1890, Wednesday (-20,208) Charles Pillman, rugby player, was born (died 13/11/1955).

3/1/1890, Friday (-20,213) Karl Hase, German religious writer, died (born 28/8/1800).

1/1/1890, Wednesday (-20,215) The Kingdom of Italy established the colony of Eritrea in Africa.

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31/12/1889, Tuesday (-20,216) Sir Ernest Daryl Lindsay, Australian artist, was born (died 25/12/1976).

28/12/1889, Saturday (-20,219)

17/12/1889, Friday (-20,220) Bunk Johnson, US jazz trumpeter, was born in New Orleans (died 7/7/1949 in New Iberia, Louisiana)

25/12/1889, Wednesday (-20,222) Arthur Kavanagh, Irish politician, died (born 25/3/1831).

24/12/1889, Tuesday (-20,223) Charles MacKay, Scottish writer, died (born 27/3/1814).

23/12/1889, Monday (-20,224) Constance Naden, English author, died (born 24/1/1858).

22/12/1889, Sunday (-20,225) Isaac Hecker, US religious writer, died (born 18/12/1819)

21/12/1889, Saturday (-20,226) Eugene Deslongchamps, writer, died

17/12/1889, Tuesday (-20,231) Wilhelm von Giesebrecht, German historical writer, died (born 5/3/1814)

12/12/1889, Thursday (-20,235) Robert Browning, English poet, died.

10/12/1889, Tuesday (-20,237) Ludwig Anzengruber, Austrian dramatist, died in Vienna (born 29/11/1839 in Vienna)

6/12/1889, Friday (-20,241) Jefferson Davies, US President of the Confederate states, died aged 81.

3/12/1889, Tuesday (-20,244) Charles Handel Rand Marriott, British composer, died in Hastings (born in London 3/11/1831)

2/12/1889, Monday (-20,245) Aloys Karolyi, Austro-Hungarian diplomat, died (born 8/8/1825).

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30/11/1889, Saturday (-20,247) Edgar Adrian, English physiologist, was born. He studied the neurons of the nervous system.

24/11/1889, Sunday (-20,253) Frederic Clay, English composer, died (born 3/8/1838).

23/11/1889, Saturday (-20,254) The first jukebox was installed, in the Palais Royal Saloon in San Francisco.

22/11/1889, Friday (-20,255)

21/11/1889, Thursday (-20,256) Frederic Blachford, British politician, died (born in London 31/1/1811)

20/11/1889, Wednesday (-20,257) Edwin Hiubble, astronomer, was born,

18/11/1889, Monday (-20,259) William Allingham, Irish poet, died in Hampstead, London (born 19/3/1824 in Ballyshannon, Donegal).

15/11/1889, Friday (-20,262) (Brazil) The Brazilian monarchy was overthrown in a military revolt. Dom Pedro was dethroned as Emperor of Brazil, and the First Republic was proclaimed. Pedro II went into exile in Paris. Global demand for coffee was boosting the Brazilian economy.

14/11/1889, Thursday (-20,263) Pandit Nehru, first Prime Minister of India, was born in Allahabad.

13/11/1889, Wednesday (-20,264)

12/11/1889, Tuesday (-20,265) Waterlow Park, Highgate, London, 29 acres, was given as a free gift to London by Sir Sidney Waterlow.

11/11/1889, Monday (-20,266) Washington became the 42nd State of the Union.

10/11/1889, Sunday (-20,266) Edwin Hatch, English religious writer, died (born 14/9/1835).

9/11/1889, Saturday (-20,267) Claude Rains, actor, was born.

8/11/1889, Friday (-20,269) Montana became the 41st State of the Union.

2/11/1889, Saturday (-20,275) (1) Suffragettes Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were arrested whilst attempting to vote in the national elections.

(2) North and South Dakota became the 39th and 40th States of the Union.

====================================================================================

29/10/1889. Tuesday (-20,279) Britain granted a charter to the British South Africa Company, under Cecil Rhodes, to colonise Bechuanaland and other parts of southern Africa.

26/10/1889, Saturday (-20,282) Carel Cobet, Dutch scholarly writer, died (born 28/11/1813).

25/10/1889, Friday (-20,283) Guillaume Augier, French dramatist, died in Croissy (born 17/9/1820 in Valence, Drome).

21/10/1889, Monday (-20,287) (Biology) John Ball, Irish politician and naturalist, died in London (born in Dublin 20/8/1818).

19/10/1889, Saturday (-20,289) King Luis I of Portugal died aged 51 (born 1838). He was succeeded by his son, Carlos I, aged 26.

15/10/1889, Tuesday (-20,293) (Railways GB) Sir Daniel Gooch, engineer and railway administrator, died (born 16/8/1816). He turned the Great Western railway around from near bankruptcy in 1866, when he became Chairman of the Board, to healthy profitability in 1889; his last year on the Board.

14/10/1889, Monday (-20,294) Spencer Williams, US composer, was born in New Orleans (died 14/7/1965 in Flushing, New York)

12/10/1889, Saturday (-20,296)

11/10/1889, Friday (-20,297) James Joule, who established the First Law of Thermodynamics, died.

10/10/1889, Thursday (-20,298) Adolf von Henselt, German composer, died (12/5/1814).

8/10/1889, Tuesday (-20,300)

6/10/1889, Sunday (-20,302) The Moulin Rouge cabaret opened in Paris.

5/10/1889, Saturday (-20,303) (Chemistry) Dirk Coster was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In 2923 he discovered, along with Gyorgy Hevesy, the element Hafnium. It was named after the Latin for Copenhagen, where the discovery was made.

2/10/1889, Wednesday (-20,306) the first Pan-American Congress met, in Washington. Its aim was to create closer relations between the States of the Americas.

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29/9/1889, Sunday (-20,309) Louis Faidherbe, French general, died (born 3/6/1818).

26/9/1889, Thursday (-20,312) Frank Crumit, US composer, was bornin Jackson, Ohio (died 7/9/1943 in Longmeadow, Massachusetts)

24/9/1889, Tuesday (-20,314) Daniel Hill, US Confederate soldier, died (born 11/7/1821).

23/9/1889, Monday (-20,315) The Nintendo Company was founded, as a playing card company.

22/9/1889, Sunday (-20,316) Harold Bulwer Farnie, British playwright, died in London.

16/9/1889, Monday (-20,322) (London) The Great London Docks Strike ended (began 15/8/1889).

12/9/1889, Thursday (-20,326) Fustel de Coulanges, French historical writer, died (born 18/3/1830).

10/9/1889, Tuesday (-20,328) Amy Levy, English novelist, died.

6/9/1889, Friday (-20,332) Louis Silvers, US composer, was born in New York (died 26/3/1954 in Hollywood)

5/9/1886, Thursday ((-20,333) Samuel Morley, English politician, died (born 15/10/1809).

2/9/1889, Monday (-20,336) Samuel Austin Allibone, US author, died in Lucerne, Switzerland (born 17/4/1816 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania).

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31/8/1889, Saturday (-20.338) William Wells, boxer, was born (died 11/6/1967)

26/8/1889, Monday (-29,343) In The Philippines, Andres Bonifacio issued a call to fight against the Spanish colonial rulers.

19/8/1889. Monday (-20,350) In London, a strike by 30,000 dock workers began.The strike ended on 14/9/1889 with victory for the dockworkers. They had won their claim for a pay rise from 5d to 6d an hour � the dockers� tanner, also 8d an hour for overtime.The strike had major public support, over �50,000 being contributed to the strike fund, whilst dock owners found blackleg labour hard to come by. Even The City supported the strike, being opposed to casualisation of labour which was seen as penalising men who wanted to do an honest day�s work.

15/8/1889, Thursday (-20,354) (Arts) James Albery, English dramatist, died (born 4/5/1838 in London).

13/8/1889, Tuesday (-20,356) The coin operated phone was patented in the USA by William Gray of Hartford, Connecticut.

10/8/1889, Saturday (-20,359) The screw bottle top was patented by Dan Ryelands of Barnsley.

8/8/1889, Thursday (-20,361) (Italy) Benedetto Cairoli, Italian statesman, died (born 28/1/1825).

6/8/1889, Tuesday (-20,363) The Savoy Hotel in London was opened.

5/8/1889, Monday (-20,364) Fanny :Lewald, German author, died.

1/8/1889, Thursday (-20,368)

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31/7/1889, Wednesday (-20,369) Horatius Bonar, Scottish clerical writer, died (born in Edinburgh 19/12/1808).

30/7/1889, Tuesday (-20,370) (Biology) Miles Berkeley, English botanist, died in Sibbertoft (born in Northamptonshire 1/4/1803).

23/7/1889, Tuesday (-20,377)

21/7/1889, Sunday (-20,379) Alexander Johnston, US historical writer, died (born 29/4/1849).

20/7/1889, Saturday (-20,380) The Freshwater, Yarmouth and Newport railway, Isle of Wight, opened to passengers (open for goods from 10/9/1888)

18/7/1889, Thursday (-20,382) (Docks) Barry Docks, S Wales, opened; construction had begun in 11/1884, as colliery owners in the South Wales Valleys sought an alternative export route for their coal to Cardiff Docks.

13/7/1889, Saturday (-20,387) Robert Hamerling, Austrian poet, died (born 24/3/1830).

10/7/1889, Wednesday (-20,390) Noble Sissle, US bandleader, was born in Indianapolis (died 17/12/1975 in Tampa, Florida)

8/7/1889, Monday (-20,392) The Wall Street Journal was first published. It was 4 pages long and sold for 2 cents.

7/7/1889, Sunday (-20,393) Giovanni Bottesini, Italian composer, died in Parma (born in Lombardy 24/12/1823).

6/7/1889, Saturday (-20,394)

5/7/1889, Friday (-20,395) Jean Cocteau, poet, was born.

4/7/1889, Thursday (-29,396) Joe Young, Us singer, was born in New York (died 21/4/1839 in New York)

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28/6/1889, Friday (-20,402) Maria Mitchell, US astronomer, died (born 1/8/1818).

26/6/1889, Wednesday (-20,404) (USA) Simon Cameron, US politician, died (born 8/3/1799).

22/6/1889, Saturday (-20,408) Bismarck�s government passed a bill for the welfare payment of old age pensions and sickness insurance.

17/6/1889, Monday (-20,413) John Gilbert, US actor, died (born 27/2/1810).

14/6/1889, Friday (-20,416) (Geology) Henry William Bristow, English geologist, died (born 17/5/1817).

12/6/1889, Wednesday (-20,418) A train crash in Armagh caused 80 deaths and 250 injured. As a result of this accident the Regulation of Railways Act 1889 was passed. This Act made block signalling, continuous brakes and interlocking points compulsory for rail companies.

4/6/1889, Tuesday (-20,426) (Geology) German-US geologist Beno Gutenberg was born in Darmstadt, Germany. In 1914 he discovered a discontinuity in the behaviour of earthquake waves at 3,000 km below the earth�s surface. This is the Gutenberg discontinuity, between the mantle and the outer core.

3/6/1889, Monday (-20,427) The first �long-distance� electric power transmission line in the US was completed.It ran 14 miles from a generator at Williamette Falls to downtown Portland, Oregon.

2/6/1889, Sunday (-20,428)

1/6/1889, Saturday (-20,429) The Orient Express made its first through run from Paris to Constantinople.

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31/5/1889, Friday (-20,430) Britain passed the Naval Defence Act in response to the growing naval power of both Russia and France.

28/5/1889, Tuesday (-20,433)

26/5/1889, Sunday (-20,435) William Batten, rugby player, was born (died 27/1/1959).

25/5/1889, Saturday (-20,436) Igor Sikorsky, American engineer who pioneered the helicopter, was born in Kiev.

24/5/1889, Friday (-20,437) (USA) Laura Bridgman, US blind deaf mute, died (born 21/12/1829).

21/5/1889, Tuesday (-20,440)

20/5/1889, Monday (-20,441) Felix Arndt, US composer, was born in New York (died 16/10/1918 in Harmon on Hudson, New York State).

19/5/1889, Sunday (-20,442) Dr Graham Edgar, developer of the octane car fuel rating system, was born in Fayetteville, Arkansas. He found that iso-octane would not �knock� in a car engine under any operating conditions whereas n-heptane would always �knock�. Mixing the two chemicals created fuels of different qualities, and the octane number on the petrol pump was the percentage of iso-octane in the fuel.

18/5/1889, Saturday (-20,443)

17/5/1889, Friday (-20,444) William Beverley, English painter, died in Hampstead, London (born in Richmond, Surrey).

16/5/1889, Thursday (-20,445) Henry Chandler, scholarly writer, died (born 31/1/1828). 16/5/1889).

8/5/1889, Wednesday (-20,453) Arthur Cumming, figure skater, was born (died 8/5/1914).

6/5/1889, Monday (-20,455) (1) The official opening of the Eiffel Tower, Paris, to the public. It was only intended to stand for 20 years, but soon acquired iconic status.

(2) Purdue University was founded at Lafayette, Indiana.

5/5/1889, Sunday (-20,456) The Netherlands prohibited children under 12 from working except in agriculture, forestry and fishing, and restricted permissible work hours for those aged under 16.

4/5/1889, Saturday (-20,457) The National Portrait Gallery, London, was presented to the nation.

3/5/1889, Friday (-20,458) Charles Lory, French geologist, died (born 30/7/1823).

2/5/1889, Thursday (-20,459) Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia, signed a treaty of friendship with Italy, giving Italy full control over the territory of Eritrea.

1/5/1889, Wednesday (-20,460) Asa Briggs Candler of Atlanta bought the exclusive rights to a local drink called Coca Cola.

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30/4/1889, Tuesday (-20,461)

27/4/1889, Saturday (-20,464) (Science) Frederick Barnard, scientist, died in New York City (born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, 5/5/1809)

26/4/1889, Friday (-20,465) Ludwig Wittgenstein, philosopher, was born.

25/4/1889, Thursday (-20,466)

24/4/1889, Wednesday (-20,467) Sir Stafford Cripps, the Labour Chancellor who introduced austerity measures in Britain after the Second World War, was born.

23/4/1889, Tuesday (-20,468) Jules Barbey, French writer, died in Paris (born 2/11/1808).

22/4/1889, Monday (-20,469) The great land rush in the US, see 2/5/1890.

21/4/1889, Sunday (-20,470) Easter Sunday

20/4/1889, Saturday (-20,471) Birth of Adolf Hitler, in Braunau, Austria (died 1945); his father was a customs official who changed his name from Schicklgruber.

19/4/1889, Friday (-20,472) (Astronomy) Warren de la Rue, British astronomer, died in London.

18/4/1889, Thursday (-20,473)

16/4/1889, Tuesday (-20,475) Birth of comedian Sir Charles Chaplin in Kennington, London (died 1977). He was the son of two music hall entertainers.

15/4/1889, Monday (-20,476) (Christian) Joseph de Veuster, missionary to Hawaii, died (born 3/1/1840)

12/4/1889, Friday (-20,479)

11/4/1889, Thursday (-20,480) Nick la Rocca, US jazz musician, was born in New Orleans (died 22/2/1961 in New Orleans)

9/4/1889, Tuesday (-20,482) Michel Chevreul, chemist, died (born 31/8/1786)

8/4/1889, Monday (-20,483) Henry Jupp, cricketer for England, died in Bermondsey, London (born in Dorking, Surrey, 19/11/1841).

6/4/1889, Saturday (-20,485) Benjamin Kennedy, English scholarly writer, died (born 6/11/1804).

4/4/1889, Thursday (-20,487) (Railway Tunnels) The Ronco rail tunnel, Italy, 8.291 km long, opened on the Genoa-Milan line.

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31/3/1889. Sunday (-20,491) (France) The 300 metre Eiffel Tower was completed, in time for the Universal Exhibition in Paris, and opened by Premier Tirard on 6/5/1889.Many people said it was ugly.

29/3/1889, Thursday (-20,493) Howard Lindsay, US singer, was born in Waterford, New York (died 11/2/1968 in new York)

27/3/1889, Tuesday (-20,495) (Britain) John Bright, British statesman, died (born 16/11/1811).

24/3/1889, Sunday (-20,498) (Medical) Franciscus Cornelia Donders, Dutch physiologist, died in Utrecht.

23/3/1889, Saturday (-20,499) (Islam) The Ahmadiyya Islamic Movement was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in India.

22/3/1889, Friday (-20,500) Stanley Matthews, US jurist, died (born 21/7/1824).

20/3/1889, Wednesday (-20,502) (Cartography) Franz Hauer, geologist, who made the first geological map of Austro-Hungary in 1871, died (born 30/1/1822).

18/3/1889, Monday (-20,504) (Russia) Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria, Russian secret police chief from 1938 and one of the most feared men in the USSR until his execution in 1953, was born.

16/3/1889, Saturday (-20,506) Samuel Hall, English journalist, died (born 9/5/1800).

9/3/1889, Saturday (-20,513) King Yohannes IV was killed in the Battle of Metemma; Sudanese forces, almost routed, rallied and destroyed the Ethiopian Army.

8/3/1889, Friday (-20,514) John Ericsson, Swedish-US inventor and engineer, died in New York City (born in Langbanshyttan, Sweden, 31/7/1803).

6/3/1889, Wednesday (-20,516) King Milan Obrenovic IV of Serbia abdicated aged 34 and went to live in Paris. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old son Alexander I.

4/3/1889, Monday (-20,518) Grover Cleveland, 22nd US President (1885-1889) was succeeded by Benjamin Harrison (1889�93).

3/3/1889, Sunday (-20,519) Alice Delysia, French actress, was born in Paris (died 10/2/1979)

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22/2/1889, Friday (-20,528) US President Grover Cleveland signed a Bill admitting North and South Dakota, Montana, and Washington, as US States.

15/2/1889, Friday (-20,535) Ernst Dechen, German geologist, died (born 25/3/1800).

12/2/1889, Tuesday (-20,538) Andrew Greenwood, cricketer for England, died in Huddersfield, Yorkshire (born in Yorkshire, 10/8/1847).

11/2/1889. Monday (-20,539) The Meiji Emperor in Japan, dressed for the occasion in a European field-marshal�s uniform, took his seat on a Prussian armchair in the European-looking throne room of the palace of his new capital, Tokyo, and announced a new constitution providing for Japan�s first parliamentary elections. �Meiji� denoted an Age of Brightness and it was hoped this would be the start of Japan as one of the great modern nations of the world. Japanese cities did indeed become more �modern� and European; cinemas and dance halls appeared, frequented by �liberated� young Japanese. However the constitution was based on a Prussian model, tied to the Confucian tradition of respect for authority, and the electorate was very limited; ministers were still picked by the emperor, not parliament. Japan remained a nation where the emperor and the military had most of the real power, leading ultimately to its participation in the Second World War. Some see 1964, when the Olympics were held in Tokyo, as the turning point when the war and US occupation were put behind and Japan became a �western� nation.

10/2/1889, Sunday (-20,540) The Church of England approved the use of the revised Bible.
7/2/1889, Thursday (-20,543)

5/2/1889, Tuesday (-20,545) Elias Hendren, cricketer, was born (died 4/10/1962).

4/2/1889, Monday (-20,546) Joachim Holtzendorff, German legal writer, died (born 14/10/1829).

2/2/1889, Saturday (-20,458)

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31/1/1889, Thursday (-20,550) Josef Gung�l, Hungarian composer, died (born 1/12/1810).

30/1/1889, Wednesday (-20,551) Archduke Rudolph of Austria was found deat at his hunting lodge at Mayerling outside Vienna. He had shot his 17-year-old mistress Baroness Marie Vetser and then himself. He left no direct heir, so his 25-year-old nephew Franz Ferdinand became heir-apparent.

28/1/1889, Monday (-20,553) (Race Equality) Prudence Crandall, campaigner for education for Black people in the US, died (born 3/9/1803)

21/1/1889, Monday (-20,560) Karl Elze, German literary writer, died (born 22/5/1821).

20/1/1889, Sunday (-20,561) Huddie William Ledbetter, US folk and blues singer, was born (died 6/12/1949 in New York)

12/1/1889, Saturday (-20,569) (Britain) Churchill Babington, English archaeologist, died in Suffolk (born in Roecliffe, 11/3/1821).

10/1/1889. Thursday (-20,571) France declared a protectorate over the Ivory Coast.

8/1/1889. Tuesday (-20,573) The first electric computer for data processing was patented by Dr Herman Hollerith in New York. The company Dr Hollerith formed to market his invention became the giant IBM. Charles Babbage had designed and partially built a mechanical �Analytical Engine� between 1821 and 1871. The 1889 computer was designed to compute the results of the 1890 census, using punched cards. The first electronic computer was built secretly at Bletchley Park; it began operations in December 1943 to crack the German Enigma codes. It worked with punched tape and could scan and analyse 5,000 characters a second. In 1946 the US military developed the first all-purpose, i.e. programmable, electronic computer. Called ENIAC, it weighed 30 tons and contained some 18,000 vacuum tubes. It was used for calculating trajectories of artillery shells, accounting for variables like wind velocity, air temperature, and type of shell.

5/1/1889, Saturday (-20,576)

3/1/1889, Thursday (-20,578) King Milan Obrenovich IV promulgated a new more liberal Constitution for Serbica.

2/1/1889, Wednesday (-20,579) Roger Adams, US chemist, was born.

1/1/1889, Tuesday (-20,580) The State of New York adopted the electric chair for capital punishment.

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28/12/1888, Friday (-20,584) Charles Eversley, Speaker of the British House of Commons, died (born 22/2/1794).

26/12/1888, Wednesday (-20,586) Gotthard Lechler, German religious writer, died (born 18/4/1811).

24/12/1888, Monday (-20,588) Michael Curtiz, film director, was born.

23/12/1888. Sunday (-20,589) (1) The film magnate J Arthur Rank was born. Born in Hull, England, he was born into a Yorkshire flour milling family. He entered the film business in his mid 30s, seeing it as a way to propagate his Methodist faith. He failed to secure distribution for a religious film called The Turn of the Tide and so began his own production, distribution, and exhibition of films in 1933. By the 1940s the Rank Organisation owned half the film studios in Britain and over 1,000 cinemas, including the well-known Odeon chain. However Rank failed to establish Britain as a rival to Hollywood. The Rank Organisation survives but with films as a secondary interest behind hotels, real estate, ballrooms, bingo, and, most profitable of all, copying machines.

(2) The artist Vincent Van Gogh cut off his left ear lobe.

22/12/1888, Saturday (-20,590) Michael Loris-Melikov, Russian statesman, died.

20/12/1888, Thursday (-20,592) The Battle of Suakin.

14/12/1888, Friday (-20,598) The railway from Lourenco Marques, Mozambique, to the Transvaal frontier, South Africa, opened. The Boer Government had agreed to extend this line south to Pretoria.

10/12/1886, Monday (-20,602) Marco Minghetti, Italian statesman, died (born 18/11/1818).

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25/11/1888, Sunday (-20,617) Josef Jirecek, Czech scholarly writer, died (born 9/10/1825).

23/11/1888, Friday (-20,619) Harpo Marx, one of the Marx Brothers comedy team, was born in New York City.

9/11/1888, Friday (-20,633) Mary Kelly, fifth and last of The Ripper�s victims, was found dead in her room at 13 Millers Court, London.

7/11/1888, Wednesday (-20,635) Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born. In 1931 he won the Nobel Physics Prize for his discovery of the changing wavelengths of light when it passed through a transparent material.

6/11/1888, Tuesday (-20,636) In the US the Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison won the election, defeating the Democrat incumbent Grover Cleveland.

4/11/1888, Sunday (-20,638)

1/11/1888, Thursday (-20,641) (Russia) Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, Russian explorer, died.

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31/10/1888. Wednesday (-20,642) Pneumatic bicycle tyres (see 10/12/1845) were patented by the Scottish inventor John Royd Dunlop.

30/10/1888, Tuesday (-20,643) The first patent for a ball point pen was issued to the American, John H Loud.

29/10/1888