Historical events from 1 January 1830 to 31 December 1859

Page last modified 4/11/2020

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/1860 click here

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12/1859, John Brown, US slavery Abolitionist, was hanged by Confederates. The North saw him as a martyr.

26/12/1859, Monday (-31,179) Johann Hausmann, German mineralogist, died (born 22/12/1782).

16/12/1859, Friday (-31,189) Wilhelm Grimm, co-author with his brother Jacob of fairy tales, died in Berlin.

15/12/1859, Thursday (-31,190) Ludwig Zimenof, Polish linguist who created the artificial language Esperanto, was born in Bialystock.

8/12/1859, Thursday, (-31,197) Thomas de Quincy, English author, died (born 15/8/1785).

5/12/1859, Monday (-31,200) Admiral Jellicoe, British naval commander, was born in Southampton, son of a sea captain.

2/12/1859, Friday (-31,203) John Brown, American anti-slavery campaigner, was hanged for treason at Charlestown, West Virginia. In 1856 Brown and his sons murdered five pro-slavery settlers in a raid on Kansas. He wanted to found a republic in the Appalachians for runaway slaves and abolitionists. On 16/10/1859 Brown and 21 armed men attacked Harpers Ferry, seized the federal arsenal and occupied the town. Federal troops under General Lee recaptured the town; wounding Brown and killing 10 of his men. In the north of the USA Brown was hailed as a martyr but the south saw him as a traitor.

12/1859, John Brown, US slavery Abolitionist, was hanged by Confederates. The North saw him as a martyr.

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11/1859, Italian unification progress; Charles Darwin published Origin of the Species.

28/11/1859, Monday (-31,207) Washington Irvine, US writer, died (born 3/4/1783).

25/11/1859, Friday (-31,210) The London Irish Volunteer Rifles was formed.

24/11/1859. Thursday (-31,211) Charles Darwin, born 12/2/1809, published The Origin of the Species.

23/11/1859, Wednesday (-31,212) Billy the Kid, or William Bonney, was shot dead by Sheriff Pat Garrett.

20/11/1859, Sunday (-31,215) Mountstuart Elphinstone, Indian statesman, died (born 1779).

12/11/1859, Saturday (-31,223) French acrobat Jules Leotard performed the first circus trapeze act at the Cirque Napoleon, Paris, wearing the famous costume named after him.

11/11/1859. Friday (-31,224) The city of Buenos Aires, which broke away from the Argentine Federation in 1853, was compelled to rejoin today.

10/11/1859, Thursday (-31,225) A peace treaty signed at Zurich ended the war between France, allied to Piedmont, and Austria. The effects of the treaty were crucial in the unification of Italy. Under its terms, Lombardy passed from Austria to Piedmont, with the exception of the Quadrilateral forts (see 24/6/1859) which were retained by Austria. Piedmont compensated France 60 million lire for the cost of the war with Austria. Plebiscites were held in various territories to determine which State they would join.

11/1859, Italian unification progress; Charles Darwin published Origin of the Species.

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10/1859, Dreyfus, French Jew who faced army persecution, was born. John Brown, US slavery Abolitionist, seized the armoury at Harpers Ferry.

20/10/1859, Thursday (-31,246) John Dewey, US educator, was born in Burlington, Vermont.

16/10/1859, Sunday (-31,250) John Brown, American slavery abolitionist, with 21 followers, seized the US armoury at Harper’s Ferry.  He was later hanged for this, see 2/12/1859.

12/10/1859, Wednesday (-31,254) Robert Stephenson, English railway and civil engineer, died in London.

9/10/1859, Sunday (-31,257) Alfred Dreyfus, French army office noted for the ‘Dreyfus Treason Affair’, was born in Alsace to Jewish parents.

5/10/1859, Wednesday (-31,261) Henry Prince of Battenberg was born (died 20/1/1896).

4/10/1859, Tuesday (-31,262) Death of German publisher Karl Baedeker, whose travel guides became famous.

1/10/1859, Saturday (-31,265) John James, English religious writer, died (born 6/6/1785).

10/1859, Dreyfus, French Jew who faced army persecution, was born. John Brown, US slavery Abolitionist, seized the armoury at Harpers Ferry.

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9/1859, Isambard Kingdom Brunel died. Lake Nyasa discovered by Livingstone.

24/9/1859, Saturday (-31,272)

17/9/1859, Saturday (-31,279) Frank Adams, Canadian geologist (died 29/12/1942) was born.

16/9/1859, Friday (-31,280) Lake Nyasa was discovered by David Livingstone.

15/9/1859. Thursday (-31,281) Railway engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel died at Westminster. He was born on 9/4/1806, in Portsmouth.

3/9/1859, Saturday (-31,293) Jean Jaures, French Socialist leader, was born.

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8/1859, World’s first oil well drilled. First hotel elevator installed.

31/8/1859, Wednesday (-31,296)

28/8/1859, Sunday (-31,299) James Hunt, English writer, died (born 19/10/1784).

27/8/1859. Saturday (-31,300) The world’s first oil well was drilled at Titusville, Pennsylvania, by Edwin Drake of Seneca Oil. Oil had been known in this area for 300 years. It used to seep from the ground and was used for curing many ailments from blindness to rheumatism, colds, coughs, sprains, and baldness. It was also skimmed from creeks and used for lighting, although it gave off a foul smell when burned. Chemists turned the oil into a better lighting fuel. Drake drilled down 69 feet and got a steady flow of 25 barrels a day from his well. By the end of the year the well once called ‘Drake’s Folly’ had produced 2,000 barrels, and other prospectors joined in the search for more oil.

23/8/1859, Tuesday (-31,304) The first hotel elevator was installed in the 6 storey building of Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York.

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7/1859, Nagasaki opened to foreign trade. Austro-Italian-French war ended.

28/7/1859, Thursday (-31,330) Mary Anderson, US actress, was born in Sacramento, California.

14/7/1859, Thursday (-31,344) Petrus Borel, French writer, was born in Lyons (died in Algeria 14/7/1859).

13/7/1859, Wednesday (-31,345) Rufus Choate, US lawyer, died (born 1/10/1799).

12/7/1859. Tuesday (-31,346) (1) William Goodale patented the paper bag manufacturing machine.

(2) Robert Stephenson, engineer, died.

11/7/1859, Monday (-31,347) Big Ben, Westminster, first starting chiming the hours.

10/7/1859, Sunday (-31,348) The Treaty of Villafranca was signed, see 24/6/1859. The war between France (allied with Piedmont) and Austria was finally concluded by the peace treaty signed at Zurich on 10/11/1859.

8/7/1859, Friday (-31,350) King Oskar I of Sweden died aged 60 after a 15-year reign. He was succeeded by his 33-year-old son who reigned as Charles XV until 1872.

6/7/1859, Wednesday (-31,352) Queensland, Australia, was formed into a separate colony.

5/7/1859, Tuesday (-31,353) Charles Cagniard de la Tour, French inventor, died (born 31/3/1777).

3/7/1859, Sunday (-31,355)

1/7/1859, Friday (-31,357) (1) The port city of Nagasaki was opened to foreign commerce, according to the provisions of the Treaty of Edo.

(2) The first mail was transported by balloon. John Wise and three others piloted their machine the 812 miles between St Louis, Missouri, and Henderson, New York State, in 19 hours and 40 minutes.

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6/1859, Austria lost to Italy, but resistance increasing. Palmerston became UK PM.

30/6/1859, Thursday (-31,358) The great tightrope walker, Charles Blondin, crossed Niagara Falls in eight minutes.  He traversed a rope 1100 feet long, 160 feet above the water.  This was the first crossing of Niagara on a tightrope.

28/6/1859, Tuesday (-31,360) The first dog show in the UK took place at Newcastle on Tyne Town Hall, with 60 entries split between two classes, Pointers and Setters.

24/6/1859, Friday (-31,364) At the Battle of Solferino, Lombardy, Italy, the French under Napoleon III allied to Piedmont defeated the Austrians. However the victory was costly for the French. Napoleon III knew that his armies must next face the Austrians at the ‘Quadrilateral’, the four fortresses of Legnano, Mantua, Peschiera and Verona, where the Austrians had retreated northwards to, and opposition to the French would increase in this region. Within France, the war against Austria was becoming unpopular as army casualties, and deaths from a typhus epidemic within the ranks, mounted. The war was expensive to France. There was also the question of what Britain might do, being opposed to the extension of French power in Italy. Prussia’s intentions, with its 400,000 strong army, were also uncertain. Therefore Napoleon, without consulting his Piedmont ally, signed the Treaty of Villafranca, see 10/7/1859.

18/6/1859, Saturday (-31,370) Lord Palmerston became Prime Minister.

12/6/1859, Sunday (-31,376) (Medical) Jacob Bell, pharmaceutical chemist, died (born in London 5/3/1810).

7/6/1859, Tuesday (-31,381) David Cox, English painter, died (born 29/4/1783).

5/6/1859, Sunday (-31,383) (Newspapers) Gamaliel Bailey, US journalist, died (born in New Jersey 3/12/1807).

4/6/1859, Saturday (-31,384) Battle of Magenta; France defeated Austrian forces and captured Milan.

2/6/1859, Thursday (-31,386)

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5/1859, Austria defeated by Italy. Big Ben began telling the time.

31/5/1859, Tuesday (-31,388) Big Ben on the Houses of Parliament started telling the time.

30/5/1859, Monday (-31,389) Battle of Palestro; Austria defeated by Piedmont.

22/5/1859. Sunday (-31,397) Ferdinand II, King of the Two Sicilies, died (born 12/1/1810).

20/5/1859, Friday (-31,399) Italian Wars of independence, Austria defeated by Piedmont.

19/5/1859, Thursday (-31,400) Dame Nellie Melba, Australian singer, was born.

18/5/1859, Wednesday (-31,401) (Geology) Geophysicist Harry Reid was born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He showed that earthquakes were caused when rocks either side of fault lines moved; previous theories suggested that the earthquakes caused the faults, not the other way round.

15/5/1859, Sunday (-31,404) Pierre Curie, French scientist, was born in Paris. He was the son of a physician.

8/5/1859, Sunday (-31,411) (Italy) The Austrians were defeated by the Italians at Casale.

3/5/1859, Tuesday (-31,416) France declared war on Austria.

2/5/1859, Monday (-31,417) Jerome K Jerome, author, was born at Walsall.

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4/1859, Suez Canal begun. Austrua threatened by rise of Italy.

30/4/1859, Saturday (-31,419) Sergei Aksakov, Russian writer (born 20/9/1791) died.

27/4/1859, Wednesday (-31,422) George Doane, US religious writer, died (born 27/5/1799).

25/4/1859. Monday (-31,424) Construction of the 100 mile Suez Canal began. Constructed by both Egyptian and French companies, under the direction of Ferdinand de Lesseps, it opened on 17/11/1869. It was 163 km long and had a minimum width of 60 metres. In 2000, some 25,000 ships used this canal.

24/4/1859, Sunday (-31,425) Easter Sunday

23/4/1859, Saturday (-31,426) Austria issued an ultimatum to Piedmont to disarm. This followed an agreement between France and Piedmont to ally against Austria. This agreement was strengthening the power of Italy (see 14/1/1858) and was a significant threat to the southern flank of Austria. See also 3/5/1859.

22/4/1859, Friday (-31.427)

20/4/1859, Wednesday (-31,429) Charles Dicken’s novel A Tale of Two Cities was published.

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3/1859,

22/3/1859, Tuesday (-31,458) Major earthquake at Quito, 5,000 killed.

1/3/1859, Tuesday (-31,479) Kent County Cricket Club was founded at Maidstone.

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2/1859, Oregon became 33rd US State.

27/2/1859, Sunday (-31,481) Friedrich Bleek, German scholar, died (born in Holstein 4/7/1793).

21/2/1859, Monday (-31,487) (1) Viscount Palmerston left office as Prime Minister.

(2) George Lansbury, British Labour politician and party leader, was born near Lowestoft, Suffolk.

19/2/1859, Saturday (-31,489) Svante August Arrhenius, Swedish physicist and chemist, was born near Uppsala.

17/2/1859, Thursday (-31,491) French forces took Saigon, Vietnam.

15/2/1859, Tuesday (-31,493) (Britain) Frederick William Hervey, Fifth Earl of Bristol, died (born 2/10/1769).

14/2/1859, Monday (-31,494) Oregon became the 33rd state of the USA.

13/2/1859, Sunday (-31,495) Sir Edward Walter founded the Corps of Commissionaires for the employment of ex-soldiers.

5/2/1859, Saturday (-31,503) Alexander Cuza was nominated as Prince of Walachia by the Assembly at Bucharest See 17/1/1859. This united the two principalities with Cuza as Prince Alexander John I; however such a union was forbidden by the Congress of Paris (18/10/1858). The Sultan of Turkey did not recognise this Union until 23/12/1861, when the State of Romania was formally proclaimed.

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1/1859, Kaiser Wilhelm II was born.

27/1/1859, Thursday (-31,512) Kaiser Wilhelm II was born in Potsdam, near Berlin. He was the son of the German Emperor and the grandson of Queen Victoria.

21/1/1859, Friday (-31,518) Henry Hallam, English historical writer, died (born 21/1/1859).

20/1/1859, Thursday (-31,519) Elisabeth Arnim, German authoress, died in Berlin (born 4/4/1785 in Frankfort am Main).

17/1/1859, Monday (-31,522) Alexander Cuza was nominated as Prince of Moldavia by the Assembly at Jassy. See 5/2/1859.

11/1/1859, Tuesday (-31,528) George Curzon, English statesman, was born.

9/1/1859, Sunday (-31,530) Carrie Chapman, suffragette, was born.

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12/1858, Puccini, composer, was born. Geologists Association, London, formed.

25/12/1858, Saturday (-31,545) James Gadsden, US diplomat, died (born 15/5/1788).

22/12/1858, Wednesday (-31,548) Composer Puccini was born in Lucca, Italy.

17/12/1858, Friday (-31,553) The Geologists Association, London was formed. The newly constructed railway cuttings and tunnels had stimulated the science.

16/12/1858, Thursday (-31,554) (Medical) Physician Richard Bright died in London, England.

9/12/1858, Thursday (-31,561) (Canada) Robert Baldwin, Canadian statesman, died; born in York (now Toronto), 12/5/1804.

3/12/1858, Friday (-31,567) Joseph Durocher, French geologist, died (born 31/5/1817).

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11/1858, Queen Victoria became Empress of India. British time standardised nationwide. General Medical Council, UK, first met. New York Symphony Orchestra first performed.

25/11/1858, Thursday (-31,575) Alfred Capus, French author, was born.

24/11/1858, Wednesday (-31,576) (Railways-social, Britain) A legal case in Dorset caused the UK Parliament to standardise time to GMT across the country. A judge in a land case in Dorset ruled against a man who had failed to turn up for a 10.00 am case, at 10.06. Two minutes later he turned up and claimed he was on time, by the station clock of his home town, Carlisle in Cumbria. At that time all towns set their clocks by their own, local, noon, meaning accurate rail timetables were problematic. By 1850 the rail companies all used London time, adding to confusion as provincial clocks often had two minute hands, one for local time, one for London time. The case was re-tried, and in 1880 Parliament ordered the entire country to keep Greenwich Mean Time.

23/11/1858, Tuesday (-31,577) The General Medical Council held its first meeting in London.

16/11/1858, Tuesday (-31,584)

9/11/1858, Tuesday (-31,591) The New York Symphony Orchestra gave its first concert.

8/11/1858, Monday (-31,592) (Mathematics) George Peacock, mathematician, died in Ely, England

4/11/1858, Thursday (-31,596) Francis Benson, English actor, was born in Tunbridge Wells.

1/11/1858, Monday (-31,599) Queen Victoria was proclaimed ruler of India. The East India Company, formed in 1600 to exploit trade with the East, but accused of imperial abuse from the early 1700s, was abolished and administration of India was transferred to the British crown. Misconduct by the East India Company had been partially curbed by the Regulating Act (1773) and Pitt’s India Act (1784). The Indian Mutiny broke the Company’s power, British influence being totally regained with the conquest of Lucknow in March 1858.

11/1858, Queen Victoria became Empress of India. British time standardised nationwide. General Medical Council, UK, first met. New York Symphony Orchestra first performed.

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10/1858, Roosevelt, US President, was born.

27/10/1858, Wednesday (-31,604) Theodore Roosevelt, American Republican and 26th President, was born in New York City, the son of a port officer. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end the Russo-Japanese war.

13/10/1858, Wednesday (-31,618) John Brown, Scottish religious writer, died (born 12/7/1784).

7/10/1858, Thursday (-31,624) Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia was certified insane, and his brother, 61-year-old Wilhelm, was made Regent.

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9/1858, Bonar Law, UK PM, was born.

16/9/1858, Thursday (-31,645) Andrew Bonar Law, UK Prime Minister, was born.

1/9/1858, Wednesday (-31,660) (Chemistry) Karl Auer, later Baron von Welsbach, was born in Vienna, Austria. In 1885 he discovered that what was thought to be one chemical element was in fact two. He named these neodymium (‘new twin) and praseodymium (‘green twin’) for the colour of its spectrum.

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8/1858, France attacked Vietnam. Speke discovered Lake Victoria. 1st Transatlantic cable

31/8/1858, Tuesday (-31,661) (Vietnam) French forces under Admiral Rigault de Genouilly attacked the Vietnamese city of Tourane, to use it as a military base. The city fell to the French on 2/9/1858.

14/8/1858, Saturday (-31,678) George Combe, Scottish phrenologist, died (born 21/10/1788)

11/8/1858, Wednesday (-31,681) The summit of the Eiger, in the Swiss Alps, was reached for the first time, by Charles Barrington of Bray, Ireland.

7/8/1858, Saturday (-31,685) (Canada) Ottawa was selected as capital of Canada.

5/8/1858, Thursday (-31,687) The first transatlantic cable was completed, by Sir Charles Tilston Bright (1832 – 1888), and opened by Queen Victoria and President Buchanan. See 7/9/1866.

3/8/1858, Tuesday (-31,689) John Speke, 31, English explorer, discovered Lake Victoria, source of the Nile.

2/8/1858, Monday (-31,690) (1) The Government of India transferred the East India Company to the British Government.

(2) British Columbia was constituted a British Colony; it became part of the Dominion of Canada in 1871.

(3) Under the Medical Act, UK doctors were now required to be registered.

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7/1858, Japan opened to trade. 1st use of fingerprinting. Pankhurst, suffragette, born. Russian serfs freed.

31/7/1858, Saturday (-31,692)

29/7/1858, Thursday (-31,694) The Treaty of Edo was signed between Japan and the USA. This extended US trading rights gained under the Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) and further opened up Japan to Western influence.

28/7/1858. Wednesday (-31,695) The first use of fingerprinting. William Herschel, a British civil servant in India, took the entire palm print of a Bengali hired to surface roads, to ensure that he did not back out of the contract.

23/7/1858, Friday (-31,700) In Britain, the Oath of Allegiance was modified so as to allow Jews to sit in Parliament.

21/7/1858, Wednesday (-31,702) Maria Christina, Queen-Regent of Spain, widow of Alphonso XII and mother of Alphonso XIII, was born.

14/7/1858, Wednesday (-31,709) The suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst was born in Manchester, as Emmeline Goulden.

13/7/1858, Tuesday (-31,710) US anthropologist Robert Culin was born in Philadelphia (died 8/4/1929)

10/7/1858, Saturday (-31,713) (France, Italy) Napoleon III of France secretly met Count Cavour at Plombieres. The two agreed to jointly attack Austria.

7/7/1858, Wednesday (-31,716) (Communications) Work began on laying the first transatlantic cable.

2/7/1858. Friday (-31,721) Czar Alexander II of Russia ordered all serfs working on imperial land to be freed.

1/7/1858. Thursday (-31,722) Charles Darwin first presented his theory of evolution, to the Linnean Society.

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6/1858, China opened to trade. Darwin developing evolution theory. Abraham Lincoln against slavery.

29/6/1858, Tuesday (-31,724) The Treaty of Tientsin ended the Anglo-Chinese War. China agreed to open up more ports to trade.

19/6/1858, Saturday (-31,734) George Alexander, English actor, was born in Reading.

18/6/1858, Friday (-31,735) Charles Darwin received a letter from Alfred Russell Wallace, who had formulated a theory of evolution through survival of the fittest. This was close to Darwin’s ideas in his as yet unpublished Origin of the Species.

17/6/1858, Thursday (-31,736)

16/6/1858, Wednesday (-31,737) (1) In a speech at Springfield, Illinois, US Senate candidate Abraham Lincoln said the slavery issue had to be addressed. He declared ‘a house divided against itself cannot stand’.

(2) Gustav V, King of Sweden from 1907 to 1950, was born the son of Oscar II.

15/6/1858, Tuesday (-31,738) Christians were massacred in Jeddah.

10/6/1858, Thursday (-31,243) (Biology) Robert Brown, botanist, died (born 21/12/1773).

2/6/1858, Wednesday (-31,751) G B Donati, Italian astronomer, discovered the comet now named after him.

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5/1858, Minnesota became the 32nd US State. Russia acquired from China territory north of the Amur.

28/5/1858, Friday (-31,756) Russia acquired from China the territory on the left (north) bank of the middle and upper River Amur, along with the territory on both sides of the lower Amur. This was under the Treaty of Aigun.

17/5/1858, Monday (-31,767) Ebenezer Henderson, Scottish religious writer, died (born 17/11/1784).

11/5/1858, Tuesday (-31,773) Minnesota became the 32nd state of the USA.

4/5/1858, Tuesday (-31,780) Aime Bonpland, botanist, died (born in La Rochelle 22/8/1773).

3/5/1858, Monday (-31,781) Julien Brizeux, poet, died (born 12/9/1803)

5/1858, Minnesota became the 32nd US State. Russia acquired from China territory north of the Amur.

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4/1858, Big Ben bell was cast.

24/4/1858, Saturday (-31,790) William Gregory, chemistry writer, died (born 25/12/1803).

17/4/1858, Saturday (-31,797) James Dunfermline, British statesman, died (born 7/11/1776).

16/4/1858, Friday (-31,798) Johann Cramer, English composer, died (born 24/2/1771).

10/4/1858, Saturday (-31,804) Big Ben, the bell inside the famous Westminster clock, was cast in Whitechapel, London. The bell, weighing 13 ½ tons, was named after Sir Benjamin Hall, Commissioner for Works, who was a large tall man nicknamed ‘Big Ben’.

7/4/1858, Wednesday (-31,807) Davis Dewey, US economics writer, was born.

6/4/1858, Tuesday (-31,808) Charles Bennett, US scholarly writer, was born in Providence, Rhode Island.

4/4/1858, Sunday (-31,810) Easter Sunday

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3/1858, China granted trade concessions to UK, France.

31/3/1858, Wednesday (-31,814) China gave in to British and French demands for trade concessions.

20/3/1858, Saturday (-31,825) Johannes Gossner, German preacher and philanthropist, died (born 14/12/1773).

18/3/1858, Thursday (-31,827) Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the diesel engine, was born in Paris.

13/3/1858, Saturday (-31,832) Felice Orsini, Italian revolutionary, was executed for his part in the assassination attempt on Napoleon III in Paris.

11/3/1858, Thursday (-31,834) (India) William Hodson, British cavalry leader, was killed during the attack on Begum Kotee, Lucknow.

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2/1858, 1st electric burglar alarm. First vision at Lourdes. 1st balloon ascent in Australia.

21/2/1858. Sunday (-31,852) (1) The first electric burglar alarm was installed by Edwin T Holmes of Boston Massachusetts.

(2) Corinth, Greece, was destroyed by an earthquake.

16/2/1858, Tuesday (-31,857) Georg Creuzer, German historical writer, died (born 10/3/1771).

11/2/1858. Thursday (-31,862) At Lourdes, a 14 year old peasant girl, Bernadette Soubirous, claimed to have seen a vision of a lady surrounded by light in a grotto.

1/2/1858, Monday (-31,872) (Aviation) Englishman William Dean made the first balloon ascent in Australia, flying for seven miles over Melbourne.

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1/1858, Great Eastern liner was launched. Italian would-be assassasin on French Emperor precipitated Plombieres Agreement on Italian governance.

31/1/1858, Sunday (-31,873) The liner Great Eastern, 692 feet long, with five funnels, built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel and John Scott Russell, was launched at Millwall Docks, London, three months behind schedule.

30/1/1858, Saturday (-31,874) The Halle Opera in Manchester, England, gave its first public concert.

28/1/1858, Thursday (-31,876) Herbert Adams, US sculptor (died 21/5/.1945) was born.

22/1/1858, Friday (-31,882) Beatrice Webb, founder member of the Fabian Society, was born.

19/1/1858, Tuesday (-31,885) Eugene Brieux, French dramatist, was born.

14/1/1858, Thursday (-31,890) An Italian assassin threw a bomb at French Emperor Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie as they drove to the Paris Opera. The bomb, thrown by Felici Orsini, missed its target but killed eight bystanders and injured 100. Orsini planned the attack in London, causing anti-British sentiment in France. Napoleon III, now convinced of the magnitude of nationalist sentiment in Italy, invited Count Cavour to the spa town of Plombieres in the Vosges Mountains where the Plombieres Agreement of July 1858 was worked out. This Agreement provided that Piedmont would provide 100,000 men along with 200,000 French to fight Austria. After victory against Austria, three kingdoms would be set up in Italy. Northern Italy would include Lombardy, Romagna, Sardinia and Venetia. Central Italy would include Tuscany and the Duchy of Parma; the Papal lands however would continue under the rule of the Pope. Thirdly, southern Italy, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, would be ruled by Luciano Murat, if its current ruler, Ferdinand II, abdicated. A secret agreement of 24/1/1859 between France and Piedmont provided that both would respect the sovereignty of the Pope.

12/1/1858, Tuesday (-31,892) Robert Crewe, English statesman, was born.

5/1/1858, Tuesday (-31,899) Joseph Radedtsky, Austrian Field-Marshal and national hero, died in Milan aged 91.

1/1/1858, Friday (-31,903) (Britain) John Britton, English antiquary died (born 7/7/1771).

1/1858, Great Eastern liner was launched. Italian would-be assassasin on French Emperor precipitated Plombieres Agreement on Italian governance.

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12/1857,

6/12/1857, Sunday (-31,929)

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11/1857,

30/11/1857, Monday (-31,935) Bobby Abel, cricketer, was born (died 10/12/1936).

26/11/1857, Thursday (-31,939) Joseph Eichendorff, German poet, died (born 10/3/1788).

25/11/1857, Wednesday (-31,940) (Race Equality) Anti-slavery campaigner James Birney died in Perth Amboy, New Jersey (born in Danville, Kentucky 4/2/1792).

24/11/1857, Tuesday (-31,941) (India) Sir Henry Havelock, British soldier, died in India.

22/11/1857, Sunday (-31,943) George Gissing, English novelist, was born (died 28/12/1903).

19/11/1857, Thursday (-31,946) Albert Harkness, US scholarly writer, was born.

2/11/1857, Monday (-31,963) Paul Hervieu, French novelist, was born,

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10/1857,

28/10/1857, Wednesday (-31,968) Louis Cavaignac, French General, died (born 15/10/1802)

24/10/1857, Saturday (-31,972) A group of Cambridge University Old Boys formed the first Football Club, in Sheffield.

10/10/1857, Saturday (-31,986) Thomas Crawford, US sculptor, died (born 22/3/1814).

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9/1857, Hershey, US chocolate manufacturer, was born. British recaptured Lucknow.

25/9/1857, Friday (-32,001) The British lifted the siege of Lucknow, ending the Indian Mutiny.

20/9/1857, Sunday (-32,006) The British recaptured Delhi from Indian mutineers.

17/9/1857, Thursday (-32,009) (Space Exploration) Russian physicist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was born in Izhevsk. In 1985 he proposed the use of liquid-fuelled rockets to propel vehicles into space.

16/9/1857, Wednesday (-32,010) The tune Jingle Bells by James Pierpoint was copyrighted under its original title One Horse Open Sleigh. In 1965 it became the first song to be broadcast from space.

15/9/1857, Tuesday (-32,011) William Howard Taft, American Republican and 27th President, was born in Cincinnati.

13/9/1857, Sunday (-32,013) Birth of William Snaveley Hershey, US chocolate manufacturer who built the world’s largest chocolate factory. He also established the Hershey Foundation, to promote education.

11/9/1858, Friday (-32,015) The Mountain Meadows Massacre in Utah. 135 migrants on the Fancher wagon train were ambushed, and nearly all killed, by Pahute Indians; however the Indians were acting under instructions from the Mormon leader, Brigham Young.

8/9/1857, Tuesday (-32,018) Jean Boissonade, French scholarly writer, died (born in Paris 12/8/1774).

6/9/1857, Sunday (-32,020) (Science) Johann Salomo Schweigger, physicist, died in Halle, Germany

5/9/1857, Saturday (-32,021) Auguste Comte, French philosopher and sociologist, founder of Positivism, died.

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8/1857, 1st railway in Argentina opened.

30/8/1857, Sunday (-32,027) The first railway in Argentina opened, Parque to Floresta.

27/8/1857, Thursday (-27,030) Rufus Griswold, US writer, died (born 15/2/1815).

19/8/1857, Wednesday (-32,038) Edgar D’Abernon, British diplomat, was born.

18/8/1857, Tuesday (-32,039) Work began on the 7.5 mile Mont Cenis rail tunnel under the Alps, linking France and Italy.

12/8/1857, Wednesday (-32,045) Sir John Coode, geologist, died (born 7/6/1787)

10/8/1857, Monday (-32,047) John Croker, British author, died (born 20/12/1780).

5/8/1857, Wednesday (-32,052) Charles Blomfield, English cleric, died (born in Bury St Edmunds 29/5/1786).

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7/1857, Seige of Lucknow began.

29/7/1857, Wednesday (-32,059) Thomas Dick, Scottish writer on astronomy, died (born 24/11/1774).

25/7/1857, Saturday (-32,063) Nathaniel Goodwin, US actor, was born.

17/7/1857, Friday (-32,071) In Spain, education for all children aged from 6 to 9 became compulsory.

16/7/1857, Thursday (-32,072) Pierre Beranger, French songwriter, died (born in Paris 19/8/1780).

15/7/1857, Wednesday (-32,073) Karl Czerny, Austrian composer, died (born 21/2/1791).

9/7/1857, Thursday (-32,079) Robert Blum, US artist, was born in Cincinnatti, Ohio, (died in New York City 8/6/1903).

2/7/1857, Thursday (-32,086) The siege of Lucknow began.

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6/1857, Indian Mutiny. Elgar, composer, was born

26/6/1857, Friday (-32,092) The first investiture ceremony of Victoria Crosses took place, in Hyde Park. 67 servicemen were awarded.

8/6/1857, Monday (-32,110) Douglas Jerrold, English writer, died (born 3/1/1803).

4/6/1857, Thursday (-32,114) In the Indian Mutiny, the British garrison of Kanpur (Cawnpore) in Uttar Pradesh, northern India, came under siege by Indian rebels against British rule. After a three-week siege the British, under Sir Hugh Wheeler, were promised safe passage to Allahabad, on thatched barges. However as they departed the barges were fired upon, and set ablaze. The survivors were transferred to a house called the Bibighar, where they were massacred on 15/7/1857 by Indian rebels. 197 died.

2/6/1857, Tuesday (-32,116) Sir Edward Elgar, British composer, was born in Broadheath, near Worcester, the son of a music seller and organist.

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5/1857, Sepoy Mutiny in India

31/5/1857, Sunday (-32,118) Pope Pius XI was born.

28/5/1857, Thursday (-32,121) Jean Hyde de Neuville, French politician, died (born 24/1/1776).

23/5/1857, Saturday (-32,126) Augustin Cauchy, mathematician, died (born 21/8/1789)

10/5/1857. Sunday (-32,139) Outbreak of the Indian (Sepoy) Mutiny in Meerat. On 6/5/1857, 85 men of the 90-strong 3rd Cavalry Regiment in Meerut had refused to bite off the greased and of the new cartridges for Lee Enfield rifles, which they claimed contained both pig and cow fat, so offending both Muslims and Hindus. The British had 24 hours warning of the mutiny but refused to take the threat seriously. The Indian mutineers seized Delhi on 11/5/1857.

2/5/1857, Saturday (-32,147) French inventor Felix du Temple patented designs for an aircraft with a retractable undercarriage.

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4/1857,

22/4/1857, Wednesday (-32,157) The Parliament in South Australia first opened.

20/4/1857, Monday (-32,159) West African Muslim leader Al Hajj Uman besieged the French fort at Medine, Senegal.

12/4/1857, Sunday (-32,167) Easter Sunday

11/4/1857, Saturday (-32,168) John Davidson, British writer, was born (died 23/3/1909).

5/4/1857, Sunday (-32,174) (Bulgaria) Alexander of Battenberg, First Prince of Bulgaria, was born (died 23/10/1893).

1/4/1857, Wednesday (-32,178) (Railways) The railway from Charleston to Memphis, USA, opened.

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3/1857, US Supreme Court upheld slavery. First passenger lift installed. Afghan independence confirmed.

23/3/1857, Monday (-32,187) The first passenger lift was installed in a department store, in the 5-storey building of E V Haughwout and Co on Broadway, New York. The elevator system cost US$ 300.

21/3/1857, Saturday (-32,189) (Earthquake) Earthquake in Japan killed 107,000.

20/3/1857, Friday (-32,190) (Geology) Ours Dufrenoy, French geologist, died (born 5/9/1792).

16/3/1857, Monday (-32,194) Charles Firth, British historical writer, was born.

7/3/1857, Saturday (-32,203) (Medical) Julius Wagner von Jauregg was born in Wels, Austria. In 1927 he was awarded the Nobel prize for his treatment of some forms of paralysis using malaria inoculation to induce the fever.

6/3/1857, Friday (-32,204) The United States Supreme Court, in the Dredd Scott Decision, decreed seven to two that 1) it was unconstitutional for Congress to outlaw slavery in the United States, and 2) that no slave could claim US citizenship. Dredd Scott was a slave owned by Elizabeth Blow of Missouri (a slave State), who was subsequently sold to John Emerson, an army surgeon who took Scott to the free State of Illinois, and later to Wisconsin Territory, where slavery was outlawed by the Missouri Compromise of 1820. In 1838 Emerson took Scott back to Missouri. Scott was in fact set free by his Abolitionist ‘owners’. The Dredd Scott Decision only served to inflame the slave/Abolitionist dispute further and probably hastened on the US Civil War.

5/3/1857, Thursday (-32,205)

4/3/1857, Wednesday (-32,206) By the Treaty of Paris, Afghanistan’s independence was recognised by Britain and France, and forced upon Persia.

3/3/1857, Tuesday (-32,207) Britain and France declared war on China, using the killing of a missionary as a pretext.

3/1857, US Supreme Court upheld slavery. First passenger lift installed. Afghan independence confirmed.

=====================================================================================

2/1857, Baden-Powell, founder of the Boy Scouts in 1908, was born.

28/2/1857. Saturday (-32,210) British and French troops ended their occupation of Piraeus, which began on 26/5/1854.

22/2/1857, Sunday (-32,216) Robert Baden-Powell, British army officer and founder of the Boy Scouts movement in 1908, was born in London, the son of an Oxford Professor.

18/2/1857, Wednesday (-32,220) Francis Ellesmere, English politician, died (born 1/1/1800).

2/2/1857, Monday (-32,236) Charles Davis, US landscape painter, was born.

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1/1857, Kolkata University opened. Founder of Selfridges born.

24/1/1857, Saturday (-32,245) Calcutta (Kolkata) University was founded.

23/1/1857, Friday (-32,246) (Geology) Andrija Mohorovicic was born in Volosko, Yugoslavia. In 1909 he discovered the boundary in the Earth’s crust 30 km down where earthquake waves change. This Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the boundary between the crust and mantle.

11/1/1857. Sunday (-32,258) Birth of Henry Gordon Selfridge, founder of Britain’s first large department store. Also on this day was born the champion jockey Fred Archer.

7/1/1857, Wednesday (-32,262) The London Central Omnibus Company began running a London bus service. See 30/8/1860.

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12/1856, Woodrow Wilson, US President, was born. First railway in Sweden opened.

28/12/1856, Sunday (-32,272) Woodrow Wilson, American Democrat and 28th President 1913-21, was born in Staunton, Virginia, the son of a Presbyterian Minister.

23/12/1856, Tuesday (-32,277) James Buchanan Duke, US industrialist, was born in Durham, North Carolina (died 10/10/1925 in New York).

22/12/1856, Monday (-32,278) Frank B Kellogg, US politician, was born.

18/12/1856, Thursday (-32,282) Sir Joseph John Thomson, discoverer of the electron, was born in Cheetham Hill near Manchester.  He was the son of a bookseller.

1/12/1856, Monday (-32,299) First railway in Sweden opened; Gothenburg to Jonsered and Malmo to Lund.

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11/1856,

29/11/1856, Saturday (-32,301) (Cartography) Frederick Beechey, English explorer and cartographer, died (born in London 17/2/1796).

23/11/1856, Sunday (-32,307) Joseph Hammer-Purgstall, German orientalist writer, died (born 9/6/1774).

9/11/1856, Sunday (-32,321) John Clayton, US politician, died (born 24/7/1796).

4/11/1856, Tuesday (-32,326) Ernest Crosby, US writer, was born (died 1907).

2/11/1856, Sunday (-32,328) Samuel Hoar, US lawyer, died (born 18/5/1778)

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10/1856, First railway in Portugal

29/10/1856, Wednesday (-32,332) (Science) Paul Curie, physicist, was born.

28/10/1856, Tuesday (-32,333) First railway in Portugal opened; Lisbon to Carregado, 39 km.

27/10/1856, Monday (-32,334) Kenyon Cox, US painter, was born in Ohio.

12/10/1856, Sunday (-32,349) Richard Guyon, General in the Hungarian Revolutionary Army, died

9/10/1856, Thursday (-32,352) (Geology) Charles Beecher, UA palaeontologist, was born in Dunkirk, New York (died 14/2/1904).

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9/1856,

24/9/1856, Wednesday (-32,367) Henry Hardinge, British colonial Governor-General of India, died (born 30/3/1785).

23/9/1856, Tuesday (-32,368) William Archer, English writer, was born in Perth.

20/9/1856, Saturday (-32,371) John Brown, Scottish writer, died (born 23/2/1817).

2/9/1856, Tuesday (-32,389) Jeremiah Jenks, US economist, was born.

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8/1856, London divided into postal districts. First Australian secret-ballot election. Condensed milk patented.

27/8/1856, Wednesday (-32,395) The first Australian parliamentary election held by secret ballot took place in Victoria, Australia.

24/8/1856, Sunday (-32,398) William Buckland, geologist, died (born 12/3/1784)

19/8/1856, Tuesday (-32,403) (Chemistry) Charles Frederic Gerhardt, chemist, died

18/8/1856, Monday (-32,404) Condensed milk was patented.

17/8/1856, Sunday (-32,405) Constant Prevost, French geologist, born 4/6/1787, died.

15/8/1856, Friday (-32,407) Kier Hardie, Labour leader, was born near Holytown, Lanarkshire.  He helped found the Labour Party.

8/8/1856, Friday (-32,414) Thomas Guthrie, English novelist, was born.

7/8/1856, Thursday (-32,415) The Ayr to Dalmellington railway opened to passengers.

3/8/1856, Sunday (-32,419) London was divided into postal districts to speed up the mail delivery.

8/1856, London divided into postal districts. First Australian secret-ballot election. Condensed milk patented.

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7/1856, Natal became a British colony.

30/7/1856, Wednesday (-32,423) Viscount Richard Burdon Haldane (British Army) was born.

29/7/1856, Tuesday (-32,424) Robert Schumann, German composer, died in an asylum near Bonn.

26/7/1856, Saturday (-32,427) George Bernard Shaw, playwright, was born in Dublin. A failed novelist, he was 36 when his first play, Widower’s Houses, was performed.

12/7/1856, Saturday (-32,441) Natal was made a British colony.

10/7/1856, Thursday (-32,443) Nikola Tesla was born.  His father, the Reverend Milutin Tesla, was a Greek Orthodox priest, and his mother Duka Mandic was the daughter of a priest who made handcraft tools.

9/7/1856, Wednesday (-32,444) (Science) Amedeo Avogadro, Count of Quarenga, died in Turin, Italy

2/7/1856, Wednesday (-32,451) Thomasine Gyllembourg, Danish writer, died (born 9/11/1773).

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6/1856,

22/6/1856, Sunday (-32,461) Henry Haggard, English novelist was born.

11/6/1856, Wednesday (-32,472) Friedrich Hagen, German scholarly writer, died (born 19/2/1780).

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6/1856, Sigmund Freud was born. Robert Peary was born.

24/5/1856, Saturday(-32,490) (USA) Slavery Abolitionist John Brown led a raid on pro-slavery men at Pottawaomie Creek, Kansas.

6/5/1856, Tuesday (-32,508) (1) Sigmund Freud, Austrian pioneer of psychoanalysis, was born in Freiburg, Moravia.

(2) Robert Peary, American Arctic explorer, was born in Cresson Springs, Pennsylvania.

3/5/1856, Saturday (-32,511) Adolphe Adam, French composer (born 24/7/1803) died.

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4/1856, Marshal Petain, France, was born. Aldershot camp, UK, inaugurated.

25/4/1856, Friday (-32,519) Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, or Lewis Carroll, met the young Alice Liddell, who was the inspiration for his Alice books.

24/4/1856, Thursday (-32,520) Philippe Petain, French Army Marshall, was born in Cuchy a la Tour.

23/4/1856, Wednesday (-32,521) Arthur Hadley, US economics writer, was born.

21/4/1856, Monday (-32,523) The Adelaide to Port Adelaide railway, Australia, opened.

18/4/1856, Friday (32,526) Aldershot Camp was publically inaugurated by Queen Victoria.

==================================================================================

3/1856, Crimean War ended, Russia retreated.

30/3/1856, Sunday (-32,545) (Russia, Finland) The Treaty of Paris ended the Crimean War. Russia agreed to demilitarise the Black Sea, demolishing its naval bases at Sevastopol and three other locations. It also renounced its claim to protect the Holy Places in Palestine.  Russia ceded a part of Bessarabia, forcing it back from the Danube River. The Treaty also stipulated that the Aland Islands should not be fortified, by the army or navy. This allayed British fears over threats to its trade in the Baltic, see Russia-1854.

23/3/1856, Sunday (-32,552) Easter Sunday

20/3/1856, Thursday (-32,555) Frederick Winslow Taylor, the inventor of modern scientific time-management, was born.

9/3/1856, Sunday (-32,566) (Chemistry) Edward Goodrich Acheson was born in Washington, Pennsylvania, USA. In 1891 he discovered a process for making carborundum (silicon carbide), a material almost as hard as diamond.

6/3/1856, Thursday (-32,569) The Maryland Agricultural College, now University of Maryland, received its Charter.

5/3/1856, Wednesday (-32,570) London’s Covent Garden Opera House was destroyed by fire.

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2/1856, Ottoman Turkey, under duress from Europe, recognised Christian rights; reformed its penal system.

27/2/1856, Wednesday (-32,577) Agnes Duclaux, English poet, was born.

18/2/1856, Monday (-32,586) Abdul Mejid, the Ottoman Sultan, issued the Hatt-i-Humayun Edict. This guaranteed full civic rights for his Christian subjects, abolished torture and reformed prisons. These reforms were effectively forced upon the Sultan by the western European Allies.

17/2/1856, Sunday (-32,587) John Braham, English vocalist, died.

1/2/1856, Friday (-32,603) Russia agreed to preliminary peace conditions for ending the Crimean War.

2/1856, Ottoman Turkey, under duress from Europe, recognised Christian rights; reformed its penal system.

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1/1856, Iron Cross instituted by Queen Victoria

29/1/1856, Tuesday (-32,606) Queen Victoria instituted the Victoria Cross, Britain’s highest military decoration. Awarded for conspicuous bravery or great devotion to duty. The award was backdated to 1854 to cover the Crimean War; on 26/6/1856 62 men were given the Victoria Cross for deeds during this war. The VC has been awarded 1,354 times since then, to 2002, but has only been given posthumously since 1920. It has been awarded only 11 times since 1945, the last 2 being in the Falklands War of 1982. The medal is made of metal from Russian guns captured in the Crimean War.

22/1/1856, Tuesday (-32,613) Walter Gay, US artist, was born.

12/1/1856, Saturday (-32,623) Henry Goulburn, English statesman, died (born 19/3/1784).

4/1/1856, Friday (-32,631) Pierre David, sculptor, died (born 12/3/1789)

1/1856, Iron Cross instituted by Queen Victoria

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12/1855,

31/12/1855, Monday (-32.635) Karl Hermann, German scholarly writer, died (born 4/8/1804).

26/12/1855, Wednesday (-32,640) August Follen, German poet, died (born 21/1/1794).

20/12/1855, Thursday (-32,646) Thomas Cubitt, English builder, died (born 25/2/1788).

15/12/1855, Saturday (-32,651) Maurice Bouchor, French poet, was born in Paris.

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11/1855, David Livingstone discovered the Victoria Falls. Severe earthquake in Tokyo.

17/11/1855, Saturday (-32,679) The Scottish explorer David Livingstone discovered, on the River Zambezi, a large waterfall. He called it the Victoria Falls.

11/11/1855, Sunday (-32,685) Earthquake hit Edo (now Tokyo), Japan. 6,700 were killed.

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10/1855, Bessemer patented steel making process.

17/10/1855, Wednesday (-32,710) Henry Bessemer patented a steel-making process.

1/10/1855, Monday (-32,726) (Africa) Edward Flegel, German explorer of Africa, was born (died 11/9/1886)

===================================================================================

9/1855, 1st railway in New South Wales. Sevastopol abandoned by Russians. Last Battholomews fair.

28/9/1855, Friday (-32,729) George Brush, US painter, was born.

26/9/1855, Wednesday (-32,731) (Railways) The first railway in New South Wales opened, Sydney to Parramatta.

18/9/1855, Tuesday (-32,739) Robert Horton, British divine, was born.

13/9/1855, Thursday (-32,744) Johann Engelhardt, German religious writer, died (born 12/11/1791).

11/9/1855, Tuesday (-32,746) During the Crimean War, the Russian Black Sea port of Sevastopol fell to Anglo-French forces after an 11 month siege. The Russians demolished the fort as they abandoned it. However the Allies were unable to occupy the port facilities before winter set in and British troops faced a second winter in the Crimea.

3/9/1855, Monday (-32,754) (London) The last Bartholomews fair was held in London. It was first held on 24/8/1133. It grew to be a huge national market, the main centre for cloth sales in England. However by the 1850s it had become a magnet for thieves and muggers, and the event was disapproved of by the upper classes in London.

====================================================================================

8/1855, British victory in Crimea.

16/8/1855, Thursday (-32,772) Battle of Chermaia, in the Crimean War; the Russians were defeated by a combined force of British troops and Piedmontese soldiers sent by Count Cavour of Savoy.

3/8/1855, Friday (-32,785) Henry Bunner, US writer, was born (died 11/5/1896).

======================================================================================

7/1855, New York became 13th State to ban alcohol sales.

21/7/1855, Saturday (-32,798) Daniel Atterbom, Swedish poet, died.

7/7/1855, Saturday (-32,812) (Earthquake) Earthquake in northern Persia killed 40,000 people.

4/7/1855. Wednesday (-32,815) New York became the 13th state to ban the production or sale of alcoholic beverages.

1/7/1855, Sunday (-32,818) A labourer’s wage was 3s 9d a week.  More skilled workers such as bricklayers, carpenters, and masons earned 6s 8d a week, and engineers got 7s 6d a week.  2lb (0.9 kg) bread cost 4d, as did 2 to 4 pints of beer (depending on quality).

===================================================================================

6/1854, Daily Telegraph first published. Last live animal market at Smithfield.

30/6/1855, Saturday (-32,819) In Britain, the Newspaper Stamp Tax was abolished.

29/6/1855, Friday (-32,820) The Daily Telegraph was first published, in London.  The first editor was Alfred Bate Richards.

28/6/1855, Thursday (-32,821) Lord Raglan, British Army officer and commander of the expeditionary force in the Crimea, died.

24/6/1855, Sunday (-32,825) Johann Flugel, German writer, died (born 22/11/1788).

11/6/1855, Monday (-32,838) The last market for live animals was held at Smithfield, London. Thereafter live animals were traded further north, at Copenhagen Fields. Central London Meat Market (Smithfield) was begun in 1862 and opened for meat trading in 1868.

2/6/1855, Saturday (-32,847) Thomas Gaisford, English scholarly writer, died (born 22/12/1779).

=====================================================================================

4/1855, London’s first ‘pillar boxes’.

30/4/1855, Monday (-32,880) Sir Henry Bishop, composer, died (born in London 18/11/1786).

16/4/1855, Monday (-32,894) (Internat) The Declaration of Paris was signed.

11/4/1855, Wednesday (-32,899) London’s first six ‘pillar boxes’ were installed, and were painted green.

8/4/1855, Sunday (-32,902) Easter Sunday

2/4/1855, Monday (-32,908) George Greenough, English geologist, died (born 18/1/1778).

====================================================================================

3/1855, Peace between Afghanistan and Britain, to forestall Persia

31/3/1855, Saturday (-32,910) Charlotte Bronte, oldest of the three literary sisters, died during pregnancy.

30/3/1855, Friday (-32,911) Afghan leader Dost Mohammed signed a peace treaty ending 12 years of hostility with Britain. This agreement, the Treaty of Peshawar, was intended to thwart a Persian occupation of Afghanistan.

21/3/1855, Wednesday (-32,920) (Denmark) Trade between the Faroe Islands and the rest of the world was opened to all. Until this date this trade had been a monopoly, first of a merchant house in Copenhagen, then of the Danish Government.

13/3/1855, Tuesday (-32,928) Percival Lowell, US astronomer, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

10/3/1855, Saturday (-32,931) (Spain) Don Carlos, claimant to the Spanish throne, died (born 29/3/1788).

2/3/1855, Friday (-32,939) Tsar Nicholas I of Russia died during hostilities during the Crimean War.  His successor, Alexander was more disposed to make peace with Britain, but negotiations broke down.

=====================================================================================

2/1855, Palmerston became British PM.

23/2/1855, Friday (-32,946) (Mathematics) Johann Karl Friedrich Gauss, mathematician, died in Gottingen, Germany

22/2/1855, Thursday (-32,947) 13 gold diggers were acquitted of rioting and manslaughter in Melbourne, Australia after fighting broke out at the Eureka gold mine. In 1854, at the Eureka Stockade, Ballarat, New South Wales, armed gold prospectors fought with a combined military and police force; 30 gold miners and 5 policemen died. Miners objected to an expensive licence imposed by the Australian Government, Public opinion went behind the miners, and juries refused to convict them, causing the Government to back down over the issue.

21/2/1855, Wednesday (-32,948)

20/2/1855, Tuesday (-32,949) Joseph Hume, British politician, died (born 22/1/1777).

19/2/1855, Monday (-32,950) Bread riots broke out in Liverpool.

11/2/1855, Sunday (-32,958) Kassa Hailu crowned as Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia.

9/2/1855, Friday (-32,960) Mysterious hoof-prints appeared in the snow in Devon, as if a two legged creature had walked 100 miles over fields, walls, and roof-tops. No explanation was ever found.

6/2/1855, Tuesday (-32,963) Whig/Liberal Lord Palmerston became Prime Minister. He succeeded Lord Aberdeen, who resigned on 20/1/1855.

1/2/1855, Thursday (-32,968) Claus Harms, German religious writer, died (born 25/5/1778).

2/1855, Palmerston became British PM.

====================================================================================

1/1855, The Panama Railway opened.

28/1/1855, Sunday (-32,972) The 47-mile Panama Railway, linking the Atlantic and Pacific across the Isthmus of Panama, opened.

23/1/1855, Tuesday (-32,977) Julius Hare, English religious writer, died (born 13/9/1795).

19/1/1855, Friday (-32,981) Jean Guerin, French painter, died (born 25/3/1783).

5/1/1855, Friday (-32,995) King Camp Gillette, American inventor of the safety razor, was born in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin.

===================================================================================

12/1854, Pope Pius IX declared Mary free of all sin.

23/12/1854, Saturday (-33,008) Earthquake in Shikoku, Japan, 3,000 killed.

22/12/1854, Friday (-33,009) Benedict Fogelberg, Swedish sculptor, died (born 8/8/1786).

14/12/1854, Thursday (-33,017) Leonard Faucher, French political writer, died (born 8/9/1803).

9/12/1854, Saturday (-33,022) Joao Garrett, Portuguese poet, died (born 1799).

8/12/1854. Friday (-33,023) Pope Pius IX settled an ancient controversy by declaring that Christ’s mother, Mary, was free of all sin the moment she was born.

5/12/1854, Tuesday (-33,026)

3/12/1854, Sunday (-33,028) Johann Eckermann, German poet, died (born 21/9/1792).

2/12/1854, Saturday (-33,029) Austria formed a strategic alliance with Britain and France.

====================================================================================

11/1854, De Lesseps concession forCanal from Egypt. Inkerman, Crimean War.

30/11/1854, Thursday (-33,031) The Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps obtained, from the Egyptian ruler Said Pasha, a 99-year concession to build a canal between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.

18/11/1854, Saturday (-33,043) Edward Forbes, British scientific writer, died (12/2/1815).

11/11/1854, Saturday (-33,050) Mussolini’s father, Alessandro, was born in Montemaggiore, close to Predappio.

6/11/1854, Monday (-33,055) John Philip Sousa, composer, inventor of the sousaphone (a sort of large tuba), was born.

5/11/1854, Sunday (-33,056) The combined English and French armies defeated the Russians at the Battle of Inkerman, in the Crimean War. British forces now spent their first winter in the Crimea, poorly supplied. Public opinion in Britain began to turn against the war, outraged by daily reports in The Times from war correspondent W H Russell.

4/11/1854, Saturday (-33,057) Florence Nightingale arrived at Scutari.

3/11/1854, Friday (-33,058) (Biology) Jokichi Takamine was born in Takaoka, Japan. In 1901 he artificially synthesised adrenaline.

===================================================================================

10/1854, Battle of Balaclava, Charge of Light Brigade. Oscar Wilde born

31/10/1854, Tuesday (-33,061) (Egypt) Johann Erman, Egyptologist, was born.

27/10/1854, Friday (-33,065) Sir William Smith, Scottish founder of the Boys Brigade movement in Glasgow in 1883, was born.

25/10/1854, Wednesday (-33,067) Battle of Balaclava and the Charge of the Light Brigade, led by Lord Cardigan. The Russians were attacking a combined force of English, French, and Turks, who were themselves besieging Sevastopol. Of the 607 who rode out, only 198 returned. In poor visibility, Lord Raglan noted that the Russians, at the north end of a valley, were attempting to move some guns, and ordered the Light Brigade to capture them; he was unaware of other Russian artillery along the valley. However the British and French won the battle in the end.

22/10/1854, Sunday (-33,070) Albrecht Bitzius, Swiss novelist, died (born in Morat 4/10/1797).

18/10/1854, Wednesday (-33,074) (Sweden) Salomon August Andree, Swedish engineer, was born in Grenna.

17/10/1854, Tuesday (-33,075) The Allies (French and British) laid siege to the Russians at Sevastopol.

16/10/1854, Monday (-33,076) Oscar Wilde, Irish author and playwright, was born in Dublin, the son of a surgeon.

14/10/1854, Saturday (-33,078) The first baby show was held, at Springfield, Ohio. There were127 exhibits.

7/10/1854, Saturday (-33,085) (South Africa) Christian de Wet, Boer General, was born.

====================================================================================

9/1854, Russia losing in Crimea War

27/9/1854, Wednesday (-33,095) The Lady Isabella waterwheel at Laxey, Isle of Man was completed.  It was the largest in the UK, at 72 foot 6 inches in diameter, and was once used for draining a lead mine.

26/9/1854, Tuesday (-33,096) Thomas Denman, English Judge, died (born 23/7/1779).

20/9/1854, Wednesday (-33,102) The Allies, on the banks of the River Alma, gained a major victory over a 40,000 strong Russian force in the Crimean War; 2,000 British casualties

14/9/1854, Thursday (-33,108) Allied French and British troops landed in the Crimea.

12/9/1854, Tuesday (-33,110) The Flinders Street to Port Melbourne railway opened, the first steam railway in Australia.

1/9/1854, Friday (-33,121) (Railways) First railway in Norway opened, Oslo (Christiania) to Eidsvoll, 70 km.

8/8/1854, Tuesday (-33, 145) Britain and France put forward the Vienna Four Points they considered essential for a peace settlement with Russia in the Crimean War. These were, firstly guarantees of the independence of Serbia, secondly free passage for vessels along the Danube, thirdly a revision of the Straits Convention, and fourthly that Russia abandoned its claim to a protectorate over the Sultan of Turkey’s Christian subjects. Russia rejected these terms.

7/8/1854, Monday (-33,146) Charles Dickens’ tenth book, Hard Times, was published in entirety.

2/8/1854, Wednesday (-33,151) Francis Crawford, US author, was born (died 9/4/1909).

====================================================================================

7/1854, The US Republican Party was founded. Ohm, scientist, died. Eastman, photography pioneer was born.

13/7/1854, Thursday (-33,171) (Egypt) Abbas I, Khedive of Egypt, was murdered, aged 41. He was succeeded by his uncle, 32-year old Said Pasha.

12/7/1854, Wednesday (-33,172) George Eastman, USA photographic pioneer who founded Kodak, was born in Waterville, New York State. (see 7/5/1888).

10/7/1854, Monday (-33,474)

8/7/1854, Saturday (-33,176) Johann Gieseler, German church history writer, died (born 3/3/1792).

7/7/1854, Friday (-33,177) George Ohm, German scientist who pioneered work on electricity, died in Munich

6/7/1854, Thursday (-33,178) Earthquake in Yamato, Iga, Ise, area of Japan killed 2,400.

5/7/1854, Wednesday (-33,179) (USA) In America, the Republican Party was officially founded.

4/7/1854, Tuesday (-33,180) Karl Eichhorn, German legal writer, died (born 20/11/1781).

1/7/1854, Saturday (-33,183) Albert Hart, US historical writer, was born.

7/1854, The US Republican Party was founded. Ohm, scientist, died. Eastman, photography pioneer was born.

=====================================================================================

6/1854, Crystal Palace, Sydenham, officially opened

26/6/1854, Monday (-33,188) Robert Borden, Canadian politician, was born in Grand Pre, Nova Scotia.

21/6/1854, Wednesday (-33,193) The first Victoria Cross was awarded, to Charles Lucas, a 20-year-old Irishman who threw an unexploded Russian bomb overboard, whilst on HMS Hecla at Bomarsund in the Baltic.

13/6/1854, Tuesday (-33,201) Sir Charles Parsons, engineer who invented the steam turbine, was born in London.

12/6/1854, Monday (-33,202) (Electrical) Charles Algernon Parsons was born in London. In 1884 he designed and installed the first steam turbine generator for electric power.

10/6/1854, Saturday (-33,204) (London) Queen Victoria opened the Crystal Palace on its new site in Sydenham, south London.

====================================================================================

5/1854, Paddington Station completed, London. Greece prevented from joining Crimean War.

30/5/1854, Tuesday (-33,215) (USA) US Congress adopted the Kansas-Nebraska Act, nullifying the Missouri Compromise.

29/5/1854, Monday (-33,216) (Railways) Paddington Station, London, was opened.

26/5/1854, Friday (-33,219) (Greece) Franco-British forces occupied the port of Piraeus to prevent Greece from joining the Crimean War with Russia against Turkey. See 28/2/1857.

18/5/1854, Thursday (-33,227) (Railways) The Port Elliot & Goolwa railway, South Australia, opened. Drawn by horse, this was the first public railway in Australia, carrying goods and people.

15/5/1854, Monday (-33,230) (Railways) The Semmering Pass railway, Austria, opened.

==================================================================================

4/1854, 1st railway in Brazil opened.

30/4/1854, Sunday (-33,245) (Railways) The first railway in Brazil opened.

29/4/1854, Saturday (-33,246) (Mathematics) Jules Henri Poincare, French mathematician, was born in Nantes. In 1895 he effectively founded the science of topology, although some of its principles were already known.

26/4/1854, Wednesday (-33,249) Henry Cockburn, Scottish Judge, died (born 26/10/1779).

24/4/1854, Monday (-33,251) Elizabeth married Archduke Ferdinand, Emperor of Austria.

19/4/1854, Wednesday (-33,256) Robert Jameson, Scottish geological writer, died (born 11/7/1774).

16/4/1854, Sunday (-33,259) Easter Sunday

15/4/1854, Saturday (-33,260) (Chemistry) Arthur Aikin, English chemist, died in London (born 19/5/1773 in Warrington).

13/4/1854, Thursday (-33,252) Richard Ely, US economist, was born.

===================================================================================

3/1854, Crimean War began, Britain and France war on Russia.

31/3/1854. Friday (-33,275) The USA and Japan signed the Treaty of Kanagawa, opening up the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.

27/3/1854. Monday (-33,279) Crimean War began; Britain and France declared war on Russia.  On 12/3/1854 the British and French formally allied with Turkey. See 30/11/1853. The ostensible cause of the Crimean War was a dispute between Russia, France, and Turkey over control of the Christian Holy Places in Turkish-controlled Palestine. The Turks refused Russia’s demands and Russia marched into the Turkish vassal states of Wallachia and Serbia. This threatened Russian occupation of Istanbul and hence Britain’s communications with its Indian Empire, so Britain entered the war against Russia.

20/3/1854, Monday (-33,286) (Russia, Turkey) Russia sent troops southwards across the Danube, threatening Ottoman Turkey. Ultimately this posed the threat of Russia on the Mediterranean, putting communications between Britain and India at risk, and so was unacceptable to the UK.

15/3/1854, Wednesday (-33,291) Emil von Behring, bacteriologist who won the Nobel Prize in 1901 for his work on immunisation against diphtheria, was born.

14/3/1854, Tuesday (-33,292) Paul Erlich, bacteriologist, was born in Strehlen, Silesia (now Poland); died 20/8/1915.

12/3/1854, Sunday (-33,294) Britain and France made an alliance with Ottoman Turkey.

==================================================================================

2/1854, US Republican Party formed. 1st Uk public school for girls.

28/2/1854, Tuesday (-33,306) The United States Republican Party was formed, in Ripon, Wisconsin.

17/2/1854, Friday (-33,317) Britain signed the Convention of Bloemfontein, agreeing to withdraw from territory in South Africa north of the Orange River. This left the Orange Free State for Boer settlers.

13/2/1854, Monday (-33,321) Britain’s first public school for girls, Cheltenham Ladies College, opened.

6/2/1854, Monday (-33,328) Russia broke off diplomatic relations with Britain and France.

==================================================================================

1/1854, France and Britain insisted Russia withdraw from attacking Turkey.

16/1/1854, Monday (-33,349) Charles Gaudichaud, French botanist, died (born 4/9/1789).

9/1/1854, Monday (-33,356) Lady Randolph Churchill, mother of Winston Churchill, was born.

8/1/1854, Sunday (-33,357) William Beresford, British General, died in Kent (born 2/10/1768).

3/1/1854, Tuesday (-33,362) An Anglo-French squadron entered the Black Sea, and insisted that the Russian fleet withdraw from attacking Turkey.

=================================================================================

12/1853,

27/12/1853, Tuesday (-33,369) William Jay, religious writer, died (born 6/5/1769).

26/12/1853, Monday (-33,370) Rene Bazin, French novelist, was born in Angers.

15/12/1853, Thursday (-33,381) Georg Grotefrend, German writer, died (born 9/6/1775).

10/12/1853, Saturday (-33,386) Tommaso Grossi, Lombard poet and novelist, died (born 20/7/1791).

===================================================================================

11/1853, Russia destroyed Turkish fleet, Anglo-French support for Turkey.

30/11/1853, Wednesday (-33,396) The Russians destroyed a Turkish fleet at Sinope. On 3/1/1854 British and French fleets entered the Black Sea to protect Ottoman Turkish coasts and shipping. See 4/10/1853, and 23/3/1854.

15/11/1853, Tuesday (-33,411) Maria II of Portugal died, aged 34. She was succeeded by her 16-year-old son, Pedro V.

5/11/1853, Saturday (-33,421) Janos Garay, Hungarian poet, died (born 10/10/1812).

==================================================================================

10/1853, Alfred Nobel born. Russia-Turkey conflict.

21/10/1853, Friday (-33,436) Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm.

10/10/1853, Monday (-33,447) Pierre Fontaine, French architect, died (born 20/9/1762).

6/10/1853, Thursday (-33,451) Simon Greanleaf, US legal writer, died (born 5/12/1783).

4/10/1853, Tuesday (-33,453) (Russia, Turkey) The Russians refused to withdraw from the Danubian Principalities, and Turkey declared war on Russia. On 23/10/1853 the Turks, under Omar Pasha, crossed the Danube into Wallachia. See 30/11/1853.

2/10/1853, Sunday (-33,455) (Science) Dominique Arago, physicist, died in Paris (born 26/2/1786 in Estagel, Perpignan)

=====================================================================================

9/1853, Otis opened lift factory in New York.

24/9/1853, Saturday (-33,463) Britain’s first provincial newspaper, the Northern Daily Times, was founded in Liverpool.

23/9/1853, Friday (-33,464) The British fleet was ordered to Istanbul.

22/9/1853, Thursday (-33,465)

21/9/1853, Wednesday (-33,466) (1) (Thailand) Phra Paramindr Maha Chulalongkorn, King of Siam, eldest son of King Maha Mongkut, was born (died 1910).

(2) (Chemistry) Heike Kammerlingh was born in Groningen, Netherlands. In 1908 he liquefied helium.

20/9/1853, Tuesday (-33,467) Elisha Graves Otis opened a factory in New York State for the production of the first modern lifts.

15/9/1853, Thursday (-33,472)

13/9/1853, Tuesday (-33,474) (Medical) Bacteriologist Hans Christian Joachim Gram was born in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 1884 he developed a dye that could distinguish between two classes of bacteria, those that took up the dye and those that didn’t. The groups react differently to antibiotics.

12/9/1853, Monday (-33,475) Charles Dickens’ ninth book, Bleak House, was published in entirety.

7/9/1853, Wednesday (-33,480) (China) Shanghai fell to rebels as the Taiping Rebellion continued.

5/9/1853, Monday (-33,482) (Railways) The Waterford to Tramore railway opened.

===================================================================================

8/1853,

17/8/1853, Wednesday (-33,501) (Britain) Sir Frederick Adam, British General, died (born 1781).

8/8/1853, Monday (-33,510) A Russian fleet arrived at Nagasaki on a trading mission.

4/8/1853, Thursday (-33,514) Newspaper advertisements duty was abolished in Britain.

===================================================================================

7/1853, US Commodore Perry forced open Japanese trade. Cecil Rhodes was born.

23/7/1853, Saturday (-33,526) The Japanese Shogun Ieoshi died, aged 61. He was succeeded by his brother, Iesada, who agreed to open two Japanese ports to foreign trade.

8/7/1853, Friday (-33,541) US Commodore Matthew Perry steamed into Japan’s Edo Bay (now Tokyo) with his ‘black ships’ and demanded that the country open up to US trade. He backed up his demand with cannon fire. For 250 years Japan had been a feudal state run by the Tokugawa shoguns.

5/7/1853, Tuesday (-33,544) The colonial administrator Cecil Rhodes, Prime Minister of Cape Colony 1890-96, was born at Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, the 7th of 11 children..  His father was a vicar.

====================================================================================

6/1853, Russia attacked Turkey in Danube area.

22/6/1853, Wednesday (-33,557) A Russian Army attacking Turkey, under Prince Mikhail Gorchakov, invaded Turkey’s Danubian Principalities.

3/6/1853, Friday (-33,576) Cesare Balbo, Italian writer, died (born 1/11/1789 in Turin)

====================================================================================

5/1853,

31/5/1853, Tuesday (-33,579) (Russia, Turkey) Tsar Nicholas I of Russia despatched troops to protect Christian minorities in Ottoman-ruled Moldavia and Wallachia.

21/5/1853, Saturday (-23,589) Jacques Cavaignac, French politician, was born (died 25/9/1905).

14/5/1853, Saturday (-33,596) Thomas Caine, British novelist, was born.

7/5/1853, Saturday (-33,603) Matthias Castren, Finnish scholarly writer, died (born 2/12/1813).

6/5/1853, Friday (-33,604) Cortes Donoso, Spanish author, died (born 6/5/1809).

======================================================================================

4/1853, First railway in India. German customs union extended but Austria still excluded.

18/4/1853, Monday (-33,622) First railway in India opened; Mumbai to Thana, 30 km. By 1856 rail lines linked Mumbai, Kolkata, Madras and Nagpur.

13/4/1853, Wednesday (-33,627) Leopold Gmelin, German chemist, died (born 1788).

7/4/1853, Thursday (-33,633) Queen Victoria used chloroform to help her through the birth of her seventh child, Prince Leopold. This established chloroform as the favoured anaesthetic in Britain.

4/4/1853, Monday (-33,636) The customs union signed by various German states was extended for another 12 years; Austria remained excluded.

1/4/1853, Friday (-33,639) Manchester, UK, was constituted a city.

4/1853, First railway in India. German customs union extended but Austria still excluded.

=====================================================================================

3/1853, Van Gogh born. Pope imposed Catholic hierarchy on Netherlands, anti-Catholic protests, faded away.

30/3/1853, Wednesday (-33,641) The artist Vincemt Van Gogh was born in the Dutch village of Groot-Zundert. He was the son of a Lutheran pastor.

29/3/1853, Tuesday (-33,642) Elihu Thomson, English inventor who co-founded the General Electric Company with Thomas Edison, was born.

27/3/1853, Sunday (-33,644) Easter Sunday

19/3/1853, Saturday (-33,652) Taiping (Heavenly Peace) rebels in China, a Protestant movement, challenged the ruling Manchu Ch’ing dynasty by taking the city of Nanjing.

17/3/1853, Thursday (-33,654) Death of Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who coined the term Doppler effect to explain the apparent change of frequency of a wave when the source is moving relative to the observer.

14/3/1853, Monday (-33,657) Julius Haynau, Austrian general, died (born 1786).

6/3/1853, Sunday (-33,665) Albert Cook, US scholarly writer, was born.

4/3/1853, Friday (-33,667) Pope Pius IX set up five new bishoprics in The Netherlands, at Breda, Haarlem, s’Hertogenbosh and Roermond, also the Archbishopric of Utrecht, Until then The Netherlands had had no proper Catholic hierarchy since the Reformation, and had been classified as a ‘mission area’. The imposition of this new hierarchy started the April Movement, an anti-Catholic protest in which Catholics were harried on the streets and dismissed from their jobs. The Netherlands Government was forced to resign and eventually the anti-Catholic protests faded away.

3/1853, Van Gogh born. Pope imposed Catholic hierarchy on Netherlands, anti-Catholic protests, faded away.

====================================================================================

18/2/1853, Friday (-33,681) (Railways) August Belmont, US railway financier, was born in New York.

====================================================================================

1/1853, Melbourne University, Australia, founded,

29/1/1853, Saturday (-33,701) Napoleon III of France married Eugenie de Montijo in Paris.

22/1/1853, Saturday (-33,708) The University of Melbourne, Australia, was established by Act of Incorporation.

17/1/1853, Monday (-33,713) Thomas Harrison, US artist, was born.

16/1/1853, Sunday (-33,714) Andre Michelin, French manufacturer of pneumatic tyres, was born.

1/1853, Melbourne University, Australia, founded,

=====================================================================================

12/1852,

31/12/1852, Friday (-33,730) (USA) Henry Carter Adams, US economist, was born.

18/12/1852, Saturday (-33,743) Horatio Greenhough, US sculptor, died (born 6/9/1805).

14/12/1852, Tuesday (-33,747) (Britain) Charles Berry, English cleric, was born in Leigh, Lancashire (died 31/1/1899).

10/12/1852, Friday (-33,751) Henri Gervex, French Painter, was born.

2/12/1852. Thursday (-33,759) Louis Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor of France as Napoleon III.  The Second French Empire was proclaimed.

====================================================================================

11/1852, British Time standardised due to railways.

23/11/1852. Tuesday (-33,768) Britain’s first pillar box was erected, in St Helier on Jersey.

18/11/1852, Thursday (-33,773) Funeral of Lord Wellington in St Paul’s Cathedral

4/11/1852, Thursday (-33,787) The building of the new House of Commons, following the fire of 1834, was completed, to the designs of Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.

2/11/1852, Tuesday (-33,789) The Dean of Exeter Cathedral ordered that the cathedral clock be advanced 14 minutes to conform with Greenwich mean time. This was a result of the railways spreading across Britain, and operating on a standard time. Nationwide standardisation of time had begun when the horse-drawn Irish mail coaches began running from London to Ireland via Chester and Holyhead; the mail coach guard carried a watch set to Greenwich time, and was required to inform the innkeepers along the way of the correct time. In 1830 the Manchester and Liverpool railway operated on Greenwich Time. But there was resistance to this nationwide time in the West Country and Wales.

1/11/1852, Monday (-33,790) Dame Emma Albani, Canadian singer (died 3/4/1930) was born.

=====================================================================================

10/1852, Kings Cross Station, London, opened.

26/10/1852, Tuesday (-33,796) (Britain) Henry Elkington, founder of the Birmingham electroplating industry, died.

24/10/1852, Sunday (-33,798) Henry Clinton, English scholarly writer, died (born 14/1/1781).

22/10/1852, Friday (-33,800) Hans Gagern, German political writer, died (born 25/1/1766).

15/10/1852, Friday (-33,807) Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, founder of the gymnastic movement (Turnverein) in Germany, died at Freyburg aged 74.

14/10/1852, Thursday (-33,808) (Railways GB)  Kings Cross Station, London, opened.  The former terminus had been ½ miles north, between Copenhagen and Gasworks Tunnels, at Maiden Lane, see 7/8/1850.

13/10/1852, Wednesday (-33,809) Birth of Lilly Langtry, actress and mistress to King Edward VII

11/10/1851, Monday (-33,811) (Electricity) Paul Erman, electrical scientist, died (born 29/2/1764).

9/10/1852, Saturday (-33,813) (Cartography) Thomas Colby, director of the Ordnance Survey, who surveyed Ireland, died (born 1/9/1784)

2/10/1852, Saturday (-33,820) Lord Ramsay, who discovered the inert gases, was born in Glasgow.

1/10/1852, Friday (-33,821) (Railways) The Londonderry to Newtown Limavady railway, 18 ¾ miles, opened.

===================================================================================

9/1852, First public library. First airship flight. Duke of Wellington died. Asquith, PM, was born.

30/9/1852, Thursday (-33,822) Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, Irish composer, was born.

28/9/1852, Tuesday (-33,824)

25/9/1852, Saturday (-33,827) (Aviation) The Mechanic’s Magazine published the plans of a heavier-than-air glider capable of carrying a person.

24/9/1852, Friday (-33,828) (Aviation) The first airship made its maiden flight from the Hippodrome, Paris, travelling 17 miles to Trappes at 8 mph. It was piloted by Henri Giffard. However the craft could only travel in calm weather.

23/9/1852, Thursday (-33,829) (Medical) Surgeon William Halstead was born in New York City. In 1890 he introduced the practice of wearing sterilised rubber gloves during surgery.

20/9/1852, Monday (-33,832) William Finden, English line engraver, died (born 1787).

14/9/1852, Tuesday (-33,838) (1) Lord Pugin, co-designer of the Houses of Parliament with Sir Charles Barry, died at Ramsgate.

(2) The Duke of Wellington, victor at Waterloo, died at Walmer Castle, Kent, aged 83, as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.

13/9/1852, Monday (-33,839) The Newton Stewart to Omagh railway, 9 ½ miles, opened.

12/9/1852, Sunday (-33,840) Herbert Henry Asquith, British Liberal and Prime Minister, was born in Morley, Yorkshire. He introduced the Old Age Pension.

6/9/1852, Monday (-33,846) The first free public lending library opened in Manchester.

2/9/1852, Thursday (-33,850) Paul Bourget, French novelist, was born in Amiens.

9/1852, First public library. First airship flight. Duke of Wellington died. Asquith, PM, was born.

===================================================================================

8/1852, Crystal Palace re-erected in south London.

5/8/1852, Thursday (-33,878) The re-erection of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, south London.

4/8/1852, Wednesday (-33,879) The first steamship arrived in Australia, from England.

===================================================================================

7/1852,

17/7/1852, Saturday (-33,897) Argentina recognised the independence of Paraguay.

10/7/1852, Saturday (-33,904) Rene Exelmans, Marshal of France, died (born 13/12/1775).

===================================================================================

6/1852, Froebel, educationalist, was born.

29/6/1852, Tuesday (-33,915) Henry Clay, US politician, died (born 12/4/1777).

24/6/1852, Thursday (-33,920) Viktor Adler, Austrian politician (died 12/11/1918) was born.

21/6/1852, Monday (-33,923) Friedrich Froebel, German educationalist who founded the Kindergarten system in 1837 at Blankenberg, died.

10/6/1852, Thursday (-33,934) (Railways) The Wellington Inn to Mullaglass railway, 6 miles, opened.

7/6/1852, Monday (-33,937) Hosea Ballou, US writer, died in Boston (born in Richmond, New Hampshire, 30/4/1771).

====================================================================================

5/1852,

28/5/1852, Friday (-33,947) Eugene Burnouf, French writer on the Orient, died (born 8/4/1801).

3/5/1852, Monday (-33.972) (Railways) The Tipperary to Clonmel railway, 24 ½ miles, opened.

==================================================================================

4/1852, Frank Woolworth, retailer, was born. British captured Rangoon.

20/4/1852, Tuesday (-33,985) Bela Edwards, US writer, died (born 4.7.1802).

17/4/1852, Saturday (-33,988) Etienne Gerard, French General, died (born 4/4/1773).

14/4/1852, Wednesday (-33,991) (India) British and Indian forces captured Rangoon.

13/4/1852, Tuesday (-33,992) Frank Winfield Woolworth, the American chain store pioneer, was born in Rodman, Jefferson County, New York State.

12/4/1852, Monday (-33,993) (Mathematics) Ferdinand Lindemann was born in Hannover, Germany. In 1882 he proved that Pi is a transcendental number.

11/4/1852, Sunday (-33,994) Easter Sunday. (India) The British began bombarding Rangoon, starting the Second Burman War.

1/4/1852, Thursday (-34,004) (Arts) Edwin Austin Abbey, US painter, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

===================================================================================

3/1852,

30/3/1852, Tuesday (-34,006) (Africa) James Bent, explorer of Africa, was born near Leeds (died in London 5/5/1897).

6/3/1852, Saturday (-34,030) Joseph Deniker, French scientific writer, was born.

5/3/1852, Friday (-34,031) Marie Gay, French author, died (born 1/7/1776).

1/3/1852, Monday (-34,035) Theophile Delcasse, French statesman, was born.

===================================================================================

2/1852, First mens public convenience. Gogol, Russian writer, died. Great Ormond Street Hospital opened.

21/2/1852, Saturday (-34,044) Nikolia Gogol, Russian story writer and novelist, died in Moscow.

16/2/1852, Monday (-34,049) Charles Taze Russell, American who organised the start of modern-day Jehovah’s Witnesses, was born in Pittsburgh.

14/2/1852, Saturday (-34,051) London’s famous children’s hospital, in Great Ormond Street, opened. The first patient admitted was Eliza Armstrong.

11/2/1852, Wednesday (-34,054) The first flushing public toilet for women opened in Fleet Street, London. The cost was 2d. See 2/2/1852.

9/2/1852, Monday (-34,056) The Strabane to Newton Stewart railway, 9 ¾ miles, opened.

5/2/1852, Thursday (-34,060) Arnail Jaucourt, French politician, died (born 14/11/1757).

3/2/1852, Tuesday (-34, 062) Argentina abandoned plans to annex Uruguay after De Rosas, Argentine dictator, was defeated by a force of Brazilians and Uruguayans at the Battle of Caseros. De Rosas fled to Britain.

2/2/1852, Monday (-34,063) (1) The first public convenience for men opened in Fleet Street, London. See 11/2/1852.

(2) The second Woodhead railway tunnel, between Sheffield and Manchester, opened.  See 22/12/1845, 3/6/1954.

==================================================================================

1/1852, Louis Braille died.

29/1/1852, Thursday (-34,067) Frederic Cowen, English composer, was born.

26/1/1852, Monday (-34,070) (Africa) Pierre Paul Brazza, French explorer of Africa and founder of the French Congo (Brazzaville), was born (died 4/9/1905).

19/1/1852, Monday (-34,077) Robert Adamson, Scottish philosopher (died 5/2/1902) was born.

17/1/1852, Saturday (-34,079) Britain recognised the independence of the Transvaal Boers.

12/1/1852, Monday (-34,084) Joseph Joffre, French Army Marshall and Commander in Chief on the Western Front, was born in Rivesaltes.

6/1/1852, Tuesday (-34,090) (1) The railway from Portadown to Mullaglass, 16 ¾ miles, opened.

(2) Louis Braille, who invented the raised-dot system of writing used by the blind, died.

==================================================================================

12/1851, First railway in Chile opened. Dewey, librarian, was born.

28/12/1851, Sunday (-34,099) (USA) Perry Belmont, US politician, was born in New York.

25/12/1851, Thursday (-34,102) (Railways) First railway in Chile opened. It ran from the port of Caldera to Copiapo, 80.5 km.

19/12/1851, Friday (-34,108) Painter Joseph Turner died in his house in Chelsea, London, under the assumed name of Booth.

10/12/1851, Wednesday (-34,117) Melvil Dewey, US librarian who devised a system of library cataloguing, was born in Adams Centre, New York State.

8/12/1851, Monday (-34,119) The railway from Cork to Bailinhassig, 10 miles, opened.

==================================================================================

11/1851, London – Paris telegraphic serice began. Moscow to St Petersburg railway opened.

18/11/1851, Tuesday (-34,139) Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, died (born 5/6/1771).

13/11/1851, Thursday (-34,144) (1) A telegraphic service between London and Paris was started.

(2) The railway between Moscow and St Petersburg opened.

10/11/1851, Monday (-34,147) (Biology) Embryologist Francis Balfour was born in Edinburgh (died in Switzerland 19/7/1882).

5/11/1851, Wednesday (-34,152) Charles Dupuy, French statesman, was born.

3/11/1851, Monday (-34,154) Clovis Hugues, French poet, was born (died 11/6/1907).

1/11/1851, Saturday (-34,156) Thomas Galloway, Scottish mathematician, died (born 26/2/1796).

==================================================================================

10/1851, The Great Exhibition, Hyde Park, London, closed

22/10/1851, Wednesday (-34,166) (USA) Archibald Alexander, US Presbyterian clergyman, died in Princeton, New Jersey (born 17/4/1772 in Virginia).

19/10/1851, Sunday (-34,169) (Korea) Myeongseong, Empress of Korea, was born.

15/10/1851, Wednesday (-34,173) The Great Exhibition at Hyde Park, London, closed.  It had opened on 1/5/1851. A total of 6 million visitors had attended. The Exhibition made a profit of £186,000 which was used to buy land in South Kensington where the Victoria and Albert Museum now stands.

10/10/1851, Friday (-34,178) Melvil Dewey, US librarian, was born.

4/10/1851, Saturday (-34,184) Alvarez Godoy, Spanish statesman, died (born 12/5/1767).

2/10/1851, Thursday (-34,186) Marshal Ferdinand Foch, French General who led the counteroffensive that defeated Germany in 1918, was born in Tarbes, France.

==================================================================================

9/1851, William Lever, soap manufacturer, was born. New York Times published.

19/9/1851, Friday (-34,199) William Lever, soap maker and philanthropist, later Lord Leverhulme, was born in Bolton.  He was the son of a grocer.

18/9/1851, Thursday (-34,200) The New York Times was first published.  It was founded by Henry Jarvis Raymond.

17/9/1851, Wednesday (-34,201) (Science) Chemist and physician John Kidd died in Oxford, England.

14/9/1851, Sunday (-34,204) James Cooper, US novelist, died (born 15/9/1789).

12/9/1851, Friday (-34,206) Francis Clark, religious writer, was born.

11/9/1851, Thursday (-34,207) Sylvester Graham, US writer on dietetics, died (born 1794).

5/9/1851, Friday (-34,213) (USA) Thomas Gallaudet, US educator of the deaf and dumb, died (born 10/12/1787).

==================================================================================

8/1851,

17/8/1851, Sunday (-34,232) Henry Drummond, Scottish scholarly writer, was born (died 11/3/1897).

16/8/1851, Saturday (-34,233) (Railways) The railway from Laprarie, Quebec, Canada to Rouses Point, New York, USA, opened.

13/8/1851, Wednesday (-34,236) (Education) Felix Adler, US educationalist (died 24/4/1933) was born.

9/8/1851, Saturday (-34,240) Karl Gutzlaff, German missionary to China, died (born 8/7/1803).

7/8/1851, Thursday (-34,242) Johann Gruber, German writer, died (born 29/11/1774).

1/8/1851, Friday (-34,248) (Railways) The Dublin to Galway railway opened.

=====================================================================================

7/1851, Canada standardised its rail gauge. Britain abolished the Window Tax.

31/7/1851, Thursday (-34,249) (Railways) Canada legislated to make the 1676 mm gauge, the ‘Provincial Gauge’, a pre-co0ndition of financial aid to any railway, thereby introducing a standard gauge for the country.

24/7/1851, Thursday (-34,256) In Britain the Window Tax was abolished.

12/7/1851, Saturday (-34,268) Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, French pioneer in photography, died.

8/7/1851, Tuesday (-34,272) Sir Arthur John Evans, British archaeologist who excavated Knossos on Crete, was born.

2/7/1851, Wednesday (-34,278) Gyorgy Fejer, Hungarian author, died (born 23/4/1766).

======================================================================================

6/1851, First ice cream factory began production.

15/6/1851, Sunday (-34,295) The first factory-produced ice cream was made in the USA by John Fussell. He wanted to avoid wastage of cream so he froze it; his new food became very popular, and his factory ice cream cost less than a third of the same amount of handmade ice cream.

3/6/1851, Tuesday (-34,307) George Adams, US historian (died 26/5/1925) was born.

2/6/1851, Monday (-34,308) The Rockingham to Luffenham railway opened.

====================================================================================

5/1851, Great Exhibition opened at Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, by Queen Victoria

21/5/1851, Wednesday (-34,320) Victor Bourgeois, French statesman, was born in Paris.

17/5/1851, Saturday (-34,324) First railway in Peru opened. It ran 15 km from the port of Callao to Lima.

7/5/1851, Wednesday (-34,334) Adolf Harnack, German religious writer, was born.

6/5/1851, Tuesday (-34,335) Linus Yale patented the Yale lock.

4/5/1851, Sunday (-34,337) Thomas Dewing, US figure painter, was born.

1/5/1851, Thursday (-34,340) The Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace was opened by Queen Victoria, in Hyde Park, London. There were 13,000 exhibits from around the world in an 1,840 foot long, 408 foot wide, 108 foot high steel and glass hall, designed by Joseph Paxton in only 10 days and prefabricated before being brought to Hyde Park by rail. The hall took 17 weeks to erect. 6 million people, 17% of the UK population, visited, also mainly on the new railways across the nation. The exhibition ended on 15/10/1851. After the Great Exhibition, the Crystal Palace was re-erected at Sydenham where it stood till destroyed by fire in 1936. Prince Albert conceived the idea of the Great Exhibition to promote trade between nations and worldwide peace. The Exhibition was open for 6 months and in that time Queen Victoria visited 41 times. Profits from the event funded the opening of the Royal Albert Hall, the Science Museum, the Natural History Museum, and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

5/1851, Great Exhibition opened at Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, by Queen Victoria

====================================================================================

4/1851,

29/4/1851, Tuesday (-34,342) Charles Cottenham, Lord Chancellor of England, died (born 29/4/1781).

28/4/1851, Monday (-34,343) Sir Edward Codrington , British Admiral, died (born 1770).

24/4/1851, Thursday (-34,347)

21/4/1851, Monday (-34,350) (Geology) Charles Barrois, French geologist, was born in Lille.

20/4/1851, Sunday (-34,351) Easter Sunday

1/4/1851, Tuesday (-34,370) Rama IV (1804-68) took the Thai throne.

=====================================================================================

3/1851, UK Church attendance was falling.. The University of Manchester was founded.

30/3/1851, Sunday (-34,372) Christian) In Britain this day, 7.25 million out of a total population of 17 million reportedly attended Church. This was thought to be a disturbingly small proportion.

29/3/1851, Saturday (-34,373) Marble Arch, London, was moved from Buckingham Palace to its present position on Oxford Street.

28/3/1851, Friday (-34,374) Gabor Dobrentei, Hungarian writer, died (born 1786).

27/3/1851, Thursday (-34,375) Karl Dindorf, German scholarly writer, died (2/1/1802).

14/3/1851, Friday (-34,388) Ferdinand Hand, German scholarly writer, died (born 15/2/1786).

12/3/1851, Wednesday (-34,390) (Medical) Bacteriologist Charles Chamberland was born in Chilly le Vignoble, France. He improved sterilisation techniques and invented filters to trap bacteria, which led to the discovery of viruses.

11/3/1851, Tuesday (-34,391) Verdi’s opera Rigoletto was first performed, in Venice.

9/3/1851, Sunday (-34,393) The University of Manchester was founded, as Owens College, Manchester.

======================================================================================

2/1851, Australian Gold Rush began.

18/2/1851, Tuesday (-34,411) Karl Jacobi, German mathematician, died (born 10/12/1804).

12/2/1851, Wednesday (-34,418) The Australian Gold Rush began, after Edward Hargreaves discovered gold at Summerhill Creek, 20 miles north of Bathurst, New South Wales.

8/2/1851, Saturday (-34,422) Nicholas Bexley, English politician, died in Foots Cray, Kent (born in London 29/4/1766).

1/2/1851, Saturday (-34,429) Mary Shelley, author of Frankenstein, died.

====================================================================================

1/1851,

27/1/1851, Monday (-34,434) (Biology) John James Audubon, US naturalist, died in New York.

====================================================================================

12/1850,

24/12/1850, Tuesday (-34,468) (France) Frederic Bastiat, French economist, died in Rome (born in Bayonne 29/6/1801).

21/12/1850, Saturday (-34,471) James Lane Allen, US novelist, was born near Lexington, Kentucky.

10/12/1850, Tuesday (-34,482) Francois Beudant, French geologist, died (born in Paris 5/9/1787).

4/12/1850, Wednesday (-34,488) William Sturgeon, who devised the first electro-magnet, died at Prestwich, near Manchester.

====================================================================================

11/1850, Robert Louis Stevenson, writer, was born. Tennyson appointed Poet Laureate. Polish uprising against Russia.

29/11/1850, Friday (-34,493) An uprising began in Warsaw against Russian rule.

19/11/1850, Tuesday (-34,503) Alfred Lord Tennyson was appointed Poet Laureate, a post he held until his death in 1892.

14/11/1850, Thursday (-34,508) (1) In Kilkenny, Ireland, the Bagenalstown to Laristown Junction railway, 10 ¾ miles, opened.

(2) Charles Dickens’ eighth book, David Copperfield, was published in entirety.

13/11/1850, Wednesday (-34,509) The writer Robert Louis Stevenson was born in Edinburgh, at 8 Howard Place.  His father and grandfather were lighthouse builders.

===================================================================================

10/1850, Bowler hats went on sale in London.

8/10/1850, Tuesday (-34,545)

5/10/1850, Saturday (-34,548) William Gibson, US writer, was born (died 16/7/1896).

4/10/1850, Friday (-34,549) The bowler hat went on general sale in London.

===================================================================================

9/1850, California became the 31st US State.

9/9/1850, Monday (-34,574) (USA) California became the 31st State of the USA.

6/9/1850, Friday (-34,577) (Brazil) Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil enacted a law authorising steam navigation on the River Amazon, The Compania de Navigicao e Commercio do Amazonas was tghen formed in Rio de Janeiro in 1852 and in 1853 it began operating steamships on the Amazon.

5/9/1850, Thursday (-34,578) James Ingram, English writer, died (born 21/12/1774).

2/9/1850, Monday (-34,581) Eugene Field, US poet, was born (died 4/11/1895).

====================================================================================

8/1850, Channel telegraph laid.

28/8/1850, Wednesday (-34,586) The Channel telegraph was laid between Dover and Cap Gris Nez.

26/8/1850, Monday (-34,588) Death of Louis Philippe, the ‘citizen king’, who abdicated rather than face a middle-class revolt.

18/8/1850, Sunday (-34,596) Honore de Balzac, French writer, died in Paris.

6/8/1850, Tuesday (-34,608) Henri Chantavoine, French writer, was born.

====================================================================================

7/1850, Sir Robert Peel, British PM, died

25/7/1850, Thursday (-34,620) (Denmark, Germany) Battle of Idstedt; Denmark defeated Germany.

9/7/1850, Tuesday (-34,636) Zachary Taylor, American general and Whig, 12th US President for only 16 months, died in Washington DC.  The remainder of his term was completed by Millard Fillmore.

8/7/1850, Monday (-34,637) (Britain) Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, died (born 24/2/1774).

7/7/1850, Sunday (-34,638) Scottish explorer, Edward Eyre arrived in Albany, Western Australia, having crossed the Nullarbor Plain, the first White man to do this.

2/7/1850, Tuesday (-34,643) Sir Robert Peel, British Conservative Prime Minister and founder of the police force in 1829, died in London due to a riding accident.

=====================================================================================

6/1850, Jesse Boot, pharmacist, was born

27/6/1850, Thursday (-34,648) Lafcadio Hearn, writer on Japan, was born (died 26/9/1904).

24/6/1850, Monday (-34,651) Lord Kitchener, British army commander and Secretary of State for War in 1914, was born near Ballylongford, County Kerry, Eire.

22/6/1850, Saturday (-34,653) Ignaz Goldziher, Hungarian Orientalist writer, was born.

16/6/1850, Sunday (-34,659) Margaret Fuller, US authoress, died (born 23/5/1810).

2/6/1850, Sunday (-34,673) Jesse Boot, British pharmacist, was born in Nottingham.

======================================================================================

5/1850, Thomas Lipton, grocer, was born. First hippopotamus arrived in Britain.

31/5/1850, Friday (-34,675) France passed a law requiring voters to be resident in the same place for three years before qualifying for a vote.  This was to exclude migratory workers, who tended to be radical.

25/5/1850, Saturday (-34,681) The first hippopotamus to be kept in Britain arrived at London Zoo.

24/5/1850, Friday (-34,682) Jane Porter, English novelist (born 1776) died.

20/5/1850, Monday (-34,686) The Galston to Newmilns railway opened.

10/5/1850, Friday (-34,696) Sir Thomas Lipton, British grocer and philanthropist, was born in Glasgow.

7/5/1850, Tuesday (-34,699) Anton Seidl, Hungarian operatic conductor, was born (died 28/3/1898).

6/5/1850, Monday (-34,700) The railway from Belfast to Newtonards, 13 ½ miles, opened.

1/5/1850, Wednesday (-34,705) Henri Blainville, French naturalist, died in Paris (born near Dieppe 12/9/1777).

===================================================================================

4/1850, Madame Tussaud died. William Wordsworth died.

26/4/1850, Friday (-34,710) Harry Bates, British sculptor, was born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire (died in London 30/1/1899).

23/4/1850, Tuesday (-34,713) Sir William Wordsworth, Poet Laureate from 1843, died of pleurisy at midday at Rydal Mount, Grasmere, aged 80

20/4/1850, Saturday (-34,716) Daniel French, US sculptor, was born.

19/4/1850, Friday (-34,717) (USA, Britain, Central America, Canals) The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between the USA and UK was signed. It was an agreement on the terms for building a canal across Nicaragua; under this treaty, neither party would exercise exclusive control over such a canal or fortify it. The US and the UK each had territorial interests in Central America, and were suspicious of each other’s activities in the region. Ultimately this Treaty was superseded by a similar neutralisation policy regarding the Panama Canal under the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1902.

16/4/1850, Tuesday (-34,720) Swiss waxworks show proprietor Madame Marie Tussaud died. She was born on 1/12/1761 in Strasbourg. She learnt the art of wax modelling from her uncle, Philippe Curtius. Before the French Revolution Mme Tussaud was art tutor at Versailles to Louis XVI’s sister, Elizabeth. After a period in prison she was tasked with making death masks from the heads of those guillotined, some of whom she recognised as friends. She left Paris in 1802, along with her waxwork models, and two sons from a failed marriage to a French engineer, Francois Tussaud. She spent 33 years touring Britain before opening a permanent display in London.

7/4/1850, Sunday (-34,729) William Bowles, English poet, died in Salisbury (born in Northamptonshire 24/9/1762).

===================================================================================

3/1850, American Express company was founded.

31/3/1850, Sunday (-34,736) Easter Sunday

25/3/1850, Monday (-34,742) Edward Bellamy, US writer, was born in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts (died in Chicopee Falls 22/5/1898).

18/3/1850, Monday (-34,749) The American Express Company was set up in Buffalo, New York.

15/3/1850, Friday (-34,752) In France, the Loi Falloux made provision for clergy to be able to teach in secondary schools without need for further qualifications than their religious certificate, whereas lay teachers needed a university degree. It also made provision for separate girls’ schools, and for adult and apprentice education.

7/3/1850, Thursday (-34,760) Thomas Masaryk, the first President of Czechoslovakia in 1918, was born in Hodonin, Moravia.

==================================================================================

2/1850,

22/2/1850, Friday (-38,773) Sir William Allan, Scottish painter, died/

15/2/1850, Friday (-34,780) Albert Cummins, US politician, was born (died 30/7/1926).

14/2/1850, Thursday (-34,781) The railway from Drogheda to Navan, 17 miles, opened.

====================================================================================

1/1850, Construction of Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London began.

29/1/1850, Tuesday (-34,797) Sir Ebenezer Howard, who started the Garden City movement, was born in London.

27/1/1850, Sunday (-34,799) Samuel Gompers, US trades union leader, was born.

26/1/1850, Saturday (-34,800) Francis Jeffrey, Scottish writer, died (born 23/10/1773).

24/1/1850, Thursday (-34,802) Charles Craddock, US author, was born.

19/1/1850, Saturday (-34,807) Augustine Birrell, author, was born near Liverpool.

3/1/1850, Thursday (-34,823) Work began in Hyde Park, London, on the glass and iron Crystal Palace, built for the Great Exhibition.

===================================================================================

12/1849, Isambard Kingdom Brunel died. Bowler hat invented.

29/12/1849, Saturday (-34,828) (Britain) William Cunningham, English economist, was born.

26/12/1849, Wednesday (-34,831) Francis Brown, USA Semitic scholar and writer, was born.

20/12/1849, Thursday (-34,837) Michail Eminescu, Romanian poet, was born (died 1889).

17/12/1849, Monday (-34,840) Landowner Edward Coke tested a new type of hat he had ordered to protect his head from low-hanging branches whilst out hunting; top hats were too easily knocked off. This day he visited the Lockes hatters shop in St James, London, to test the new bowler hat, named after its designed, by jumping on it twice. It withstood the test and he bought it.

15/12/1849, Saturday (-34,842) Alfred East, English painter, was born.

12/12/1849, Wednesday (-34,845) Sir Marc Isambard Kingdom Brunel, builder of the Thames Tunnel from Wapping to Rotherhithe, died in London aged 80.

1/12/1849, Saturday (-34,856) Queen Adelaide, wife of King William IV, died.

==================================================================================

11/1849,

24/11/1849, Saturday (-34,683) Frances Burnett, novelist, was born.

21/11/1849, Wednesday (-34,686) Francois Granet, French painter, died (born 17/12/1777).

16/11/1849, Friday (-34,691) Edward Dana, scientific writer, was born.

1/11/1849, Thursday (-34,886) The Mallow to Cork railway, 19 ¾ miles, opened.

=================================================================================

10/1849, Chopin, composer was born.Edgar Allen Poe, writer, died.

17/10/1849, Wednesday (-34,901) Frederic Chopin, born 1/3/1810 near Warsaw, Poland, died aged 39 of tuberculosis in Paris.

14/10/1849, Sunday (-34,904) Edward Coplestone, English Bishop, died

7/10/1849, Sunday (-34,911) Edgar Allen Poe, US fiction writer, died aged 40, in Baltimore, Maryland.

5/10/1849, Friday (-34,913) (Hungary) Count Louis Batthyany, Hungarian statesman, died (born 1806 in Pressburg).

1/10/1849, Monday (-34,917) Anne Edgren-Leffler, Swedish author, was born (died 21/10/1892).

==================================================================================

9/1849, Pavlov, psychologist, was born.

26/9/1849, Wednesday (-34,922) Ivan Pavlov, son of a village priest, was born this day near Ryazan, Russia. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1904 for his discovery of conditioned reflexes.

25/9/1849, Tuesday (-34,923) Johann Strauss the Elder died, aged 45, of scarlet fever.

21/9/1849, Friday (-34,927) Edmund Gosse, English poet, was born.

3/9/1849, Monday (-34,945) Ernst Feuchtersleben, Austrian poet, died (born 29/4/1806).

==================================================================================

8/1849, Hungary surrendered to Russia.

29/8/1849, Wednesday (-34,950) Jean Buchon, French scholarly writer, died (born 21/5/1791).

24/8/1849, Friday (-34,955) Karl Marx moved from France to England.

23/8/1849, Thursday (-34,956) William Henley, British poet, was born (died 11/7/1903)

22/8/1849, Wednesday (-34,957) Amaral, the Portuguese Governor of Macao, was assassinated for his pro-Chinese policies.

18/8/1849, Saturday (-34,961) Benjamin Godard, French composer, was born (died 10/1/1895).

13/8/1849, Monday (-34,966) The Hungarian General, Gorgey, surrendered unconditionally to the Russian Commander in Chief, Field Marshall Paskevic. The Hungarian leader, Kossuth, who had urged the continuation of the conflict right up to the end, escaped to Turkey.

12/8/1849, Sunday (-34,967) Albert Gallatin, US statesman, died (born 29/1/1761).

10/8/1849, Friday (-34,969)

3/8/1849, Friday (-34,976) William Henley, British poet, was born (died 11/7/1903).

2/8/1849, Thursday (-34,977) Mohammed Ali, ruler of Egypt from 1805 to 1848, died. Apart from his military successes, he laid the foundations of a modern educational and administrative system, and revolutionised the Egyptian economy.

1/8/1849, Wednesday (-34,978) The Bandon to Ballinhassig railway, Cork, (10 miles), opened. The Standedge rail tunnel, UK, 5 km long, opened.

8/1849, Hungary surrendered to Russia.

======================================================================================

7/1849, Hungary, losing against Russia and Austria, attempted to gain loyalty of its non-Magyar peoples.

30/7/1849, Monday (-34,980) The railway from Deptford via Blackheath, Charlton and Woolwich to Gravesend, 21 ¼ miles, opened.

28/7/1849, Saturday (-34,982) Hungary’s Diet passed the Nationalities Law, granting the non-Magyar peoples of Hungary substantial rights in the use of their native languages, also regional autonomy. This was a last-ditch effort by the Diet to win over the loyalty of the peasants and make them more willing to fight against Austria; a string of Hungarian defeats, and the entry of Russia on Austria’s side, had demoralised the Hungarian Army and created a shortage of recruits.

27/7/1849, Friday (-34,983) John Hopkinson, English engineer, was born (died 27/8/1898).

19/7/1849, Thursday (-34,991) Sayid Ali Mohammed, founder of the Bahai religion, was executed in Persia by order of the Shah.

17/7/1849, Tuesday (-34,993) The Woodhouse (Sheffield) to Gainsborough railway opened.

7/1849, Hungary, losing against Russia and Austria, attempted to gain loyalty of its non-Magyar peoples.

======================================================================================

6/1849, Russia invaded Hungary.

17/6/1849, Sunday (-35,023) Russian troops invaded Hungary.

16//6/1849, Saturday (-35,024) Wilhelm de Wette, German religious writer, died (born 12/1/1780).

15/6/1849, Friday (-35,025) James Knox Polk, American Democrat and 11th President from 1845 to 1849, died in Nashville, Tennessee.

12/6/1849, Tuesday (-35,028) Angelica Catalani, Italian opera singer, died (born 1780).

10/6/1849, Sunday (-35,030) (France) Thomas Bugeaud, Marshal of France, died (born 15/10/1784).

8/6/1849, Friday (-35,032) Julien Dillens, Belgian sculptor, was born (died 11/1904).

4/6/1849, Monday (-35,036) Marguerite Blessington, Irish novelist, died in Paris (born in County Tipperary 1/9/1789).

6/1849, Russia invaded Hungary.

======================================================================================

5/1849, Anti-British riots in New York. Assassination attempt on Queen Victoria. Anne Bronte died.

28/5/1849, Monday (-35,043) (1) Anne Bronte, English novelist, died in Scarborough, Yorkshire, aged 29.

(2) The railway from Newry to Warrenpoint, 5 ¾ miles, opened.

22/5/1849, Tuesday (-34,049) Maria Edgeworth, Irish novelist, died (born 1/7/1767).

21/5/1849, Monday (-34,050) Buda Castle was stormed by Austrian forces.

20/5/1849, Sunday (-34,051)

19/5/1849, Saturday (-34,052) William Hamilton attempted to assassinate Queen Victoria.

16/5/1849, Wednesday (-34,055) Victor Bruce, 9th earl of Elgin, was born.

10/5/1849, Thursday (-35,061) In New York, 22 died and 56 were injured as troops fired on anti-British riots sparked by Irish gangs. The mob, armed with bricks and clubs, had gathered outside the Astor Place Opera House to revile the British actor Charles Macready, who had scorned the vulgarity of Americans.

6/5/1849, Sunday (-35,065) Wyatt Eaton, US portrait painter, was born (died 7/6/1896).

3/5/1849, Wednesday (-37,260) (Germany) Bernhard, Prince von Bulow, German Chancellor and Prime Minister of Prussia (1900-09) was born.

5/1849, Anti-British riots in New York. Assassination attempt on Queen Victoria. Anne Bronte died.

=====================================================================================

4/1849, Safety pin patented.

27/4/1849, Friday (-35,074) Severino Fabriani, Italian writer, died (born 7/1/1792).

24/4/1849, Tuesday (-35,077) Joseph Gallieni, French soldier, was born.

13/4/1849, Friday (-35,088) The Hungarian Diet proclaimed a Republic, with Lajos Kossuth as President.

12/4/1849, Thursday (-35,089) Albert Heim, Swiss geologist, was born.

11/4/1849, Wednesday (-35,090)

10/4/1849. Tuesday (-35,091) Walter Hunt of New York patented the safety pin. He made it in only three hours, then sold the rights for $400 to pay off debts.

8/4/1849, Sunday (-35,093) Easter Sunday

4/1849, Safety pin patented.

====================================================================================

3/1849, Elastic bands patented

28/3/1849, Wednesday (-35,104) James Darmesteter, French author, was born (died 19/10/1894).

25/3/1849, Sunday (-35,107) Agenor Goluchowski, Austrian statesman, was born.

24/3/1849, Saturday (-35,108) Johann Dobereiner, German chemist, died (born 15/12/1780).

23/3/1849, Friday (-35,109) Victor Emmanuel II became King of Sardinia, on the abdication of his father, Charles Albert (1789-1849), following the defeat of Charles at the Battle of Novara, against Austria. Charles had been assisting the Lombards in a rebellion against Austrian rule, and had been defeated once before by Austria, at the Battle of Custozza (25/7/1848), by forces under Radetzky (following this 1848 defeat, the Salasco Armistice was signed).

19/3/1849, Monday (-35,113) Alfred von Tirpitz, German Admiral, was born in Kustrin, Brandenburg, Prussia.

17/3/1849, Saturday (-35,115) (1) Elastic bands patented, by Stephen Perry’s London rubber company.

(2) The railway from Limerick Junction to Mallow opened.

11/3/1849, Sunday (-35,121) William Etty, British painter, died (born 10/3/1787).

3/1849, Elastic bands patented

=====================================================================================

2/1849, Britain won the 2nd Sikh War, annexed Punjab. Republic of Rome proclaimed by Garibaldi.

21/2/1849. Wednesday (-35,139) Sikh forces were decisively defeated by the British at the Battle of Gujerat. This concluded the Second Sikh War; Britain annexed Punjab.

15/2/1849, Thursday (-35,145) The Dundalk to Drogheda (22 miles) and the Dundalk to Castle Blayney (18 miles) opened.

13/2/1849, Tuesday (-35,147) Lord Randolph Churchill, British Conservative politician and father of Winston Churchill, was born at Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire.

10/2/1849, Saturday (-35,150) Bernard Barton, English poet, died in Woodbridge (born in Carlisle 31/1/1784).

9/2/1849, Friday (-35,151) The Republic of Rome was proclaimed by Garibaldi. His Nationalist Army came under attack (from 30/4/1849) from a combined force of French, Austrian, Tuscan, Spanish and Neapolitan troops.

6/2/1849, Tuesday (-35,154)

2/1849, Britain won the 2nd Sikh War, annexed Punjab. Republic of Rome proclaimed by Garibaldi.

====================================================================================

1/1849, Britain abolished Corn Laws. First female doctor in USA. Britain took Multan, India.

31/1/1849, Wednesday (-35,160) Britain’s Corn Laws were abolished.

30/1/1849, Tuesday (-35,161) Peter de Wint, English landscape painter, died (born 21/1/1784).

26/1/1849, Friday (-35,165) Thomas Beddoes, English dramatist, died (born in Clifton 20/7/1803).

23/1/1849, Tuesday (-35,168) English-born Elizabeth Blackwell graduated from a New York medical school to become the first female doctor.

22/1/1849, Monday (-35,169) August Strindberg, playwright, was born in Stockholm, Sweden.

18/1/1849, Thursday (-35,173) Sir Edmund Burton, the first Prime Minister of Australia in 1901, was born in Glebe, Sydney.

6/1/1849, Saturday (-35,185) Hartley Coleridge, English writer, died (born 19/9/1796).

5/1/1849, Friday (-35,186) Franz Josef’s Austrian troops arrived in Buda, to occupy Buda and Pest, and suppress the Hungarian Revolution.

4/1/1849, Thursday (-35,187) (India) British forces captured the city of Multan, India.

1/1849, Britain abolished Corn Laws. First female doctor in USA. Britain took Multan, India.

=====================================================================================

12/1848, Emily Bronte died aged 30.

31/12/1848, Sunday (-35,191) Johann Hermann, German scholarly writer, died (born 28/11/1772).

20/12/1848, Wednesday (-35,202) Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed President of France.

19/12/1848. Tuesday (-35,203) Emily Bronte, English novelist who wrote Wuthering Heights, born 30/7/1818, died from tuberculosis, aged 30.

18/12/1848, Monday (-55,204) Bernhard Bolzano, Austrian clerical writer, died in Prague (born in Prague 5/10/1781).

15/12/1848, Friday (-35,207) Edwin Blashfield, US artist, was born in New York City.

11/12/1848, Monday (-35,211) Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the French Republic by a large majority.

2/12/1848, Saturday (-35,220) Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated in favour of his nephew, Francis Joseph.

12/1848, Emily Bronte died aged 30.

===================================================================================

11/1848, First WH Smiths bookstall opened. 1st railway in Guyana opened.

29/11/1848, Wednesday (-35,223) (Britain) Charles Buller, MP for Liskeard, died (born 6/8/1806).

24/11/1848, Friday (-35,228) William Fielding, Canadian politician, was born.

23/11/1848, Thursday (-35,229) (Britain) Sir John Barrow, British politician died (born near Ulverstone, Lancashire, 19/6/1764).

16/11/1848, Thursday (-35,236) Charles Bemont, scholarly writer, was born in Paris

11/11/1848, Saturday (-35,241) Hans Delbruck, German historical writer, was born.

6/11/1848, Monday (-35,246) Richard Jefferies, English naturalist writer, was born (died 14/8/1887).

3/11/1848, Friday (-35,249) (Rail travel) First railway in Guyana opened. It ran from Georgetown to Mahiba.

1/11/1848. Wednesday (-35,251) W H Smith opened his first bookstall at Euston Station, London, the start of multiple retailing in Britain.

====================================================================================

10/1848, 1st railway in Spain opened.

28/10/1848, Saturday (-35,255) (Rail travel) The first railway in Spain opened, Barcelona to Matara, 27 km.

25/10/1848, Wednesday (-35,258) Karl Franzos, German novelist, was born (died 28/1/1904).

9/10/1848, Monday (-35,274) Frank Duvenek, US portrait painter, was born.

5/10/1848, Thursday (-35,278) Jean Detaille, French painter, was born.

2/10/1848, Monday (-35,281) Georg Goldfuss, German palaeontological writer, died (born 18/4/1782).

===================================================================================

9/1848, Congress of Vienna abolished serfdom, Czechs benefitted.

23/9/1848, Saturday (-35,290) Chewing gum was commercially produced for the first time. It was called ‘State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum’.

21/9/1848, Thursday (-35,292) Lord William Bentinck, British politician, died in Welbeck (born 27/2/1802).

12/9/1848, Tuesday (-35,301) (Switzerland) Switzerland adopted a Federal constitution.

8/9/1848, Friday (-35,305) (Chemistry) Viktor Meyer, German organic chemist, was born in Berlin.

7/9/1848. Thursday (-35,306) The Congress in Vienna, which opened on 22/7/1848, abolished serfdom, and the feudal system of land tenure. This greatly benefited the Czechs, who since the Battle of the White Mountains, 1620, had become a peasant nation, with only the beginnings of a middle class by 1800. After serfdom was abolished, the system of peasant ownership of land allowed national wealth to be built up, and personal liberty enabled an educational system to be established.

====================================================================================

8/1848, First Black MP in French Parliament. George Stephenson died. First aerial bombing raid.

26/8/1848. Saturday (-35,318) (1) Garibaldi was defeated by the Austrians at Morrazone.

(2) Denmark and Prussia signed a truce at Malmo. Both agreed to evacuate the disputed territory of Schleswig-Holstein.

24/8/1848, Thursday (-35,320) John Cramer, English geographical writer, died (born 1793).

22/8/1848, Tuesday (-35,322) (1) Mathieu Louisi became the first Black MP to sit in a European Parliament when he was elected representative for Guadeloupe to the French Parliament. His maiden speech in November calling for more harmonious relations between the races was met with disapproval, and he lost his seat at the next election.

(2) The world’s first aerial bombing raid was carried out by the Austrians against the defenders of Venice. Unmanned hot air balloons with 30 pound bombs were sent across; they caused little damage but much bemusement.

12/8/1848, Saturday (-35,332) George Stephenson, the engineer who built the first modern railway in 1825, from Stockton to Darlington, died at Tapton, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire.

8/8/1849, Tuesday (-35,336) (Italy) Ugo Bassi, Italian patriot, was executed.

7/8/1848, Monday (-35,337) (Chemistry) Jons Berzelius, chemist, died in Stockholm

2/8/1848, Wednesday (-35,342) The railway from Belfast to Holywood opened.

=====================================================================================

7/1848, Bloomers introduced. Waterloo Station London completed. Balfour, UK PM, born.

26/7/1848, Wednesday (-35,349) (Italy) Battle of Volta; along with Custozza 24-55 July), Italians being forced back by Austrians

25/7/1848, Tuesday (-35,350) Arthur James Balfour, British Conservative and Prime Minister, was born in East Lothian, Scotland.

24/7/1848, Monday (-35,351) The Carlow to Bagenalstown railway, 10 miles, opened.

22/7/1848, Saturday (-35,353)

19/7/1848, Wednesday (-35,356) At the first women’s rights convention, at Seneca Falls, New York State, female rights campaigner Amelia Bloomer, born on 27/5/1818 in New York, introduced ‘bloomers’ to the world. She described these as ‘the lower part of a rational female dress’. The wearing of trousers by a woman caused much concern. She was campaigning for women’s equality in voting, religion, marriage, work, education, and society. New York, in 1848, passed the Married Women’s Property Act allowing divorced women to keep some of their possessions.

18/7/1848, Tuesday (-35,357) The cricketer W G Grace was born at Downend near Bristol.

13/7/1848, Thursday (-35,362) The first train arrived at London’s new Waterloo Station, from Southampton, see 1/7/1848.

9/7/1848, Sunday (-35,366) Jaime Balmes, Spanish writer, died in Vich ( born in Vich, Catalonia, 28/8/1810).

6/7/1848, Thursday (-35,369) (Railways) Gabor Baross, who developed the Austro-Hungarian railway system, was born in Trencsen (died in Hungary 8/5/1892).

5/7/1848, Wednesday (-35,370) William Butler, Irish writer, died.

4/7/1848, Tuesday (-35,371) The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels, was published.

3/7/1848, Monday (-35,372) The Thurles to Limerick Junction railway, 20 ½ miles, opened.

1/7/1848, Saturday (-35,374) Waterloo Station, London, was completed.  Previously, trains had terminated at Nine Elms, 2 ¾ miles south-west, and rail passengers took a steamboat to The City.  See 13/7/1848.

7/1848, Bloomers introduced. Waterloo Station London completed. Balfour, UK PM, born.

===================================================================================

6/1848, Gauguin, painter, was born. Riots in Paris. Saxophone patented.

27/6/1848, Tuesday (-25,378) (France) Denis Affre, Archbishop of Paris (born 27/9/1793) died.

26/6/1848, Monday (-25,379) (France) Riots in Paris from the 23rd to the 26th June. See 27/2/1848.

25/6/1848, Sunday (-25,380)

24/6/1848, Saturday (-35,381) Brooks Adams, US historian, (died 13/2/1927) was born.

23/6/1848, Friday (-35,382) Adolfe Sax, born on 6/11/1814 in Dinant, Belgium, was awarded a patent for the saxophone.

22/6/1848, Thursday (-35,383) (Medical) Sir William Macewen, surgeon, was born.

18/6/1848, Sunday (-35,387) (India) A Sikh force was defeated by the British at Kinyeri

9/6/1848, Friday (-35,396) (Italy) Austrian forces recaptured Vicenza from the Italians.

7/6/1848, Wednesday (-35,398) Paul Gauguin, French painter, was born in Paris.  He was the son of a journalist.

===================================================================================

5/1848, Prussia invaded Denmark.

30/5/1848, Tuesday (-35,406) (Italy) Battle of Goito (also fighting at Curtatone,29/5), Italians fighting Austrians.

29/5/1848, Monday (-35,407) Wisconsin became the 30th State of the Union.

24/5/1848, Wednesday (-35,412) Annette Droste-Hulshoff, German poet, died (born 10/1/1797).

13/5/1848, Saturday (-35,423) Alexander Baring, British financier and politician, died (born 27/10/1774)

11/5/1848, Thursday (-35,425) The Kilkenny to Thomastown railway, 10 ¾ miles, opened.

10/5/1848, Wednesday (-35,426) The French Assembly spurned the proposal of Louis Blanc to establish a Ministry of Labour and Progress, a bold measure to implement Blanc's socialist agenda.

9/5/1848, Tuesday (-35,427) The Limerick to Tipperary railway, 24 ¾ miles, opened.

6/5/1848, Saturday (-35,430) (Italy) Battle of St Lucia di Verona, Italian forces attempting toforce back Austrians

2/5/1848. Tuesday (-35,434) Prussia invaded Denmark over the Schleswig-Holstein question.

===================================================================================

4/1848, Galician peasantry emancipated

29/4/1848, Saturday (-35,437) (Italy) Italian forces halted at Pastrengo by Austrians.

23/4/1848, Sunday (-35,443) Easter Sunday.

22/4/1848, Saturday (-35,444) To placate a restive peasantry, the governor of Galicia, Franz von Stadion, ordered that peasant tenant farmers should receive the freehold to their land and the gentry landlords be compensated by the State. Furthermore on 7/9/1848 (see date above also) the peasants were granted unrestricted access to woods, meadows and pastures.

21/4/1848, Friday (-35,445)

20/4/1848, Thursday (-35,446) Friedrich Balduin, German soldier, died (born 24/10/1794).

19/4/1848, Wednesday (-35,447) (Italy) An Italian attack on Mantua was repulsed by the Austrians.

16/4/1848, Sunday (-35,450)

14/4/1848, Friday (-35,452) (Italy) Italian troops began a siege of Austrian forces at Peschiera; the town held out until end-May.

13/4/1848. Thursday (-35,453) Sicily declared itself independent from Naples.

12/4/1848, Wednesday (-35,454) Charles Dickens’ seventh book, Dombey and Son, was published in entirety.

11/4/1848, Tuesday (-35,455) The railway from Belfast to Ballymena, 33 ½ miles, also the Carrickfergus branch (3 miles) and the Randalstown branch (2 miles) opened.

10/4/1848, Monday (-35,456) A further Chartist petition was rejected (see 28/2/1837).

9/4/1848, Sunday (-35,457) (Italy) Italian troops fighting Austria forced a passage across the River Mincio toits eastern bank.

1/4/1848, Saturday (-35,465) Gaetano Donizetti, Italian composer, died (born 1798).

=====================================================================================

3/1848, French monarch abdicated. Hungary attempted secession from Austria. Dunedin, New Zealand, founded.

30/3/1848, Thursday (-35,467) Niagara Falls ceased to flow for 30 hours, as an ice dam built up in Lake Erie.

29/3/1848, Wednesday (-35,468) (USA) John Jacob Astor, US fur merchant and philanthropist, died in New York City (born 17/7/1763 in Walldorf, Germany).

26/3/1848, Sunday (-35,471) John Collins, English literary critic, was born (died 15/9/1908).

23/3/1848. Thursday (-35,474) (1) Hungary proclaimed its independence from Austria.  On 5/1/1849 Budapest surrendered to the Austrians.

(2) The first official settlement at Dunedin, New Zealand.

20/3/1848, Monday (-35,477) Ludwig I, King of Bavaria, abdicated.

19/3/1848, Sunday (-35,478) Wyatt Earp, American law enforcer, was born in Monmouth, Illinois.

18/3/1848, Saturday (-35,479) Revolution broke out in Milan.

17/3/1848, Friday (-35,480) Protests in Berlin against the conservatism of Prussian ruler Frederick William IV

15/3/1848, Thursday (-35,481)

15/3/1848, Wednesday (-35,482) The Hungarian revolution began in Budapest.

14/3/1848, Tuesday (-35,483) (Cartography) Adrian Balbi, Italian geographer, died 14/3/1848 in Padua (born in Venice 25/4/1782).

7/3/1848, Tuesday (-35.490) Irish Nationalist leader Thomas Francis Meagher unveiled the current Irish flag at a meeting in Waterford. He explained the design as the central white third representing a truce between the Protestant Orange and the Catholic Green factions.

3/3/1848, Friday (-35,494) Louis-Philippe of France arrived in England, following his abdication. Meanwhile economic depression and hunger, and discontent amongst the growing middle classes, was spurring revolution across Europe. Demonstrations occurred in Vienna and across Hungarian cities; ethnic minorities within the Austro-Hungarian Empire were demanding self-rule. Venice proclaimed independence from Austria.

2/3/1848, Thursday (-35,495) (France) Universal male suffrage was enacted in France, giving the country nine million new voters.

1/3/1848, Wednesday (-35,496) The Portadown to Armagh railway, 10 ½ miles, opened.

3/1848, French monarch abdicated. Hungary attempted secession from Austria. Dunedin, New Zealand, founded.

====================================================================================

2/1848, Mexico capitulated in its war against the USA. French labour unrest and Socialist agitation.

29/2/1848, Tuesday (-35,497) Arthur Giry, French historical writer, was born (died 13/11/1899).

28/2/1848, Monday (-35,498) (France) French workers demonstrated in the Place de l'Hôtel-de-Ville, Paris, to demand a Ministry of Labour and the 10-hour day.

27/2/1848. Sunday (-35,499) France created national workshops to relieve unemployment.

26/2/1848, Saturday (-35,500) The Second French Republic was proclaimed. See 24/2/1848

25/2/1848, Friday (-35,501) (France) Lamartine rejected the proposed Socialist Red Flag as the new French flag, preferring the ‘liberal democratic’ Tricolour to the ‘Blood Flag of anarchy’.

24/2/1848. Thursday (-35,502) The French monarchy fell as King Louis Philippe fled to exile in England. See 26/2/1848

23/2/1848, Wednesday (-35,503) John Quincy Adams, 6th American President from 1825 to 1829, died in the White House

22/2/1848, Tuesday (-35,504) (France) In France a socialist ‘banquet’, or political meeting, to commemorate the birthday of George Washington was banned. This ban caused major unrest and riots in the following days.

21/2/1848, Monday (-35,505) The Communist Manifesto was first published.

11/2/1848, Friday (-35,515) Thomas Cole, US landscape painter, died (born 1/2/1801).

5/2/1848, Saturday (-35,521) Joris Huysmans, French novelist, was born (died 13/5/1907).

2/2/1848. Wednesday (-35,524) Mexico finally collapsed after nearly 2 years of war with the USA, in which 13,000 US soldiers were killed. Under the Treaty of Hidalgo, signed at Vera Cruz, Mexico surrendered Texas, New Mexico, and California for a payment of US$15million. The size of the USA was thus increased by nearly a third. The Mexicans feared US occupation of their own country and had no money left to fund the war.

2/1848, Mexico capitulated in its war against the USA. French labour unrest and Socialist agitation.

=====================================================================================

1/1848, Gold discovered in California. Popular uprising in Palermo.

29/1/1848, Saturday (-35,528) Johann Gorres, German writer, died (born 25/1/1776).

24/1/1848. Monday (-35,533) Gold was discovered at Sutlers Mill in California, by James Marshall. This started the Gold Rush. In 1841 a prospector, Francisco Lopez, found gold traces in the roots of a freshly dug onion. Farmers, clerks, even church ministers, headed west, although some suspected that the US government fostered the Gold Rush to encourage population growth in the former Mexican territory. A major gold find was made by prospector J A Shutter, and by 1849 over 80,000 people had flooded into the area; in 1840 California had just 14,000 inhabitants. US Congress agreed to the issue of a US$20 ‘double eagle’. Many gambling houses sprang up in the area, along with bars and brothels. San Francisco grew from a small village to a town of 25,000 within a few months. Food prices rocketed; apples were $5 each, eggs $10 a dozen, and a small whisky sold for a pinch of gold dust.

20/1/1848, Thursday (-35,537) Christian VIII of Denmark died aged 50, after a reign of less than 9 years. He was succeeded by his 39-year-old son, Frederick VI, who ruled until 1863, and fought a war with Germany over Schleswig-Holstein.

19/1/1848, Wednesday (-35,538) Matthew Webb, the first person to swim the English Channel, was born in Dawley, Shropshire, the son of a doctor.

12/1/1848, Wednesday (-35,545) In Palermo, an uprising began against the misrule of Ferdinand II of Naples.

9/1/1848, Sunday (-35,548) Caroline Herschel, English astronomer, died (born 16/3/1750).

1/1848, Gold discovered in California. Popular uprising in Palermo.

=====================================================================================

12/1847, In Britain, the Communist League adopted Karl Marx’s principles.

29/12/1847, Wednesday (-35,559) William Crotch, English musician, died (born 5/7/1775).

26/12/1847, Sunday (-35,562) Hugh Conway, novelist, was born (died 15/5/1885).

25/12/1847, Saturday (-35,563) Frederick Dielmann, US painter, was born.

21/12/1847, Tuesday (-35,567) John Chard, British soldier, was born (died 1/11/1897).

17/12/1847, Friday (-35,571) Emile Faguet, French writer, was born.

9/12/1847, Thursday (-35,579) George Grossmith, English comedian, was born.

8/12/1847. Wednesday (-35,580) In Britain, an international convention of the Communist League adopted Karl Marx’s principles of the overthrow of the middle classes and the dictatorship of the proletariat.

12/1847, In Britain, the Communist League adopted Karl Marx’s principles.

====================================================================================

11/1847, Chloroform demonstrated as anaesthetic. Mendelssohn, composer, died.

29/11/1847. Monday (-35,589) Cayuze Indians massacred 14 members of an Oregon mission.

26/11/1847, Friday (-35,592) Harvey Elmes, British architect, died (born 1813).

19/11/1847, Friday (-35,599) Mary Foote, US author, was born.

10/11/1847, Wednesday (-35,608) Frederick Bridgman, painter, was born.

9/11/1847, Tuesday (-35,609) Obstetrician Sir James Simpson, Professor of Midwifery at the University of Edinburgh demonstrated a new anaesthetic, trichloromethane, better known as chloroform. Claimed to be three times as effective as ether, it was to be of great use during difficult childbirths; however Scottish Calvinists opposed the use of any anaesthetic during childbirth.

8/11/1847. Monday (-35,610) Bram Stoker, author of Dracula, was born in Dublin.

4/11/1847. Thursday (-35,614) The composer Felix Mendelssohn died in Leipzig of a stroke, aged 38.

=================================================================================

10/1847,

16/10/1847, Saturday (-35,633) Jane Eyre was first published.

13/10/1847, Wednesday (-35,636) Johann Ess, German religious writer, died (born 15/2/1772).

7/10/1847, Thursday (-35,642) (Geology) Alexandre Brogniart, French geologist, died (born 5/2/1770).

2/10/1847, Saturday (-35,647) Paul von Hindenburg, German politician, was born.

1/10/1847, Friday (-35,648) Annie Besant, social reformer and theosophist, was born. With radical atheist Charles Bradlaugh, she promoted birth control, for which she was prosecuted.

===================================================================================

9/1847, US forces captured Mexico City, war ended.

27/9/1847, Monday (-35,652) (Arts) Marie Lajeunesse, or Albani, Canadian singer, was born in Chambly, Quebec.

16/9/1847, Thursday (-35,663) Shakespeare’s birthplace in Stratford on Avon was purchased by the specially-formed Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. This was one of the first buildings acquired purely for preservation.

14/9/1847. Tuesday (-35,665) US troops stormed and captured Mexico City, ending the US war with Mexico. With US forces capturing Texas, New Mexico and California, Mexico lost a third of its territory.

5/9/1847. Sunday (-35,674) Jesse James, American outlaw, was born near Kansas City. With his elder brother, Frank, he led the first gang to carry out train robberies.

3/9/1847, Friday (-35,676) James Hannington, first Bishop of Equatorial Africa, was born.

====================================================================================

8/1847,

23/8/1847, Monday (-35,687) The Higham and Strood Canal Tunnels in Kent were drained and converted into railway tunnels.

22/8/1847, Sunday (-35,688) Sir John Forrrest, explorer and surveyor of Australia in the 1870s, was born.

14/8/1847, Saturday (-35,696) Frans Franzen Swedish poet, died (born 9/2/1772).

9/8/1847, Monday (-35,701) Andrew Combe, physiologist, died (born 27/10/1797)

=====================================================================================

7/1847, Mormons settled at Salt Lake City, First Chinese migrants to USA. Liberia became independent.

28/7/1849, Wednesday (-35,713) (Italy) Albert Charles, King of Sardinia, died (born 2/10/1789).

26/7/1847, Monday (-35,715) (Liberia) Liberia became the first African colony to attain independence.

25/7/1847, Sunday (-35,716) (Medical)  Physician Paul Langerhans was born in Berlin, Germany. In 1869 he discovered the small groups of cells in the pancreas now known as the islets of Langerhans. They were later discovered to be the source of insulin.

24/7/1847. Saturday (-35,717) A group of Mormons under Brigham Young founded a settlement on the banks of the Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Mormons had been driven by mobs from their former homes in Illinois.

17/7/1847, Saturday (-35,724) James Cotton, writer on India, was born.

10/7/1847, Saturday (-35,731) The first Chinese migrants arrived in the USA. They came on the ship  Kee Ying, from Canton (Guangzhou).

1/7/1847, Thursday (-35,740) The first adhesive stamps went on sale in the USA; the 5-cent Benjamin Franklin and the 10-cent George Washington.

==================================================================================

6/1847, First railway in Denmark (now Germany). Britain limited work hours of women, children.

26/6/1847, Saturday (-35,745) The first railway in Denmark opened; Copenhagen to Roskilde. The Altona to Kiel railway, opened 1844, was in Danish territory when built but is now in German territory.

11/6/1847, Friday (-35,760) Sir John Franklin, the British Arctic explorer, died in Canada attempting to discover the north-west passage.

8/6/1847. Tuesday (-35,763) Britain passed an Act limiting the working day of women and children aged 13 to 18 to ten hours.

1/6/1847. Tuesday (-35,770) The Communist Party, then called the League of the Just, met at a congress in London organised by Joseph Moll. The purpose of the meeting was to secure the co-operation of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in formulating the Party programme. Marx did not attend because of the cost of travel from Brussels. The Party aims were the downfall of the bourgeoisie, the rule of the proletariat, and the establishment of a new society without class or private property. The first Russian Communist meeting was at Minsk on 1 – 3 March 1898, where 9 delegates met. All were subsequently arrested and none played a significant role in later politics.

====================================================================================

5/1847, American Medical Association formed.

30/5/1847, Sunday (-35,772) Thomas Chalmers, Scottish religious writer, died (born 17/3/1780).

29/5/1847, Saturday (-35,773) Alexander Everett, US writer, died (born 19/3/1790).

24/5/1847, Monday (-35,778) A cast iron railway bridge over the River Dee at Chester collapsed as a train passed over it. The bridge’s designer, Robert Stephenson, came close to being convicted for manslaughter.

15/5/1847, Saturday (-35,787) Daniel O’Connell (born 6/8/1775, County Kerry) died in Genoa on his way to Rome. He fought against the 1801 Act of Union between Ireland and Great Britain. Irish Catholics could not sit in the United Kingdom Parliament, and also had to pay taxes towards the Protestant Church of England. Catholic anger caused the UK Government to pass a Bill emancipating Catholics in 1829. However O’Connell’s ultimate goal, repeal of the Act of Union and Home Rule for Ireland, was not achieved in his lifetime,

14/5/1847, Friday (-35,788) HMS Driver arrived at Spithead, England, having become the first steamship to complete a round the world voyage.

7/5/1847, Friday (-35,795) The American Medical Association was founded.

====================================================================================

4/1847, Mexico defeated by US forces.

30/4/1847, Friday (-35,802) Charles, Archduke of Austria, died (born 5/9/1771).

23/4/1847, Friday (-35,809) Erik Geijer, Swedish historical writer, died (born 12/1/1783).

19/4/1847, Monday (-35,813) The railway from Londonderry to Strabane, 14 ½ miles, opened.

18/4/1847, Sunday (-35,814) US troops under General Winfield Scott defeated Mexican forces under Santa Anna at Cerro Gordo.

12/4/1847, Monday (-35,820) During the war between the USA and Mexico (1846-1848), this day US General Winfield Scott met the first serious resistance to his advance on Mexico City.

10/4/1847, Saturday (-35,822) Joseph Pulitzer, newspaper proprietor who founded the Pulitzer Prize for achievements in journalism or literature, was born.

7/4/1847, Wednesday (-35,825) Jens Jacobsen, Danish writer, was born (died 30/4/1885).

4/4/1847, Sunday (-35,828) Easter Sunday

===================================================================================

3/1847, Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone,was born.

30/3/1847, Tuesday (-45,833) Christian Jacobs, German scholarly writer, died (born 6/10/1764).

23/3/1847, Tuesday (-45,840) Edmund Gurney, English psychologist, was born (died 23/6/1888).

17/3/1847, Wednesday (-35,846) Jean Gerard, French caricaturist, died (born 13/9/1803)

3/3/1847, Wednesday (-35,860 The inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, was born in Edinburgh.  He was the son of a teacher of elocution.

====================================================================================

2/1847, USA defeated Mexico, took territory.

23/2/1847, Tuesday (-35,868) US forces under General Zachary Taylor defeated the Mexicans under Santa Anna at Buena Vista. The US had ambitions to occupy the entire North American continent (the Manifest Destiny), including possibly Mexico itself. The US had taken what is now New Mexico and California (Upper California to Mexico).

11/2/1847, Thursday (-35,880) Thomas Alva Edison, American inventor, was born.

8/2/1847, Monday (-35,883) Hugh Hughes, British religious writer, was born (died 17/11/1902).

4/2/1847, Thursday (-35,887) (Biology) Rene Dutrochet, physiologist, died (born 14/11/1776)

====================================================================================

1/1847, Agricultural Depression in France

28/1/1847, Thursday (-35,894) Severe depression, unemployment, and food shortages provoked rioting amongst agricultural workers in central France. See 27/2/1848.

26/1/1847, Tuesday (-35,896) John Clark, US economist, was born.

14/1/1847, Thursday (-35,908) Wilson Carlile, English clergyman who founded the Church Army, was born in Buxton, Derbyshire.

===================================================================================

12/1846, Iowa became 29th US State. Railway Mania in Britain. Transit across Panama agreed.

31/12/1846, Thursday (-35,922) Conclusion of the ‘Year of the Railway mania’.  An unprecedented 272 Railway Acts were passed for lines in Britain.

28/12/1846, Monday (-35,925) Iowa was admitted as the 29th (non-slave) State of the USA.

25/12/1846, Friday (-35,928) US troops defeated the Mexicans near Las Cruces, virtually completing the conquest of New Mexico.

23/12/1846, Wednesday (-35,930) (Biology) Jean Boiry, French naturalist, died.

22/12/1846, Tuesday (-35,931) (Sweden) Oscar Josef Alin, Swedish politician, was born in Falun (died 31/12/1900 in Uppsala).

21/12/1846, Monday (-35,932) Anaesthetic was used in a British hospital for the first time (see 16/10/1846).It was used by surgeon Robert Liston during a leg amputation at University College Hospital, London.

19/12/1846, Saturday (-35,934) The first dental extraction under anaesthetic was performed in Britain.

12/12/1846, Saturday (-35,941) The USA and Colombia agreed to grant the USA transit rights on the narrow isthmus of Panama between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

10/12/1846, Thursday (-35,943) Frederico Confalioneri, Italian Revolutionary, died (born 1785).

12/1846, Iowa became 29th US State. Railway Mania in Britain. Transit across Panama agreed.

====================================================================================

11/1846,

23/11/1846, Monday (-35,960) George Darley, Irish poet, died (born 1795).

6/11/1846, Friday (-35,977) Following uprisings in March 1846, the small republic of Cracow was annexed to Austrian-controlled Galicia, losing its independence.

===================================================================================

10/1846, Anaesthetic used in major operation

27/10/1846, Tuesday (-35,987) Louis Bourmont, Marshal of France, died

21/10/1846, Wednesday (-35,993) Edmondo de Amicis, Italian writer, was born in Oneglia, Liguria (died in Bordighera, 12/3/1908).

16/10/1846, Friday (-35,998) Anaesthetic was used successfully for the first time in a major operation, at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dentist William Morton Warren used diethyl ether before removing a tumour from a man’s jaw.

9/10/1846, Friday (-36,005) Holger Drachmann, Danish poet, was born (died 14/1/1908).

6/10/1846, Tuesday (-36,008) George Westinghouse, US engineer and inventor of the railway air brake, was born in Central Bridge, New York State.

2/10/1846, Friday (-36,012) Samuel Driver, Hebrew scholarly writer, was born.

====================================================================================

9/1846, Planet Neptune discovered. Sewing machine patented,

26/9/1846, Saturday (-36,018) (Race Equality) Thomas Clarkson, British anti-slavery campaigner, died (born 28/3/1760).

23/9/1846. Wednesday (-36,021) The German astronomer Johann Galle discovered the planet Neptune.  This followed predictions made by Leverrier and Adams.

10/9/1846, Thursday (-36,034) Elias Howe received the patent for his sewing machine. It could sew at 250 stitches per minute, five times faster than any human could.

2/9/1846, Wednesday (-36,042) Paul Deroulede, French author, was born.

===================================================================================

8/1846, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, opened. Surrey Iron Railway closed.

31/8/1846, Monday (-36,044) The Surrey Iron Railway, Wandsworth to Croydon, closed.; it was dismantled in 1848.

15/8/1845, Saturday (-36,060) Walter Crane, English painter, was born.

10/8/1846, Monday (-36,065) The Smithsonian Institute was founded in Washington DC; it was established by a bequest from the British scientist James Smithson.

4/8/1846, Tuesday (-36,071) The Dublin to Carlow railway, 56 ½ miles, opened.

===================================================================================

7/1846, USA claimed California from Mexico.

31/7/1846, Friday (-36,075) Theodore Fix, Swiss writer, died (born 1800).

15/7/1846, Wednesday (-36,091) The first railway in Hungary opened; Pest to Vacs, 35 km.

13/7/1846, Monday (-36,893) Laurence Gronlund, US socialist writer, was born (died 15/10/1899).

7/7/1846. Tuesday (-36,099) A US squadron under Commodore John D Sloat sailed into Monterrey Bay and formally claimed California for the USA, during the Mexican-US War. Pro Mexican revolts in California on 6/12/1846 were put down by US troops. On 13/1/1847 pro-Mexico fighters finally surrendered to the US in California, ending 25 years of Mexican rule.

5/7/1846, Sunday (-36,101) Joseph Foraker, US politician, was born.

====================================================================================

6/1846, Britain repealed the Corn Laws; Peel, PM, forced to resign.

29/6/1846. Monday (-36,107) The protectionist wing of the Tory Party, led by Benjamin Disraeli, which was bitterly opposed to the repeal of the Corn Laws, mounted a revolt against Robert Peel’s Tory government, forcing Peel to resign as Prime Minister.

28/6/1846, Sunday (-36,108) Defeat of Ranjit Singh by British forces at Aliwal, during the First Sikh War.

27/6/1846, Saturday (-36,109) Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish politician and leader of the Home Rule movement, was born in Avondale, County Wicklow.

25/6/1846. Thursday (-36,111) Britain repealed the Corn Laws after a 5 month debate in Parliament. Import duties on wheat, oats, and barley were to be scrapped in 3 years, and meanwhile set at a nominal rate only, of one shilling a quarter. This was opposed by Tory protectionists, but the Irish potato famine in 1845 added urgency to the repeal. Bread would now be cheaper but the farming of the landed estates less profitable. The Irish potato blight spread from America and first appeared in the UK in the Isle of Wight. Hot dry weather in July gave way to chilly rain and fog, and the potatoes soon rotted. 4 million people in Ireland and 2 million in Britain relied almost totally on potatoes for food. Public works schemes were devised for some 750,000 workers which meant 3 million people relied on these for income. Many Irish migrated to the USA, even though the voyage was almost as deadly as the famine; one in six died on the voyage across the Atlantic. The Irish blamed English oppression for the famine even though England had provided almost £8million in relief.

22/6/1846, Monday (-36,114) Benjamin Haydon, English painter, died (born 26/1/1786).

19/6/1846, Friday (-36,117) Antonio Abetti, Italian astronomer who studied the minor planets, was born (died 20/2/1928).

16/6/1846, Tuesday (-36,120) Pope Pius IX was elected, beginning the longest reign in the history of the Papacy.

15/6/1846. Monday (-36,121) Britain agreed with the USA that Oregon was US territory. All land west of the Rockies and below the 49th parallel was to be US territory.

14/6/1846, Sunday (-36,122) The start of the Black Bear revolt against Mexican rule in California. Settlers in the Sacramento Valley demanded an independent republic.

9/6/1846, Tuesday (-36,127) Pope Gregory XVI died.

6/1846, Britain repealed the Corn Laws; Peel, PM, forced to resign.

====================================================================================

5/1846, Mexico invaded Texas, US declared war, and defeated Mexicans.

30/5/1846, Saturday (-36,137) Peter Carl Faberge, Russian jeweller whose fabulous Easter Eggs were popular with the tsars, was born.

20/5/1846, Wednesday (-36,147) Sir George Goldie, who played a major role in the creation of the British colony of Nigeria, was born.

14/5/1846, Thursday (-36,153) Pieter Cort van der Linden, Dutch politician, was born.

13/5/1846, Wednesday (-36,154) The USA declared war on Mexico. US Congress authorised US$ 10 million to fund the war and to recruit 50,000 troops. Mexican troops had crossed the Rio Grande into US territory (Texas), sparking the war. See 28/3/1845.

11/5/1846, Monday (-36,156)

9/5/1846, Saturday (-36,158) Battle of Resaca de la Palma. Mexico was heavily defeated, and withdrew across the Rio Grande.

8/5/1846, Friday (-36,159) Battle of Palo Alto. US General Zachary Taylor defeated a Mexican force of 6,000 soldiers with his 2,000 troops.

5/1846, Mexico invaded Texas, US declared war, and defeated Mexicans.

=====================================================================================

4/1846, Peasant unrest in Poland during famine and epidemics; forced labour burden eased.

24/4/1846, Friday (-36,173) Marcus Clarke, US author, was born (died2/8/1881).

16/4/1846, Thursday (-36,181) Domenico Dragonetti, musician, died (born 7/4/1763)

13/4/1846, Monday (-36,184) To quell peasant unrest, the Polish government abolished the duty on them of extra day’s unpaid labour previously due to their manorial lord. There was an ongoing famine in Poland, aggravated by cholera and typhus outbreaks; in 1847 there were 380,000 deaths in Poland, compared to the previous annual average of 153,000.

12/4/1846, Sunday (-36,185) Easter Sunday.

4/1846, Peasant unrest in Poland during famine and epidemics; forced labour burden eased.

=====================================================================================

31846,

25/3/1846, Thursday (-36,202) Michael Davitt, dedicated Irish Nationalist, was born (died 31/5/1906).

22/3/1846, Monday (-36,205) Randolph Caldecott, English artist, was born (died 12/2/1886).

17/3/1846, Tuesday (-36,211) Friedrich Bessel, German astronomer, died in Konigsberg (born in Minden 22/7/1784).

16/3/1846, Monday (-36,212) Jules Joffrin, French politician, was born (died 17/9/1890).

11/3/1846, Wednesday (-36,217) Johann Hug, German religious writer, died (born 1/6/1765).

====================================================================================

2/1846, Buffalo Bill, US showman, was born.

26/2/1846, Thursday (-36,230) Buffalo Bill, American Army Scout and showman, was born on a farm in Scott County, Iowa, as William Frederick Cody.

20/2/1846, Friday (-36,236) (Italy) Francis IV, Duke of Modena, died

19/2/1846, Thursday (-36,237) Charles Clermont-Ganneau, writer on the Orient, was born.

18/2/1846, Wednesday (36,238) Wilson Barrett, playwright, was born in Essex (died 22/7/1904).

17/2/1846, Tuesday (-26,239) (Maritime) The coal ship Rocket was wrecked off St Helena.

16/2/1846, Monday (-26,240) Gefroi Flach, French historical writer, was born.

15/2/1846, Sunday (-26,241) Sir William Clinton, British soldier, died (born 1769).

2/1846, Buffalo Bill, US showman, was born.

===================================================================================

1/1846, US troops prepared to attack Mexico.

21/1/1846. Wednesday (-36,266) The Daily News, the newspaper edited by Charles Dickens, was first published in London.

17/1/1846, Saturday (-36,270) Henry Inman, US artist, died (born 20/10/1801).

13/1/1846, Tuesday (-36,274) (Mexico, USA) US troops were directed to advance to the Rio Grande, in anticipation of the failure of negotiations with Mexico.

7/1/1846, Wednesday (-36,280) John Frere, English author, died (born 21/5/1769).

6/1/1846, Tuesday (-36,281) Lewis Goldsmith, Anglo-French writer, died.

5/1/1846, Monday (-36,282) Rudolf Eucken, scholarly writer, was born.

1/1846, US troops prepared to attack Mexico.

====================================================================================

12/1845, First pneumatic tyres patented, but they were too soft.

29/12/1845, Monday (-36,289) Texas became the 28th State of the Union.

24/12/1845, Wednesday (-36,294) George I, King of Greece, was born.

22/12/1845, Monday (-36,296) The first of the original two single-track Woodhead railway tunnels, on the line between Sheffield and Manchester, opened to traffic.  See 2/2/1852.

21/12/1845, Sunday (-36,297) The Battle of Ferozeshah began.

10/12/1845. Wednesday (-36,308) The Scottish civil engineer Robert Thompson patented the first pneumatic tyres (see 31/10/1888). However the invention failed to catch on in the absence of a method of hardening the rubber.

12/1845, First pneumatic tyres patented, but they were too soft.

====================================================================================

11/1845, First railway in Jamaica opened.

25/11/1845, Tuesday (-36,323) Jose Maria Eca del Quieroz, Portuguese writer was born (died in Paris, 16/8/1900).

21/11/1845, Friday (-36,327) The first railway in Jamaica opened. It ran 20 km between Kingston and Spanish Town.

11/11/1845, Tuesday (-36,337) Jules Guesde, French socialist, was born.

11/1845, First railway in Jamaica opened.

====================================================================================

10/1845, Social reformer Elizabeth Fry died. Wagner’s music played in Germany.

30/10/1845, Thursday (-36,349) Nicolas Charlet, French painter, died (born 20/12/1792)

26/10/1845, Sunday (-36,353) Edward Harrigan, US actor, was born.

22/10/1845, Wednesday (-36,357) Sarah Bernhardt, French actress, was born in Paris.

19/10/1845. Sunday (-36,360) Wagner’s opera ‘Tannhauser’ was first performed at Dresden.  Wagner’s music inspired either wonder or loathing, and he was also highly anti-Semitic.

18/10/1845, Saturday (-36,361) (Cartography) Jacques Cassini died (born 30/6/1748). He completed his father’s map of France (published 1793), despite difficulties caused by the French Revolution.

12/10/1845, Sunday (-36,367) (Prisons) The social worker and prison reformer Elizabeth Fry died.

10/1845, Social reformer Elizabeth Fry died. Wagner’s music played in Germany.

===================================================================================

9/1845,

23/9/1845, Tuesday (-36,386) Jonathan Hartley, US sculptor was born.

15/9/1845, Monday (-36,394) Thomas Davis, Irish poet, died (born 14/10/1814).

13/9/1845, Saturday (-36,396) Sir Henry Cotton, British administrator in India, was born.

====================================================================================

8/1845, First Thomas Cook rail holiday. Scientific American first published. Standard rail gauge for UK.

28/8/1845, Thursday (-36,412) The first edition of Scientific American was published.

26/8/1845, Tuesday (-36,414) Philippe Gerard, French inventor, died (born 1/2/1775).

25/8/1845, Monday (-36,415) Ludwig II, King of Bavaria, was born.

22/8/1845, Friday (-36,418) Surrey County Cricket Club was founded at a meeting at The Horns, Kennington.

6/8/1845, Wednesday (-36,434) In the UK the Gauge Commission opened. It decided in favour of standard gauge, 4’ 8 ½”, with exception for the Great Western Railway.

4/8/1845, Monday (-36,436) Thomas Cook organised the first holiday excursion by rail, to North Wales, leaving Leicester at 5am.

===================================================================================

7/1845, China granted Belgium trading rights, Dr Barnardo was born.

25/7/1845, Friday (-36,446) (1) China granted Belgium equal trading rights with Britain, France, and the USA. See 24/10/1844.

(2) Brunel’s 320 foot iron ship, the Great Britain, left Liverpool on her maiden voyage, to New York.

21/7/1845, Monday (-36,450) (Britain) Charles Canterbury, British politician, died (born 29/1/1780).

17/7/1845, Thursday (-36,454) Charles Grey, English statesman, died (born 13/3/1764).

4/7/1845, Friday (-36,467) Thomas John Barnardo was born in Dublin. In 1867 he started homes for some of London’s many destitute children. They became known as Dr Barnardo’s Homes although he never qualified as a medical doctor.

===================================================================================

6/1845,

28/6/1845, Saturday (-30,573) Sir William Follett, English lawyer, died (2/12/1798).

18/6/1845, Wednesday (-36,483) Sidney Colvin, literary critic, was born.

17/6/1845, Tuesday (-36,484) Richard Barham, English writer, died (born in Canterbury 6/12/1788).

8/6/1845, Sunday (-36,493) Andrew Jackson, American General and Democrat politician, 7th President from 1829 to 1837, died at the Hermitage in Nashville, Tennessee.

====================================================================================

5/1845,

30/5/1845, Friday (-36,502) Ferdinando Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, Italy, was born (died 18/1/1890).

29/5/1845, Thursday (-36,503) Under an amnesty, Santa Anna was allowed to depart from Mexico for Cuba, with his wife and daughter. A provisional government was established under General Herrera. Mexicans rejoiced in the streets at Anna’s departure.

25/5/1845, Sunday (-36,507) Thomas Duncan, Scottish portrait painter, died (born 1807).

18/5/1845, Sunday (-36,514) Don Carlos relinquished his right to the Spanish Crown in favour of his son.

16/5/1845, Friday (-36,516) (Britain) Charles Chubb, English locksmith and safe-maker, died.

13/5/1845, Tuesday (-36,519) (Britain) Alexander Baring Ashburton, English baron and financier, died.

12/5/1845, Monday (-36,520) Janos Bacsanyo, Hungarian poet, died 12/5/1845 in Linz (born in Tapolcza, 11/5/1763).

8/5/1845, Thursday (-36,524)

5/5/1845, Monday (-36,527) Eleonore Cavaignac, French politician, died.

4/5/1845, Sunday (-36,528) William Clifford, English mathematician, was born (died 3/3/1879).

3/5/1845, Saturday (-36,529) Thomas Hood, poet, died.

==================================================================================

4/1845,

30/4/1845, Wednesday (-36,532) Henry Crane, US actor, was born.

15/4/1845, Tuesday (-36,547) The new House of Lords buildings were completed, after a fire in 1834, to the designs of Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.

====================================================================================

3/1845, Texas annexed to USA, 28th State. Florida became 27th State. Maori uprising against British.

29/3/1845, Saturday (-36,564) (Mexico, USA) The UK and France laid proposals before Mexico, that Texas should become independent but should not seek to ally with any other country; they were concerned about the rapid growth of the US (see 1/3/1845)

28/3/1845. Friday (-36,565) Mexico severed relations with the USA following America’s ratification of the annexation of Texas on 1/3/1845, after an almost unanimous vote in favour by the Texas electorate. On 29./12/1845 Texas became the 28th state of the USA. See 13/5/1846.

27/3/1845, Thursday (-36,566) Wilhelm von Roentgen, German scientist and discoverer of X-Rays, was born in Lennep, Prussia.

26/3/1845. Wednesday (-36,567) The sticking plaster was patented.

23/3/1845, Sunday (-36,570) Easter Sunday

13/3/1845, Thursday (-36,580) John Daniell, English chemist, died (born 12/3/1790).

11/3/1845, Tuesday (-36,582) (1) Self-raising flour was patented by Henry Jones of Bristol.

(2) (New Zealand) In New Zealand, a Maori uprising against the British began. The Maori were protesting at European settlement of Maori lands, in breach of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi.

10/3/1845, Monday (-36,583) (Russia) Alexander III, Emperor of Russia, second son of Alexander II, was born (died 1894).

9/3/1845, Sunday (-36,584) (Biology) Botanist Wilhelm Pfeffer was born in Grebenstein, Hesse, Germany.

7/3/1845, Friday (-36,586)

4/3/1845, Tuesday (-36,589) (USA) The Democrat Charles Polk was sworn in as 11th President of the USA, following his landslide victory in the November 1944 elections. He strongly supported further westwards expansion of the USA.

3/3/1845, Monday (-36,590) (USA) Florida became the 27th State of the Union.

1/3/1845, Saturday (-36,592) (USA) US President Tyler approved the decision to annex Texas to the United States, just three days before the accession of President James K Polk. Both the UK and France were now concerned at the great expansion of the USA. See 29/3/1845.

3/1845, Texas annexed to USA, 28th State. Florida became 27th State. Maori uprising against British.

=================================================================================

2/1845,

19/2/1845, Wednesday (-36,602) (Britain) Sir Thomas Buxton, English philanthropist, died (born 1/4/1786).

15/2/1845, Saturday (-36,606) Samuel Blanchard, British author, died (born in Great Yarmouth 15/2/1804).

14/2/1845, Friday (-36,607) Quintin Hogg, founder of polytechnics, was born.

1/2/1845, Saturday (-36,620) Karl Marx settled in Brussels after being expelled from France.

===================================================================================

1/1845,

28/1/1845, Tuesday (-36,624) Christoph Houwald, German author, died (born 28/11/1778)

11/1/1845, Saturday (36,641) (Geology) Etheldred Benett, one of the earliest woman geologists, died (born 1776).

4/1/1845, Saturday (-36,648) Santa Anna was deposed as President of Mexico in a coup by Paredes. Santa Anna attempted to flee towards the coast but was captured at the village of Jaco, to be arrested and held at Jaco.

==================================================================================

12/1844, First Co-operative formed. Nitrous oxide used as anaesthetic. Algerian attack on French colonists.

21/12/1844, Saturday (-36,662) A group of unemployed workers in the mill-town of Rochdale, Lancashire, formed the first Co-operative shop in Toad (T’owd) Lane. They called themselves the Rochdale Pioneers, and soon had 50 members. Each member received a dividend, or share, of the shop’s profits. It cost one shilling to join. Changes in the law now meant no-one under 18 years of age could work over 12 hours a day, and it was proposed to limit teenagers to a 10 hour day. Children under 13 were restricted to a 48 hour week and had to attend school for 2 hours a week.

18/12/1844, Wednesday (-36,665) (Germany) Ludwig Brentano, German economist, was born.

14/12/1844, Saturday (-36,669) China relaxed a ban on the Roman Catholic Church.

11/12/1844, Wednesday (-36,671) Dr John M Riggs, of Hartford Connecticut, successfully extracted a tooth painlessly from Dr Horace Wells using nitrous oxide gas. He performed 40 more such operations, but abandoned them after a patient nearly died from an overdose of the gas; Dr Riggs was unaware that the nitrous oxide should be mixed with oxygen.

5/12/1844. Thursday (-36,678) The French garrison at Biskra, Algeria, was massacred by the Arabs.

1/12/1844, Sunday (-36,682) Queen Alexandra, wife of Edward VII, was born, the eldest daughter of King Christian of Denmark.

12/1844, First Co-operative formed. Nitrous oxide used as anaesthetic. Algerian attack on French colonists.

==================================================================================

11/1844,

25/11/1844, Monday (-36,688) Karl Friedrich Benz, German engineer and motor car pioneer, was born in Karlsruhe.

21/11/1844, Thursday (-36,692) (Agriculture) Philipp Fellenberg, promoter of agricultural education, died (born 27/6/1771).

14/11/1844, Thursday (-36,699) (Medical) John Abercrombie, Scottish physician (born 10/10/1780) died in Edinburgh.

2/11/1844, Saturday (-36,711) Sir Francis Gould, caricaturist, was born.

==================================================================================

10/1844, HJ Heinz, baked beans magnate, was born. France gained concessions in China.

28/10/1844, Monday (-36,716) London’s third Royal Exchange Building opened.

24/10/1844. Thursday (-36,720) France and China signed the Treaty of Whampoa, opening up Chinese ports to French trade. French traders came under French, not Chinese, law, and the French gained the right to build Catholic churches in the treaty ports of China.

23/10/1844, Wednesday (-36,721) Robert Bridges, poet laureate, was born.

15/10/1844, Tuesday (-36,729) Friedrich Wilhelm Neitzsche, German philosopher, was born.

12/10/1844, Saturday (-36,732) George Cable, US author, was born.

11/10/1844. Friday (-36,733) Baked beans magnate H J Heinz was born of German parents in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

=================================================================================

9/1844,

24/9/1844, Tuesday (-36,750) Robert Jamieson, Scottish writer, died .

15/9/1844, Sunday (-36,759) Gustav Hugo, German jurist, died (born 23/11/1764).

11/9/1844, Wednesday (-36,763) Basil Hall, British travel writer, died (born 31/12/1788).

10/9/1844. Tuesday (-36,764) France and Morocco signed the Treaty of Tangiers, ending their conflict. France withdrew from Morocco.

================================================================================

8/1844, Marx met Engels. Brigham Young now Mormon leader.

30/8/1844, Friday (-36,775) (Astronomy) Edward Baily, British astronomer, died in London on 30/8/1844. He was born in Newbury, Berkshire, 10/3/1788.

28/8/1844, Wednesday (-36,777) Karl Marx met Friedrich Engels in Paris; their lifelong collaboration began.

22/8/1844, Thursday (-36,783) (Polar) George Delong, US Arctic explorer, was born (died 30/10/1881).

17/8/1844, Saturday (-36,788) Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia, was born.

14/8/1844, Wednesday (-36,791) Henry Cary, English author, died (born 6/12/1772).

8/8/1844. Thursday (-36,797) The Mormons chose Brigham Young as leader to replace Joseph Smith, see 27/6/1844.

6/8/1844, Tuesday (-36,799) (Britain) Albert Ernst Albert, 4th child of Queen Victoria (died 30/7/1900) was born at Windsor Castle.

====================================================================================

7/1844, First ocean cruise liner. USA-China trade links.

27/7/1844, Saturday (-36,809) John Dalton, chemist and physicist, died.  He developed modern atomic theory and also made advances in meteorology.

26/7/1844. Friday (-36,810) The first ocean cruise left Southampton for a four month steamship tour of the Mediterranean.

25/7/1844, Thursday (-26,811) Thomas C Eakins, US artist, was born (died 25/6/1916).

22/7/1844, Monday (-36,814) The Reverend William Spooner, educationalist and originator of ‘spoonerisms’, was born in London.

16/7/1844, Tuesday (-36,820) Charles Dickens’ sixth book, The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit, was published in entirety.

15/7/1844, Monday (-36,821) Claude Fauriel, French historical writer, died (born 21/10/1772).

13/7/1844, Saturday (-36,823) Johann Gansbacher, Austrian composer, died (born 1778).

3/7/1844. Wednesday (-36,833) (1) China and the USA signed the Treaty of Wanghiya, giving US citizens similar rights to those of the UK in the Treaty of Nanjing signed in 1843. US traders now had access to the same five Chinese trading ports as Britain did.

(2) The Great Auk became extinct when fishermen killed the last breeding pair of the flightless birds in Iceland.

1/7/1844. Monday (-36,835) A French squadron under the Duke of Joinville bombarded Tangiers.

=====================================================================================

6/1844, First railway in Switzerland. YMCA founded.

27/6/1844. Thursday (-36,839) Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon Church, died. He was killed, along with his brother Hyrum, by a 200-strong mob in Carthage prison, Illinois, where they had been held on riot charges. The brothers had destroyed the offices of a rival Mormon newspaper. This followed months of tension between the Mormon settlers, who came to Nauvoo, Illinois, in 1839, and locals who resented Mormon political and economic power. Mormon polygamy was also a contentious issue. See 8/8/1844.

19/6/1844, Wednesday (-36,847) Saint-Hilaire Geoffroy, French naturalist writer, died (born 15/4/1772).

17/6/1844, Monday (-36,849) Hartwig Derenbourg, writer, was born (died 1908).

15/6/1844. Saturday (-36,851) (1) The first railway in Switzerland opened, Basle to St Ludwig.

(2) Charles Goodyear patented the vulcanised rubber process in the USA. This made possible the commercial use of rubber, such as for motor vehicle tyres.

6/6/1844, Thursday (-36,860) George Williams founded the YMCA at 72 St Paul’s Churchyard, London.

3/6/1844, Monday (-36,863) Garrett Hobart, US Vice-President, was born (died 21/11/1899).

=====================================================================================

5/1844, Morse sent first telegraph message. Bricklayers Arms terminus opened in S London.

26/5/1844, Sunday (-36,871) The Dublin to Drogheda railway opened.

24/5/1844, Friday (-36,873) Samuel Morse sent the first telegraph message, from his home in Washington to a friend in Baltimore, 40 miles away. The message was “What hath God wrought”.

21/5/1844, Tuesday (-36,876) Guiseppe Baini, Italian musician, died in Rome (born in Rome 21/10/1775).

16/5/1844, Thursday (-36,881) Sir John Hare, English actor, born

14/5/1844, Tuesday (-36,883) John Doyle, English historical writer, was born (died 4/8/1907).

13/5/1844, Monday (-36,884) Spain set up a military peacekeeping force, the Guardia Civil.

8/5/1844, Wednesday (-36,889) Earthquake hit Echigo, Japan, 12,000 killed.

3/5/1844, Friday (-36,894) Richard D’Oyly Carte, who produced the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, was born.

1/5/1844, Wednesday (-36,896) The Bricklayer’s Arms railway terminus opened in south London, for passengers from Kent wishing to access the West End. The South Eastern Railway was faced with excessive charges to use the terminus at London Bridge..  However it was unpopular with passengers and became a goods terminus from 1/1852.

5/1844, Morse sent first telegraph message. Bricklayers Arms terminus opened in S London.

====================================================================================

4/1844,

16/4/1844, Tuesday (-36,911) Anatole France, French novelist, was born.

15/4/1844, Monday (-36,912) Charles Bulfinch, US architect, died (born 8/8/1763).

7/4/1844, Sunday (-36,920) Easter Sunday. James Scarlett Abinger, British statesman (born 13/12/1796) died.

====================================================================================

3/1844, Rimsky Korsakov, composer, born, Umberto I, King of Italy, born. Britain gained advantage in Gold Coast.

18/3/1844, Monday (-36,940) Rimsky Korsakoov, Russian composer, was born in Novgorod.

14/3/1844, Thursday (-36,944) Umberto I, King of Italy, was born in Turin, the son of King Victor Emmanuel I.

11/3/1844, Monday (-36,947) In New Zealand, Maoris rose up against British rule.

8/3/1844, Friday (-36,950) Charles XIV, King of Sweden, died aged 81, after a 26-year reign. He was succeeded by his son, Oskar I, aged 44.

7/3/1844, Thursday (-36,951) Anthony Comstock, US moralist, was born in Connecticut (died 21/9/1913 in New York).

6/3/1844, Wednesday (-36,952) Britain concluded an agreement with the indigenous Chiefs of the Gold Coast, giving the UK control over the territory’s legal system and judicial punishments.

===================================================================================

2/1844, Dominican Republic became independent.

27/2/1844, Tuesday (-36,960) The Dominican Republic became independent.

23/2/1844, Friday (-36,964) Duncan Gregory, mathematics writer, died (born 13/4/1813).

8/2/1844, Thursday (-36,979) (Britain) Samuel Barnett, English social reformer, was born in Bristol.

7/2/1844, Wednesday (-36,980) (Russia) Alexis Fedchenko, Russian explorer of central Asia, was born (died 15/9/1873).

====================================================================================

1/1844,

31/1/1844, Wednesday (-36,987) Henri Bertrand, French General, died in Chateauroux (born 1773)

29/1/1844, Monday (-36,989) Ernst I, Duke of Saxe Coburg Gotha, died (born 2/1/1784).

25/1/1844, Thursday (-36,993) Jean d’Erlon, Marchal of France, died (born 29/7/1765).

23/1/1844, Tuesday (-36,995) (Britain) Sir Francis Burdett, English politician, died (born 25/1/1770).

16/1/1844, Tuesday (-37,002) Samuel Horton, US economics writer, was born (died 23/2/1895).

==================================================================================

12/1843, First Christmas Card sent.. China attempted to curb opium trade, failed.

29/12/1843, Friday (-37,020) The Battle of Maharaipur.

25/12/1843, Monday (-37,024) The first Christmas card was designed by John Calcott Horsley for Sir Henry Cole. The design was of three generations of a Victorian family sitting round a festive table, toasting an absent guest. Some objected that the illustration encouraged drunkenness. Sir Cole said he was too busy at business to send letters to all his friends as was his custom, so he had 1,000 cards printed up, selling the surplus for 1 shilling each. By 1862 cards featured ‘A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year’; then holly and robins appeared in the illustrations, and by 1871 a daily newspaper complained that people were trying to outdo each other in how many cards they received, and the consequent delay in other post.  The GPO adopted the slogan ‘Post Early For Christmas’ for the first time in 1880. Christmas crackers appeared in the 1840s. However Christmas trees date back to around 1605 where they were seen in Strasbourg.  In Alsace fir trees, or maien, were set up on May Day as far back as 1521.

13/12/1843. Wednesday (-37,036) Some 6,000 copies of Charles Dicken’s ‘A Christmas Carol’ were sold on the first day of publication.

11/12/1843, Monday (-37,038) Robert Koch, German bacteriologist, was born in Klausthal.

1/12/1843, Friday (-37,048) China again banned opium smoking, the cause of the Opium War. However the Chinese already had an insatiable appetite for it and ignored this decree. Opium smuggling into China was rampant, run by gangsters such as the Triads.

12/1843, First Christmas Card sent.. China attempted to curb opium trade, failed.

===================================================================================

11/1843, Nelson’s statue was installed in London. Vulcanised rubber patented.

24/11/1843, Friday (-37,055) Richard Croker, US politician, was born.

21/11/1843, Tuesday (-37,058) Vulcanised rubber was patented in England by Thomas Hancock.

17/11/1843, Friday (-37,062) In accordance with the Treaty of Nanjing (see 29/8/1842) Shanghai was opened up to foreign trade.

14/11/1843, Tuesday (-37,065) (Britain) Sir William Anson, English jurist, was born in Walberton, Sussex.

3/11/1843, Friday (-37,076) The 17-foot, 16 ton, statue of Lord Nelson was hauled in two pieces to the top of the column in Trafalgar Square.  The second piece was hauled up on 4/11/1843. The column was 184 foot high, and the statue a further 17 feet. The cost was £50,000, half met by Parliament, the other half raised by public subscription.

===================================================================================

10/1843, Britain gained trade advantage in China.

28/10/1843, Saturday (-37,082) (Hungary) Dezso Banffy, Hungarian statesman, was born in Klausenberg.

15/10/1843, Sunday (--37,095) John Foster, English writer, died (born 17/9/1770).

12/10/1843, Thursday (-37,098) Twelve men met in a New York cafe to establish the B’Nai  Brith, or ‘Sons of the Covenant’, to provide assistance to Jewish widows, the elderly, orphans, and victims of persecution.

8/10/1843, Sunday (-37,102) Britain and China signed the British Supplementary Treaty; an addition to the Treaty of Nanjing (29/8/1842), giving Britain favourable trading terms with China. See 3/7/1844.

1/10/1843, Sunday (-37,109) The Sunday newspaper, News of the World, was first published.

==================================================================================

9/1843, Military revolt in Greece.

23/9/1843, Saturday (-37,117) George Bell, Scottish legal writer, died (born in Edinburgh 20/3/1770).

15/9/1843, Friday (-37,125) (Greece) Military revolt against King Otto’s absolute rule. A constitution was introduced, limiting his powers.

13/9/1843, Wednesday (-37,127) Louis Duchesne, French religious writer, was born.

6/9/1843, Wednesday (-37,134) Yves Guyot, French politician, was born.

==================================================================================

8/1843, Tivoli Gardens, Copenhagen, opened.

29/8/1843, Tuesday (-37,142) David Hill, US politician, was born (died 30/10/1910).

15/8/1843, Tuesday (-37,156) In Copenhagen, the Tivoli Gardens opened. They were laid out on part of the old defensive works.

12/8/1843, Saturday (-37,159) Colmar Goltz, Prussian military writer, was born.

10/8/1843, Thursday (-37,161) Jakob Fries, German philosophical writer, died (23/8/1773).

==================================================================================

7/1843, SS Great Britain launched.

25/7/1843, Tuesday (-37,177) Charles MacIntosh, the chemist who patented waterproof fabric in 1823, died in Glasgow.

24/7/1843, Monday (-37,178) Sir William Abney, English chemist, was born in Derby (died in Folkestone 3/12/1920).

19/7/1843, Wednesday (-37,183) Brunel’s ship Great Britain, the first all-metal liner, was launched from London’s Wapping Dock, by Prince Albert. At 98 metres long, she was the world’s largest ship.

9/7/1843, Sunday (-37,193) Washington Allston, US artist, died in Cambridge, Massachusetts (born 5/11/1779 in Waccamaw, South Carolina).

5/7/1843, Wednesday (-37,197) Mandell Creighton, English historical writer, was born (died 14/1/1901).

2/7/1843, Sunday (-37,200) The originator of homeopathic medicine, Samuel Hanneman, died in Paris aged 88. He believed that diseases could be cured by drugs producing similar symptoms, only in much smaller doses than normal; the ‘law of similar  (born 10/4/1755).

==================================================================================

6/1843, Grieg, composer, was born, Royal College of Surgeons formed.

23/6/1843, Friday (-37,209) Paul Groth, German mineralogical writer, was born.

21/6/1843, Wednesday (-37,211) The Royal College of Surgeons was formed from the original Barber –Surgeon Company.

19/6/1843, Monday (-37,213) Karl Marx married Jenny von Westphalen, daughter of a Prussian aristocrat.

16/6/1843, Friday (-37,216) (Britain) William Cathcart, English soldier, died (born 17/9/1755).

15/6/1843, Thursday (-37,217) Edward Grieg, Norwegian composer, was born in Bergen.  He was of Scottish descent.

7/6/1843, Wednesday (-37,225) Johann Holderlin, German poet, died (born 20/3/1770).

3/6/1843, Saturday (-37,229) Frederick VIII, King of Denmark, was born.

1/6/1843, Thursday (-37,231) Karl Grolman, Prussian soldier, died (born 30/7/1777).

==================================================================================

5/1843, Webster, US lexicographer, died.

28/5/1843, Sunday (-37,235) Noah Webster, American lexicographer who first compiled Webster’s Dictionary in 1828, died in New Haven, Connecticut aged 84.

6/5/1843, Saturday (-37,257) Grove Gilbert, US geologist, was born.

=================================================================================

4/1843,

25/4/1843, Tuesday (-37,268) (Britain) Mary Alice Maud, 3rd child of Queen Victoria, was born in Buckingham Palace (died 14/12/1878).

16/4/1843, Sunday (-37,277) Easter Sunday

15/4/1843, Saturday (-37,278) Henry James, US author, was born.

6/4/1843, Thursday (-37,287) William Wordsworth was appointed poet laureate, the day before his 73rd birthday.

1/4/1843, Saturday (-37,292) (USA) John Armstrong, US soldier and politician (born 25/11/1758 in Carlisle, Pennsylvania) died in Red Hook, New York.

==================================================================================

3/1843, First tunnel under Thames, London, completed.

29/3/1843, Wednesday (-27,295) Paul Ferrier, French dramatist, was born

25/3/1843, Saturday (-37,299) The first tunnel under the Thames, the 1300 foot Wapping Tunnel, linking Wapping and Rotherhithe, opened. Work had begun on 2/3/1825.

16/3/1843, Thursday (-37,308) Anton Falck, Dutch statesman, died (born 19/3/1777).

===================================================================================

2/1843, Britain conquered Sind Province, India.

17/2/1843, Friday (-37,335) The Muslim Emirs of Sind refused to cede their independence to the East India Company. The British provoked an Anglo-Sind conflict, so that Charles Napier could destroy the 30,000 strong Baluch Army. In March 1843 Napier defeated the Emirs of Sind, and sent a one-word telegram to London “Peccavi”, meaning “I have sinned”.

13/2/1843, Monday (-37,339) Isaac Hull, US Commodore, died (born 9/3/1775).

===================================================================================

1/1843,

29/1/1843, Sunday (-37,354) William McKinley, Republican and 25th President, was born in Niles, Ohio, son of an iron manufacturer.

23/1/1843, Monday (-37,360) Friedrich Fouque, German writer, died (born 12/2/1777).

22/1/1843, Sunday (-37,361) Friedrich Blass, German scholarly writer, was born in Osnabruck (died in Halle 5/3/1907).

20/1/1843, Friday (-37,363) (France) Pierre Cambon, French diplomat, was born.

14/1/1843, Saturday (-37,369) Hans Forssell, Swedish historical writer, was born (died 2/8/1901).

11/1/1843, Wednesday (-37,372) Francis Scott Key, the American lawyer and poet who wrote the words of the US national anthem The Star Spangled Banner in 1814, died.

====================================================================================

12/1842,

22/12/1842, Thursday (-37,392) (Britain) Richard Everard Webster Alverstone, Lord Chief Justice of England from 1900, was born.

12/12/1842, Monday (-37,402) Robert Haldane, Scottish religious writer, died (born 28/2/1764).

10/12/1842, Saturday (-37,404) Rowland Hill, British General, died (born 11/8/1772).

8/12/1842, Thursday (-37,406) Gregor Csiky, Hungarian dramatist, was born (died 19/11/1891).

7/12/1842, Wednesday (-37,407) Thomas Hamilton, Scottish writer, died (born 1789).

======================================================================================

11/1842, University of Santiago, Chile, founded.

26/11/1842, Saturday (-37,418) Alexandre Beljame, French writer, was born in Villiers (died in Domont 19/9/1906).

22/11/1842, Tuesday (-37,422) Jose Heredia, French poet, was born (died 3/10/1905).

19/11/1842, Saturday (-37,425) (Education-University) The University of Santiago, Chile, was founded. An earlier University of Chile had been founded in 1738 by the King of Spain.

12/11/1842, Saturday (-37,432) Physicist and Nobel Prize winner Lord Rayleigh was born at Witham, Essex.

9/11/1842, Wednesday (-37,435) Marie Gerando, French philosophical writer, died (born 29/2/1772).

6/11/1842, Sunday (-37,438) Felice Cavallotti, Italian politician, was born (died 6/3/1898).

4/11/1842, Friday (-37,440) Abraham Lincoln married Mary Todd, member of a slave-owning family in Kentucky.

11/1842, University of Santiago, Chile, founded.

======================================================================================

10/1842, First underwater telegraph cable.

30/10/1842, Sunday (-37,445) Allan Cunningham, Scottish poet, died (born 7/12/1784).

28/10/1842, Friday (-37,447) Anna Dickinson, US writer, was born.

27/10/1842, Thursday (-37,448) Giovanni Giolitti, Italian statesman, was born.

25/10/1842, Tuesday (-37,450)

23/10/1842, Sunday (-37,452) Heinrich Gesenius, German historical writer, died (born 3/2/1786).

22/10/1842, Saturday (-37,453) Anne Louise Cary, US singer, was born.

21/10/1842, Friday (-37,454) The US returned Monterrey to Mexico, Commodore Jones having concluded that the threat to the Californias was untrue.

20/10/1842, Thursday (-37,455) Grace Darling died today, aged 27. The daughter of a lighthouse keeper, four years earlier she had made a heroic rescue of the victims of a shipwreck.

19/10/1842, Wednesday (-37,456) Commodore Jones, in the frigate United States, along with Captain Stribling in the Cyane, arrived at Monterrey, Mexico. They demanded the surrender of Monterrey to the US; this was in response to events of 5/9/1842.

18/10/1842. Tuesday (-37,457) The first telegraph cable was laid by Samuel Morse. It ran from Governor’s Island to The Battery across New York Harbour, and lasted only 24 hours; 200 feet of it was wrecked when a ship weighed anchor.

6/10/1842, Thursday (-37,469) Gustave Fagniez, French economics writer, was born.

2/10/1842, Sunday (-37,473) William Channing, US religious writer, died (born 7/4/1780) 2/10/1842).

10/1842, First underwater telegraph cable.

=================================================================================

9/1842,

21/9/1842, Wednesday (-37,484) Abdul-Hamid II, Sultan of Turkey from 31/8/1876, was born (died 10/2/1918).

20/9/1842. Tuesday (-37,485) Sir James Dewar, Scottish physician and chemist, and inventor of the vacuum flask, was born at Kincardine on Forth, in Fife.

9/9/1842, Friday (-37,496) Elliott Coues, naturalist, was born (died 25/12/1899).

7/9/1842, Wednesday (-37,498) Commodore Jones set sail for Mexico.

5/9/1842, Monday (-37,500) Rear Admiral Thomas, British, set sail from Callao in the Dublin with secret orders. Commodore Jones of the US believed he was going to Panama to link up with troops from the West Indies to take possession of the Californias, as reported in the Boston media, 19/4/1842.

2/9/1842, Friday (-37,503) John Ireland, English cleric, died (born 8/9/1761).

1/9/1842, Thursday (-37,504) Alexandre Duval, French dramatist, died (born 6/4/1767).

===================================================================================

8/1842, Opium War ended; China humiliated. First British detective force. Mines Act curbed female, child, employment.

29/8/1842. Monday (-37,507) The Opium War (1839-1842) between Britain and China ended (see 26/1/1841) with the Treaty of Nanjing. China ceded Hong Kong Island in perpetuity to Britain and opened up five ports to foreign trade. There was further humiliation for the Chinese; they were to pay US$21million over the next 5 years for the opium they destroyed, which started the war. On 5/4/1843 Queen Victoria proclaimed Hong Kong a British Crown Colony. See 8/10/1843.

18/8/1842, Thursday (-37,518) (France) Louis Freycinet, French navigator, died (born 7/8/1779).

15/8/1842, Monday (-37,521) The first regular British detective force was formed as a division of the Metropolitan Police, later assuming the name C.I.D.

10/8/1842, Wednesday (-37,526) The Mines Act was passed in the UK forbidding women and children to work underground.

9/8/1842, Tuesday (-37,527) The USA and Britain settled a dispute over the US-Canada border in the Maine region.

6/8/1842, Saturday (-37,530) (Sport-Cricket) The first Kent County Cricket Club was formed.

==================================================================================

7/1842,

28/7/1842, Thursday (-37,539) Klemens Brentano, German poet and novelist, died (born 8/9/1778).

24/7/1842, Sunday (-37,543) John Cotman, English landscape painter, died (born 16/5/1782).

17/7/1842, Sunday (-27,550) William Courthorpe, English writer, was born.

15/7/1842, Friday (-27,552) (South Africa) The Dutch signed a treaty agreeing that Durban was under British rule.

====================================================================================

6/1842, France regulated its railway development. Queen Victoria made her first railway journey.

26/6/1842, Sunday (-37,571) (Denmark) Peter Brondsted, Danish archaeologist, died (born 17/11/1780).

13/6/1842, Monday (-37,584) Queen Victoria travelled by train for the first time, from Slough to Paddington, with Prince Albert.  She was accompanied by the railway engineer, Isambard Kingdom Brunel.

12/6/1842, Sunday (-37,585) (Education, Schools) Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School, died (born 13/6/1795 in West Cowes, Isle of Wight).

11/6/1842, Saturday (-37,586) France passed the Railway Law Act, stipulating that all French railways were to be under public ownership, with the State directing what lines were to be built and their operation. However lines could be leased to private operators.

===================================================================================

5/1842, Assassination attempt on Queen Victoria. First British public library opened.

30/5/1842, Monday (-37,598) An attempt was made on the life of Queen Victoria as she drove down Constitution Hill with Prince Albert. The would-be assassin was John Francis.

28/5/1842, Saturday (-37,600) Theodore Dodge, US military author, was born (died 26/10/1909).

27/5/1842, Friday (-37,601) The first public library was opened, in Frederick Street, Salford, Manchester.

23/5/1842, Monday (-37,605) Jose Espronceda, Spanish poet, died (born 25/3/1808).

14/5/1842, Saturday (-37,614) The Illustrated London News was first published.

8/5/1842, Sunday (-37,620) (France) Jules Dumont, French navigator, died (born 23/5/1790).

=====================================================================================

4/1842, British Chartists rejected by Parliament. Corn Act passed, linking UK corn imports to domestic prices.

29/4/1842, Friday (-37,629) In Britain the Corn Act was passed, setting up a sliding scale relating to the price of domestic corn at which foreign corn imports were allowed.

28/4/1842, Thursday (-37,630) (Medical) Sir Charles Bell, anatomist, died near Worcester (born in Edinburgh 11/1774)

21/4/1842, Thursday (-37,637) Charles Adams, US poet (died 8/3/1918) was born.

19/4/1842, Tuesday (-37,639) The New Orleans Advertiser asserted that Mexico had offered to cede the Californias to England in return for seven million dollars. See 5/9/1842.

14/4/1842, Thursday (-37,644) Jean Bouilly, French writer, died in Paris (born near Tours 24/1/1763)

12/4/1842 – 12/5/1842, The second convention of Chartists: their second petition was rejected by Parliament on 3/5/1842.

11/4/1842, Monday (-37,647) Edmond Audran, French composer, was born in Lyons (died in Paris 16/8/1901).

7/4/1842, Thursday (-37,651) (India) British forces defeated Akbar Khan at Jalabad.

4/1842, British Chartists rejected by Parliament. Corn Act passed, linking UK corn imports to domestic prices.

=====================================================================================

3/1842, First operation conducted using anaesthetic.

31/3/1842, Thursday (-37,658) (Military) Henry Shrapnel, English soldier and inventor of the shrapnel shell, died.

30/3/1842, Wednesday (-37,659) The first anaesthetic, ether, was used in an operation, in Jefferson, Georgia, USA. The surgeon was Dr Crawford Long. He removed a cyst from the neck of a Mr James Venables. The bill for the anaesthesia was US$ 2.25. Dr Long performed 9 successful operations with ether, including the amputation of a boy’s finger, but was accused of sorcery by the older citizens of Jefferson and threatened with lynching if he continued.

27/3/1842, Sunday (-37,662) Easter Sunday

15/3/1842, Tuesday (-37,674) Maria Cherubini, Italian composer, died (born 14/9/1760).

6/3/1842, Sunday (-37,683) Arnold Heeren, German historian, died (born 25/10/1760).

3/3/1842, Thursday (-37,686) (Britain) Frederick Burnaby, English soldier, was born (died at the Battle of Abu Klea, 17/1/1885).

3/1842, First operation conducted using anaesthetic.

=====================================================================================

2/1842, First adhesive postage stamp used in the USA

24/2/1842, Thursday (-37,693) Arrigo Boito, Italian poet, was born in Padua.

23/2/1842, Wednesday (-37,694) Marie Beyle, French writer, died in Paris (born in Grenoble 23/1/1783).

15/2/1842, Tuesday (-37,702) The first adhesive postage stamp was used in the USA by City Dispatch Post, a private company later acquired by the US Government for US$ 1,200. See 10/1/1840.

10/2/1842, Thursday (-37,707) Agnes Clerke, English astronomer, was born (died 20/1/1907).

9/2/1842, Wednesday (-37,708) Aurel Dessewffy, Hungarian politician, died (born 1808).

6/2/1842, Sunday (-37,711) Alfred Dodds, French General, was born.

4/2/1842, Friday (-37,713) Georg Brandes, Danish literary historian, was born in Copenhagen.

2/1842, First adhesive postage stamp used in the USA

=====================================================================================

1/1842, Afghans massacred British force.

22/1/1842, Saturday (-37,726) Lieutenant Governor Moody became the first Governor of the Falkland Islands.

12/1/1842, Wednesday (-37,736) Francois Coppee, French novelist and poet, was born (died 23/5/1908).

11/1/1842, Tuesday (-37,737) William James, US philosophical writer, was born (died 27/8/1910).

6/1/1842, Thursday (-37,742) A 16,500-strong Anglo-Indian force under Lord Auckland was massacred in Afghanistan whilst retreating from Kabul.

1/1/1842, Saturday (-37,747) Thomas Fosbroke, English historical writer, died (born 27/5/1770).

====================================================================================

12/1841,

20/12/1841, Monday (-37,759) (France) Ferdinand Buisson, French educationalist, was born.

15/12/1841, Wednesday (-37,764) Charles Dickens’ fourth and fifth books, The Old Curiosity Shop and Barnaby Rudge, were published in entirety.

8/12/1841, Wednesday (-37,771) Prince Albert Edward was created Prince of Wales; he later became King Edward VII.

1/12/1841, Wednesday (-37,778) George Birkbeck (born 1776), co-founder of University College London, died

======================================================================================

11/1841, Life jacket patented.

25/11/1841, Thursday (-37,784) Sir Francis Chantrey, English sculptor, died (born 7/4/1782) 25/11/1841).

20/11/1841, Saturday (-37,789) Sir Wilfird Laurier, Canada’s first French-speaking Prime Minister, was born.

16/11/1841, Tuesday (-37,793) Napoleon Guerin, of New York, patented the first life-jacket; it was filled with cork.

14/11/1841, Sunday (-37,795) Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, died (born 20/7/1766).

9/11/1841, Tuesday (-37,800) King Edward VII, second child and oldest son of Queen Victoria, was born at St James Palace, London.

6/11/1841, Saturday (-37,803) (USA) Nelson Aldrich, US politician, was born in Foster, Rhode Island.

4/11/1841, Thursday (-37,805) The first emigrant train for California reached Stanislaus River, having left Independence, Missouri on 1/5/1841.

3/11/1841, Wednesday (-37,806) Isabella Alden, US author, was born (died 1930).

====================================================================================

10/1841,

30/10/1841, Saturday (-37,810) Fire at the Tower of London

4/10/1841, Monday (-37,836) John Enneking, US landscape painter, was born.

1/10/1841, Friday (-37,839) Carl Credner, German geologist, was born.

====================================================================================

9/1841, London-Brighton commuter train. Stapler patented. Dvorak, composer, was born.

30/9/1841, Thursday (-37,840) The stapler was patented by Samuel Slocum.

28/9/1841, Tuesday (-37,842) Georges Clemenceau, French Prime Minister 1917-20, was born.

24/9/1841, Friday (-37,846) Sir James Brooke was appointed Rajah of Sarawak.

19/9/1841. Sunday (-37,851) The first railway to cross a frontier was opened between Strasbourg and Basle.

16/9/1841, Thursday (-37,854) Thomas Dibdin, English dramatist, died (born 21/3/1771).

11/9/1841, Saturday (-37,859) The railway commuter age began when the London to Brighton commuter express train began a regular service, taking 105 minutes.

9/9/1841, Thursday (-37,861) Augustin Candolle, Swiss botanist (born 4/2/1778) died.

8/9/1841, Wednesday (-37,862) Anton Dvorak, Czech composer, was born near Prague.

1/9/1841, Wednesday (-37,869)

====================================================================================

8/1841, First women awarded degrees in USA. London’s Fenchurch Street station opened. Robert Peel UK PM.

28/8/1841, Saturday (-37,873) The Conservative leader Sir Robert Peel succeeded the Whig, Lord William Melbourne, as Prime Minister. Under Peel’s second term in office, he intended to reduce import duties to promote free trade.

27/8/1841, Friday (-37,874) Sir Richard Jebb, English scholarly writer, was born (died 9/12/1905).

26/8/1841, Thursday (-37,875)

25/8/1841, Wednesday (-37,876) Three women from Oberlin Collegiate Institute, Ohio, became the first women in the USA to be awarded degrees.

24/8/1841, Tuesday (-37,877) Theofore Hook, English author, died (born 22/9/1788).

18/8/1841, Wednesday (-37,883) Robert Buchanan, British novelist, was born (died 10/6/1901).

14/8/1841, Saturday (-37,887) Johann Herbart, philosophical writer, died (born 4/5/1776).

2/8/1841, Monday (-37,899) Fenchurch Street Station, London, opened, when the London and Blackwall Railway was extended westwards from the Minories.

====================================================================================

7/1841, First Thomas Cook rail tour. Europe guaranteed Turkish sovereignty and curbed Russian expansion.

17/7/1841, Saturday (-37,915) The first issue of the satirical magazine Punch was published in London.

13/7/1841, Tuesday (-37,919) (Turkey, Russia) The Straits Convention, signed by the five great European powers, guaranteed Ottoman sovereignty and closed the Bosporus and Dardanelles to all foreign warships. This was directed at preventing Russian expansion.

5/7/1841, Monday (-37,927) Thomas Cook, born 22/11/1808 in Derbyshire, introduced the first Cook’s Tour when 570 teetotallers took the train from Leicester to Loughborough to attend a temperance meeting, using cheap tickets, which he negotiated with the train company. See 1/5/1938.

4/7/1841, Sunday (-37,928) Sir Pierre Cavagnari, British military administrator, was born (died 3/9/1879).

1/7/1841, Thursday (-37,931) Kingston on Thames was the second largest town in Surrey, with 8,147 people.

7/1841, First Thomas Cook rail tour. Europe guaranteed Turkish sovereignty and curbed Russian expansion.

===================================================================================

6/1841, First Canadian Parliament opened in Ottawa.

23/6/1841, Wednesday (-37,939) Etienne Garnier-Pages, French politician, died (born 27/12/1801).

13/6/1841, Sunday (-37,949) The first Canadian Parliament opened, at Ottawa.

8/6/1841, Tuesday (-27,954) (Britain) John Elias, Welsh nonconformist preacher and reformer, died (born 2/5/1774).

1/6/1841, Tuesday (-37,961) Mehemet Ali became hereditary Viceroy of Egypt.

====================================================================================

5/1841,

23/5/1841, Sunday (-37,770) (Germany) Franz Baader, German philosopher, died (born 17/3/1756 in Munich)

14/5/1841, Friday (-37,779) Sir Squire Bancroft, actor, was born near London.

7/5/1841, Friday (-37,786) (Newspapers) Thomas Barnes, English journalist, died.

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4/1841,

11/4/1841, Sunday (-38,012) Easter Sunday

10/4/1841, Saturday (-38,013) The New York Tribune was first published.

4/4/1841, Sunday (-38,019) (USA) William Harrison, 9th American President, died after only 31 days in office due to catching pneumonia during his inauguration. His term of office was completed by Vice President John Tyler.

====================================================================================

3/1841, Rebel slaves ruled free by US Court. Edgar Allen Poe introduced the detective story.

23/3/1841, Tuesday (-38,031) Sir Clement Foster, English geologist, was born (died 19/4/1904).

21/3/1841, Sunday (-38,033) Mathilde Blind, English author, was born in Mannheim (died 26/11/1896).

20/3/1841, Saturday (-38,034) Edgar Allen Poe published a new literary genre, the detective story. The Murders in the Rue Morgue challenged readers to deduce who the villain was before the final page.

16/3/1841, Tuesday (-38,038)

9/3/1841, Tuesday (-38,045) (Racial Equality) The rebel slaves who seized their Spanish ship, the Amistad, on route between 2 Cuban ports in 1840, killed the captain and most of the 52-strong crew, and sailed it to Connecticut were freed by the US Supreme Court this day. The Spanish authorities had demanded the slaves be extradited to Spain. The slaves then planned to raise money to return to Africa.

8/3/1841, Monday (-38,046) (USA) Oliver Wendell Jr, US Supreme Court Justice, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

6/3/1841, Saturday (-38,048) (Light) Marie Cornu, French physicist, was born (died 11/4/1902).

3/1841, Rebel slaves ruled free by US Court. Edgar Allen Poe introduced the detective story.

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2/1841, Renoir, painter, was born.

26/2/1841, Friday (-38,056) (Britain) Evelyn Baring, British statesman, was born.

25/2/1841, Thursday (-38,057) Pierre Auguste Renoir, French impressionist painter, was born in Limoges, the son of a tailor.

24/2/1841, Wednesday (-38,058) (Chemistry) Karl James Peter Graebe was born in Frankfurt am Main. He discovered the structure of the alizarin molecule in 1868, a natural dye. This meant it could now be synthesised from coal tar, which was done in 1869.

20/2/1841, Saturday (-38,062)

15/2/1841, Monday (-38,067) Sir Edward Clarke, British politician, was born.

14/2/1841, Sunday (-38,068) (Arts) Sunday Jean Acard, French poet, was born in Toulon.

13/2/1841, Saturday (-38,069) The Ottoman Sultan issued a decree confirming Mehemet Ali as ruler of Egypt, also Nubia and Darfur.

12/2/1841, Friday (-38,070) Sir Astley Cooper, English surgeon, died in London (born 23/8/1768 in Norfolk).

2/2/1841, Tuesday (-38,080) Olinthus Gregory, English mathematics writer, died (born 29/1/1774).

2/1841, Renoir, painter, was born.

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1/1841, Hong Kong became British territory. Stanley, explorer of Africa, was born.

30/1/1841, Saturday (-38,083) Francois Faure, President of France, was born (died 16/2/1899).

28/1/1841, Thursday (-38,085) Henry Stanley, British explorer and journalist, was born at Denbigh, north Wales, as John Rowlands.

26/1/1841. Tuesday (-38,087) Hong Kong was proclaimed British territory. It was occupied by British troops as the Opium War with China continued. It was ceded by China on 20/1/1841, in what the Chinese termed the ‘Unequal Treaties’.  The much larger area known as the ‘New Territories’ was leased from China until 1997.  This area contained Hong Kong’s water supplies and the whole territory was returned to China then. See 5/7/1840, and 29/8/1842.

25/1/1841, Monday (-38,088) John Fisher, British Admiral, was born.

23/1/1841, Saturday (-38,090) Benoit Coquelin, French actor, was born (died 8/2/1909).

20/1/1841, Wednesday (-38,093) Hong Kong was ceded to Britain by China, see 26/1/1841.

18/1/1841, Monday (-38,095) French composer Alexis Chabrier was born (died 13/9/1894).

15/1/1841, Friday (-38,098) (USA) Charles Briggs, US scholar, was born.

13/1/1841, Wednesday (-38,100) (France) Bertrand Barere, French politician, died (born in Tarbes 10/9/1755).

12/1/1841, Tuesday (-38,101) Edward Henry, US painter, was born.

2/1/1841, Saturday (-38,111) (Britain) Sir Philip Broke, British Rear-Admiral, died (born 9/9/1776).

1/1841, Hong Kong became British territory. Stanley, explorer of Africa, was born.

===================================================================================

12/1840,

28/12/1840, Monday (-38,116) Thomas Hovenden, US artist, was born (died 14/8/1895)

23/12/1840, Wednesday (-38,121) Robert Gifford, US painter, was born (died 13/1/1905).

17/12/1840, Thursday (-38,127) Hermann Goetz, German composer, was born (died 4/12/1876).

15/12/1840, Tuesday (-38,129) Napoleon’s body was interred in Les Invalides, Paris.

13/12/1840, Sunday (-38,131) (Medical) Jean Esquirol, French psychiatrist, died (born 3/2/1772).. In 1817 he began a series of lectures on the treatment of the insane in French asylums, exposing such mistreatment  that the Government appointed a commission to investigate.

3/12/1840, Thursday (-38,141) Jules Claretie, French writer, was born.

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11/1840, Egypt agreed peace terms with Turkey.

27/11/1840, Friday (-38,147) (Turkey, Egypt) Under the Convention of Alexandria, drawn up by Napier, Mohammed Ali of Egypt agreed to return the Ottoman fleet and renounce claims over Syria, in return for hereditary rule over Egypt.

23/11/1840, Monday (-38,151) Louis Bonald, French politician, died (born near Millau 2/10/1754)).

14/11/1840, Saturday (-38,160) Claude Monet, French Impressionist painter, was born in Paris.

12/11/1840, Thursday (-38,162) Auguste Rodin, French sculptor, was born in Paris.

3/11/1840, Tuesday (-38,171) Acre was taken by British forces.

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10/1840, European powers supported Turkey against Egypt.

22/10/1840, Thursday (-38,183) Henry Holland, British statesman, died (born 21/11/1773).

10/10/1840, Saturday (-38,195) (Turkey, Egypt) Beirut fell to British forces. The French decided not to support Mehmet Ali of Egypt.

8/10/1840, Thursday (-38,197) John Camden, English politician, born 1759, died.

6/10/1840, Tuesday (-38,199) France, Britain, and Russia entered the war between Turkey and Egypt on Turkey’s side. They occupy the Syria-Palestine coastland to cut off the Egyptian Pasha from the route to Anatolia. On 4/11/1840 the British fleet bombarded the ports of Beirut and Acre.

===================================================================================

9/1840, Nelson’s Column, London; foundation laid.

30/9/1840, Wednesday (-38,205) The foundation stone of Nelson’s Column was laid in London.

23/9/1840, Wednesday (-38,212) (Christian) Nathanael Emmons, US clergyman, died (born 20/4/1745)

20/9/1840, Sunday (-28,215) Jose Francia, dictator of Paraguay from 1814, died.

9/9/1840, Wednesday (-38,226) (Turkey, Egypt) British gunboats bombarded Beirut and landed troops there.

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8/1840, Child chimney sweeping forbidden in Britain.

25/8/1840, Tuesday (-28,241) Karl Immerman, German dramatist, died (born 24/4/1796).

17/8/1840, Monday (-38,249) Wilfrid Blunt, English poet, was born in Sussex.

16/8/1840, Sunday (-38,250) Timothy Flint, US writer, died (born 17/7/1780).

14/8/1840, Friday (-38,252)

7/8/1840, Friday (-38,259) The UK Parliament passed an Act forbidding the employment of children as chimney sweeps. In 1840 only 1 in 5 of London children had any type of schooling, and most of the rest were working up to 80 hours a week. Chimney sweeping was very unhealthy; sometimes the boys got stuck, their knees and elbows got raw and infected and later they got cancer from the soot. Lord Shaftesbury campaigned against Victorian child labour and got the Climbing-Boy Bill passed as law in 1840. It decreed that no apprentice could be under 16. However this was not enforced until the Shaftesbury Act of 1875.

6/8/1840, Thursday (-38,260) (USA) Adolph Bandelier, US archaeologist, was born in Bern, Switzerland.

===================================================================================

7/1840, Cunard shipping line began. Opium War in China. Egypt-Turkey war

30/7/1840, Thursday (-38,267) Joseph Jacotot, French educationalist author, died (born 4/3/1770)

28/7/1840, Tuesday (-38,269) (Geology) Edward Cope, US palaeontologist, was born (died 12/4/1897).

23/7/1840, Thursday (-38,274) London announced that Canada was to be a self-governing union.

15/7/1840, Wednesday (-38,282) (Turkey, Egypt) The Treaty of London. Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia agreed to form a military alliance against Egypt, which was being pressured to give up the Ottoman fleet it held, and abandon claims on northern Syria, Medina, Mecca and Crete.

7/7/1840, Tuesday (-38,290) Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia died aged 69. He was succeeded by his 44-year-old son, Friedrich Wilhelm IV.

5/7/1840, Sunday (-38,292) In the Opium War (see 4/9/1839), British naval forces bombarded Dinghai on Zhousan Island and then occupied it. See 26/1/1841. This war was not just about opium but the right to force China to open its ports to British trade.

4/7/1840, Saturday (-38,293) The Cunard Line began operations, with services to Halifax and Boston; services to New York began in 1848.  Cunard’s reputation for safety and reliability helped it survive against strong competition, despite early complaints about Cunard’s food. Eventually the airlines were to take business from the ocean liners.

7/1840, Cunard shipping line began. Opium War in China. Egypt-Turkey war.

====================================================================================

6/1840, Failed assassination attempt on Queen Victoria.

27/6/1840, Saturday (-38,300) Ingram Bywater, English scholarly writer, was born.

22/6/1840, Monday (-38,305) Henry Brunner, German historical writer, was born.

19/6/1840, Friday (-38,408) (Railways) John Cockerill, Russian railway constructor, died.

12/6/1840, Friday (-38,315) Gerald Griffin, Irish novelist, died (born 12/12/1803).

10/6/1840, Wednesday (-38,317) Edward Oxford, a servant in a pub, fire two shots at Queen Victoria and Prince Albert as they drove up Constitution Hill in an open carriage. Both shots missed. Oxford was sent to a mental hospital, then exiled.

8/6/1840, Monday (-38,319) Jean Bouchotte, French politician, died (born in Metz 25/12/1754).

2/6/1840, Tuesday (-38,325) Thomas Hardy, novelist, was born in Higher Bockhampton, Dorset, the son of a stonemason.

====================================================================================

5/1840, First adhesive postage stamps in UK. Tchaikovsky, composer, was born.

30/5/1840, Saturday (-38,328) Mary Cork, daughter of 1st Viscount Galway, died (born 21/5/1746).

21/5/1840, Thursday (-38,337) Captain William Hobson proclaimed New Zealand to be a British Colony.

20/5/1840. Wednesday (-38,338) York Minster was badly damaged by fire.

16/5/1840, Saturday (-38,342) (Geology) Andre Brochant de Villiers, French geologist, died (born 6.8/1772).

13/5/1840, Wednesday (-38,345) Alphonse Daudet, French novelist, born

11/5/1840, Monday (-38,347) Thomas Cooper, US writer, died (born 22/10/1759).

10/5/1840, Sunday (-38,348) The Mormon leader Joseph Smith moved his followers to Illinois to escape hostility in Missouri.

8/5/1840, Friday (-38,350)

7/5/1840, Thursday (-38,351) Peter Illyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer, was born in Votkinsk, the son of s government mines inspector.

6/5/1840, Wednesday (-38,352) The first adhesive postage stamps were used in the UK. These were the Penny Black and the Two penny Blue. The first Penny Black stamp from the first sheet was stuck on a letter to George Waterman of Thame, Oxfordshire. The idea was developed by Rowland Hill.

5/1840, First adhesive postage stamps in UK. Tchaikovsky, composer, was born.

===================================================================================

4/1840,

27/4/1840, Monday (-38,361) Edward Whymper, mountaineer and the first person to climb the Matterhorn, was born in London.

19/4/1840, Sunday (-38,369) Easter Sunday

15/4/1840, Wednesday (-38,373) (Cartography) Thomas Drummond, who assisted in the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, died.

5/4/1840, Sunday (-38,383) (Christian) Lant Carpenter, English Unitarian Minister, died (born 2/9/1780)

===================================================================================

3/1840, Beau Brummel, dandy, died.

30/3/1840, Monday (-38,389) Beau Brummel, Regency Dandy, died at Caen in a pauper’s lunatic asylum. He had fled Britain to escape gambling debts.

28/3/1840, Saturday (-38,391) Eduard Schnitzer (Emin Pasha), German explorer of Africa, was born (died 10/1892).

19/3/1840, Thursday (-38,400) Thomas Daniell, English landscape painter, died (born 1749).

17/3/1840, Tuesday (-38,402) Henri Didon, French religious writer, was born (died 13/3/1900).

9/3/1840, Monday (-38,410) George Gleig, Scottish religious writer, died (born 12/5/1753).

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2/1840, Treaty siged with Maori, New Zealand. Queen Victoria married Albert. Britain attacked China.

28/2/1840, Friday (-38,420) John Philip Holland, American inventor who pioneered the modern submarine, was born in County Clare, Ireland.

27/2/1840, Thursday (-38,421) Isaac Chauncey, US naval commander, died (born 20/2/1772).

22/2/1840, Saturday (-38,426) (Germany) Ferdinand Bebel, German Socialist, was born in Cologne.

20/2/1840, Thursday (-38,428) In the UK, Palmerston ordered the British Navy to attack China in order to prevent the suppression of the opium trade.

10/2/1840. Monday (-38,438) Marriage of Queen Victoria, born 24/5/1819, to her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, born 26/8/1819 at Rosenau, near Coburg, Germany. They were married in the Chapel Royal at St James Palace.

9/2/1840, Sunday (-38,439) William Sampson, US naval commander, was born (died 6/5/1902).

8/2/1840, Saturday (-38,440)

7/2/1840, Friday (-38,441) An Act was passed reuniting the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, 50 years after they were divided by Britain.

6/2/1840. Thursday (-38,442) Captain Hobson signed the Treaty of Waitangi with Maori chiefs in New Zealand. The Maoris were guaranteed possession of their lands but if they wished to sell them must first offer them to the British government. Britain was concerned at French plans to send settlers to New Zealand, and at mistreatment of the Maoris by land speculators and escaped convicts from Australia.

5/2/1840, Wednesday (-38,443) (1) John Boyd Dunlop, vet and patenter of the pneumatic bicycle tyre, was born at Dreghorn, Ayrshire.

(2) Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, American inventor of the first fully automatic machine gun, was born in Sangersville, Maine.

4/2/1840, Tuesday (-38,444) Antoine Boulay, French politician, died in Paris (born in Vosges 19/2/1761).

2/1840, Treaty siged with Maori, New Zealand. Queen Victoria married Albert. Britain attacked China.

===================================================================================

1/1840, Penny Postage began in Britain. Antarctic coast explored. China halted trade with Britain.

30/1/1840, Thursday (-38,449) The Emperor of China forbade all trade with Britain.

23/1/1840, Thursday (-38,456) Ernst Abbe, German physicist, was born in Jena (died 1905).

22/1/1840, Wednesday (-38,457) (Biology) Anthropologist Johann Blumenbach died in Gottingen, Saxony, Germany.

21/1/1840, Tuesday (-38,458) Sophia Jex-Blake, champion of women’s rights, was born.

20/1/1840, Monday (-38,459) Dutch King Willem II was crowned

19/1/1840. Sunday (-38,460) The American explorer Charles Wilkes discovered the coast of Antarctica.

18/1/1840, Saturday (-38,461) Henry Dobson, English poet, was born.

14/1/1840, Tuesday (-38,465) Karl Follen, German poet, died (born 5/9/1795).

10/1/1840. Friday (-38,469) Penny Postage began, introduced by Sir Rowland Hill. In London, 112,000 letters were posted on the first day. The Penny Postage Act was passed on 17/8/1839. Before this day the recipient of the post paid for it. See also 15/2/1842. Also on 10/1/1840 the first correspondence course was offered, by Isaac Pitman, teaching shorthand.

6/1.1840, Monday (-38,473) Frances D’Arblay, English novelist, died (born 13/6/1752).

3/1/1840, Friday (-38,476) (Christian) Joseph de Veuster, missionary to Hawaii, was born (died 15/4/1889).

1/1840, Penny Postage began in Britain. Antarctic coast explored. China halted trade with Britain.

====================================================================================

12/1839,

30/12/1839, Monday (-38,480) William Hilton, English painter, died (born 3/6/1786).

15/12/1839, Sunday (-38,495) Ignaz Fessler, Hungarian writer, died (born 18/5/1756).

6/12/1839, Friday (-38,504) Charles Elton, English historical writer, was born (died 23/4/1900).

5/12/1839, Thursday (-38,505) Birth of George Armstrong Custer, US cavalry commander, famous for ‘Custer’s Last Stand’ against the Cheyenne and Sioux Indians

4/12/1839, Wednesday (-38,506) Samuel Butler, English scholarly writer, died (born 30/1/1774).

3/12/1839, Tuesday (-38,507) Frederick VI of Denmark died, aged 71. He was succeeded by his nephew, Christian VIII, aged 53.

=====================================================================================

11/1839, Chartist riot in south Wales. Britain prepared army against China, Opium Wars.

29/11/1839, Friday (-38,511) Ludwig Anzengruber, Austrian dramatist, was born in Vienna (died in Vienna 10/12/1889).

16/11/1839, Saturday (-38,524) Louis Frechette, French Canadian poet, was born (died 1/6/1908).

4/11/1839, Monday (-38,536) A Chartist riot broke out at Newport, south Wales. The crowd was fired on by constables and 20 people were killed. John Frost, the Chartist leader, was sentenced to transportation.

3/11/1839, Sunday (-38,537) Britain began to assemble an expeditionary military force as relations with China deteriorated over the opium trade issue.

=====================================================================================

10/1839, First railway in Italy. Bradshaws Guide published. Qunee Victoria betrothed to Albert. Spain removed all independence from Basque Provinces.

25/10/1839. Friday (-38,546) (1) Spain passed a law removing all independence from the Basque provinces. This law was applied to Navarre in 1841, and to Alava, Guipuzcoa, and Vizcaya in 1876, and converted these into provinces of Spain.

(2) Bradshaw’s Railway Companion became the first national railway timetable published.

23/10/1839, Wednesday (-38,548) Charles Dickens’ third book, The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, was published in entirety.

15/10/1839. Tuesday (-38,556) Queen Victoria and Prince Albert became betrothed. She proposed to him, as recorded in her diary, ‘it was a nervous thing to do, but Albert could not propose to the Queen of England. He would never presume to take such a liberty’.

10/10/1839, Thursday (-38,561) Louis Fontan, French writer, died (born 4/11/1801).

4/10/1839, Friday (-38,567) The first railway opened in Italy: Naples to Portici.

3/10/1839, Thursday (-38,568) Beirut fell to the French, and Ibrahim, surrounded by a hostile population and cut off by sea, retreated hurriedly.

10/1839, First railway in Italy. Bradshaws Guide published. Qunee Victoria betrothed to Albert. Spain removed all independence from Basque Provinces.

=====================================================================================

9/1839, British began Opium War in China. George Cadbury (chocolate) was born in Birmingham.

24/9/1839, Tuesday (-38,577) The first passenger railway opened in The Netherlands, from Amsterdam to Haarlem.

20/9/1839, Friday (-38,581) Sir Thomas Hardy, British Vice-Admiral, died (born 5/4/1769).

19/9/1839. Thursday (-38,582) George Cadbury was born in Birmingham. He expanded his father’s chocolate business and established a model village for his workers at Bourneville, Birmingham. The Cadbury chocolate manufacturing family owed a debt to the collector Sir Hans Sloane, who died on 11/1/1753. See this date.

4/9/1839. Wednesday (-38,597) The British fired the first shots on the Chinese in the Opium War, see 24/3/1839. On 3/11/1839 British and Chinese forces clashed near the Bogue Forts at the mouth of the Pearl River. The formal declaration of the Opium War was in June 1840. see 5/7/1840.

2/9/1839, Monday (-38,599) Henry George, US economics writer, was born (died 29/10/1897).

1/9/1839, Sunday (-38,600) Izidor Guzmics, Hungarian religious writer, died (born 7/4/1786).

9/1839, British began Opium War in China. George Cadbury (chocolate) was born in Birmingham.

==================================================================================

8/1839, Birth of photography

31/8/1839, Saturday (-38,601) George Denison, Canadian military writer, was born.

25/8/1839, Sunday (-38,607) Francis Harte, US author, was born (died 5/5/1902).

23/8/1839, Friday (-38,609) James Geike, Scottish geological writer, was born.

20/8/1839, Tuesday (-38,612) In Paris, LJM Daguerre demonstrated a way of capturing images on a metallic plate; the birth of photography.

13/8/1839, Tuesday (-38,619) Michael Corrigan, Archbishop of New York, was born.

12/8/1839, Monday (-38,620) The railway from Belfast to Lisburn opened; extended to Armagh, 1/3/1848.

11/8/1839, Sunday (-38,621) The French fleet appeared off Beirut, hostile to Ibrahim, and this encouraged a revolt by the Syrians against the tyranny of Ibrahim.  See 3/10/1839.

6/8/1839, Tuesday (-38,626) The General Strike (see 12/7/1839) was called off.

8/1839, Birth of photography

=====================================================================================

7/1839, Chartist riots in Birmingham.

25/7/1839, Thursday (-38,638) Marie Garnier, French explorer of south east Asia, was born (died 20/11/1873).

19/7/1839, Friday (-38,644) Georges Guerin, French poet, died (born 4/8/1810).

15/7/1839, Monday (-38,648) There had been 7 days of rioting around the Bull Ring, Birmingham, following rejection of the demands of the Chartist Movement (see 28/2/1837).

12/7/1839, (-38,651) Parliament declined to consider the Chartist demands. The General Convention of the Working Classes, established in London in February 1939, called for a General Strike.

9/7/1839, Tuesday (-38,654) William Lovett, Chartist leader, was arrested.

8/7/1839, Monday (-38,655) John D Rockefeller, American philanthropist, was born in Richford, New York State.

5/7/1839, Friday (-38,658) The London Bridge terminus of the London and Croydon railway opened.

2/7/1839, Tuesday (-38,661) (Turkey, Egypt) Mahmud II, Sultan of Turkey, died, aged 54. He had been poisoned, after his fleet surrendered to Egypt at Alexandria.  He was succeeded by his 16-year-old son, Adbul Mejid I.

7/1839, Chartist riots in Birmingham.

==================================================================================

6/1839, Ottoman-Egypt conflict. UK Chartist demands on Parliament.

26/6/1839, Wednesday (-38,667) (USA) Simon Brute, US prelate, died (born 20/3/1779).

24/6/1839. Monday (-38,669) (Turkey, Egypt) The Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II, launched another offensive against Mohammed Ali, the pasha of Egypt. However this day at the Battle of Nezib Egyptian forces under Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Ottomans. The battle took place near the present day Turkish-Syrian border.

14/6/1839. Friday (-38,679) (1) The Chartists presented a further petition to Parliament (see 28/2/1837).

(2) The first Henley regatta, on the Thames, took place. See 26/3/1839.

12/6/1839, Wednesday (-38,681) Wordsworth received an honorary doctorate from Oxford University.

6/1839, Ottoman-Egypt conflict. UK Chartist demands on Parliament.

====================================================================================

5/1839, Cunard Shipping founded.

30/5/1839, Thursday (-38,694) Hermann Adler, British chief rabbi, was born (died 18/7/1911).

21/5/1839, Tuesday (-38,703) Joseph Glatigny, French poet, was born (died 16/4/1873).

17/5/1839, Friday (-38,707) Archibald Alison, Scottish author, died in Colinton (born 13/11/1757 in Edinburgh).

13/5/1839, Monday (-38,711) (Christian) Joseph Fesch, Cardinal, died (born 3/1/1763)

5/5/1839, Sunday (-38,719) Eduard Gans, German jurist, died (born 22/3/1797).

4/5/1839. Saturday (-38,720) The Cunard shipping line was founded by the Canadian Sir Samuel Cunard. In 1934 it merged with the White Star Line.

5/1839, Cunard Shipping founded.

==================================================================================

4/1839, Independent Kingdom of Belgium. Guatemala independent  Revolt in Araia.

30/4/1797, Tuesday (-38,724)

22/4/1839, Monday (-38,732) Thomas Bayly, English writer, died (born in Bath 13/10/1797).

21/4/1839, Sunday (-38,733) A revolt against Mehemet Ali of Egypt began in Hauran, Arabia.  The Ottoman Army invaded Syria, only to be heavily defeated by Ibrahim at Nezib.

20/4/1839, Saturday (-38,734) Charles King of Romania was born.

19/4/1839, Friday (-38,735) The Treaty of London officially recognised the independent Kingdom of Belgium. Willem II of The Netherlands retained the eastern part of Luxembourg with himself as Duke.

17/4/1839, Wednesday (-38,737) The Republic of Guatemala was established.

11/4/1839, Thursday (-38,743) John Galt, Scottish novelist, died (born 2/5/1779).

9/4/1839, Tuesday (-38,745) Liberation of slaves in Jamaica was posing severe problems for the landowners, many of whom had treated their slaves brutally.

8/4/1839, Monday (-38,746) Pierre Prevost, Swiss philosopher, born 3/3/1751, died.

2/4/1839, Tuesday (-38,752) Toussaint Bernard Emeric David, art writer, died (born 20/8/1755).

4/1839, Independent Kingdom of Belgium. Guatemala independent  Revolt in Araia.

===================================================================================

3/1839, Chinese blockaded opium factories. Mussorgsky, Russian composer, was born. Henley Regatta started.

31/3/1839, Sunday (-38,754) Easter Sunday

27/3/1839, Wednesday (-38,758) (New Zealand) John Balance, New Zealand politician, was born (died 1893).

26/3/1839, Tuesday (-38,759) The annual Henley rowing regatta was inaugurated. The first regatta was held on 14/6/1839.

24/3/1839, Sunday (-38,761) The Chinese blockaded foreign owned opium factories. This was to force the factories to hand over their opium stocks for destruction. The Chinese destroyed 20,000 chests of opium belonging to British traders, worth US$ 12 million. Opium had been imported from India to China since the 17th century, but was now ruining the Chinese economy. European tea imports from China had been paid for in silver but the merchants forced them to accept opium instead. The British also refused to hand over sailors who killed a Chinese peasant in a drunken pub brawl. News of this reached London on 5/8/1839, and on 23/8/1839 the British assembled a fleet of warships off Hong Kong. See 4/9/1839.

21/3/1839, Thursday (-38,764) Modest Moussorgsky, Russian composer, was born in Karevo (now called Pskov).

10/3/1839, Sunday (-38,775) An imperial Chinese official named Lin Zexu arrived at Canton with orders from Emperor Daoguang to eradicate the opium trade.

1/3/1839, Friday (-38,784) Sussex County Cricket Club, the oldest, was founded.

3/1839, Chinese blockaded opium factories. Mussorgsky, Russian composer, was born. Henley Regatta started.

===================================================================================