Historical events from 1 January 1700 to 31 December 1799

Page last modified 25/8/2020


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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero  =Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm


For dates from 1/1/1800 click here


1/1/1800, Wednesday (-53,087) The Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland became operative. The new state was to be called the United Kingdom. The Church was to be one Protestant Episcopal Church.

1/1800, Britain-Ireland Union. First soup kitchens for poor in London. Banque de France founded. Children’s factory work in UK curbed.


12/1799, French 1st republic founded; new Constitution. George Washington, USA, died.

27/12/1799, Friday (-53,092) Calderon Estebanez, Spanish author, was born (died 5/2/1867).

24/12/1799, Tuesday (-53,095) In France, a public referendum led to the end of the French Revolution and the founding of the First Republic..

21/12/1799, Saturday (-53,098) George Finlay, British historical writer, was born (died 26/1/1875).

15/12/1799. Sunday (-53,104) France declared a new constitution.

14/12/1799. Saturday (-53,105) George Washington, 1st president of the USA from 1789 to 1797, died in Mount Vernon, on the south bank of the Potomac in Virginia, aged 67. See 30/4/1789.

6/12/1799, Friday (-53,113) Joseph Black, Scottish chemist, died in Edinburgh (born 1728 in Bordeaux).

12/1799, French 1st republic founded; new Constitution. George Washington, USA, died.



29/11/1799, Friday (-53,120) (Arts) Amos Bronson Alcott, US writer, was born in Wolcott, Connecticut (died 4/3/1888 in Boston).

9/11/1799, Saturday (-53,140) After a coup, Corsican General Napoleon Bonaparte was appointed Consul, with Sieyes and Ducis. He made his name at the defeat of the British fleet at the revolt of Toulon, 1793.


10/1799, Lutine bell recovered, presented to Lloyds.

11/10/1799, Friday (-53,169) Joseph Gillott, English pan maker, was born (died 5/1/1873).

9/10/1799, Wednesday (-53,171) Napoleon returned to France.

7/10/1799, Monday (-53,173) The bell was salvaged from the Lutine, which sank off the island of Vlieland, off the coast of Holland. It was presented to Lloyds of London. Known as the Lutine Bell, it has been rung ever since to mark a marine disaster.

6/10/1799, Sunday (-53,174) (Medical) Physician William Withering died in Birmingham, England.

4/10/1799, Friday (-53,176)

2/10/1799, Wednesday (-53,178) The Duke of York captured Alkmaar, in the Netherlands.

1/10/1799, Tuesday (-53,179) Rufus Choate, US lawyer, was born (died 13/7/1859).



28/9/1799, Saturday (-53,182) (Medical) Pierre Brasdor, French surgeon, died (born 1721).

25/9/1799, Wednesday (-53,185) Napoleon gained victory at Zurich.

18/9/1799, Wednesday (-53,192) Napoleon gained victory at Alkmaar, Holland.

2/9/1799, Monday (-53,208) Henry Boase, English geologist, was born in London (died5/5/1883).



29/8/1799, Thursday (-53,212) Pope Pius VI died.

23/8/1799, Friday (-53,218) Leaving the French Army under Kleber, Napoleon left to return to France.

20/8/1799, Tuesday (-53,221) Heinrich Gagern, German politician, was born (died 22/5/1880).

15/8/1799, Thursday (-53,226) Napoleon was defeated at Novi.

11/8/1799, Sunday (-53,230) (Geology) Joachim Barrande, Austrian geologist, was born in Saugues, Haute Loire (died in Frohsdorf 5/10/1883).

6/8/1799, Tuesday (-53,235) Mark Bloch, German  naturalist, died in Carlsbad.

5/8/1799, Monday (-53,236) Jean Colson, French actor, died (born 16/1/1725).

4/8/1799, Sunday (-53,237) John Bacon, sculptor, died in London (born 24/11/1740 in Southwark),


7/1799, Anti-Trades Union legislation in Britain. Rosetta Stone found. Napoleon defeated Turks at Aboukir.

25/7/1799, Thursday (-53,247) Napoleon gained victory over the Turks at Aboukir.

19/7/1799, Friday (-53,253) The Rosetta Stone was found near the town of Rosetta on the Nile, bearing Greek, Hieroglyphic, and Demotic (ancient Egyptian) scripts.

12/7/1799, Friday (-53,260) Britain passed the Combination Acts, outlawing any association of two or more people for the purpose of obtaining wage increases or better conditions at work. The Act was prompted by fears of revolution after France. However in 1802 Parliament banned child apprentices from working more than a 12 hour day. Many pauper children from London were being sent to textile factories in the north of England to work long hours. Sir Robert Peel, the Bill’s proposer, objected that this practice allowed exploitation of children, far from their parents.

1/7/1799, Monday (-53,271) Sir James Eyre, English Judge, died (born 1734).

7/1799, Anti-Trades Union legislation in Britain. Rosetta Stone found. Napoleon defeated Turks at Aboukir.


6/1799, Napoleon defeated the Russians.

30/6/1799, Sunday (-53,272) (Italy) Francesco Caracciolo, Neapolitan Admiral and revolutionary, died (born 18/1/1732).

19/6/1799, Wednesday (-53,283) Jan Dombrowski, Polish General, died (born 29/8/1755).

7/6/1799, Friday (-53,295) Battle of Zurich. Napoleon defeated a Russian army.

6/6/1799, Thursday (-53,296) Alexander Pushkin, Russian writer, was born (26/5/1799 Russian calendar).


5/1799, British victory in Mysore, India. Napoleon gave up attempoting to capture Acre.

27/5/1799, Monday (-53,306) George Doane, US religious writer, was born (died 27/4/1859).

23/5/1799, Thursday (-53,310) Thomas Hood, English writer, was born (died 3/5/1845).

20/5/1799, Monday (-53,313) Honore de Balzac born.

18/5/1799, Saturday (-53,315) Pierre Beaumarchais, French dramatist, died in Paris (born in Paris 24/1/1732).

10/5/1799, Friday (-53,323) Napoleon withdrew from attacking Acre after an 8th unsuccessful assault.

4/5/1799, Saturday (-53,329) The British conquered Seringapatam, capital of Mysore in southern India.



6/4/1799, Saturday (-53,357) Aleksander Bezborodko, Grand Chancellor of Russia, died in St Petersburg (born in Gluchova 14/3/1747).



29/3/1799, Friday (-53,365) Edward Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was born (died 23/10/1869).

24/3/1799, Sunday (-53,370) Easter Sunday

22/3/1799, Friday (-53,372) (Astronomy) Friedrich Argelander, German astronomer, was born in Memel (died 17/2/1875 in Bonn).

17/3/1799, Sunday (-53,377) Juan Forner, Spanish writer, died (born 23/2/1756).

8/3/1799, Friday (-53,386) (USA) Simon Cameron, US politician, was born (died 26/6/1889).



28/2/1799, Thursday (-53,394) Johann Dollinger, German religious writer, was born (died 14/1/1890).

20/2/1799, Wednesday (-55,402) Jean Borda, French mathematician, died in Paris (born in Dax 4/5/1733).

9/2/1799, Saturday (-53,413) The US navy clashed with French forces.


1/1799, Britain started Income Tax, to pay for the Napoleonic War. Jenner introduced the smallpox vaccination.

26/1/1799, Saturday (-53,427) (Christian) Samuel Gobat, Bishop of Jerusalem, was born (died 11/5/1879).

22/1/1799, Tuesday (-53,431) (Geology) Horace Benedict de Saussure, geologist, died in Geneva, Switzerland.

21/1/1799. Monday (-53,432) Edward Jenner introduced the smallpox vaccination. In the 18th century, smallpox took over from the bubonic plague as the major killer disease. Edward Jenner worked as a doctor in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. By observing local milkmaids, Jenner tested the generally held belief that cowpox sufferers were immune to smallpox. In 1796 he experimented by scraping pus from a cowpox sore on the arm of a milkmaid and inserting it into two cuts on the arm of a young boy. On 1/7/1796 he did the same with pus from a smallpox sore. The boy caught cowpox but not smallpox. After doing this to 23 other people, Jenner called this method ‘vaccination’, meaning ‘from a cow’. Jenner published his findings in 1798 and despite scepticism from doctors, vaccination became widely accepted. Even members of the Royal Family were vaccinated. Vaccination became free for all infants in 1840 and compulsory in Britain in 1853. In 1980 the World Health Organisation declared smallpox had been eradicated throughout the world.

9/1/1799. Wednesday (-53,444) Income tax introduced to Britain for the first time, by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, at 2 shillings in the pound for incomes over £200 per annum, and a reduced rate for incomes between £60 and £200. The tax was to pay for the Napoleonic War. In Florence in 1451 an income tax, the Catastrato, had been implemented but degenerated into a means of political blackmail and was repealed upon the overthrow of the Medicis in 1492. The income tax in Britain was repealed in 1802 after the Peace of Amiens, but reimposed in 1803, repealed in 1816, and reintroduced in 1842 in peacetime at 7d in the £. Since then the rate in the UK has varied between 2d in the £ in 1875 and 10s in the £ in 1941.

6/1/1799, Sunday (-53,447) Nicolas Geruzez, French writer, was born (died 29/5/1865)

1/1799, Britain started Income Tax, to pay for the Napoleonic War. Jenner introduced the smallpox vaccination.


12/1798, Coalition against France. Income Tax proposed in British Parliament.

29/12/1798, Saturday (-53,455) Formation of the Second Coalition against France; Britain, Austria, Russia, Naples and Portugal.

28/12/1798, Friday (-53,456) (Astronomy) Thomas Henderson was born in Dundee, Scotland. In 1839 he measured the parallax of Alpha-Centauri, making it the second star after the Sun whose distance is known.

13/12/1798, Thursday (-53,467) James Henry, Irish scholarly writer, was born (died 14/7/1876).

4/12/1798, Tuesday (-53,480) (1) Luigi Galvani, Italian scientist who researched animal electricity, died.

(2) Income tax was proposed to the UK Parliament by William Pitt the Younger. See 9/1/1799.

2/12/1798, Sunday (-53,482) Sir William Follett, English lawyer, was born (died 28/6/1845).

1/12/1798, Saturday (-53,483) (USA) Albert Barnes, US theologian, was born in Rome, New York State (died in Philadelphia 24/12/1870).

12/1798, Coalition against France. Income Tax proposed in British Parliament.


11/1798, Irish Nationalist Wolfe Tone died.

21/11/1798, Wednesday (-53,493) Jerome Blanqui, French economist, was born in Nice (died 1854).

19/11/1798, Monday (-53,495) Caesar Hawkins, British surgeon, was born (died 20/7/1884).

17/11/1798, Saturday (-53,497) Irish nationalist leader Wolfe Tone committed suicide whilst in jail awaiting execution.

8/11/1798, Monday (-35,537) Victor Chasles, French writer, was born (died 18/7/1873).



2/10/1798, Tuesday (-35,543) (Italy) Albert Charles, King of Sardinia, was born (died 28/7/1849).


9/1798, Ottoman Turkey declared war on France after France invaded Egypt.

28/9/1798, Friday (-53,547) Giovanni Genelli, German painter, was born (died 13/11/1868).

25/9/1798, Tuesday (-53,550) Jean Elie de Beaumont, geologist, was born (died 21/9/1874).

9/9/1798, Sunday (-53,566) The Ottoman Empire declared war on France because of its occupation of Egypt.


8/1798, French Navy decimated by British, trapping French Army in Egypt.

30/8/1798, Thursday (-53,576) Pauline Dejazet, French actress, was born (died 1/12/1875).

25/8/1798, Saturday (-53,581) Henrik Hertz, Danish poet, was born (died 25/2/1870).

6/8/1798, Monday (-53,600) Unaware that the Irish rebels had been defeated, a French force set sail to help them against the British. On 15/9/1798 the French in Ireland surrendered to General Cornwallis at Ballymuck.

1/8/1798, Wednesday (-53,605) At the Battle of the Nile, at Aboukir Bay, Admiral Nelson, on the ship Vanguard, destroyed 11 out of 13 French battleships which were the convoy that took Napoleon to Egypt.  The French commander was Brueys, aboard the ship L’Orient.  The crew were mostly ashore getting water, leaving no one to man the 120 French guns. This effectively trapped the French Army in Egypt.  Five French ships with 5,000 men were sunk, 2 ships were captured, and 2 ships managed to escape from Nelson.  On 10/2/1799 Napoleon left Egypt for Syria, occupying Gaza on 24/2/1799. On 7/3/1799 Napoleon captured Jaffa, where his soldiers massacred over 2,0000 Albanian prisoners. On 17/5/1799 Napoleon lifted the siege of Acre after failing to capture it.

8/1798, French Navy decimated by British, trapping French Army in Egypt.


7/1798, France invaded Egypt, popular uprising against them.

24/7/1798, Tuesday (-53,613) John Dix, US politician, was born (died 21/4/1879).

23/7/1798, Monday (-53,614) An uprising by the people of Cairo against the French occupiers was brutally repressed on 22/10/1798. The French captured Suez on 7/12/1798. However a British expeditionary force arrived in Egypt on 6/3/1801. The battle of Alexandria was fought on 11/3/1801, just outside the actual town. After this British victory the British advanced on the town which surrendered on 31/8. See 11/6/1882.

21/7/1798, Saturday (-53,616) (Egypt, France) At the Battle of the Pyramids, Napoleon, soon after his invasion of Egypt, defeated an army of some 60,000 Mamelukes. Napoleon now intended to establish a French base in Egypt from where he could harass British-India sea traffic. He could also attack the Ottoman Empire form here via Syria. He sought to assure the ulema, the Egyptian intelligentsia, that he was no modern Crusader but had come to empower them and facilitate Egyptian self-rule independent of the Ottomans. However the Egyptians were not yet ready for such self-determination, and failed to follow the French initiatives.

16/7/1798, Monday (-53,621) Alexander Gorchakov, Russian statesman, was born (died 11/3/1883).

10/7/1798, Tuesday (-53,627) (Belize) A Spanish invasion force was met with determined resistance by the British, who had fortified an island called St George’s Cay. The Spanish were compelled to withdraw to Campeachy, and did not attempt any further incursions.

2/7/1798. Monday (-53,635) The French invaded Egypt, see 31/8/1801.

7/1798, France invaded Egypt, popular uprising against them.


6/1798, Rebellion in Ireland continued against Britain. Napoleon occupied Malta, but faced insurrection.

30/6/1798, Saturday (-53,637) Alexander Dyce, English historical writer, was born (died 15/5/1869).

29/6/1798, Friday (-53,638) Willibald Alexis, novelist (died 16/12/1871 in Arnstadt, Thuringia) was born in Breslau.

26/6/1798, Tuesday (-53,641)

21/6/1798, Thursday (-53,646) Over 15,000 British troops attacked Irish rebels at the Battle of Vinegar Hill, near Enniscorthy, County Wexford.

20/6/1798, Wednesday (-53,647) Jeremy Belknap, US author, died in Boston (born in Boston 4/6/1744).

13/6/1798, Wednesday (-53,654) (Germany) Johann Baehr, German scholar, was born in Darmstadt (died in Heidelberg, 29/11/1872).

11/6/1798. Monday (-53,656) Malta surrendered to Napoleon Bonaparte. On 2/9/1798 the Maltese revolted against French occupation, forcing the French troops to take refuge in the citadel of Valetta.

10/6/1798, Sunday (-53,657) Francis Hawks, US religious writer, was born (died 26/9/1866)

7/6/1798, Thursday (-53,660) The Battle of Antrim. Irish rebels, during the Irish Rebellion of 1798, attacked the British in the town of Antrim, led by Henry Joy McCracken. The British succeeded in beating the attackers off, but the British County-Governor, Lord O’Neill, was fatally injured.

4/6/1798. Monday (-53,663) Casanova, Italian adventurer, lover, and romancer, died at his Castle of Waldstein, Bohemia.

2/6/1798, Saturday (-53,665) William Clarke, British geologist,  was born (died17.6.1878).

6/1798, Rebellion in Ireland continued against Britain. Napoleon occupied Malta, but faced insurrection.


5/1798, Napoleon left France for Egypt. Iriah rebels hoped for French invasion but were disappointed.

23/5/1798. Wednesday (-53,675) Believing that a French invasion of Britain was imminent, Irish nationalists rebelled against British rule. The rebels enjoyed initial success in Wexford but were suppressed by British forces.

19/5/1798, Saturday (-53,679) Napoleon left France for Egypt.

16/5/1798, Wednesday (-53,682) Joesph Eckhel, Austrian writer, died (born 1737).

10/5/1798, Thursday (-53,688) George Vancouver, British explorer who surveyed the Pacific coast of America, died.

1/5/1798, Tuesday (-53,697) William Ewart, English politician, was born (died 23/1/1869).

5/1798, Napoleon left France for Egypt. Iriah rebels hoped for French invasion but were disappointed.



26/4/1798, Thursday (-53,702) Painter Eugene Delacroix was born near Paris.

8/4/1798, Sunday (-53,720) Easter Sunday.

3/4/1798, Tuesday (-53,725) John Banim, Irish novelist, was born in Kilkenny (died in Booterstown 30/8/1874).

2/4/1798, Monday (-53,726) August Hoffmann, German writer, was born (died 19/1/1874).



13/3/1798, Tuesday (-53,746) Walter Hook, English religious writer, was born (died 20/10/1875)



17/2/1798, Saturday (-53,770) Friedrich Beneke, German writer, was born in Berlin (died 1854).

11/2/1798, Sunday (-53,776) French troops captured Rome.


1/1798, Auguste Comte, founder of modern sociology, born.

24/1/1798, Wednesday (-53,794) Karl Holtei, german poet, was born (died 12/2/1880).

19/1/1798, Friday (-53,799) Auguste Comte, French philosopher and founder of modern sociology, was born in Montpellier.

15/1/1798, Monday (-53,803) Thomas Croker, Irish writer, was born (died 8/8/1854).

14/1/1798, Sunday (-53,804) Isaak da Costa, Dutch poet, was born (died 28/4/1860).

9/1/1798, Tuesday (-53,809) (Spain)  Pedro Aranda, Spanish politician, died in Epila (born 1/8/1719 in Sietamo).



28/12/1797, Thursday (-53,821) Charles Hodge, US religious writer, was born (died 19/7/1878)

17/12/1797, Sunday (-53,832) Joseph Henry, electrical scientist, was born (died 13/5/1878).

11/12/1797, Monday (-53,838) (Medical) Richard Brockelsby, English physician, died (born 11/8/1722).


11/1797, US agreed to pay anti-piracy tribute to Tripoli.

19/11/1797, Sunday (-53,860) (USA) Charles Anthon, US classicist, was born in New York City (died in New York, 29/7/1867).

16/11/1797, Thursday (-53,863) Death of the Prussian King Frederick William II, aged 53. He was succeeded by Frederick William III.

4/11/1797, Saturday (-53,875) US Congress agreed to pay an annual ‘anti-piracy’ tribute to Tripoli.


10/1797, Britain defeated Dutch Navy. Napoleon peace with Austria, traded territories. Parachute descent in Paris.

27/10/1797, Friday (-53,883) Andrew Combe, physiologist, was born (died 9/8/1847).

22/10/1797, Sunday (-53,888) Andre-Jacques Garnerin, 28, made a parachute descent, from 2,230 feet, from a hot air balloon. He jumped over the Parc Monceau, Paris. This was not the first parachute jump, but Garnerin had improved the device so as to enable descents from a greater height than ever before.

17/10/1797, Tuesday (-53,893) Napoleon made peace with Austria at Campo-Formio.  Austria agreed to cede its Belgian provinces to France in return for Venice, Dalmatia and Istria.

16/10/1797, Monday (-53,894) James Cardigan, English lieutenant general (died 28/3/1868) was born.

13/10/1797, Friday (-53,897) Thomas Bayly, English writer, was born in Bath (died 22/4/1839).

11/10/1797, Wednesday (-53,899) At the naval Battle of Camperdown, off the Dutch coast, the British beat the Dutch, who had been a threat to British naval supremacy.

10/10/1797, Tuesday (-53,900) (Lighting) Thomas Drummond was born. Along with Goldsworth Gurney (born 1798) he invented ;limelight’, an intense beam of light produced by the combustion of lime (calcium oxide) in an alcohol flame with added oxygen, and focussed by a parabolic mirror.

4/10/1797, Wednesday (-53,906) Albrecht Bitzius, Swiss novelist, was born in Morat (died 22/10/1854).

10/1797, Britain defeated Dutch Navy. Napoleon peace with Austria, traded territories. Parachute descent in Paris.


9/1797, British Royalist counter-plot in France foiled, Mary Wollestonecraft, early feminist, died.

19/9/1797, Tuesday (-53,921) Lazare Hoche, French General, died (born 24/6/1768)

10/9/1797, Sunday (-53,930) Mary Wollstonecraft, early feminist and author of Vindication and the Rights of Woman, died this day.

8/9/1797, Friday (-53,932) Richard Farmer, writer on Shakespeare, died (born 28/8/1735)

4/9/1797, Monday (-53,936) A French army coup halted the plans of British backed Royalists in Paris.


8/1797, Wordsworth, Coleridge, suspected of spying.

30/8/1797, Wednesday (-53,941) Mary Shelley, English novelist, best known as the author of Frankenstein, was born in London.

12/8/1797, Saturday (-53,959) (Light) Antoine Claudet, pioneer of photography, was born (died 27/12/1867).

11/8/1797, Friday (-53,960) A secret Home Office report suspected Coleridge and the Wordsworths of being enemy agents, because of their wandering around the countryside with campstools and making detailed sketches of the landscape.

3/8/1797, Thursday (-53,968) (Britain) Jeffrey Amherst Amherst, British soldier (born 1717), died in Kent.



26/7/1796, Wednesday (-53,976) Jean Baptiste Corot, French landscape painter, was born (died 22/2/1875).

18/7/1797, Tuesday (-53,984) Sir Robert Christison, Scottish physician, was born (died 23/1/1882).

14/7/1797, Friday (-53,988) James Bowerbank, scientific author, was born in Bishopsgate, London (died in St Leonards 8/3/1877).

9/7/1797, Sunday (-53,993) Edmund Burke, British politician and orator, died.


6/1797, Nelson wounded. British naval mutiny suppressed.

30/6/1797, Friday (-54,002) The naval mutiny at The Nore, led by Richard Parker, was put down.  It had started as a protest against poor food and low pay.

26/6/1797, Monday (-54,006) Charles Newbold patented the cast iron plough.

25/6/1797, Sunday (-54,007) Admiral Nelson was wounded in the right arm by grapeshot, during the Battle of Santa Cruz, off Tenerife.  He had the arm amputated that afternoon.

21/6/1797, Wednesday (-54,011) Andreas Bernstorff, Danish statesman, died (born in Hanover 28/8/1735).

17/6/1797, Saturday (-53,015) Agha Mohammad Khan, Shah of Persia, died.

6/1797, Nelson wounded. British naval mutiny suppressed.


5/1797, Napoleon took Venice.

14/5/1797, Sunday (-54,049) Napoleon conquered Venice.

13/5/1797, Saturday (-54,050) Gerard Deshayes, French geologist, was born (died 9/6/1875).

3/5/1797, Wednesday (-54,060) (Cartography) Heinrich Berghaus, German geographer, was born in Kleve (died in Stettin 17/2/1884).


4/1797, Austria and Napoleon agreed peace. British naval mutiny.

27/4/1797, Thursday (-54,066) (Biology) Jean Audouin, naturalist, was born in Paris (died in Paris 9/11/1841).

18/4/1797¸ Tuesday (-54,075) Napoleon signed preliminaries of peace with Austria.

17/4/1797, Monday (-54,076) Britain’s first prisoner of war camp opened at Norman Cross Depot, near Stilton, Huntingdonshire. Prior to this, PoWs had been confined in civil prisons, floating hulks, or fortresses, but by 1796 the number of French PoWs was so large other accommodation had to be found.

16/4/1797, Sunday (-54,077) Easter Sunday. The British navy mutinied at Spithead, near Portsmouth, over poor pay, bad food, and arduous blockade duty. On 2/5/1797 the mutiny spread to the North Sea fleet.

13/4/1797, Thursday (-54,080) Napoleon captured Leoben on his advance from Italy into Austria.

5/4/1797, Wednesday (-54,088) Karl Devrient, German actor, was born (died 4/10/1877).

4/1797, Austria and Napoleon agreed peace. British naval mutiny.


3/1997, Napoleon advanced from Italy into Austria.

22/3/1797, Wednesday (-54,102) (1) Napoleon captured Gorizia, in an advance from Italy into Austria..

(2) Wilhelm I, Emperor of Germany, was born.

18/3/1797, Saturday (-54,106) Friedrich Gotter, German poet, died (born 3/9/1746).

7/3/1797, Tuesday (-54,117) Johann Formey, Franco-German author, died (born 31/5/1711).

4/3/1797, Saturday (-54,120) (USA) John Adams became the 2nd US President.

2/3/1797, Thursday (-54,122) Horatio Walpole, British politician, died in London.  He never married.


2/1797, Napoleon advanced in Italy, truce with Pope. French landed in Wales, repulsed. Britain took Trinidad from Spain. First British £1 notes issued.

26/2/1797, Sunday (-54,126) The Bank of England first issued £1 notes; copper pennies were also first minted this day.

20/2/1797, Monday (-54,132) Nelson was made a Knight of the Bath and promoted to Rear Admiral for his action in the Battle of Cape St Vincent.

19/2/1797, Sunday (-54,133) Napoleon captured Tolentino, Italy, where he signed a treaty with the Papacy (The Peace of Tolentino).

18/2/1797, Saturday (-54,134) The British captured the island of Trinidad from Spain. Spain had been forced to ally with France by Napoleon, making her at war with Britain. The British fleet blocked the Spanish fleet of Don Apodaca in the harbour of Port of Spain; the Spanish decided to scuttle (burn) their ships rather than  face annihilation and capture by the British.

16/2/1797, Thursday (-54,136)

15/2/1797, Wednesday (-54,137) (USA) John Bell, US politician, was born neat Nashville, Tennessee (died 10/9/1869).

14/2/1797, Tuesday (-54,138) Horatio Nelson and Admiral Jervis defeated the Spanish fleet off Cape St Vincent, south west Portugal.

12/2/1797, Sunday (-54,140) The last invasion of Britain. The Irish-American General William Tate landed at Fishguard, Pembrokeshire with 1,400 French troops, who soon surrendered.

9/2/1797, Thursday (-54,143) Napoleon captured Ancona, Italy.

4/2/1797, Saturday (-54,148) Major earthquake hit Riobamba, Ecuador.

2/2/1797, Thursday (-54,150)  Napoleon captured Mantua, Italy.

1/2/1797, Wednesday (-54,151) Napoleon captured Bologna, Italy.

2/1797, Napoleon advanced in Italy, truce with Pope. French landed in Wales, repulsed. Britain took Trinidad from Spain. First British £1 notes issued.


1/1797, First top hat worn in London.

31/1/1797, Tuesday (-54,152) Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born near Vienna. He was the son of a schoolteacher.

20/1/1797, Friday (-54,163)

15/1/1797, Sunday (-54,168) The top hat first appeared in London, worn by James Hetherington. He was fined £50 for wearing this attire, and causing a breach of the peace.

14/1/1797, Saturday (-54,169) Battle of Rivoli. Napoleon’s first decisive victory over the Austrians.

10/1/1797, Tuesday (-54,173) Annette Droste-Hulshoff, German poet, was born (died 24/5/1848).


12/1796, Planned French invasion of Ireland called off.

24/12/1796, Saturday (-54,190) Spanish novelist Cecilia Larrea (Fernan Caballero) was born (died 7/4/1877).

19/12/1796, Monday (-54,105) Manuel Breton de los Herreros, Spanish dramatist, was born (died 8/11/1873).

16/12/1796, Friday (-54,198) (Astronomy) Johann Titius, astronomer, died in Wittemberg.

15/12/1796, Thursday (-54,199) A French fleet under General Hoche sailed from Brest to invade Ireland. However a storm dispersed the fleet off Kerry and the invasion was called off.

13/12/1796, Tuesday (-54,201) (Britain) James Scarlett Abinger, British statesman (died 7/4/1844) was born in Jamaica.


11/1796, Catherine the Great of Russia died, succeeded by Paul I.

19/11/1796, Saturday (-54,225) (Britain) Thomas Bath, English politician, died (born 13/9/1734).

6/11/1796. Sunday (-54,238) Death of Czarina Katherine the Great of Russia. She died at Czarskoye Selo (The Czar’s Village) near St Petersburg, aged 67.  She had been Empress of Russia since 1762. She was succeeded by her 42-year old son, Paul I.


10/1796, Spain sided with France, declared war in Britain.

5/10/1796. Wednesday (-54,270) Spain declared war on Britain by signing the Treaty of San Il Defonso, allying it with Revolutionary France. The Treaty was engineered by Spanish Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy, lover of King Charles IV’s wife Maria Luisa. De Godoy was opposed to monarchist Britain. Many ordinary Spanish opposed the Treaty, which diminished Spain as an imperial power and weakened her influence in The Americas.



19/9/1796, Monday (-54,286) Hartley Coleridge, English writer, was born (died 6/1/1849).

17/9/1796, Saturday (-54,288) George Washington gave his farewell address as president of the USA.

2/9/1796, Friday (-54,303) Francois Hamelin, French Admiral, was born (died 10/1/1864).



21/8/1796, Sunday (-54,315) Asher Durand, US painter, was born (died 17/9/1886).


7/7196, Robert Burns, poet, died aged 37.

24/7/1796, Sunday (-54,343) John Clayton, US politician, was born (died 9/11/1856).

21/7/1796. Thursday (-54,346) Robert Burns, Scottish poet, died aged 37 in Dumfries, and was buried there.  He was born on 25/1/1759, the eldest son of a poor peasant farmer, about 2 miles from Ayr, at Alloway.

17/7/1797, Sunday (-54,350) Hippolyte Delaroche, French painter, was born (died 4/11/1856).

16/7/1796, Saturday (-54,351) William Hamilton, English statesman, died (born 28/1/1729).

6/7/1796, Wednesday (-54,361) Nicholas, Tsar of Russia, was born.


6/1796, Tennessee became 16th US State. Napoleon took Flornce, Italy.

30/6/1796, Thursday (-54,367) Napoleon marched into central Italy, taking Florence this day.

23/6/1796, Thursday (-54,374) Pope Pius VI signed an armistice with Napoleon.

21/6/1796. Tuesday (-54,376) The Scottish explorer Mungo Park reached the River Niger.

3/6/1796, Friday (-54,394) Napoleon advanced to Verona, thereby securing all of Austrian Lombardy.

1/6/1796. Wednesday (-54,396) Tennessee became the 16th state of the USA.


5/1796, Dr Jenner first vaccinations. Napoleon advanced in Italy.

17/5/1796, Tuesday (-54,411) Napoleon advanced to Brescia.

15/5/1796, Sunday (-54,413) Napoleon occupied Milan.

14/5/1796. Saturday (-54,414) Dr Edward Jenner, born 17/5/1749, from Berkeley, Gloucestershire, carried out his first human vaccination. He infected an eight year old, James Phipps, with cowpox, or ‘vaccinia’ disease, having once heard a dairymaid claim that she would never catch smallpox because she had been infected by cowpox. Then on July 1st he deliberately exposed the boy to smallpox; he proved resistant to the disease.

10/5/1796, Tuesday (-54,418) Napoleon won the Battle of Lodi.



28/4/1796, Thursday (-54,430) Napoleon reached an armistice with Sardinia.

23/4/1796, Saturday (-54,435) Theodor Hippel, German writer, died (born 31/1/1741)

19/4/1796, Tuesday (-54,439) Bernhard Beskow, Swedish dramatist, was born (died 17/10/1868).

13/4/1796, Wednesday (-54,445) Napoleon won the Battle of Millesimo.



31/3/1796, Thursday (-54,458) Philippe Buchez, French political writer, was born (died 12/8/1865)

10/3/1796, Thursday (-54,479) Napoleon gained victory at the Battle of Lodi.

9/3/1796, Wednesday (-54,480) Napoleon married Josephine de Beautharnais.

2/3/1796, Wednesday (-54,487) Napoleon was appointed Commander in Chief of the Army of Italy and The Alps.



26/2/1796, Friday (-54,492) Thomas Galloway, Scottish mathematician, was born (died 1/11/1851).

17/2/1796, Wednesday (-54,501) (Cartography) Frederick Beechey, English explorer and cartographer, was born in London (died 29/11/1856).

9/2/1796, Tuesday (-54,509) Qianlong, 6th emperor of the Qing dynasty and the leader of China at its pre-modern peak of power, size, and prestige, abdicated in the 61st year of his reign in favour of his 35-year-old son. Though, until his death three years later, Qianlong continued to exercise power from behind the scenes, his abdication was crucial to his dynasty’s legitimacy. Qianlong abdicated one day before the length of his reign would have matched that of his illustrious grandfather, Emperor Kangxi. Kangxi’s unprecedentedly long reign was viewed as a kind of golden age, and Kangxi was still held in high regard. For Qianlong to outshine his grandfather would have been viewed as immodest, reflecting badly on the House of Aisin Gor. His abdication preserved respect for the imperial office.

8/2/1796, Monday (-54,510) Barthelemy Enfantin, French social reformer, was born (died 1/9/1864).

6/2/1796, Saturday (-54,512) John Henslow, English scientific writer, was born (died 16/5/1861).

1/2/1796, Monday (-54,517) Abraham Frohlich, Swiss poet, was born (died 1/12/1865).



17/1/1796, Sunday (-54,532) (Technology) Thaddeus Fairbanks, inventor, was born (died 12/4/1886).

13/1/1796, Wednesday (-54,536) (Science) John Anderson, Scottish scientist (born 1726 in Roseneath, Dumbartonshire) died in Glasgow.

4/1/1796, Monday (-54,545) Henry Bohn, British publisher, was born in London (died in Twickenham 22/8/1884).


12/1795, The Guinness Brewery was founded in Dublin.

31/12/1795, Thursday (-54,549) Arthur Guinness signed a 9,000 lease on a brewery at St James Gate, Dublin, for an annual rent of £45.

23/12/1795, Wednesday (-54,557) Sir Henry Clinton, British General, died.

10/12/1795, Thursday (-54,570) (Marine) Sir George Burns, operator of the Cunard Line from 1838, was born (died 2/6/1890).

8/12/1795, Tuesday (-54,572) Peter Hansen, Danish astronomer, was born (died 28/3/1874).

5/12/1795, Saturday (-54,575) Friedrich Hermann, German economics writer, was born (died 23/11/1868).

4/12/1795, Friday (-54,576) Birth of Thomas Carlyle, Scottish historian.

3/12/1795, Thursday (-54,577) Sir Rowland Hill, who pioneered the postal service, was born in Kidderminster.

12/1795, The Guinness Brewery was founded in Dublin.



29/11/1795, Sunday (-54,581) Friedrich Gerhard, German archaeological writer, was born (died 12/5/1867).

9/11/1795, Monday (-54,601) Walter Geike, Scottish painter, was born (died 1/8/1837).

2/11/1795, Monday (-54,608) James Polk, American Democrat and 11th President, was born in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina.


10/1795, Napoleon gained military powers. Belgium annexted to France.

31/10/1795, Saturday (-54,610) John Keats, English romantic poet, was born in London, the son of an innkeeper.

26/10/1795, Monday (-54,615) Napoleon was appointed General of the Army of the Interior.

24/10/1795, Saturday (-54,617) King Stanislaus II of Poland, aged 63, abdicated.

6/10/1795, Tuesday (-54,635) (Race Equality) Joshua Giddings, prominent US anti-slavery campaigner, was born (died 27/5/1864).

5/10/1795, Monday (-54,636) Napoleon participated in defeating a Royalist uprising in Paris. He became Commander of the Army of the Interior.

1/10/1795, Thursday (-54,640) Belgium was incorporated in the French Republic.

10/1795, Napoleon gained military powers. Belgium annexted to France.


9/1795, British forces deterred French, evicted Dutch, from Cape Colony, Africa.

24/9/1796, Thursday (-54,647) Antoine Barye, French sculptor, was born in Paris (died 25/6/1875).

16/9/1795, Wednesday (-54,655) In June 1795 a British fleet with 4,000 soldiers arrived off the Dutch Cape Colony (South Africa) to prevent the French from taking the territory. This day the British soldiers landed at Muizenberg, and the Dutch soldiers, under Governor Sluysken, largely fled without a fight. Sluyksen managed to negotiate a truce with the British, but was soon evicted from power by settlers in the interior who resisted his rule.

13/9/1795, Sunday (-54,658) Julius Hare, English religious writer, was born (died 23/1/1855).

5/9/1795, Saturday (-54,666) Karl Follen, German poet, was born (died 14/1/1840).



13/8/1795, Karl Homeyer, German jurist, was born (died 20/10/1874).


7/1795, Marsellaise became French National Anthem.

22/7/1795, Wednesday (-54,711) The Second Treaty of Basle. Spain ceded the Dominican Republic to France.

20/7/1795, Monday (-54,713) (Chemistry) Jean Guimet, French industrial chemist, was born (died 8/4/1871). In 1828 he won an award for inventing artificial ultramarine, as a substititue for the ultramarine prepared from lapis lazuli.

15/7/1795, Wednesday (-54,718) The Marsellaise was officially adopted as the French National Anthem. It had been written by the French Army Captain Rouget de Lisle in 1792, whilst he was stationed at Strasbourg.

9/7/1795, Thursday (-54,724) Henry Conway, English statesman, died (born 1721).

4/7/1795, Saturday (-54,729) Karl Eichwald, German scientific writer, was born (died 10/11/1876).

3/7/1795, Friday (-54,730) Louis Brequigny, scholarly writer, died (born 22/2/1714).


6/1795, French pro-monacrhists suppressed.

27/6/1795, Saturday (-54,736) A force of French Royalists, under D’Hervilly and Puisaye, landed at Quiberon to try and start a pro-monarchist rebellion. They were defeated by General Hoche, all prisoners being shot.

24/6/1795, Wednesday (-54,739) (Medical) German physiologist Ernst Heinrich Weber was born in Wittemberg. He began, in 1826, experiments with two point skin stimulation; how close can two needle points be felt before they are perceived as just one sensation.

23/6/1795, Tuesday (-54,740) Off the port of Lorient, NW France, a British fleet under Lord Bridport defeated the French under Villaret-Joyeuse.

17/6/1795, Wednesday (-55,746) Jean Goujon, French politician, died (born 13/4/1766).

13/6/1795, Saturday (-55,750) (Education, Schools) Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School, was born in West Cowes, Isle of Wight (died 12/6/1842).

1/6/1795, Monday (-55,762) Pierre Desault, French surgeon, died (born 6/2/1744).

6/1795, French pro-monacrhists suppressed.


5/1795, Food riot in Paris. Mungo Park set off to explore Africa.

23/5/1795, Saturday (-54,771) (1) In Paris troops suppressed a riot caused by food shortages. See 1/4/1795.

(2) Birth of the architect Sir Charles Barry, who designed the Houses of Parliament in London.

22/5/1795, Friday (-54,772) Scottish explorer Mungo Park set sail on his first voyage to Africa,

19/5/1795, Tuesday (-54,775) James Boswell, Scottish diarist and biographer of Dr Johnson, died in London, aged 54.

7/5/1795, Thursday (-54,787) Antoine Fouquier-Tinville, French revolutionary, was guillotined (born 1746).


4/1795, France gained lands west of the Rhine, as Prussia faced troubles in the east.

30/4/1795, Thursday (-54,794) Jean Jacques Barthelemy, French writer, died (born in Cassis, Provence 20/1/1716).

28/4/1795, Tuesday (-54,796) Birth of Charles Sturt, English explorer of Australia.

23/4/1795, Thursday (-54,801) Warren Hastings was acquitted of high treason.

22/4/1795, Wednesday (-54,802) Johann Bohmer, German historical writer, was born in Frankfort am Main (died in Frankfort 22/10/1863).

19/4/1795, Sunday (-54,805) Christian Ehrenberg, German naturalist, was born (died 27/6/1876).

5/4/1795, Sunday (-54,819) Easter Sunday. Frederick William of Prussia signed a peace treaty with France (First Treaty of Basle), to leave himself free to deal with his eastern frontier.  The west bank of the Rhine was given to France.

1/4/1795, Wednesday (-54,823) Martial law was declared in Paris as food shortages sparked riots. See 23/5/1795.

4/1795, France gained lands west of the Rhine, as Prussia faced troubles in the east.



28/3/1795, Saturday (-54,827) The Duchy of Courland was incorporated into the State of Russia.



11/2/1795, Wednesday (-54,872) Karl Bellman, Swedish poet, died (born in Stockholm 4/2/1740).

8/2/1795, Sunday (-54,875) (Christian) Pierre Beckx, Jesuit, was born in Sichem, Belgium (died in Rome 4/3/1887).

7/2/1795, Saturday (-54,876) Anders Fryxell, Swedish historical writer, was born (died 21/3/1881).

5/2/1795, Thursday (-54,878) Wilhelm Haidinger, German geological writer, was born (died 19/3/1871).


1/1795, France captured the Dutch fleet. Josiah Wedgewood died.

13/1/1795, Tuesday (-54,901) Armand-Pierre Caussin de Perceval, Orientalist writer, was born (died 15/1/1871).

3/1/1795, Saturday (-54,911) Josiah Wedgwood, English potter and creator of blue jasper ware, died in Staffordshire.

2/1/1795, Friday (-54,912) The French captured the Dutch fleet as it stood frozen into the River Texel. William V escaped to England as the French established a Batavian Republic.



14/12/1794, Sunday (-54,931) Erastus Corning, US politician and industrialist, was born (died 9/4/1872).


11/1794, Russians entered Warsaw, ended Polish rebellion.

28/11/1794, Friday (-54, 947) Cesare Beccaria-Bonesana, Italian writer, died in Milan (born in Milan 15/3/1735).

22/11/1794, Saturday (-54,953) Alicia Cockburn, Scottish poet, died (born 8/10/1713).

17/11/1794, Monday (-55,958) George Grote, English historian of Greece, was born (died 18/6/1871).

16/11/1794, Sunday (-55,959) (France) Jean Carrier, French Revolutionary, was guillotined (born 1756).

9/11/1794, Sunday (-54,966) Russian forces entered Warsaw, ending the Polish rebellion.

3/11/1794, Monday (-54,972) Francois Bernis, French statesman, died in Rome (born 22/5/1715).

11/1794, Russians entered Warsaw, ended Polish rebellion.


10/1794, Poland heavily defeated by Russia.

27/10/1794, Monday (-54,979) Birth of Robert Lister, Scottish doctor who performed the first operation using anaesthetic.

24/10/1794., Friday (-54,982) Friedrich Balduin, German soldier, was born (died 20/4/1848).

10/10/1794, Friday (-54,996) (Poland, Russia) The Polish army, 7,000 men  under Tadeusz Kosciusko was heavily defeated by the Russians, 16,000 men, at Maciejowice, and its leader taken prisoner. Kosciusko was released by Czar Paul in 1796, and died on 15/10/1817 when his horse fell over a precipice.

10/1794, Poland heavily defeated by Russia.



13/9/1794, Saturday (-55,023) Jean Florian, French poet, died (born 6/3/1755).

4/9/1794, Thursday (-55,032) John Hely-Hutchinson, Irish statesman, died (born 1724)



29/8/1794, Friday (-55,038) William Ellis, missionary to Polynesia, was born (died 25/6/1872).

20/8/1794, Wednesday (-55,047) Napoleon was released, see 10/8/1794.

16/8/1794, Saturday (-55,051) (Switzerland) Jean Aubigne, Swiss historian, was born near Geneva (died 1872).

15/8/1794, Friday (-55,052) Elias Fries, botanical writer, was born (died 8/2/1878).

10/8/1794, Sunday (-55,057) In France, Napoleon Bonaparte was briefly arrested because of his connections with the Jacobins, a radical political group.


7/1794, Many French Revolutionaries were guillotined, often for their zealousness,

29/7/1794, Tuesday (-55,069) Thomas Corwin, US politician, was born.

28/7/1794, Monday (-55,070) Maximillien Robespierre, 36, French leader of the Jacobins during the French Revolution, was guillotined in Paris. Anti-Jacobin sentiment rose. Robespierre’s zeal for use of the guillotine made even his former friends uneasy. See 27/7/1793.

26/7/1794, Saturday (-55,072)

25/7/1794, Friday (-55,073) Andre de Chenier, French poet, was guillotined (born 30/10/1762).

24/7/1794, Thursday (-55,074) (Biology) Russian zoologist Christian Pander was born in Riga. He studied the development of the chick embryo.

23/7/1794, Wednesday (-55,075) The village of Ratcliff, just east of London, was badly damaged by a fire. 455 of the 1,150 houses were burnt, along with 36 warehouses, when a pitch kettle at a boat builders boiled over. Ships were also burnt; they could not be moved as the tide was out; saltpetre in a  barge blew up, raining fire on other boats.

17/7/1794, Thursday (-55,081) (France) The Paris Commune, set up in 1791, was suppressed.

13/7/1794, Sunday (-55,085) (Biology) Scottish physician James Lind died in Hampshire, England.

12/7/1794, Saturday (-55,086) Admiral Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of the French garrison at Calvi in Corsica.

7/1794, Many French Revolutionaries were guillotined, often for their zealousness,


6/1794, France was fighting Austria and Britain.

26/6/1794, Thursday (-55,102) The French defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Fleurus. Balloon reconnaissance of the enemy was used by the French, from a tethered balloon, for the first time.

18/6/1794, Wednesday (-55,110) (France) Francois Buzot, French Revolutionary, died (born 1/3/1760).

17/6/1794, Tuesday (-55,111) Marguerite Guadet, French revolutionary, died (born 20/7/1758).

8/6/1794, Sunday (-55,120) Gottfried Burger, German poet, died (born 1/1/1748).

1/6/1794, Sunday (-55,127) (France, Britain) The Battle of the Glorious 1st June. The British fleet under Lord Howe defeated the French under Admiral Villaret-Joyeuse, 700km west of Ushant.

6/1794, France was fighting Austria and Britain.


5/1794, Lavoisier, who discovered the composition of water, was guillotined.

12/5/1794, Monday (-55,147) (Britain) Sir George Cathcart, English soldier, was born (died at the Battle of Inkerman 5/11/1584).

10/5/1794, Saturday (-55,149) (France) Elizabeth, daughter of Louis the Dauphin, born 3/5/1764, was executed.

8/5/1794, Thursday (-55,151) Chemist Antoine Lavoisier, who discovered the composition of water, was executed in Paris.


4/1794, French aerial balloon observer corps founded.

28/4/1794, Monday (-55,161) Charles Estaing, French Admiral, born 1729, was executed for his close relations to the French Queen.

27/4/1794, Sunday (-55,162) (Africa) James Bruce, Scottish explorer of Africa, died (born 14/12/1730).

22/4/1794, Tuesday (-55,167) Jean Epremesnil, French magistrate, was guillotined (born 5/12/1745).

20/4/1794, Sunday (-55,169) Easter Sunday.

18/4/1794, Friday (-55,171) Charles Camden, Lord Chancellor of England (born 1714) died.

15/4/1794, Tuesday (-55,174) Frederic Chelmsford, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 5/10/1878).

13/4/1794, Sunday (-55,176) (Biology) Jean Pierre Marie was born in France. He studied the nervous system, located the centre of respiration, and showed that the cerebellum controlled muscular movements.

12/4/1794, Saturday (-55,177) Jean Gobel, French politician, was guillotined (born 1/9/1727)

11/4/1794, Friday (-55,178) Edward Everett, US writer, was born (died 15/1/1865).

5/4/1794, Saturday (-55,184) (France) George Jacques Danton, French revolutionary leader, was guillotined for treason, nine months after his dismissal from the Committee of Public Safety which was ruling France.

2/4/1794, Wednesday (-55,187) The French military formed a company of Aerostiers for military observation from tethered hot air balloons.

4/1794, French aerial balloon observer corps founded.


3/1794, US Navy officially created.

27/3/1794, Thursday (-55,193) The US Navy was officially created. Before this day the American Congress had only fitted out civilian ships for hostilities as required, but now it was decided a permanent navy was necessary.

24/3/1794, Monday (-55,196) Jean Cloots, French Revolutionary, was guillotined.

21/3/1794, Friday (-55,199) James Gilbart, English banking writer, was born (died 8/8/1863).

16/3/1794, Sunday (-55,204) Ami Bourg, Austrian geologist, was born in Hamburg (died 21/11/1881).

15/3/1794, Saturday (-55,205) Friedrich Diaz, German scholarly writer, was born (born 29/5/1876).

4/3/1794, Tuesday (-55,216) William Carleton, Irish novelist, was born (died 30/1/1869).

3/1794, US Navy officially created.


2/1794, France abolished slavery in its colonies; Mauritius ignored this decree.

26/2/1794, Wednesday (-55,222) Hans Hassenpflug, German statesman, was born (died 15/10/1862).

22/2/1794, Saturday (-55,226) (Biology) German physiologist Kaspar Wolff died in St Petersburg, Russia.

21/2/1794, Friday (-55,227) Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, the Mexican revolutionary who freed his country from Spanish rule, was born.

9/2/1794, Sunday (-55,239) Jacques Ancelot, French dramatist, was born in Havre (died 1854).

4/2/1794, Tuesday (-55,244) France issued a decree abolishing slavery in its colonies. However Mauritius ignored this decree.

1/2/1794, Saturday (-55,247) Etienne Arnal, actor, was born in Meulan (died 1872).

2/1794, France abolished slavery in its colonies; Mauritius ignored this decree.


1/1794, Laggan Navigation Canal opened in Ireland.

21/1/1794, Tuesday (-55,258) August Follen, German poet, was born (died 26/12/1855).

17/1/1794, Friday (-55,262) Jacques Deslongchamps, French geologist, was born (died 17/1/1867).

16/1/1794, Thursday (-55,263) Edward Gibbon, English historian and author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, died.

10/1/1794, Friday (-55,269) Johann Forster, German writer, died (born 27/11/1754).

1/1/1794, Wednesday (-55,278) The Laggan Navigation opened; it was authorised under an Act of 1753; construction began in 1756. The lower section up to Lisburn opened in 1765 but work halted, due to flooding risks and lack of funds. Work recommenced in 1782 and the link up to Lough Neagh was completed on 1/1/1794.

1/1794, Laggan Navigation Canal opened in Ireland.


12/1793, British withdrew from Toulon.

18/12/1793, Wednesday (-55,292) The British withdrew from Toulon and Napoleon was appointed General de Brigade.

15/12/1793, Sunday (-55,295) Henry Charles Carey, US economist, was born (died 1879).

7/12/1793, Saturday (-55,303) Madame du Barry, last mistress of King Louis XV of France, was guillotined by the Revolutionary Council.


11/1793, French guillotine executions continued.

29/11/1793, Friday (-55,311) (France) Antoine Barnave, orator of the French Revolution, was executed at The Tuileries (born in Grenoble 22/10/1761).

17/11/1793, Sunday (-55,323) Sir Charles Eastlake, English painter, was born (died 24/12/1865).

8/11/1793, Friday (-55,332) In Paris, the Revolutionary Government allowed the public to view the Royal art collection for the first time.

7/11/1793, Thursday (-55,333) Antoine Clot, French physician, was born (died 28/8/1868).

3/11/1793, Sunday (-55,337) (France) Execution by guillotine of French playwright Olympe de Gouges, Horrified by the bloodshed that was characterising the French Revolution, she had called for a referendum that would let the people decide between a Republic or restoration of the monarchy. She was executed along with other moderate Girondists.

1/11/1793, Friday (-55,339) Lord George Gordon, British anti-Catholic agitator and leader of the Gordon Riots in 1780, died in Newgate Prison, London. He had been convicted of libelling Marie Antoinette.

11/1793, French guillotine executions continued.


10/1793, Marie Antionette, former Queen of France, was guillotined.

31/10/1793, Thursday (-55,340) (France) Jacques Brissot. French Girondist, was executed.

30/10/1793, Wednesday (-55,341) (France) Claude Fauchet, French Revolutionary Bishop, was executed (born 22/9/1744).

16/10/1793, Wednesday (-55,355) Marie Antoinette, born 2/11/1755, the Queen of France as wife of Louis XVI, was convicted of treason and guillotined in Paris. See 21/7/1793. Aged 38, she had been held in prison for over a year; since August in solitary confinement.

8/10/1793, Tuesday (-55,363) John Hancock, US politician, the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence, died.

7/10/1793, Monday (-55,364) Wills Downshire, English politician, died (born 30/5/1718).

1/10/1793, Tuesday (-55,370) Sir William Erle, English lawyer, was born (died 28/1/1880).

10/1793, Marie Antionette, former Queen of France, was guillotined.


9/1793, French tyrannical Reign of Terror began. Capitol Building, Washingtion, USA, begun.

27/9/1793, Friday (-55,374) (France) Denis Affre, Archbishop of Paris, was born in St Rome, Tarn (died 27/6/1848).

25/9/1793, Wednesday (-55,376) Felicia Hemans, English poet, was born (died 16/5/1835).

18/9/1793, Wednesday (-55,383) The cornerstone of the north section of the Capitol Building, Washington DC, was laid by President Washington.

17/9/1793, Tuesday (-55,384) Revolutionary France passed the Law of Suspects. This was a wide-ranging measure that authorised the arrest of anyone who had supported tyranny or federalism, former nobles and their relatives, also emigres. It was the basis for the Reign of Terror, and was repealed in 1795.

9/1793, French tyrannical Reign of Terror began. Capitol Building, Washingtion, USA, begun.


8/1793, National Conscription in France, Metrication began in France.

28/8/1793, Wednesday (-55,404) Adam Custine, French General, was guillotined.

25/8/1793, Sunday (-55,407) Samuel Cox, US religious and academic, was born (died 2/10/1880).

23/8/1793. Friday (-55,409) (1) France introduced the first national conscription, claiming all unmarried men aged 18 to 25.

(2) Construction work began on the Ulverston Canal, Lancashire, a short 1.25 mile canal to link the town to the sea, which had receded from the town.

19/8/1793, Monday (-55,413) Samuel Goodrich, US author, was born (died 9/5/1860).

17/8/1795, Saturday (-55,415) Athanase Coquerel, French religious writer, was born (died 10/1/1868).

1/8/1793, Thursday (-55,431) The kilogram was introduced in France as the first metric weight.

8/1793, National Conscription in France, Metrication began in France.


7/1793, Marat killed in France. Cotton Gin patented, for harvesting cotton.

27/7/1793, Saturday (-55,436) Maximilian Robespierre, Jacobin leader, became a member of the Committee of Public Safety, established to guard against an attack on France by neighbouring countries after the execution of King Louis XVI. See 28/7/1794.

20/7/1793, Saturday (-55,443) Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin, a machine for separating cotton fibre from seeds.

19/7/1793, Friday (-55,444) Thomas Doughty, US painter (died 22/7/1856 in New York city) was born Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

17/7/1793, Wednesday (-55,446) Charlotte Corday was guillotined for the murder of Jean Paul Marat, see 13/7/1793.

13/7/1793, Saturday (-55,450) Jean Paul Marat, French Revolutionary, was stabbed to death by a Girondist (right-wing) supporter, Charlotte Corday. Marat’s zeal for execution of royalty and government ministers had made him many enemies.

4/7/1793, Thursday (-55,459) Friedrich Bleek, German scholar, was born in Holstein (died 27/2/1859).

7/1793, Marat killed in France. Cotton Gin patented, for harvesting cotton.



11/6/1793, Tuesday (-55,482) Napoleon had to leave Corsica with his family and went to Toulon.


5/1793, French Reign of Terror began. Britain captured French-Canadian fishing grounds.

31/5/1793, Friday (-55,493) The Reign of Terror, in which thousands went to the guillotine, in the French Revolution, began.

28/5/1793, Tuesday (-55,496) Anton Busching, scholarly writer, died (born 27/9/1724).

24/5/1793, Friday (-55,500) The British recaptured the archipelago of St Pierre et Miquelon, off Canada, which was a severe blow to the French cod fishing fleet.

20/5/1793, Monday (-55,504) (Biology) Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist, died near Geneva (born in Geneva 13/3/1720).

3/5/1793, Friday (-55,521) Martin Gerbert, German writer, died (born 1720).

5/1793, French Reign of Terror began. Britain captured French-Canadian fishing grounds.


4/1793, USA declared neutrality in the Naploeonic Wars. First British £5 notes.

26/4/1793, Friday (-55,528) Nicolas Changarnier, French General, was born (died 14/2/1877).

22/4/1793, Monday (-55,532) US President Washington issued a Declaration of Neutrality in the Napoleonic War. Hamilton wanted him to support the British but Jefferson wanted him to support the French.

21/4/1793, Sunday (-55,533) (Geology) Geologist John Michell died at Thornhill, England.

19/4/1793, Friday (-55,535) Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, was born (died 29/6/1875).

15/4/1793, Monday (-55,539) The Bank of England first issued £5 notes.

5/4/1793, Friday (-55,549) William Thornton’s plans for the building of the Capitol, Washington DC, were accepted.

4/4/1793, Thursday (-55,550) Jean Delavigne, French poet, was born (died 11/12/1843).

4/1793, USA declared neutrality in the Naploeonic Wars. First British £5 notes.


3/1793, Monarchist counter-revolution in western France. Austria defeated French army. Russia  Spain, joined war against France.

31/3/1793, Sunday (-55,554) Easter Sunday.

25/3/1793, Monday (-55,560) By the Treaty of London, Russia joined the coalition against France.

20/3/1793, Wednesday (-55,565) An army of peasant Royalists defeated the Republicans in the Vendee region of France. See14/3/1793.

18/3/1793, Monday (-55,567) Austrian forces defeated a French Revolutionary Army at the Battle of Neerwinden.

14/3/1793, Thursday (-55,571) A force of counter-revolutionaries in western France was trying to restore the monarchy. See 20/3/1793.

7/3/1793, Thursday (-55,578) France declared war on Austria, and also on Spain on 7/3/1793.

2/3/1793, Saturday (-55,583) Sam Houston, American soldier and first President of Texas, was born.

3/1793, Monarchist counter-revolution in western France. Austria defeated French army. Russia  Spain, joined war against France.


2/1793, Britain declared war on France.

6/2/1793, Wednesday (-55,607) Carlo Goldoni, Italian dramatist, died (born 25/2/1707).

2/2/1793, Saturday (-55,611) William Aiton, Scottish botanist, born 17312, died.

1/2/1793, Friday (-55,612) Britain declared war on France. The British economy entered a depression.


1/1793, Poland partitioned between Prussia, Russia and a small part to Austria. France annexec Nice. Louis XVI guillotined. First balloon ascent in the USA.

23/1/1793, Wednesday (-55,621) Prussia signed a treaty with Russia.  Poland was partitioned, with Prussia obtaining Danzig, Thorn, Posen, and most of Great Poland.  Russia received Minsk, Pinsk, and the frontier on the Zbrucz.  Austria received promises of help in re-conquering Belgium, as well as some Polish territories.

21/1/1793. Monday (-55,623) (1) The county of Nice was annexed to France. Monaco was annexed to France on 14/2/1792.

(2) Louis XVI, King of France since 1774, was executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution, Paris, convicted of treason. The executioner was called Sanson. His trial had ended with the death sentence on 19/1/1793. See 16/10/1793.

19/1/1793, Saturday (-55,625) Carl Gottling, German scholarly writer, was born (died 20/1/1869).

13/1/1793, Sunday (-55,631) (France) Nicolas Bassville, French politician, died (born in Abbeville 7/2/1753).

9/1/1793, Wednesday (-55,635) Jean Pierre Blanchard made the first ascent in a balloon in America, near Woodbury, New Jersey.

1/1/1793, Tuesday (-55,643) Sir Francis Head, English writer, was born (died 20/7/1875).

1/1793, Poland partitioned between Prussia, Russia and a small part to Austria. France annexec Nice. Louis XVI guillotined. First balloon ascent in the USA.


12/1792, George Washington re-elected US President.

26/12/1792, Wednesday (-55,649) (Mathematics) Charles Babbage was born in Teignmouth, Devon (died 18/10/1871 in London).

20/12/1792, Thursday (-55,655) Nicolas Charlet, French painter, was born (died 30/10/1845).

18/12/1792, Tuesday (-55,657) Thomas Paine was tried in absentia for publishing The Rights of Man.

5/12/1792, Wednesday (-55,670) George Washington was re-elected President of the USA.


11/1792, France now occupied Belgium (taken from Austria).

29/11/1792, Thursday (-55,676) David Hailes, Scottish historical writer, died (born 28/10/1726).

28/11/1792, Wednesday (-55,677) Victor Cousin, French philosophical writer, was born (died 13/1/1867).

19/11/1792, Monday (-55,686) The new French Republican Government offered to help any other nation that wished to overthrow its monarchy; Britain saw this as provocative.

12/11/1792, Monday (-55,693) (Astronomy) Jean Bailly,  astronomer, was guillotined 12/11/1793 (born 15/9/1736).

6/11/1792, Tuesday (-55,699) (Benelux, France) The French under General Dumouriez decisively defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Jenappes, Belgium. As a result of this battle, the Austrian Netherlands (now Belgium) were annexed by revolutionary France.

11/1792, France now occupied Belgium (taken from Austria).


10/1792, France invaded the Spanish Netherlands.

28/10/1792, Sunday (-55,708) John Smeaton, English civil engineer who designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse, died.

27/10/1792, Saturday (-55,709) France invaded the Spanish Netherlands.

20/10/1792, Saturday (-55,716) Colin Clyde, British soldier, was born (died 14/8/1863).

17/10/1792, Wednesday (-55,719) Sir John Bowring, writer, was born in Exeter (died near Exeter 23/11/1872).

13/10/1792, Saturday (-55,723) The cornerstone of the US President’s official residence, The White House in Washington DC, designed by James Hoban, was laid.

1/10/1792, Monday (-55,735) Money Orders came into use in Britain.

10/1792, France invaded the Spanish Netherlands.


9/1792, Prussia tried to invade France to restore the monarchy, but failed. New French Revolutionary calendar.

30/9/1792, Sunday (-55,736) French troops took Speyer, in the Rhineland.

29/9/1792, Saturday (-55,737) The Theatre Royal, Dumfries, was founded.

25/9/1792, Tuesday (-55,741) Jacques Cazotte, French author died (born 17/10/1719).

22/9/1792, Saturday (-55,744) This day was declared the beginning of Year One of the New French Republic. A new ‘Revolutionary Calendar’ was introduced, consisting of 12 30-day months divided into 3 10-day weeks. The months were given names corresponding to the prevailing weather or harvest conditions. An extra 5 days (6 in leap years) were added as holidays at the end of each year. This calendar ran in France until it was abolished in 1805 by Napoleon I.

21/9/1792, Friday (-55,745) France formally abolished the monarchy and declared itself a Republic.

20/9/1792, Thursday (-55,746) The Battle of Valmy.  The Prussians failed to successfully attack the French, in wet marshy conditions, and retreated; the French considered it a victory.

17/9/1792, Monday (-55,749) The French Crown jewels were stolen in Paris.

13/9/1792, Thursday (-55,753) Gino Capponi, Italian historical writer, was born (died 3/2/1876).

5/9/1792, Wednesday (-55,761) (Geology) Ours Dufrenoy, French geologist, was born (died 20/3/1857).

1/9/1792, Saturday (-55,765) Chester Harding, US portrait painter, was born (died 1/4/1866).

9/1792, Prussia tried to invade France to restore the monarchy, but failed. New French Revolutionary calendar.


8/1792, French Royal Family imprisoned. French Revolutionary Tribunals set up.

31/8/1792, Friday (-55,766) (Universities) Wilbur Fisk, 1st president of the Wesleyan University, Connecticut, USA, from its founding in 1831, was born (died 22/2/1839).

22/8/1792, Wednesday (-55,775) French forces landed in Ireland.

20/8/1792, Monday (-55,777) The Prussian army took Verdun.

19/8/1792, Sunday (-55,778) The French Revolutionary Tribunals were set up.

18/8/1792, Saturday (-55,779) Earl Lord John Russell, British statesman, was born.

14/8/1792, Tuesday (-55,783) John Bigsby, English geologist, was born in Nottingham (died in London 10/2/1881).

10/8/1792, Friday (-55,787) The French mob invaded the Palace of Versailles. The French Royal Family was imprisoned. Napoleon participated in the assault on the Tuileries Palace. 

9/8/1792, Thursday (-55,788) Alvan Fisher, US portrait painter, was born (died 16/2/1863).

7/8/1792, Tuesday (-55,790)

6/8/1792, Monday (-55,791) Matthew Hill, English prison reformer, was born (died 7/6/1872).

5/8/1792, Sunday (-55,792) Lord North, British Conservative and Prime Minister from 1770-82, died. His indecision led to Britain’s loss of its North American colonies.

4/8/1792, Saturday (-55,793) (1) John Burgoyne, British General who had to surrender at Saratoga in 1777 in the War of American Independence to American General Gates, died.

(2) Percy Bysshe Shelley was born at Warnham.

3/8/1792, Friday (-55,794) Sir Richard Arkwright, English inventor who developed a mechanical cotton spinning process, died.

8/1792, French Royal Family imprisoned. French Revolutionary Tribunals set up.



14/7/1792,  Saturday (-55,814) The Prussians threatened to invade France to restore the French monarchy. However an attempted Prussian invasion of France failed.

10/7/1792, Tuesday (-55,818) George Dallas, US statesman, was born (died 1/12/1864).

3/7/1792, Tuesday (-55,825) Ferdinand, Prussian General, died (born 12/1/1721).


6/1792, Kentucky became the 15th US State.

21/6/1792, Thursday (-55,837) (Christian) Ferdinand Baur, theologian, was born in Schmiden (died 1860).

4/6/1792, Monday (-55,854) (Britain) John Burgoyne, English General, died (born 1722).

1/6/1792, Friday (-55,857) Kentucky became the 15th State of the Union.


5/1792, New York Stock Exchange set up, Russia invaded Poland.

24/5/1792, Thursday (-55,865) Thomas Hogg, English writer, was born (died 27/8/1862).

18/5/1792, Friday (-55,871) Russian troops invaded Poland.

17/5/1792, Thursday (-55,872) 24 merchants met in Wall Street, New York, to set up the New York Stock Exchange.

15/5/1792, Tuesday (-55,874)

13/5/1792, Sunday (-55,876) Pope Pius IX was born.

12/5/1792, Saturday (-55,877) Charles Favart, French dramatist, died (born 13/11/1710).

5/5/1792, Saturday (-55,884)


4/1792, First use of guillotine in Paris. US mint established.  France declared war on Austria.

25/4/1792, Wednesday (-55,894) The guillotine was first erected in Paris, at the Place de la Greve. It was first used to behead a highwayman called Pelletier. The guillotine had been designed to make executions more humane but swiftly became a symbol of the tyranny of the French Revolution. Beheading took less than half a second. In fact a version of the guillotine was in use in Ireland as early as 1307. During the French Revolution an estimated 40,000 people were guillotined. The last public execution in France was on 17/6/1939 and the guillotine was last officially used in France on 10/9/1977. See 20/3/1792.

24/4/1792, Tuesday (-55,895) Claude Rouget de l’Isle composed the French National Anthem, the Marseillaise.

20/4/1792, Friday (-55,899) France declared war on Austria. Austria was allied with Prussia but there was disunity between the two commanders. In 1793 England and Holland joined in against France, which was attempting to annex Belgium, an Austrian possession. Ultimately Austria received Bavaria as a compensation for Belgium going to France.

12/4/1792, Thursday (-55,907) John Durham, English statesman, was born (died 28/7/1840).

8/4/1792, Sunday (-55,911) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1792, Thursday (-55,914) Hew Ainslie, Scottish poet (died 1878) was born.

2/4/1792. Monday (-55,917) The Mint of the United States was established at Philadelphia, then the national capital.  The US mint struck its first silver dollars.

4/1792, First use of guillotine in Paris. US mint established.  France declared war on Austria.


3/1792, Use of guillotine approved in France. British victory in India. Fretown, Sierra Leone founded.

29/3/1792, Thursday (-55,921) King Gustavus III of Sweden died, aged 46. He was succeeded by his son, 13-year old Gustavus IV.

27/3/1792, Tuesday (-55,923) August Hahn, German religious writer, was born (died 13/5/1863).

20/3/1792, Tuesday (-55,930) The French legislature approved the use of the guillotine, see 25/4/1792.

16/3/1792, Friday (-55,934) (1) Tippoo Sahib, Indian Sultan who was resisting the advance of the British East India Company into Mysore, surrendered. Tippoo had studied British military tactics and so was able to resist General Charles Cornwallis for longer than other Indian rulers.

(2) Gustavus III, King of Sweden, was shot at a masked ball; he died on 29/3/1792.

11/3/1792, Sunday (-55,939) Hundreds of freed African slaves gathered beneath a 300-year-old cotton tree to celebrate the founding of Freetown, Sierra Leone. The tree had begun growing about the time slave shipments first began out of Africa.

10/3/1792, Saturday (-55,940) (Britain) John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, died (born 25/5/1713).

7/3/1792, Wednesday (-55,943) Sir John Herschel, the astronomer who mapped the stars of the southern hemisphere, was born in Slough.

3/3/1792, Saturday (-55,947) Johann Gieseler, German church history writer, was born (died 8/7/1854).

1/3/1792, Thursday (-55,949) Leopold III, Holy Roman Emperor, died unexpectedly, aged 44. He was succeeded by his 24-year old son, Francis, last of the Holy Roman Emperors.

3/1792, Use of guillotine approved in France. British victory in India. Fretown, Sierra Leone founded.


2/1792, Austro-Prussian alliance aganisnt France. Prussians invading France repulsed.

29/2/1792, Wednesday (-55,950) Gioacchino Rossini, Italian composer, was born in Pesano, on the Adriatic coast. He was the son of an itinerant horn player.

28/2/1792, Tuesday (-55,951) (Biology) Russian biologist Karl Ernst von Baer was born in Peip, Estonia, In 1827 he reported his discovery that humans and other mammals developed from internal eggs.

27/2/1792, Monday (-55,952) George Cruikshank, English artist, was born (died 1/2/1878).

23/2/1792, Thursday (-55,956) Joshua Reynolds, English portrait painter, died in London.

20/2/1792, Monday (-55,959) The Battle of Valmy. French Revolutionary forces successfully drove back an invading Prussian force. This greatly boosted French Revolutionary morale.

19/2/1792, Sunday (-55,960) (Geology) Geologist Roderick Impey Murchison was born in Tarradale, Scotland. He was the first to identify the Silurian Period, in 1835.

7/2/1792, Tuesday (-55,972) Austria and Prussia signed a military alliance against France.

4/2/1792, Saturday (-55,975) (Race Equality) Anti-slavery campaigner James Birney was born in Danville, Kentucky (died in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, 25/11/1857).

3/2/1792, Friday (-55,976) Guiseppe Cerutti, Italian politician, died (born 13/6/1738).

2/1792, Austro-Prussian alliance aganisnt France. Prussians invading France repulsed.


1/1792, Turkey lost Georgia to Russia; Britain concerned over Russian threat to Mediterranean. Paris riots as cost of living soared.

24/1/1792, Tuesday (-55,986) In Paris, five days of looting ended in a riot as the cost of living soared.

17/1/1792, Tuesday (-55,993) George Horne, English writer, died (born 1/11/1730).

9/1/1792, Monday (-56,001) Russia and Turkey signed the Peace of Jassy.

8/1/1792, Sunday (-56,002) The Ottoman Turks bowed to the inevitable and accepted Catherine the Great’s Russian sovereignty over Georgia. Britain feared further Russian expansion in the Black Sea as this could threaten British Mediterranean interests.

7/1/1792, Saturday (-56,003) Severino Fabriani, Italian writer, was born (died 27/4/1849).

1/1792, Turkey lost Georgia to Russia; Britain concerned over Russian threat to Mediterranean. Paris riots as cost of living soared.


12/1791, Observer Sunday newspaper appeared. US Bill of Rights ratified by all States.

19/12/1791, Monday (-56,022) Johann Doderlein, German scholarly writer, was born (died 9/11/1863).

15/12/1791, Thursday (-56,026) (USA) The US Bill of Rights was ratified by all the states, Virginia being the last State to sign. The US passed the First Amendment which protected free speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, and freedom to petition the Government.

5/12/1791, Monday (-56,036) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, died of typhus in Vienna and was buried in the common ground of St Mark’s churchyard.

4/12/1791, Sunday (-56,037) The Observer, the oldest Sunday newspaper in the UK, was first published.

12/1791, Observer Sunday newspaper appeared. US Bill of Rights ratified by all States.


11/1791, Pacific Ocean crossed in record 60 days.

21/11/1791, Monday (-56,050) The French navigator, Eteinne Marchand, set a new record for crossing the Pacific Ocean, completing the voyage in 60 days.

12/11/1791, Saturday (-56,059) Johann Engelhardt, German religious writer, was born (died 13/9/1855).

10/11/1791, Thursday (-56,061) Robert Hayne, US politician, was born (died 24/9/1839).

11/1791, Pacific Ocean crossed in record 60 days.


10/1791, Catholics demanded rights in Belfast.

29/10/1791, Saturday (-56,073) John Elliotson, English physician, was born (died 29//7/1868).

14/10/1791, Friday (-56,088) In Belfast, the Society of United Irishmen was set up to demand rights for Catholics.

10/1791, Catholics demanded rights in Belfast.


9/1791, France granted Jews citizenship; France a Republic, and Louis XVI demoted to civil servant.

27/9/1791, Tuesday (-56,105) France granted citizenship to its Jews.

24/9/1791, Saturday (-36,108) Friedrich Forster, German historical writer, was born (died 8/11/1868).

23/9/1791, Friday (-56,109) Johann Encke, German astronomer, was born (died 26/8/1865).

22/9/1791, Thursday (-56,110) Chemist and physicist Michael Faraday was born at Newington Butts, London.  He was the son of a blacksmith.

21/9/1791, Wednesday (-56,111) The National Assembly announced that France was now officially a Republic.

20/9/1791, Tuesday (-56,112) Sergei Aksakov, Russian writer (died 30/4/1859) was born.

19/9/1791, Monday (-56,113) (France) Camille Barrot, French politician, was born in Villefort, Lozere (died in Bougival 6/8/1873).

14/9/1791, Wednesday (-56,118) Franz Bopp, German scholarly writer, was born in Mainz (died 23/10/1867).

9/9/1791, Friday (-56,123) French Royalists took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.

4/9/1791, Sunday (-56,128) King Louis XVI was forced to approve the new French constitution, making him a mere civil servant.

9/1791, France granted Jews citizenship; France a Republic, and Louis XVI demoted to civil servant.


8/1791, Other European monarchs backed Louis XVI against Revolution. Slave rebellion in Hispaniola.

27/8/1791, Saturday (-56,136) European monarchs backed King Louis XVI against the Revolution.

25/8/1791, Thursday (-56,138) Christian Bunsen, German scholarly writer, was born (died 28/11/1860).

15/8/1791, Monday (-56,148) Duff Green, US politician, was born (died 10/6/1875).

12/8/1791, Friday (-56,151) African slaves in Santo Domingo, in the east of the island of Hispaniola, rebelled against plantation owners.

8/1791, Other European monarchs backed Louis XVI against Revolution. Slave rebellion in Hispaniola.


7/1791, Louis XVI lost kingship in Revolution. First British Ambassador to US appointed.

28/7/1791, Thursday (-56,166) Jean Gannal, French chemist, was born (died 1/1852).

20/7/1791, Wednesday (-56,174) Tommaso Grossi, Lombard poet and novelist, was born (died 10/12/1853).

16/7/1791, Saturday (-56,178) Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the new French Constitution.

13/7/1791, Wednesday (-56,181) William Betty, English actor, was born in Shrewsbury (died 24/8/1874).

9/7/1791, Saturday (-56,185) Friedrich Ebert, German writer, was born (died 13/11/1834).

7/7/1791, Thursday (-56,187) Thomas Blacklock, Scottish poet, died (born in Dumfriesshire 1721).

5/7/1791, Tuesday (-56,189) The first British Ambassador to the US, George Hammonds, was appointed.

7/1791, Louis XVI lost kingship in Revolution. First British Ambassador to US appointed.


6/1791, The French Royal Family attempted to flee Paris but were intercepted. Britain’s Ordnance Survey was created.

21/6/1791, Tuesday (-52,203) (1) The French royal family attempted to flee Paris in disguise but were forced to return after being arrested at Varennes. The King, disguised as a valet, intended to meet supporters at Pont de Sommeville but they were delayed and the villagers got suspicious of the soldiers, who had to hide in the woods and  got lost. The King pressed on to Varennes, 142 miles from Paris, where he was recognised by a horseman sent by Lafayette, head of the National Guard, to look for him. Louis’ powers were suspended by the Assembly on 25/6/1791. However Louis’ brother, the Count of Provence, did succeed in fleeing Paris for Brussels.

(2) The Ordnance Survey, Britain’s mapping service, was created. On this day a payment of £373, 14 shillings was made to Jesse Ramsden for the construction of a ‘great theodolite’, 3 feet in diameter and weighing 200 pounds (90 kilogrammes) for the purpose of making precise military maps of Britain. The need for this had been foreseen in 1763 by William Roy, amidst fears of invasion from France and a lack of reliable maps for the military. By 1784 UK-France relations had improved and cross-Channel efforts were being made to establish the longitude and latitude of Greenwich and Paris. In 1800 the first cartographical unit of the British Army, the Corps of Royal Military Draughtsmen, was formed, based at the Tower of London.

20/6/1791, Monday (-52,204) Karl Dahlgreen, Swedish poet, was born (died 1/5/1844).

12/6/1791, Sunday (-52,212) Francis Grose, English antoiquarian writer, died.

10/6/1791, Friday (-52,214) Wenceslaus Hanka, Bohemiam scholarlywriter, was born (died 12/1/1861).

5/6/1791, Sunday (-56,219) Sir Frederick Haldimand, British General, died (born 11/8/1718).

6/1791, The French Royal Family attempted to flee Paris but were intercepted. Britain’s Ordnance Survey was created.


5/1791, Poland seeking restoration of their State. Louis XVI forced to hand assets to French Assembly.

26/5/1791, Thursday (-56,229) The French Assembly forced Louis XVI to hand over the State and Crown assets.

21/5/1791, Saturday (-56,234) Jean Buchon, French scholarly writer, was born (died 29/8/1849).

3/5/1791, Tuesday (-56,252) Poles, seeking the rebirth of their country, declared a parliamentary constitution in Warsaw.

5/1791, Poland seeking restoration of their State. Louis XVI forced to hand assets to French Assembly.


4/1791, Pope Pius VI resisted French State power over Church. Louis XVI detained in Paris.

27/4/1791, Wednesday (-56,258) Samuel Morse, inventor of the Morse Code, was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts.

24/4/1791, Sunday (-56,261) Easter Sunday.

23/4/1791, Saturday (-56,262) James Buchanan, Democrat and 15th US President, was born in Stony Batter near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, the son of a farmer.

18/4/1791. Monday (-56,267) National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris. On 26/4/1791 Louis XVI was forced to hand over all the assets of the Crown to the State.

13/4/1791, Wednesday (-56,272) Pope Pius VI threatened to suspend all priests in France who have sworn allegiance to the State (see 13/1/1791) unless they recanted within 40 days.

12/4/1791, Tuesday (-56,273) Francis Blair, US journalist, was born in Abingdon, Virginia (died in Silver Spring, Maryland, 27/7/1883).

7/4/1791, Thursday (-56,278) Selim III (1761-1808) became Sultan of Ottoman Turkey.

2/4/1791, Saturday (-56,283) Death of Count de Mirabeau, a moderate leader of the French Revolution.

1/4/1791, Friday (-56,284) (Electricity) Sir William Harris, electrical scientist, born (died 22/1/1867).

4/1791, Pope Pius VI resisted French State power over Church. Louis XVI detained in Paris.


3/1791, John Wesley, founder of Methodism, died. First optical telegraph unveiled in Paris. Vermont became the 14th US States. Metric cystem proposed in France.

30/3/1791, Wednesday (-56,286) (Metrology) The metric system of measurements was proposed in France.

19/3/1791, Saturday (-56,297) French and English speaking settlers in Canada were granted equal rights.

18/3/1791, Friday (-56,298) Edward Hatherton, English politician, was born (died 4/5/1863).

4/3/1791, Friday (-56,312) Vermont became the 14th state of the USA.

2/3/1791, Wednesday (-56,314) (1) The world’s first optical telegraph, or semaphore machine, was unveiled in Paris.

(2) John Wesley, founder of Methodism, died in London aged 87.  He was born on 17/6/1703 at Epworth Rectory.  His brother Charles Wesley, a hymn writer and preacher, was born on 18/12/1707 and died in 1788.

3/1791, John Wesley, founder of Methodism, died. First optical telegraph unveiled in Paris. Vermont became the 14th US States. Metric cystem proposed in France.



21/2/1791, Monday (-56,323) Karl Czerny, Austrian composer, was born (died 15/7/1857).

20/2/1791, Sunday (-56,324) Emile Deschamps, French poet, was born (died 29/10/1869).

12/2/1791, Saturday (-56,332) (Innovation) Peter Cooper, US inventor, was born (died 4/4/1883).


1/1791, French priests resisted allegiance to State oath.

28/1/1791, Friday (-50,347) Louis Herold, French musician, was born (died 18/1/1833).

15/1/1791, Saturday (-56,360) Franz Grillparzer, Austrian poet, was born (died 21/1/1872).

13/1/1791, Thursday (-56,362) The French Assembly introduced a universal tax  on rent and property values. The requirement for French priests to swear allegiance to the State stirred up rebellion amongst the clergy.

3/1/1791, Monday (-56,372) George Rennie, English civil engineer, was born in Surrey.


12/1790, First cotton mill in USA.

23/12/1790, Thursday (-56,383) (Egypt) Jean Champollion, French Egyptologist, was born (died 1832).

21/12/1790, Tuesday (-56,385) American industrialist Samuel Slater opened the first cotton mill in the USA. The mill had 250 spindles and was powered by water, using a child labour force. Slater had been apprenticed to William Arkwright, from whom he learnt the textiles trade.

18/12/1790, Saturday (-56,388) Robert Cranworth, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 26/7/1868).

16/12/1790, Thursday (-56,390) Leopold I, King of the Belgians, was born.

10/12/1790, Friday (-56,396) Jakob Fallmerayer, German historical writer, was born (died 26/4/1861).

8/12/1790, Wednesday (-56,398) (Britain) Richard Carlile, English radical, was born (died 10/2/1843).



24/11/1790, Wednesday (-56,412) Robert Henry, British historical writer, died (born 18/2/1718).


10/1790, Spain ceded colonisation rights to UK on west coast of Canada. Germany adopted decimal measures.

31/10/1790, Sunday (-56,436) John Edwin, English actor, died (born 10/8/1749).

29/10/1790, Friday (-56,438) (Education-Schools) Friedrich Diesterweg, German educationalist, was born (died 7/7/1866).

28/10/1790, Thursday (-56,439) The Nootka Sound Convention, between Britain and Spain. Spain, claiming the entire Pacific coastline of North America, had seized four British ships at Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, Canada. Britain disputed the Spanish claim because Spain had not actually settled the coastline it claimed; at the Convention, Spain backed down, opening up the area to British settlement.

27/10/1790, Wednesday (-56,440) France adopted the decimal system of weights and measures.

6/10/1790, Wednesday (-56,461) (Germany) Leopold was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Frankfort.

10/1790, Spain ceded colonisation rights to UK on west coast of Canada. Germany adopted decimal measures.



28/9/1790, Tuesday (-56,469) (Hungary) Prince Miklos Josef Esterhazy (born 1714) died.

8/9/1790, Wednesday (-56,489) (Britain) Edward Ellenborough, English politician, was born (died 22/12/1871).

2/9/1790, Thurdsay (-56,495) Johann Hontheim, German historical writer, died (born 27/1/1701).


8/1790, 1st census of USA, population nearly 4 million.

30/8/1790, Monday (-56,498) Christian Fahlcrantz, Swedish author, was born (died 6/8/1866).

25/8/1790, Wednesday (-56,503) Francois Gaussen, Swiss religious writer, was born (died 18/6/1863).

22/8/1790, Sunday (-56,506) Francois Forster, French engraver, was born (died 27/6/1872).

7/8/1790, Saturday (-56,521) Alexander McGillivray, chief of the Muskogian Indians, signed a treaty of peace and friendship with President Washington.

1/8/1790, Sunday (-56,527) The first census in the USA revealed a population of nearly 4 million.


7/1790, French Church curbed; Roman Catholic influence reduced.. Adam Smith, economist, died.

28/7/1790, Wednesday (-56,531) The Forth and Clyde Canal opened.

25/7/1790, Sunday (-56,534) (Education-Schools) Johann Basedow, German educational reformer, died in Magdeburg (born in Hamburg 11/9/1723).

22/7/1790, Thursday (-56,537) In France, the clergy were removed from the control of Rome, and Church property was nationalised.

17/7/1790, Saturday (-56,542) (1) The economist Adam Smith, who wrote The Wealth of Nations, died in Edinburgh aged 67.

(2) The sewing machine was patented by Thomas Saint, a cabinet maker of Greenhill Rents, St Sepulchre parish, London.

16/7/1790, Friday (-56,543) Washington DC was established as the seat of US Federal government.

14/7/1790, Wednesday (-56,545)

12/7/1790, Monday (-50,547) (France) Reform of the French clergy, who must now be elected.

11/7/1790, Sunday (-56,548) William Wordsworth and his friend Robert Jones set off on a walking tour of France and Switzerland.

10/7/1790, Saturday (-56,549)

8/7/1790, Thursday (-56,551) Fitz-Greene Halleck, US poet, was born (died 19/11/1867).

7/7/1790, Wednesday (-56,552) Francois Hemsterhuis, Dutch philosophical writer, died (birn 27/12/1721).

4/7/1790, Sunday (-56,555) (Cartography) Sir George Everest, British surveyor of India, was born (died 1/12/1866).

7/1790, French Church curbed; Roman Catholic influence reduced.. Adam Smith, economist, died.


6/1790, 300 Roman Catholics massacred in France.

19/6/1790, Saturday (-56,570) The French Assembly passed a law abolishing the hereditary nobility.

15/6/1790, Tuesday (-56,574) French Protestant militia massacred 300 Roman Catholics.

5/6/1790, Thursday (-56,584) Burning at the stake was officially abolished as a form of capital punishment in Britain; see 18/3/1789.


5/1790, Rhode Island became the 13th State of the USA. France began adopting metric system.

29/5/1790, Saturday (-56,591) Rhode Island became the 13th State of the Union; it is the smallest State in the USA.

23/5/1790, Sunday (-56,597) (France) Jules Dumont, French navigator, was born (died 8/5/1842).

12/5/1790, Wednesday (-56,608) Johannes Hauch, Danish poet, was born (died 1872).

8/5/1790, Saturday (-56,612) France began the process of metrication when its National Assembly approved Talleyrand’s proposal for a unified system of weights and measures.

3/5/1790, Monday (-56,617) Port Louis in Tobago was destroyed by fire.

5/1790, Rhode Island became the 13th State of the USA. France began adopting metric system.


4/1790, US patent system inaugurated. Benjamin Franklin died.

30/4/1790, Friday (-56,620) Samuel Heinicke, German educator of the deaf and dumb, died (born 10/4/1727).

17/4/1790. Saturday (-56,633) Benjamin Franklin died in Philadelphia, aged 84. He invented the life-saving lightning conductor. He was determined to pursue Puritan aims to the benefit of the common good. He also helped draft the Declaration of Independence.

10/4/1790, Saturday (-56,640) The US Congress inaugurated the American patent system.

4/4/1790, Sunday  (56,646) Easter Sunday.

4/1790, US patent system inaugurated. Benjamin Franklin died.


3/1790, French Departments created. France voted to retain slavery in its colonies.

29/3/1790, Monday (-56,652) John Tyler, American Whig and 10th President, was born in Greenway, Virginia.

19/3/1790, Friday (-56,662) Alexander Everett, US writer, was born (died 29/5/1847).

12/3/1790, Friday (-56,669) John Daniell, English chemist, was born (died 13/3/1845).

8/3/1790, Monday (-56,673) The Revolutionary French Government, despite its motto of Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite, voted to keep slavery in its colonies.

6/3/1790, Saturday (-56,675) Joseph Bellamy, religious writer, died (was born in Cheshire, Connecticut 20/2/1719).

5/3/1790, Friday (-56,676) Flora Mac Donald, the Scottish Jacobite heroine who helped Prince Charles Edward (The Younger Pretender) to escape from the island of Benbecula, died.

4/3/1790, Thursday (-56,677) (France) The modern day French departments were created by the National Constituent Assembly, They were drawn so as to break up older traditional historic regions, thereby emphasising national unity, and designed so that the entire territory of each department was within one day’s horse ride of the capital, for security.

3/3/1790, Wednesday (-56,678) (Britain) John Austin, English jurist, was born.

3/1790, French Departments created. France voted to retain slavery in its colonies.


2/1798, French soldiers landed in Wales, repulsed.

22/2/1790, Monday (-56,687) French soldiers landed at Fishguard, Wales, but were soon captured.

20/2/1790, Saturday (-56,689) Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, died. His reforms had provoked rebellion in Belgium and Hungary.

19/2/1790, Friday (-56,690) Thomas Favras, French Royalist, was executed (born 26/3/1744).

5/2/1790, Friday (-56,704) William Cullen, physician, died (born 15/4/1710).

1/2/1790, Monday (-56,708) The US Supreme Court held its first meeting


1/1790, Guillotine demonstrated for ‘humane’execution. First purpose-built lifeboat.

30/1/1790, Saturday (-56,710) The world’s first purpose-built lifeboat was successfully tested at South Shields, Tyneside, England. The boat, ‘The Original’, went on to give 40 years’ service.

23/1/1790, Saturday (-56,717) Fletcher Christian and other mutineers burned The Bounty and settled on Pitcairn Island.

21/1/1790, Thursday (-56,719) (Crime, France) In Paris, Dr Joseph Ignace Guillotin demonstrated to the National Assembly of Paris a new machine for ‘humane’ executions using a heavy blade falling on the victim’s neck.

20/1/1790, Wednesday (-56,720) John Howard, prison reformer, died.

19/1/1790, Tuesday (-56,721) Daniel Atterbom, Swedish poet, was born (died 21/7/1855).

13/1/1790, Wednesday (-56,727) Luc Urbain Guichen, French Admiral, died (born 1712).

8/1/1790, Friday (-56,732) George Washington gave the first State of the Union Address.

1/1790, Guillotine demonstrated for ‘humane’execution. First purpose-built lifeboat.



28/12/1789, Monday (-56,743) Thomas Ewing, US politician, was born (died 26/10/1871).

23/12/1789, Wednesday (-56,748) (Medical) Charles Epee, who did much for the deaf-mute, died (born 25/11/1712).


11/1789, First Thanksgiving celebration in USA.

26/11/1789, Thursday (-56,775) Thanksgiving was celebrated across America for the first time.  In 1621 the native Americans had taught early Plymouth settlers how to tap the maple trees for sap and how to plant the Indian corn. The harvest was very successful and the Pilgrims found they had enough food to see them through the winter. The Pilgrim Governor William Bradford proclaimed a Day of Thanksgiving to be shared by all colonists and invited the Indians to join them for three days. During the American Revolution of the late 1770s, a Day of National Thanksgiving was suggested by the Continental Congress and was celebrated nationwide in 1789. Since then each President has issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation, usually designating the fourth Thursday in November as the holiday.

21/11/1789, Saturday (-56,780) North Carolina became the 12th State of the Union.

18/11/1789, Wednesday (-56,783) Louis Daguerre, French artist and pioneer of photography, was born near Paris.

12/11/1789, Thursday (-56,789) Jacob Geel, Dutch writer, was born (died 11/11/1862).


10/1789, Bread shortages in Paris, King blamed.

21/10/1789, Wednesday (-56,811)  Martial law was imposed in Paris after a baker was killed by the mob, accused of hoarding bread.

5/10/1789, Monday (-56,827) Parisian women, frustrated by bread shortages, marched on Versailles to demand the King move to Paris, where he could be monitored more closely.


9/1798, US Treasury established.

28/9/1789, Sunday (-56,834) Thomas Day, British author, died (born 22/6/1748).

23/9/1789, Tuesday (-56,839) Silas Deane, US diplomat, died (born 24/12/1737).

15/9/1789, Monday (-56,847) James Cooper, US novelist, was born (died 14/9/1851).

4/9/1789, Thursday (-56,858) Charles Gaudichaud, French botanist, was born (died 16/1/1854).

2/9/1789, Tuesday (-56,860) The US Department of the Treasury was established.

1/9/1789, Monday (-56,861) Marguerite Blessington, Irish novelist, was born in County Tipperary (died in Paris 4/6/1849).


8/1789, French Declaration of the Rights of Man. France abolished feudalism. Pyrenees miners strike.

29/8/1789, Saturday (-56,864)

28/8/1789, Friday (-56,865) (Newspapers) Louis Cauchois-Lemaire, French journalist, was born (died 9/8/1861)

27/8/1789, Thursday (-56,866) The new French regime (French National Assembly) drew up the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen.

26/8/1789. Wednesday (-56,867) Miners in the Pyrenees protested against their working conditions.

21/8/1789, Friday (-56,872) Augustin Cauchy, mathematician, was born (died 23/5/1857).

4/8/1789, Tuesday (-56,889) The feudal system was abolished in France. Peasants attacked their landlords.


7/1789, Fall of the Bastille. Stormed by the citizens of Paris.

27/7/1789, Monday (-56,897) Thomas Jefferson was made head of the new US Department of Foreign Affairs.

22/7/1789, Wednesday (-56,902) A revolutionary mob murdered the Bailiff of Paris.

14/7/1789. Tuesday (-56,910) (France) Fall of the Bastille, Paris. It was stormed by the citizens of Paris and burned to the ground, at the start of the French Revolution. From 16/7/1789 the French nobility began to flee France. The Bastille had been built in 1369, and designed by Hugues Aubriot (died 1383). At dawn on the 14/7/1789 the mob had stormed Les Invalides, hoping to find arms to repulse an expected attack by soldiers loyal to King Louis  XVI. They found 32,000 rifles but no ammunition; a rumour spread that the ammunition was at the Bastille. The Bastille was guarded by 80 soldiers deemed unfit for front-line duties, reinforced by 30 Swiss Guards, and with cannon. Neither the prison governor nor the army showed much will to fight the mob. Seven prisoners within were released.

12/7/1789, Sunday (-56,912) (France) Fires burnt in Paris after two days of rioting. The population were angered by a threat to disband the Assembly.

11/7/1789, Saturday (-56,913) The Marquis de Lafayette presented the Declaration of Human Rights to the French National Assembly.

7/1789, Fall of the Bastille. Stormed by the citizens of Paris.


6/1789, French revolution began. Bourbon whisky invented.

30/6/1789, Tuesday (-56,924) The revolutionary mob in Paris attacked the Abbaye prison.

20/6/1789, Saturday (-56,934) The French Revolution began.  See 5/5/1798. The Third Estate, excluded from Versailles, formed a new assembly at a tennis court nearby, to oppose the dominance of the aristocracy.

18/6/1789, Thursday (-56,936) Austrian troops occupied Brussels.

17/6/1789, Wednesday (-56,937) In France, the Third Estate constituted itself as the French National Assembly. The Third Estate was the commoners, after the Clergy and the Nobility. These last two Estates, under 3% of the population, owned 40% of the land. They were also exempt from taxes, placing an undue tax burden on the middle classes.

14/6/1789, Sunday (-56,940) (1) Captain Bligh, cast adrift from The Bounty with 18 men, arrived at Timor, near Java, having sailed his small boat for 3,618 miles.

(2) A clergyman first produced whisky distilled from maize. The Reverend Elijah Craig called the liquor Bourbon because he lived in Bourbon County, Kentucky.

4/6/1789, Thursday (-56,950) The Dauphin Louis, heir to King Louis XVI, died aged 7.

3/6/1789, Wednesday (-56,951) (Canada) Alexander Mackenzie set out to explore the Mackenzie River by canoe from central Canada to the Arctic Ocean.

6/1789, French revolution began. Bourbon whisky invented.


5/1789, French monarchy looking very insecure, unpopular,

21/5/1789, Thursday (-56,064) Sir John Hawkins, English writer on music, died (born 30/3/1719).

12/5/1789, Tuesday (-56,973) William Wilberforce made his first speech with the House of Commons.

7/5/1789, Thursday (-56,978) Edward Hawtrey, Headmaster of Eton from1834, was born (died 27/1/1862).

5/5/1789, Tuesday (-56,980) The French King opened the States General Assembly at Versailles.  The French middle class wanted to break down the monopoly of power and wealth held by the aristocracy.  The French King felt insecure because of the unpopularity of his Austrian wife, Marie Antoinette, the bankruptcy of the French Treasury, and the increasingly democratic mood of the French Army following on from the American Declaration of Independence. See 20/6/1789. France had also suffered humiliation in the Seven Years War (1756-630, losing to Britain; France had lost her North American colonies, and bad harvests in 1788 and 1789 had almost doubled the price of bread.

5/1789, French monarchy looking very insecure, unpopular,


4/1798, George Washington 1st President of the USA. Protests in France over pay cuts.Mutiny on the Bounty.

30/4/1789. Thursday (-56,985) General George Washington inaugurated as first president of the United States, on the balcony of New York City’s federal Hall. John Adams was installed as Vice-President (see 7/1/1789 and 17/3/1776). The United States was federated on 4/3/1789.

28/4/1789. Tuesday (-56,987) (1) 300 workers at the Reveillon wallpaper factory were killed when troops opened fire on rioters there. The protest was over proposed pay cuts. France had been in financial crisis for months now, the state overburdened by an expensive aristocracy and clergy. On 22/5/1789 the nobility joined with the clergy in giving up their financial privileges.

(2) The Mutiny on The Bounty. The ship’s captain, Captain Bligh, and 17 others were set adrift in an open boat near The Friendly Isles; they eventually reached Timor, Java, on 14/6/1789. Captain Bligh, born 1754, died on 7/12/1817 in London . His severe discipline on board had provoked the mutiny. The mutineers settled on Pitcairn Island.

26/4/1789, Sunday (-56,989) Robert Fox, English geologist, was born (died 25/7/1877).

12/4/1789, Sunday (-57,003) Easter Sunday.

7/4/1789, Tuesday (-57,008) (Turkey) Turkish Sultan Abdul Hamid (born 1725) died aged 64. He had succeeded his brother Mustafa III in 1773.

2/4/1789, Thursday (-57,013) John Mackenzie, Scottish Jacobite, died (born 1727).


3/1789, Last burning at the stake in Britain. Scientist Georg Ohm born. US Post Office established.

18/3/1789, Wednesday (-57,028) Catherine (Christian) Murphy (Bowman) became the last person in Britain to be executed by burning at the stake (see 5/5/1790). She had been convicted of ‘coining’ (forgery), which was punished severely as a form of treason.

16/3/1789, Monday (-57,030) (Electrical) German physicist Georg Simon Ohm was born in Erlangen. In 1827 he formulated what became known as Ohm’s Law – that the current is proportional to the ratio of the voltage and the resistance, or I = V/R.

12/3/1789, Thursday (-57,034) The United States Post Office was established.

4/3/1789, Wednesday (-57,042) The Constitution of the United States came into force. The first US Congress was held in New York with 59 members, each representing a district of some 30,000 people.



26/2/1789, Thursday (-57,048) Eaton Hodgkinson, British engineer, was born (died 18/6/1861).

19/2/1789, Thursday (-57,055) (Technology) Sir William Fairbairn, Scottish engineer, was born (died 18/8/1874).

15/2/1789, Sunday (-57,059) Frederic Fesca, German composer, was born (died 1826).

11/2/1789, Wednesday (-57,063) (USA) Ethan Allen, US soldier, died in Burlington, Vermont (born 10/1/1739 in Litchfield, Connecticut).



21/1/1789, Wednesday (-57,084) Paul Holbach, French writer, died (born 1723).

11/1/1789, Sunday (-57,094) John Collier, English writer, was born (died 17/9/1883).

7/1/1789, Wednesday (-57,098) The first national elections were held in the USA, and George Washington was elected President.

1/1/1789, Thursday (-57,104) Fletcher Grantley, English politician, died (born 23/6/1716).



31/12/1788, Wednesday (-57,105) Basil Hall, British travel writer, was born (died 11/9/1844).

14/12/1788, Sunday (-57,122) Charles IV (1748-1819) became King of Spain.

6/12/1788, Saturday (-57,130) Richard Barham, English writer, was born in Canterbury (died 17/6/1845).



25/11/1788, Tuesday (-57,141) Thomas Amory, English author, died.

22/11/1788, Saturday (-57,144) Johann Flugel, German writer, was born (died 24/6/1855).



27/10/1788, Monday (-57,170) Sir Henry Holland, English writer,was born (died 27/10/1873)

21/10/1788, Tuesday (-57,176) George Combe, Scottish phrenologist, was born (died14/8/1858).

13/10/1788, Monday (-57,184) Thomas Erskine, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 20/3/1870).

10/10/1788, Friday (-57,187) (USA) Joshua Bates, US financier, was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts (died in London 24/9/1864).

1/10/1788, Wednesday (-57,196) William Brodie was hanged in Edinburgh. His career inspired Robert Louis Stevenson to write The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.


9/1788, New York designated as Federal capital of USA.

30/9/1788, Tuesday (-57,197) Lord Raglan, the Field Marshall responsible for the Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava, was born at Badminton, Gloucestershire.

22/9/1788, Monday (-52,205) Theofore Hook, English author, was born (died 24/8/1841).

19/9/1788, Friday (-52,208) Georg Freytag, German scholarly writer, was born (died 16/11/1861).

13/9/1788, Saturday (-57,214) New York became the Federal capital of the new United States of America.

12/9/1788, Friday (-57,215) Alexander Campbell, US Christian religious leader (died 1866) was born.

10/9/1788, Wednesday (-57,217) Jacques Boucher, French writer, was born in Rethel (died in Abbeville 5/8/1868).

9/9/1788, Tuesday (-57,218)


8/1788, Sierra Leone founded as place for freed slaves.

22/8/1788, Friday (-57,236) The British settlement of Sierra Leone was founded, for the purpose of providing a home for freed slaves and homeless Africans from England.

2/8/1788, Saturday (-57,256) Painter Thomas Gainsborough, born 14/5/1727, died.


7/1788, New York became 11th US State.

26/7/1788, Saturday (-57,263) (USA) New York became the 11th state of the Union.

21/7/1788, Monday (-57,268) Gaetano Filangiero, Italian writer, died (born 18/8/1752).

15/7/1788, Tuesday (-57,274) Jean Drouais, French historical painter, died (born 25/11/1763).

10/7/1788, Thursday (-57,279) Mozart completed his Jupiter Symphony. Born on 27/1/1756, Mozart died on 5/12/1791 from typhus and was buried in a pauper’s grave with several other paupers.

8/7/1788, Tuesday (-52,281)

5/7/1788, Saturday (-52,284) (USA) Mather Byles, US clergyman unpopular for his pro-Royalist views, died (born 26/3/1706).

1/7/1788, Tuesday (-57,288)


6/1788, New Hampshire, Virgina, became 9th, 10th US States. US Constitution now legally ratified.

25/6/1788, Wednesday (-57,294) (USA) Virginia became the 10th State of the Union.

21/6/1788, Saturday (-57,298) (1) The American Constitution legally came into force, after ratification by a ninth State..

(2) King Gustavus III of Sweden invaded Russian Finland, without declaring war first.

(3) (USA) New Hampshire became the 9th State of the Union.

18/6/1788, Wednesday (-57,301) Adam Gib, Scottish religious writer, died (born 14/4/1714).


5/1788, South Carolina became 8th US State. First London evening newspaper.

23/5/1788, Friday (-57,327) (USA) South Carolina became the 8th State of the Union.

15/5/1788, Thursday (-57,335) (Medical) Neil Arnott, Scottish physician, was born in Arbroath (died 2/3/1874 in London).

10/5/1788, Saturday (-57,340) (Light) Augustin Fresnel, pioneer in lenses, was born (died 14/7/1827)

3/5/1788, Saturday (-57,347) The first evening newspaper, the Star and Evening Advertiser, was published in London.


4/1788, Maryland became 7th US State.

28/4/1788, Monday (-57,352) Maryland became the 7th State of the Union.

15/4/1788, Tuesday (-57,365) (Biology) George Buffon, French naturalist, died (born 7/9/1707).



29/3/1788, Saturday (-57,382) Evangelist Charles Wesley, younger brother of John Wesley, died. He wrote over 5,000 hymns.

23/3/1788, Sunday (-57,388) Easter Sunday

22/3/1788, Saturday (-57,389) (Biology) Pierre Pelletier was born in Paris. In 1817 he jointly discovered chlorophyll with Joseph Bienaime Caventou (born 30/6/1795 in Saint Omer, France).

21/3/1788, Friday (-57,390) (USA) A major fire destroyed nearly all of New Orleans, USA.

10/3/1788, Monday (-57,401) Edward Baily, British sculptor, was born in Bristol (died in Holloway 22/5/1867).

8/3/1788, Saturday (-57,403) Sir William Hamilton, Scottish scientific writer, was born (died 6/5/1856).

2/3/1788, Sunday (-57,409) Solomon Gessner, Swiss poet, died (born 1/4/1730).


2/1788, Massachusetts became 6th US State.

28/2/1788, Thursday (-57,412) (Britain) Samuel Bamford, British politician, was born in Miston, Lancashire (died in Harpurhey 13/4/1872.

25/2/1788, Monday (-57,415) Thomas Cubitt, English builder, was born (died 20/12/1855).

16/2/1788, Saturday (-57,424) George Anne Bellamy, English actress, died.

14/2/1788, Thursday (-57,426) Edward Blomfield, English scholarly writer, was born in Bury St Edmunds (died  in Cambridge 9/10/1816).

6/2/1788, Wednesday (-57,434) (USA) Massachusetts became the 6th State of the Union.

5/2/1788, Tuesday (-57,435) Sir Robert Peel, British Tory Prime Minister and founder of the Metropolitan Police Force, was born at Bury in Lancashire, the son of a cotton millionaire.


1/1788, First penal settlement in Australia. Connecticut, Georgia became the 4th, 5th, States.

31/1/1788, Thursday (-57,440) Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie), the Young Pretender and leader of the Jacobite Rebellion, aimed at deposing King George II, died in exile in Rome.

26/1/1788, Saturday (-57,445) The first batch of British convicts arrived at Sydney Cove, Australia. They came aboard the HMS Endeavour, captained by Arthur Phillip; 570 men and 160 women were the survivors of a 36-week voyage from England on which the pox had killed 48 of the prisoners. Captain Phillip was to administer the penal colony. See 18/1/1788.

22/1/1788, Tuesday (-57,449) George Gordon, or Lord Byron, was born in London.

18/1/1788. Friday (-57,453) A penal settlement was established at Botany Bay, Australia. The first convicts arrived on 26/1/1788. The option of sending its prisoners to America was no longer open to Britain.

11/1/1788, Friday (-57,460) William Brande, English chemist, was born in London (died in Tunbridge Wells 11/2/1866).

9/1/1788, Wednesday (-57,462) (USA) Connecticut became the 5th state of the Union.

6/1/1788, Sunday (-57,465) Louis Cormenin, French political lobbyist, was born (died 6/5/1868).

2/1/1788, Wednesday (-57,469) (USA) Georgia became the 4th State of the Union.


12/1787, Delaware became the 1st State, followed by Pennsylvania, New Jersey (3rd).

18/12/1787, Tuesday (-57,484) (USA) New Jersey became the 3rd State of the Union.

17/12/1787, Monday (-57,485) HMS Bounty, commended by William Bligh, set sail from for the South Seas.

16/12/1787, Sunday (-57,486) Francois Heim, French painter, was born (died 29/9/1865)

15/12/1787, Saturday (-57,487) Charles Clarke, British writer, was born (died 13/3/1877)

14/12/1787, Friday (-57,488)

13/12/1787, Thursday (-57,489) (Astronomy) Mathematician, physicist and astronomer Ruggiero Guiseppe Boscovich died in Milan.

12/12/1787, Wednesday (-57,490) (USA) Pennsylvania became the 2nd State of the Union.

10/12/1787, Monday (-57,492) (USA) Thomas Gallaudet, US educator of the deaf and dumb, was born (died 5/9/1851).

7/12/1787, Friday (-57,495) (USA) Delaware, the Diamond or First State, achieved Statehood.

12/1787, Delaware became the 1st State, followed by Pennsylvania, New Jersey (3rd).


11/1787, Louis XVI tolerated Protestants.  Samuel Cunard born.

29/11/1787. Thursday (-57,503) Louis XVI of France promulgated an Edict of Tolerance, allowing civil status to Protestants.

21/11/1787. Wednesday (-57,511) Sir Samuel Cunard, Canadian ship owner, was born in Nova Scotia. He came to Britain in 1838 and, with two partners, established what came to be known as the Cunard Line.

15/11/1787, Thursday(-57,517) Richard Dana, US writer, was born (died 1879).


10/1787, William Wilberforce, anti-slavery meeting.

30/10/1787, Tuesday (-57,533) William Wilberforce first met with the London Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.

16/10/1787, Tuesday (-57,547) Edward Foss, English legal writer, was born (died 27/7/1870).

4/10/1787, Thursday (-45,559) Francois Guizot,French statesman, was born (died 12/9/1874).


9/1787, US Constitution agreed, with Mason amendment.

17/9/1787, Monday (-57,576) The constitution of the United States of America was signed.

15/9/1787, Saturday (-57,578) George Mason, a plantation owner from Virginia, called for an amendment to the draft US Constitution. To avoid the Federal government becoming oppressive, he called for a clause whereby if two thirds of the States wished, Congress would have to agree to a convention to discuss the proposed government change or policy. This change to Article V was incorporated as Mason desired.

10/9/1787, Monday (-57,583) John Crittenden, US statesman, was born (died 26/7/1863)

5/9/1787, Wednesday (-57,588) Francois Beudant, French geologist, was born in Paris (died 10/12/1850).

1/9/1787, Saturday (-57,592) Jan Baake, Dutch writer, was born in Leiden (died 26/3/1864)



10/8/1787. Friday (-57,614) Mozart completed his famous Eine Kleine Nachtmusik



27/7/1787, Friday (-57,628) The Theatre Royal, Margate, was founded.

20/7/1786, Friday (-57,635) Thomas Robinson, 2nd baron Grantham, died (born 30/11/1738).



20/6/1787, Wednesday (-57,665) (Arts) Karl Abel, German musician (born 1725) died in London.

7/6/1787, Thursday (-57,678) Sir John Coode, geologist, was born (died 12/8/1857).


5/1787, First UK convicts transported to Australia, replacing the USA as destination.  London Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade founded. US Constitution begun.

25/5/1787, Friday (-57,691) The Philadelphia Convention, headed by George Washington, began drawing up the USA Constitution. On 17/9/1787 the Constitution was agreed by 39 out of 42 delegates.

22/5/1787, Tuesday (-57,694) The London Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was founded by Thomas Clarkson.

13/5/1787, Sunday (-57,703) A fleet of 11 ships consisting of 2 two men 3 stores ships, and 6 convict transporters with some 730 convicts set sail from England for Australia under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip. The journey lasted until January 1788. The convicts disembarked at Sydney Cove, minus 40 who had died on the voyage. 



8/4/1787, Sunday (-57,738) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1787, Monday (-57,744) (USA) Thomas Gage, British colonial Governor of Massachusetts, died (born 1721).


3/1787, Scientist Fraunhofer was born.

12/3/1787, Monday (-57,765) Vicente Garcia, Spanish dramatist, died (born 9/3/1734).

10/3/1787, Saturday (-57,767) William Etty, British painter, was born (died 13/11/1849).

8/3/1787, Thursday (-57,769) Karl Grafe, German surgeon, was born (died 4/7/1840).

6/3/1787, Tuesday (-55,771) (Astronomy) Joseph von Fraunhofer, best known for his study of absorption lines in the Sun’s spectrum, now known as Fraunhofer Lines, was born (died 7/6/1826).


2/1787, France was nearly bankrupt.

22/2/1787, Thursday (-57,783) France was nearly bankrupt, with a national debt of UK£ 800 million.

15/2/1787, Thursday (-57,790) Roger Boscovich, scientific writer, died in Milan.

10/2/1787, Saturday (-57,795) Charles Chauncy, US religious writer, died (born 1/1/1705).



29/1/1787, Monday (-57,807) Thomas Paine, English writer, was born.

25/1/1787, Thursday (-57,811) An abortive attempt to seize the US arsenal at Springfield, Massachusetts.

21/1/1787, Sunday (-57,815) (Geology) Gustavus Brander, English expert in fossils, died (born 1720 in London)



26/12/1786, Tuesday (-57,841) Gaspari Gozzi, Italian writer, died (born 4/12/1713).

5/12/1786, Tuesday (-57,862) Henry Drummond, English politician, was born (died 20/2/1860).



18/11/1786, Saturday (-57,879) Sir Henry Bishop, composer, was born in London (died 30/4/1855).



15/10/1786, Sunday (-57,913) James Holman, blind travel writer, was born (died 29/7/1857).


9/1786, George Washington called for the abolition of slavery.

18/9/1786, Monday (-57,940) Christian VIII, King of Norway and Denmark, was born (died 20/1/1848).

9/9/1786, Saturday (-57,949) George Washington called for the abolition of slavery.

5/9/1786, Tuesday (-57,953) Jonas Hanway, English writer and traveller, died (born 1712).


8/1786, Frederick the Great of Prussia died. Under his rule Prussia had gained territory, power, population and influence. It was frequently allied to Britain in its wars against France and Austria.

31/8/1786, Thursday (-57,958) Michel Chevreul, chemist, was born (died 9/4/1889).

25/8/1786, Friday (-57,964) Ludwig I, King of Bavaria, was born.

19/8/1786, Saturday (-57,970) Nathanael Greene, US General, died (born 7/8/1742).

17/8/1786, Thursday (-57,972) Frederick the Great, military leader and King of Prussia since 1740, died in Potsdam, aged 74. Under his rule Prussia grew from under 46,000 square miles to over 71,000 square miles, and its population rose from 2.2 million to 5.8 million. Prussia had a standing army of 200,000, well armed and disciplined. Britain often gave financial aid to Prussia, in its wars against France and Austria.

8/8/1786, Tuesday (-57,981) Mont Blanc, 4,807 metres high, was conquered by a local man, Dr Michel Gabriel Paccard of Chamonix, along with his porter Jacques Balmat.


7/1786, Penang, Malaysia, founded by the East India Company.

30/7/1786, Sunday (-57,990) Georg Gabler, German philosophical writer, was born (died 13/9/1853).

17/7/1786, Monday (-58,003) Penang, Malaysia, was founded by the East India Company. The area had been ceded by the Sultan of Kedah in 1785.



27/6/1786, Tuesday (-58,023) John Broughton, English writer, was born (died3/6/1869).

3/6/1786, Saturday (-58,047) William Hilton, English painter, was born (died 30/12/1839).



30/5/1786, Tuesday (-58,051) Andras Fay, Hungarian poet, was born (died 26/7/1864)

29/5/1786, Monday (-58,052) Charles Blomfield, English cleric, was born in Bury St Edmunds (died 5/8/1857).

13/5/1786, Saturday (-58,068) William Farren, English actor, was born (died 24/9/1861).



16/4/1786, Sunday (-58,095) Easter Sunday. Birth of Sir John Franklin, English Rear Admiral.

10/4/1786, Monday (-38,101) (Britain) John Byron, British Vice-Admiral, died (born 8/11/1723).

7/4/1786, Friday (-38,104) Izidor Guzmics, Hungarian religious writer, was born (died 1/9/1839).

1/4/1786, Saturday (-58,110) (Britain) Sir Thomas Buxton, English philanthropist, was born (died 19/2/1845).



25/3/1786, Saturday (-58,117) (Astronomy) Giovanni Battista Amici, Italian astronomer, was born in Modena (died 10/4/1863 in Florence).



26/2/1786, Sunday (-58,144) (Light and Optics) Dominique Francois Arago was born in Estagel, France. In 1809 he discovered that blue light from the sky is polarised, and found the neutral point where polarisation is absent.

25/2/1786, Saturday (-58,145) (Astronomy) Thomas Wright, astronomer, died at Byers Green, England

24/2/1786, Friday (-58,146) Wilhelm Grimm, German collector of fairy tales along with his brother Jacob, was born in Hanau.

15/2/1786, Wednesday (-58,155) Ferdinand Hand, German scholarly writer, was born (died 14/3/1851_.

3/2/1786, Friday (-58,167) Heinrich Gesenius, German historical writer, was born (died 23/10/1842).



26/1/1786, Thursday (-58,175) Benjamin Haydon, English painter, was born (died 22/6/1846).

8/1/1786, Sunday (-58,193) (USA) Nicholas Biddle, US financier, was born in Philadelphia (died in Philadelphia 27/2/1844).

7/1/1786, Saturday (-58,194) Jean Guettard, French naturalist writer, died (born 22/9/1715).

1/1/1786, Sunday (-58,200) (Africa) Dixon Denham, English explorer of Africa, was born (died 8/5/1828).



30/12/1785, Friday (-58,202) John Dunlop, Scottish writer, was born (died 1842).

24/12/1785, Saturday (-58,208) Etienne Gerlach, Belgian historical writer, was born.

6/12/1785, Tuesday (-58,226) Catherine Clive, British actress, died (born 1711).


11/1875, First unsinkable lifeboat patented.

28/11/1785, Monday (-58,234) (France) Achille Duc de Broglie, French statesman, was born (died 25/1/1870).

25/11/1785, Friday (-58,237) Richard Glover, English poet, died (born 1712)

24/11/1785, Thursday (-58,238) Philipp Bockh, German scholarly writer, was born in Karlsruhe (died in Berlin 3/8/1867).

12/11/1785, Saturday (-58,250) Richard Burn, English legal writer, died (born 1709).

2/11/1785, Wednesday (-58,260) The first unsinkable lifeboat was patented by Lionel Lukin, a London coachbuilder.



15/10/1785, Saturday (-58,278) Jose Miguel Carrera, leader in the Chilean fight for independence from Spain, was born (died 4/9/1821).



1/9/1785, Thursday (-59,322) (USA) Peter Cartwright, US Methodist preacher, was born (died 25/9/1872).



15/8/1785, Monday (-59,339) Thomas de Quincy, English author, was born (died 8/12/1859).

14/8/1785, Sunday (-59,340) John Fletcher, English religious writer, died (born 12/9/1729).


6/1785, First ballooning fatality.

16/6/1785, Thursday (-58,399) The first ballooning fatality. De Rozier and Jules Romain attempted a balloon flight from France to Britain. Unfortunately they had added a Montgolfier hot air apparatus to their hydrogen balloon and their craft exploded even before it reached the Channel, as the hydrogen vented.


5/1785, Bifocal glasses invented.

23/5/1785, Monday (58,423) Benjamin Franklin announced his invention of bifocals.

21/5/1785, Saturday (-58,425) (Germany) August Bekker, German philosopher, was born (died in Berlin 7/6/1871).

13/5/1785, Friday (-58,433) Friedrich Dahlmann, German politician, was born (died 5/12/1860).

9/5/1785, Monday (-58,437) Joseph Bramah patented the beer pump handle.

8/5/1785, Sunday (-58,438) Etienne Choiseul, French statesman, died (born 18/6/1719).

6/5/1786, Friday (-58,440) Karl Borne, German satirical writer, was born in Frankfort am Main (died in Paris 12/2/1837).

5/1785, Bifocal glasses invented.



4/4/1785, Monday (-58,472) Elisabeth Arnim, German authoress, was born in Frankfort am Main (died 20/1/1859 in Berlin).



30/3/1785, Wednesday (-58,477) Henry Hardinge, British colonial Governor-General of India, was born (died 24/9/1856).

27/3/1785, Sunday (-58,480) Easter Sunday. King Louis XVII of France was born.

22/3/1785, Tuesday (-58,485) (Geology) Geologist Adam Sedgwick was born in Yorkshire, England. In 1835 he identified the Cambrian Period.


1/1785, First crossing of English Channel by hot air balloon. 1st balloon ascent in Ireland.

19/1/1785, Wednesday (-58,547) The first balloon ascent in Ireland was made, from Ranelagh Gardens, Dublin.

17/1/1785, Monday (-58,549) Leonard Horner, Scottish geologist, was born (died 5/3/1864)

7/1/1785, Friday (-58,559) Jean-Pierre Blanchard, and his sponsor, the American Dr John Jefferies, made the first hot air balloon crossing of the English Channel from Dover to Calais.

4/1/1785, Tuesday (-58,562) Jacob Grimm, older of the two German brothers famous for fairy tales, was born in Hanau.

3/1/1785, Monday (-58,563) Baldassare Galuppi, Italian composer, died (born 18/10/1706).

1/1/1785, Saturday (-58,565) The Daily Universal Register was first published by John Walter. It was renamed The Times on 1/1/1788.


12/1784, Samuel Johnson, dictionary writer, died aged 75.

15/12/1784, Wednesday (-58,582) Ludwig Devrient, German actor, was born (died 30/12/1832).

13/12/1784, Monday (-58,584) Samuel Johnson, born 18/9/1709, died. Aged 75, he had lived in near-poverty for many years but from 1762 was granted a Crown Pension of £3,000 a year. He is best remembered for his comprehensive dictionary, which took him eight years to complete.

7/12/1784, Tuesday (-58,590) Allan Cunningham, Scottish poet, was born (died 30/10/1842).



24/11/1784, Wednesday (-58,603) Zachary Taylor, American Whig and 12th President, was born in Orange County, Virginia.

22/11/1784, Monday (-58,605) Paolo Frisi, Italian mathematician, died (born 13/4/1728).

17/11/1784, Wednesday (-58,610) Ebenezer Henderson, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 17/5/1858).


10/1784, Napoleon entered the Ecole Militaire, where he failed to excel.

20/10/1784, Wednesday (-58,638) Lord Palmerston was born at 20, Queen Anne’s Gate, Westminster as Henry John Temple.

19/10/1784, Tuesday (-58,639) Leigh Hunt, British poet and essayist, was born.

17/10/1784, Sunday (-58,641) Napoleon, aged 15, entered the Ecole Militaire in Paris. He graduated a year later, coming 42nd out of 58.

15/10/1784, Friday (-58,643) (France) Thomas Bugeaud, Marshal of France, was born (died 10/6/1849).

14/10/1784, Thursday (-58,644) Ferdinand VII, King of Spain, was born.

10/1784, Napoleon entered the Ecole Militaire, where he failed to excel.


9/1784, First balloon ascent from London.

28/9/1784, Tuesday (-58,660)

26/9/1784, Sunday (-58,662) Christopher Hansteen, Norwegian scientific writer, was born (died 11/4/1873).

21/9/1784, Tuesday (-58,667) The first successful daily American newspaper, the Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, appeared.

20/9/1784, Monday (-58,668) (Cartography) Sir Richard Griffith, who prepared several geological maps of Ireland (1st, 1815), was born (died 22/9/1878).

15/9/1784, Wednesday (-58,673) The first hydrogen balloon ascent from London was made.

8/9/1784, Wednesday (-58,680) Ann Lee, religious leader and founder of the US sect of the Shakers, died.

4/9/1784, Saturday (-58,684) (Cartography) Cesar Cassini died (born 17/6/1714). In 1744 he began surveying for a map of France.

1/9/1784, Wednesday (-58,687) (Cartography) Thomas Colby, director of the Ordnance Survey, who surveyed Ireland, was born (died 9/10/1852)

9/1784, First balloon ascent from London.


8/1784,  First puropose-designed mail coach ran in Britain, Bristol toLondon.

13/8/1784, Friday (-58,706) The East India Act put the Company under a board of control to manage its revenue and administration.

2/8/1784, Monday (-58,717) The first specially constructed mail coach ran in Britain, from Bristol. to London.



30/7/1784, Friday (-48,720) Denis Diderot, French writer, died (born 5/10/1713).

22/7/1784, Thursday (-48,728) Friedrich Bessel, German astronomer, was born in Minden (died in Konigsberg 17/3/1846).

12/7/1784, Monday (-68,738) John Brown, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 13/10/1858).

8/7/1784, Thursday (-68,742) (Biology) Torbern Bergman, Swedish naturalist, died in Medevi (born in Katrineberg 20/3/1735).



29/6/1784, Tuesday (-58,751) (Spain) Alexandre Aguado, Spanish soldier and politician, was born in Seville (died 14/4/1842 in Gijon).



30/5/1784, Sunday (-58,781) (Britain) Sir William Brown, financier, was born (died 1864).

20/5/1784, Thursday (-58,791) Peace of Versailles, between England and Holland.

10/5/1784, Monday (-58,801) Antoine Court de Gebelin, French scholarly writer, died (born 1728).



11/4/1784, Sunday (-58,830) Easter Sunday.

3/4/1784, Saturday (-58,838) The British Parliament passed the India Act, to make the British East India Company more accountable.



25/3/1784, Thursday (-58,847) Francois Fetis, Belgian composer, was born (died 26/3/1871)

19/3/1784, Friday (-58,853) Henry Goulburn, English statesman, was born (died 12/1/1856).

12/3/1784, Friday (-58,860) William Buckland, geologist, was born (died 24/8/1856).



28/2/1784, Saturday (-58,873) John Wesley signed the Deed of Declaration of the Wesleyan faith.

20/2/1784, Friday (-58,881) Adam Black, Scottish book publisher, was born in Edinburgh (died 24/1/1874).



31/1/1784, Saturday (-58,901) Bernard Barton, English poet, was born in Carlisle (died in Woodbridge 19/2/1849).

28/1/1784, Wednesday (-58,904) (Britain) George Aberdeen, British statesman, was born in Edinburgh.

21/1/1784, Wednesday (-58,911) Peter de Wint, English landscape painter, was born (died 30/1/1849).

11/1/1784, Sunday (-58,921) Joseph Gwilt, British architectural writer, was born (died 14/9/1863)

2/1/1784, Thursday (-58,931) Ernst I, Duke of Saxe Coburg Gotha, was born (died 29/1/1844).


12/1783, Hydrogen balloon made 27-mile flight from Paris. First executions at Newgate Prison, London.

23/12/1783, Tuesday (-58,940) Johann Hasse, German composer, died.

19/12/1783, Friday (-58,944) William Pitt the Younger became Prime Minister.

18/12/1783, Thursday (-58,945) Johan Bystrom, Swedish sculptor, was born (died 1848).

9/12/1783, Tuesday (-58,954) The first executions at London’s Newgate Prison.

5/12/1783, Friday (-58,958) Simon Greanleaf, US legal writer, was born (died 6/10/1853).

1/12/1783, Monday (-58,962) Jacques Charles flew a 28-foot diameter hydrogen balloon made of silk, coated with rubber to make it airtight. It flew 27 miles from its start in Paris.

12/1783, Hydrogen balloon made 27-mile flight from Paris. First executions at Newgate Prison, London.


11/1783, First manned free flight in a balloon; 5 miles in 25 minutes.

25/11/1783, Tuesday (-58,968) British troops evacuated from New York.

24/11/1783, Monday (-58,969) Victor DuCange, novelist, was born (died 15/10/1833).

21/11/1783, Friday (-58,972) Man’s first free flight was made by Jean De Rosier and the Marquis D’Arlandes in the hot air balloon, the Montgolfier They travelled five miles in 25 minutes, reaching a height of 500 feet before landing safely near the Luxembourg Wood. On 4/6/1783 they had constructed an unmanned prototype, based on the ideas of the 14th century Augustinian monk, Albert of Saxony, and the 17th century priest, Francesco de Luna. On 17/10/1783 Pilatre de Rozier rose 84 feet in a hot air balloon before it reached the end of its tether. On 1/12/1783 the Montgolfier’s rivals Charles, and Robert ascended in a hydrogen balloon. On 27/8/1783 Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles, a member of the French Academy of Science, had launched a prototype hydrogen balloon.

7/11/1783, Friday (-58,986) The last hanging was held at Tyburn, west London. John Austin, convicted of forgery, was executed.  An estimated 50,000 had been executed at Tyburn.

3/11/1783, Monday (-58,990) Charles Colle, French dramatist, died (born 1709).

11/1783, First manned free flight in a balloon; 5 miles in 25 minutes.


10/1783, First manned flight in a tethered balloon.

29/10/1783, Wednesday (-58,995) (Mathematics) Jean Alembert, French mathematician, died in Paris.

15/10/1783, Wednesday (-59,009) (Aviation) Francois Pilatre de Rozier made the world’s manned first flight, in a tethered balloon.

10/10/1783, Friday (-59,014) Henry Brooke, Irish author, died.

6/10/1783, Monday (-59,018) (Britain) Thomas Attwood, English political reformer, was born in Halesowen, Worcestershire (died in Great Malvern, 6/3/1856).


9/1783, Britian officially recognised the USA. British returned to Belize. Balloon test flight in France.

18/9/1783, Thursday (-59,036) (Mathematics) Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician, died in St Petersburg, Russia.

17/9/1783, Wednesday (-59,037) (Mathematics) In France, King Louis XVI watched as two French papermakers, Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier, sent a large hot air balloon into the sky with a sheep, a rooster and a duck on board. The balloon reached 1500 feet and landed a mile away; the rooster was killed but the sheep and duck survived unharmed.

14/9/1783, Sunday (-59,040) Gaspar Gourgaud, French soldier, was born (died 1852).

8/9/1783, Monday (-59,046) Nikolai Grundtvig, Danish writer, was born (died 2/9/1872).

3/9/1783, Wednesday (-59,051) (Belize) British log-cutters returned to Belize during 1783 and this day a Treaty was signed giving British log-cutters the right to cut trees between the Rivers Wallis (Belize) and Rio Hondo. However this was “not to be considered as derogating from the rights of sovereignty of the King of Spain”.

2/9/1783, Tuesday (-59,052) Britain recognised the United States by signing the Treaty of Paris, thus ending the American War of Independence. By this treaty northern Florida was ceded by Britain to the USA but on the same day Britain had signed the Treaty of Versailles, ceding west Florida to Spain. This caused controversy for some year until the Treaty of Madrid in 1795 in which Spain ceded lands east of the Mississippi to the USA. The Spanish also regained Minorca from the British, and France got Senegal and Tobago from Britain. However in Senegal the British retained the Gambia river valley. Britain also paid a war indemnity of £10 million. Britain had sent a force of 60,000 men to fight a much larger population on their own ground, when Holland, France and Spain had sided with the opposition.


8/1783, Balloon launch from Paris; flew for 15 miles.

27/8/1783, Wednesday (-59,058) Jacques Cesar Charles, a rival hot air balloon maker to Montgolfier who preferred hydrogen to hot air, launched his balloon. It drifted 15 miles from Paris to Gonesse where it was hacked to pieces by frightened peasants; it expired with much hissing.

21/8/1783, Thursday (-59,064) John Gully, English boxer, was born (died 9/3/1863).

18/8/1783, Monday (-59,067) (Britain) John Dunning Ashburton, English lawyer, died in Exmouth (born 18/10/1731 in Ashburton, Devon).

13/8/1783, Wednesday (-59,072) John Crawfurd, Scottish writer on the Orient, was born (died 11/5/1868).

7/8/1783, Thursday (-59,078) John Heathcoat, English inventor, was born (died 18/1/1861).

8/1783, Balloon launch from Paris; flew for 15 miles.


7/1783, Simon Bolivar, liberator of South America, was born

24/7/1783, Thursday (-59,092) Simon Bolivar, South American revolutionary and liberator of South America from Spanish colonial rule, was born in Caracas, capital of Venezuela.


6/1783, Huge volcanic  eruption in Iceland, Hot air balloon unmanned test flight in Paris.

25/6/1783, Wednesday (-59,121) Lavoisier announced that water was the combustion product of oxygen and hydrogen.

11/6/1783, Wednesday (-59,135) James Fraser, Scottish travel writer, was born (died 1/1856).

8/6/1783, Sunday (-59,138) The Laki Volcano in Iceland erupted; the world’s largest volcanic eruption. One fifth of Iceland’s inhabitants, over 10,000 people, died as a 28km long fissure opened up, from which lava covered an area of 570 square kilometres. Some 12-15 cubic kilometres of lava were ejected. Deaths were from poisonous gases then from famine and disease as three quarters of Iceland’s livestock also perished.

5/6/1783, Thursday (-59,141) The Montgolfier Brothers flew the first hot air balloon. Unmanned, it ascended to 2,000 metres and remained there for ten minutes.


5/1783, US British refugees founded St Johns, Newfoundland. Katherine II of Russia introduced saerfdom in Ukraine.

23/5/1783, Friday (-59,154) James Otis, US patriot (born 5/2/1725), died from a lightning strike.

22/5/1783, Thursday (-59,155) William Sturgeon, English scientist who made the first practical electromagnet, was born in Whittington, Lancashire.

11/5/1783, Sunday (-59,166) The first British-loyalist refugees from the newly-independent United States of America arrived at the estuary of the St John’s River, Canada, having set sail from New York on 16/4/1783. They founded the city of St Johns.

3/5/1783, Saturday (-59,174) Katherine II of Russia, who was thought of as an enlightened monarch by Europeans, officially introduced serfdom in the Ukraine.


4/1783, US Congress proclaimed victory in the War of Independence.

29/4/1783, Tuesday (-59,178) David Cox, English painter, was born (died 7/6/1859).

28/4/1783, Monday (-59,179) Sir Eyre Coote, British soldier, died (born 1726).

24/4/1783, Thursday (-59,183)

21/4/1783, Monday (-59,186) Reginald Heber, English hymn-writer, was born (died 3/4/1826).

20/4/1783, Sunday (-59,187) Easter Sunday.

19/4/1783, Saturday (-59,188) US Congress officially proclaimed victory in the War of Independence.

17/4/1783, Thursday (-59,190) Louise Epinay, French writer, died (born 11/3/1726).

3/4/1783, Thursday (-59,204) Washington Irving, author of Rip Van Winkle, was born.

4/1783, US Congress proclaimed victory in the War of Independence.



25/3/1783, Tuesday (-59,213) Jean Guerin, French painter, was born (died 19/1/1855).


2/1783, Landscape gardener Capaility Brown died. British Parliament voted to discontinue the US war.

24/2/1783, Monday (-59,242) The British Parliament voted to discontinue the American War.

6/2/1783, Thursday (-59,260) (1) English landscape gardener Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown died. Kew Gardens and Blenheim Palace are examples of his work.

(2) The siege of Gibraltar ended.

1/2/1783, Saturday (-59,265) Andre Dupin, French statesman, was born (died 8/11/1865).


1/1783, First British Chamber of Commerce established, in Glasgow.

23/1/1783, Thursday (-59,274) Marie Beyle, French writer, was born in Grenoble (died in Paris 23/3/1842).

12/1/1783, Sunday (-59,285) Erik Geijer, Swedish historical writer, was born (died 23/4/1847).

2/1/1783, Thursday (-59,295) Johann Bodmer, author, died in Zurich (born near Zurich 19/7/1698).

1/1/1783, Wednesday (-59,296) Britain’s oldest Chamber of Commerce was established, in Glasgow.

5/12/1782, Thursday (-59,323) Martin van Buren, US Democrat and 8th President, was born in Kinderhook, New York State, the son of a farmer.


11/1782, USA massacred British-backed Shawnee Amerindians.

11/11/1782, Monday (-59,347) Francis Blackburne, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, born in County Meath (died 17/9/1867).

10/11/1782, Sunday (-59,348) The Americans massacred the British-backed Shawnee Indians. 1,000 Kentucky riflemen fired unremittingly on them, and destroyed their food stockpiles.



27/10/1782, Sunday (-59,362) Birth of the Italian composer and violinist Niccolo Paganini, in Genoa.

9/10/1782, Wednesday (-59,380) Lewis Cass, US politician, was born (died 17/6/1866).



7/9/1782, Saturday (-59,412) Susan Ferrier, Scottish novelist, was born (died 5/11/1854).


8/1782, Last hanging, drawing and quartering execution in Britain.

29/8/1782, Thursday (-59,421) At Spithead, a prime ship of the British Navy, the Royal George, sank with the loss of 900 lives. Launched in 1756, she was one of only 3 100-gun ships in the navy. An enquiry began as to whether she sank due to rotten timbers or due to her being heeled over so far that water entered her lower gunports.

24/8/1782, Saturday (-59,426) David Tyrie, having been found guilty of spying for the French, became the last person in Britain to be executed by hanging, drawing and quartering, at Portsmouth.

13/8/1782, Tuesday (-59,437) (Biology) Henri Duhamel, French botanist, died (born 1700).



15/7/1782, Monday (-59,466) Carlo Broschi (Farinelli), Italian singer, died (born 24/1/1705).



10/6/1782, Monday (-59,501) The Grand Theatre, Lancaster, was founded.



20/5/1782, Monday (-59,522) William Emerson, English mathematician, died (born 4/5/1701).

16/5/1782,  Thursday (-59,526) John Cotman, English landscape painter, was born (died24/7/1842).



25/4/1782, Thursday (-59,547) (Cartography) Adrian Balbi, Italian geographer, was born in Venice (died 14/3/1848 in Padua).

21/4/1782, Sunday (-59,551) Friedrich Froebel, German educational pioneer who established the first Kindergartens, was born in Oberweissbach.

18/4/1782, Thursday (-59,554) Georg Goldfuss, German palaeontological writer, was born (died 2/10/1848).

12/4/1782, Friday (-59,560) Admiral Rodney defeated a French fleet off the West Indies in the Battle of the Saints; named after the nearby Saints islands. This was during the War of American Independence.

7/4/1782, Sunday (-59,565) Sir Francis Chantrey, English sculptor, was born (died 25/11/1841).

6/4/1782, Saturday (-59,566) Chao P’ya Chakri founded the Chakri Dynasty in Siam, ruling as King Rama I. He made Bangkok the capital.


3/1782, Amerindians maasacred at Gnadenhutten, USA.

31/3/1782, Sunday (-59,572) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1782, Wednesday (-59,583) Lord North left office as Prime Minister.

19/3/1782, Tuesday (-59,584) (Astronomy) Wilhelm von Biela was born in Rossla, Austria. In 1826 he calculated the short-period of a comet that by 1846 had split in two and disappeared entirely by 1866, proving that comets can have short orbital periods.

18/3/1782, Monday (-59,585) John Calhoun, US statesman (died 31/3/1850) was born.

17/3/1782, Sunday (-59,586) The Swiss physicist Edward Bernoulli died.

14/3/1782, Thursday (-59,589) Thomas Benton, US politician, was born in North Carolina (died in Washington 10/4/1858).

8/3/1782, Friday (-59,595) The Gnadenhutten Massacre in Delaware. 160 volunteers under Colonel David Williamson attacked the Moravian mission town of Gnadenhutten. 90 Christian indigenous American Indian men women and children were slaughtered, and the mission church burnt down. A few survivors managed to flee to Canada.


2/1782, Britain decided not to continue the war against US independence.

27/2/1782, Wednesday (-59,604) The UK Parliament rejected Lord North’s appeal to continue the American War. Lord North resigned on 19/3/1782 and was replaced by Lord Rockingham.

22/2/1782, Friday (-59,609) Johann Hausmann, German mineralogist, was born (died 26/12/1859).

5/2/1782, Tuesday (-59,626) Spain captured Minorca from Britain.



20/1/1782, Sunday (-59,642) Joseph Hormayr, German historical writer, was born (died 5/10/1848)


31/12/1781, Monday (-59,662)

2/12/1781, Sunday (-59,691) Cenon Ensenada, Spanish statesman, died (born 2/6/1702).

11/12/1781, Tuesday (-59,682) Sir David Brewster, scientist, was born (died 10/2/1868).


11/1781, Austria abolished serfdom. Collingwood legal case established that slaves were not ‘merchandise’.

29/11/1781, Thursday (-59,694) The slave ship Zong sighted land in the West Indies (see 6/9/1781). Collingwood, the ship’s Master, told his officers there was insufficient water for them and all the slaves on board. Dysentery had also plagued the ship on its voyage from Liverpool, killing 60 slaves and 7 crew. Collingwood said if the slaves died of thirst the ship’s owners would bear the loss but if they were thrown overboard the loss would be covered  under insurance as a legal jettison. The weakest 132 slaves were picked out; 54 were thrown overboard that day, 42 the next day, and a further 26 were handcuffed and thrown overboard a few days later. A further ten jumped overboard before they were thrown. On 22/12/1781 the Zong docked at Kingston, Jamaica; the remaining slaves were sold and Collingwood returned to England, and claimed £30 each for the 132 ‘jettisoned’ slaves. The insurers refused to pay, and the first trial ruled in favour of Collingwood, saying ‘it was the same as if horses had been thrown overboard’. The insurers appealed to the Court of Exchequer and Lord Mansfield, judge, ruled otherwise. He said that although the law supported Collingwood, a higher principle applied; distinguishing between ‘law’ and justice’ he ruled in this ‘shocking case’ against Collingwood. Mansfield’s ruling was the first in an English Court that a slave was not simply merchandise.

20/11/1781, Tuesday (-59,703) Karl Eichhorn, German legal writer, was born (died 4/7/1854).

6/11/1781, Tuesday (-59,717) (Arts) Lucy Aikin, historical writer, was born in Warrington (died 29/1/1864 in Hampstead, London) .

4/11/1781, Sunday (-59,719) Johann Gotz, German poet, died (born 9.7/1721).

1/11/1781, Thursday (-59,722) Austria abolished serfdom, and gave all citizens the right of marriage, free movement, and instruction in any handicraft.  This initially applied to Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia; to Galicia soon after, and to Hungary in 1785.  Landowners had certain rights remaining, such as corvee, but these were reduced by later laws.

11/1781, Austria abolished serfdom. Collingwood legal case established that slaves were not ‘merchandise’.


10/1781, Final surrender of British forces in US War of Independence.

19/10/1781, Friday (-59,735) British forces under Lord Cornwallis, 7,000 soldiers, surrendered to George Washington at Yorktown, Virginia.  This was a combined force of Americans and their French allies.  This ended the American War of Independence.

17/10/1781, Wednesday (-59,737) Edward Hawke, British Admiral, died (born 1705).

5/10/1781, Friday (-59,749) After the victory at Chesapeake Bay (5/9/1781), George Washington commenced a heavy attack on the British besieged in Yorktown.

10/1781, Final surrender of British forces in US War of Independence.


9/1781, British in desperate situation in Yorktown, USA. Spanish founded Los Angeles.

19/9/1781, Wednesday (-50,675) (Britain) Tobias Furneaux, English navigator, died (born 21/8/1735).

16/9/1781, Sunday (-50,678) (USA) The British holding Yorktown scuttled ships in the estuary of Yorktown to try and thwart a French attack by sea. The British had superior sea-power (but faced a French naval threat) whilst the American rebels controlled the inland regions. The British hoped that some 2,000 escaped slaves, who believed a British victory would mean freedom for them, would enable their victory, but the Carolinas area could not be held against American forces. In August 1781 the British commander, Cornwallis, retreated to Virginia and established a defensive perimeter at Yorktown, Besides French warships, the British knew that the French commander Rochambeau was marching south from the Hudson Valley. The British sailed south from New York to support Yorktown, but a cannon battle off Yorktown between British and French proved inconclusive. After five days the British fleet under Graves, outgunned, withdrew back to New York. Yorktown was to surrender on 19/10/1781, ending the War of Independence.

11/9/1781, Tuesday (-59,773) Johann Ernesti, German religious writer, died (born 4/8/1707)..

6/9/1781, Thursday (-59,778) The slave ship Zong left Liverpool, with Luke Collingwood as its Master, with 400 slaves and 17 crew, see 29/11/1781.

5/9/1781, Wednesday (-59,779) (USA) Battle of Chesapeake Bay, USA, between British and French fleets. The British with 19 ships were defeated by De Grasse Tilly with 24 ships. The British were prevented from resupplying the troops under Lord Cornwallis, who was under siege in Yorktown.

4/9/1781, Tuesday (-59,780) (USA) In California, the Spanish founded a tiny village near San Gabriel. They called it Los Angeles.

3/9/1781, Monday (-59,781) (France) Eugene de Beauharnais, French soldier and stepson of Napoleon I, was born in Paris (died 1824).



30/8/1781, Thursday (-59,785) A French fleet commanded by De Grasse Tilly arrived in Chesapeake Bay.


7/1781, British victory in India.

11/7/1781, Wednesday (-59,835) Bartolommeo Borghesi, Italian antiquarian, was born near Rimini (died in San Marino 16/4/1860).

6/7/1781, Friday (-59,840) General Cornwallis defeated General Lafayette at Jamestown Road, Virginia.

5/7/1781, Thursday (-59,841) Sir Stamford Raffles, who founded Singapore, was born.

1/7/1781, Sunday (-59,845) In India, British troops defeated Haidar Ali at Porto Novo.


6/1781, Boers in South Africa massacred Black Xhose tribesmen.

9/6/1781, Saturday (-59,867) George Stephenson, inventor of The Rocket, was born in Wylam on Tyne, near Newcastle.  He was the son of a colliery engine-keeper.

6/6/1781, Wednesday (-59,870) Dutch Boer settlers in South Africa massacred black Xhosa tribesmen for the third time in three years. Dutch settlers were expanding eastwards, and successfully enslaving or driving away the Khoisan tribes, but the Xhosa put up more resistance.



27/5/1781, Sunday (-59,880) (Electrical) Giovanni Beccaria, Italian electrical physicist, died in Turin (born in Mondovi 3/10/1716).



29/4/1781, Sunday (-59,908) Charles Cottenham, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 29/4/1851).

15/4/1781, Sunday (-59,922) Easter Sunday.


3/1781, Herschel discovered the planet Uranus.

17/3/1781, Saturday (-59,951) Ebenezer Elliott, English poet, was born (died 1/12/1849).

13/3/1781, Tuesday (-59,955) (Space exploration) Astronomer William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus, although initially he mistook it for a comet. He called it Georgium Sidus (George’s Star) in honour of King George III.

6/3/1781, Tuesday (-59,962) Ignaz Castelli, Austrian dramatist, was born (died 5/2/1862).

1/3/1781, Thursday (-59,967) The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union were ratified by all US States.


2/1781, British captured St Eustatius from the Dutch.

24/2/1781, Saturday (-59,975) Edward Capell, English literary critic, died (born 11/6/1713).

16/2/1781, Friday (-59,980) Rene Laennec, French doctor who invented and named the stethoscope, was born in Quimper, Brittany.

3/2/1781, Saturday (-59,993) Having declared war on the Dutch (see 20/11/1780), the British captured from the Dutch the island of St Eustatius.


1/1781, First all-iron bridge, in Shropshire. France attempted again to invade Channel Islands.

30/1/1781, Tuesday (-59,997) Adelbert Chamisso, German poet, was born (died 21/8/1838).

26/1/1781, Friday (-60,001) Ludwig Arnim, German writer, was born in Berlin (died in Brandenburg 21/1/1831).

14/1/1781, Sunday (-60,013) Henry Clinton, English scholarly writer, was born (died 24/10/1852).

12/1/1781, Friday (-60,015) Richard Challoner, English religious writer, died (born 29/9/1691).

5/1/1781, Friday (-60,022) France attempted another invasion of the Channel Islands (see 1/5/1779). This too failed and they never attempted to invade again.

1/1/1781, Monday (-60,026) The first wholly iron bridge in the world was opened at Ironbridge, Shropshire, consisting of a 100 foot span across the Severn. In 1755 an iron bridge had been planned across the Rhone at Lyons but owing to the high cost only one span was made of iron; the others of wood.


12/1780, Financial crisis in France due to costs of supporting US independence against Britain.

26/12/1780, Tuesday (-60,032) John Fothergill, English physician, died (born 8/3/1712).

23/12/1780, Saturday (-60,035) France was suffering a deepening financial crisis, in part caused by the costs of supporting the Americans against Britain.

22/12/1780, Friday (-60,036) James Harris, English scholarly writer, died (born 20/9/1709).

20/12/1780, Wednesday (-60,038) John Croker, British author, was born (died 10/8/1857).

15/12/1780, Friday (-60,043) Johann Dobereiner, German chemist, was born (died 24/3/1849).

13/12/1780, Wednesday (-60,045) Johann Wolfgang was born in Hof, Bavaria. He discovered the catalytic properties of platinum, speeding up the reactions of organic gases. He also noticed similarities between elements, suggesting a Periodic Table.

12/1780, Financial crisis in France due to costs of supporting US independence against Britain.


11/1780, League of Armed Neutrality against Britain, who had been attacking foreign ships.

29/11/1780, Wednesday (-60,059) Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, died in Vienna.

20/11/1780, Monday (-60,068) Britain declared war on Holland, one of the members of the League of Armed Neutrality. This League had been set up on 28/2/1780 by Czarina Catherine II of Russia, after complaints that the British navy was attacking other country’s ships indiscriminately whether they were involved in the American War on Independence or not.

17/11/1780, Friday (-60,071) (Denmark) Peter Brondsted, Danish archaeologist, was born (died 26/6/1842).

14/11/1780, Tuesday (-60,074) Jacobus Houbraken, Dutch engraver, died (25/12/1698).

2/11/1780, Thursday (-60,086) Jacques Brunet, French writer, was born (died 14/11/1867).


10/1780, British defeat in North Carolina.

20/10/1780, Friday (-60,099) Thomas Horne, English religious writer, was born (died 27/1/1862).

10/10/1780, Tuesday (-60,109) (Medical) John Abercrombie, Scottish physician (died 145/11/1844) born in Aberdeen.

7/10/1780, Saturday (-60,112) Battle of Kings Mountain. A force of 900 from North Carolina defeated 900 pro-British militia.

2/10/1780, Monday (-60,117) John Andre (see 23/9/1780) was executed as a spy.



23/9/1780, Saturday (-60,126) During the War of American Independence, British agent John Andre, carrying information that Benedict Arnold was about to surrender West Point, was captured by American forces.

2/9/1780, Saturday (-60,147) (Christian) Lant Carpenter, English Unitarian Minister, was born (died 5/4/1840).



26/8/1780, Saturday (-60,154) Sir William Hoste, British Naval Captain, was born (died 6/12/1828).

19/8/1780, Saturday (-60,161) Pierre Beranger, French songwriter, was born in Paris (died 16/7/1857).

17/8/1780, Thursday (-60,163) George Croly, British author, was born in Dublin.

16/8/1780, Wednesday (-60,164) Battle of Camden, South Carolina.

3/8/1780, Thursday (-60,177) Etienne Condillac, French philosophical writer, died (born 30/9/1715).



11/7/1780, Tuesday (-60,200) Timothy Flint, US writer, was born (died 16/8/1840).

4/7/1780, Tuesday (-60,207) Charles, Prince of Lorraine, died (born 12/12/1712).


6/1780, Gordon riots, anti-Catholic, in London.

3/6/1780, Saturday (-60,238) William Hone, English writer, was born (died 6/11/1842).

2/6/1780, Friday (-60,239) The Gordon Riots, anti-Catholic ‘No Popery’ demonstrations named after Lord George Gordon, broke out in London. Lord Gordon had called his supporters to St Georges Fields and led them to protest against removal of some restrictions on Roman Catholics under the Catholic Relief Act of 1778.

1/6/1780, Thursday (-60,240) Karl von Clausewitz, military strategist, was born, in Burg, near Magdeburg, Prussia.


5/1780, British victory in the USA. French support to US. First Derby horse race.

21/5/1780. Sunday (-60,251) Elizabeth Fry, prison reformer, was born in Norwich. She was the daughter of a Quaker banker, John Gurney.

12/5/1780. Friday (-60,260) Charleston, in South Carolina, surrendered with 5,000 American troops to the British under Major Benjamin Lincoln.

11/5/1780, Thursday (-60,261) Carl Hase, French Byzantine historical writer, was born (died 21/3/1864).

8/5/1780, Monday (-60,264)

5/5/1780, Friday (-60,267) John James Audubon, US naturalist, was born (died 27/1/1851).

4/5/1780, Thursday (-60,268) The first Derby horse race was run, at Epsom.

2/5/1780, Tuesday (-60,270) Louis XVI sent 6,000 men to New England to reinforce the American forces against the British. On 11/5/1780 the Americans began negotiating with Spain to get support; France had been pressurising Spain to support the Americans.

5/1780, British victory in the USA. French support to US. First Derby horse race.


4/1780, First advert for an abortion clinic in Britain.

29/4/1780, Saturday (-60,273) Claude Dorat, French writer, died (born 31/12/1734).

28/4/1780, Friday (-60,274) The first advertisement for an abortion clinic appeared on the back page of London’s Morning Post. The address was 23, Fleet Street, London

7/4/1780, Friday (-60,295) William Channing, US religious writer, was born (died 2/10/1842).


3/1780, First Sunday newspaper appeared in Britain.

26/3/1780, Sunday (-60,307) Easter Sunday. The first Sunday newspaper in Britain was published; the British Gazette and Sunday Monitor.

17/3/1780, Friday (-60,316) Thomas Chalmers, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 30/5/1847).



19/2/1780, Saturday (-60,343) Friedrich Hagen, German scholarly writer, was born (died 11/6/1856).

14/2/1780, Monday (-60,348) (Britain) Sir William Blackstone, English jurist, died (born in London 10/7/1723).


1/1780, British naval victory over Spanish temporarily lifted siege of Gibraltar.

29/1/1780, Saturday (-60,364) (Britain) Charles Canterbury, British politician, was born (died 21/7/1845).

16/1/1780, Sunday (-60,377) British troops under Admiral Rodney defeated the Spanish, destroying all but four ships of their fleet, at Cape St Vincent. This temporarily lifted the siege of Gibraltar.

12/1/1780, Wednesday (-40,381) Wilhelm de Wette, German religious writer, was born (died 16/6/1849).

4/1/1780, Tuesday (-60,389) Horace Binney, US lawyer, was born in Pennsylvania (died 1875).



31/12/1779, Friday (-60,393) Johann Cotta, German religious writer died (born 12/3/1701).

23/12/1779, Thursday (-60,401) (Britain) Augustus John Hervey, Third Earl of Bristol, died (born 19/5/1724).

22/12/1779, Wednesday (-60,402) Thomas Gaisford, English scholarly writer, was born (died 2/6/1855).

18/12/1779, Saturday (-60,406) Joseph Grimaldi, English clown who invented the white face make up for clowns, was born.



5/11/1779, Friday (-60,449) Washington Allston, US artist, was born in Waccamaw, South Carolina. He died 9/7/1843 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

3/11/1779, Wednesday (-60,451) Hugh Gough, British Field Marshal, was born (died 2/3/1869).


10/1779, First Luddite riots in Manchester.

26/10/1779, Tuesday (-60,459) Henry Cockburn, Scottish Judge, was born (died 26/4/1854).

9/10/1779, Saturday (-60,476) The first Luddite riots began in Manchester against the introduction of machinery for spinning cotton.

6/10/1779, Wednesday (-60,479) (USA) Nathan Appleton, US politician, was born in New Ipswich, New Hampshire (died in Boston 14/7/1861).


9/1779, US privateers took British ship off Yorkshire. Belize invaded by Spanish.

23/9/1779, Thursday (-60,492) American privateers on the Bonhomme Richard, captained by John Paul Jones, captured the British warship, the Serapis, after a great battle off the English coast at Flamborough Head, Yorkshire.  This was during the war of the American Revolution.

17/9/1779, Friday (-60,498) (Britain) John Campbell, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 23/6/1861).

15/9/1779, Wednesday (-60,500) (Belize) Belize was invaded by a Spanish force. Prisoners were taken to Yucatan, then Havana,l where most died; the survivors were freed and allowed to go to Jamaica in 1782. However see 3/9/1783.

7/9/1779, Tuesday (-60,508) John Armstrong, writer, died.


8/1779, Last French serfs on Royal land freed.

10/8/1779, Tuesday (-60,536) Louis XVI freed the last remaining serfs on royal land.

7/8/1779, Saturday (-60,539) (France) Louis Freycinet, French navigator, was born (died 18/8/1842).

1/8/1779, Sunday (-60,545) Francis Scott Kay, US poet who wrote The Star Spangled Banner, which became the official US national anthem in 1931, was born in Carroll County, Maryland.



23/7/1779, Friday (-60,554) Thomas Denman, English Judge, was born (died  26/9/1854).


6/1779, Spain besieged Gibraltar.

16/6/1779, Wednesday (-60,591) The siege of Gibraltar began.


5/1779, French invasion of Channel islands repulsed, Austria made peace with Prussia, renounced claims to Bavarian throne.

15/5/1779, Saturday (-60,623) Napoleon, aged 9, entered the Military School at Brienne.

13/5/1779, Thursday (-60,625) At the Peace of Teschen, Austria made peace with Frederick of Prussia.  Austria received a small part of Bavaria, the Innvertiel, and renounced all claims to the Bavarian inheritance.

2/5/1779, Sunday (-60,236) John Galt, Scottish novelist, was born (died 11/4/1839).

1/5/1779, Saturday (-60,237) (France) France attempted an invasion of the Channel Islands. French troops landed on a beach on Jersey but were beaten back by the Island’s militia. See 5/1/1781.


4/1779, Spain to join France in assisting US rbeels against Britain.

27/4/1779, Tuesday (-60,641) Pavlovich Constantine, Grand Duke of Russia, was born (died 27/6/1831).

12/4/1779, Monday (-60,656) A secret treaty was signed at Aranjuez, whereby Spain agreed to help France in supporting the American rebels against the British. See 16/1/1780.

4/4/1779, Sunday (-60,664) Easter Sunday.



20/3/1779, Saturday (-60,679) (USA) Simon Brute, US prelate, was born (died 26/6/1839).


2/1779, US troops recaptured Vincennes from Britain., Captain James Cook killed by Hawaiians.

14/2/1779, Sunday (-60,713) Explorer Captain James Cook, born 27/10/1728, stabbed to death at Keelakekeua Bay by natives of Owyhee, the modern Hawaii. See 28/4/1770, 18/1/1778.

7/2/1779, Sunday (-60,720) William Boyce, English composer, died (born in London 7/2/1710).

5/2/1779, Friday (-60,722) American troops recaptured the fort at Vincennes from the British.



20/1/1779, Wednesday (-60,738) David Garrick, English actor and theatre manager, died. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

18/1/1779, Monday (-60,740) Peter Mark Roget, author of Roget’s Thesaurus, was born.

5/1/1779, Tuesday (-60,753) Stephen Decatur, US naval commander, was born (died 22/3/1820).


12/1778, British forces captured Savannah, Georgia.

29/12/1778, Tuesday (-60,760) The British captured Savannah, the capital of Georgia.

17/12/1778, Thursday (-60,772) Sir Humphrey Davy, inventor of the miner’s safety lamp, was born in Penzance (died 1829).  He was the son of a woodcarver. He also discovered the elements sodium, calcium, barium, magnesium, potassium and strontium by passing electricity through molten metal compounds.

6/12/1778, Sunday (-60,783) Joseph Gay-Lussac, French scientist, was born in St Leonard.



28/11/1778, Saturday (-80,791) Christoph Houwald, German author, was born (died 28/1/1845)

1/11/1778, Sunday (-60,818) Gustavus IV, King of Sweden, was born.


10/1778, Britain took Pondicherry, India.

26/10/1778, Monday (-60,824) Charles Glenelg, British politician, was born (died 23/4/1886).

18/10/1778, Sunday (-60,832) (India) The city of Pondicherry surrendered to the British.

5/10/1778, Monday (-60,845) Jacques Champollion-Figeac, French historical writer, was born (died 1867).



19/9/1778, Saturday (-60,861) (Britain) Henry Brougham, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 7/5/1868).

8/9/1778, Tuesday (-60,872) Klemens Brentano, German poet and novelist, was born (died 28/7/1842).


8/1778, First savings bank opened, in Hamburg.

12/8/1778, Wednesday (-60,899) Francis Horner, British economist, was born (died 8/2/1817).

3/8/1778. Monday (-60,908) La Scala opera house  in Milan opened, the work of Guiseppe Piermarini.

1/8/1778. Saturday (-60,910) The first savings bank opened, in Hamburg.


7/1778, France declared war on Britain, to support the US rebels.

27/7/1778, Monday (-60,915) The Battle of Ushant, between Britain and France.

10/7/1778. Friday (-60,932) In support of the American rebels, France declared war on Britain. In December 1778 Louis XIV issued a loan of 80 million livres; France ran up a large deficit supporting the American rebels.

2/7/1778. Thursday (-60,940) Jean Jacques Rousseau, the French political philosopher born in Geneva on 28/6/1712, died insane in Ermenonville.


6/1778, British defeated by George Washington in New Jersey. Beau Brummel, fashion dandy, born.

28/6/1778. Sunday (-60,944) The British were defeated by George Washington at the Battle of Monmouth, New Jersey.

24/6/1778, Wednesday (-60,948) Pieter Burmann, Dutch scholarly writer, died (born 13/10/1714).

16/6/1778, Tuesday (-60,956) Konrad Ekhof, German actor, died (born 12/8/1720).

7/6/1778. Sunday (-60,965) Beau Brummel was born in London, as George Bryan Brummell. Although he became a leader of fashion and a friend of the Prince Regent, he died destitute in France, aged 64, through gambling and extravagance.

6/1778, British defeated by George Washington in New Jersey. Beau Brummel, fashion dandy, born.


5/1778, Philosopher Voltaire died.

30/5/1778. Saturday (-60,973) The writer and philosopher Voltaire died aged 84. His real name was Francois Marie Arouet.

25/5/1778, Monday (-60,978) Claus Harms, German religious writer, was born (died 1/2/1855).

18/5/1778, Monday (-60,985) Samuel Hoar, US lawyer, was born (died 2/11/1856)

11/5/1778. Monday (-60,992) Statesman William Pitt the Elder, Earl of Chatham, died at Hayes, Middlesex.



22/4/1778, Wednesday (-61,011) James Hargreaves, inventor of the ‘spinning jenny’ in 1764, died in Nottingham.

19/4/1778, Sunday (-61,014) Easter Sunday.



5/3/1778, Thursday (-61,059) Thomas Arne, English composer, died in London.


2/1778, France recognised the newly-independent Unites States of America.

6/2/1778, Friday (-61,086) France recognised the independence of the United States.

4/2/1778, Wednesday (-61,088) Augustin Candolle, Swiss botanist (died 9/9/1841) was born.

2/1778, France recognised the newly-independent Unites States of America.


1/1778, Captain Cook discovered Hawaii. Carl Linnaeus, botanist,died.

26/1/1778, Monday (-61,097) Ugo Foscolo, Italian writer, was born (died 10/10.1827).

22/1/1778, Thursday (-61,101) Lord Byron, English romantic poet, was born in London

18/1/1778, Sunday (-61,105) Captain James Cook discovered Hawaii, then known as the Sandwich Islands. Having sailed from the Cape of Good Hope in 1776, Cook’s plan was to sail through the Bering Straits and attempt to find a north-east route between Europe and the Pacific from the eastern side. See 14/2/1779.

11/1/1778, Sunday (-61,112) Agathon Fain, French historical writer, was born (died 16/9/1837).

10/1/1778, Saturday (-61,113) Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish botanist who devised the modern system of naming and classifying plants, died in Uppsala.

5/1/1778, Monday (-61,118) Charles Etienne, French writer, was born (died 13/3/1845).

1/1778, Captain Cook discovered Hawaii. Carl Linnaeus, botanist,died.


12/1777, Plot to overthrow George Washington, USA, foiled. France recognised US independence.

23/12/1777. Tuesday (-61,131) (1) Tsar Alexander I, who defeated Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812, was born.

(2) A plot to overthrow General Washington was discovered and its leader executed.

17/12/1777, Wednesday (-61,137) Louis XIV recognised the independence of the American colonies. On 6/2/1778 France signed a trade agreement with the United States and entered the war against Britain. This was the result of negotiations by Benjamin Franklin, who was effectively the permanent American ambassador at Versailles.



29/11/1777, Saturday (-61,155) Sir Henry Ellis, writer, was born (died 15/1/1869).


10/1777, British forces ousted from most of USA.

26/10/1777, Sunday (-61,189) Francis Fawkes, English poet, died (born 1720).

21/10/1777, Tuesday (-61,194) Samuel Foote, English dramatist, died (born 27/1/1720).

17/10/1777, Friday (-61,198) At the Battle of Saratoga, American troops under General Horatio Gates defeated British troops under John Burgoyne, during the War of American Independence. The British Army surrendered and signed a Convention that they were to be disarmed and sent back to Britain. This major defeat made Britain evacuate all bases but New York and Rhode Island, and concentrate on gaining support in the southern States. France was encouraged by Saratoga to back the Americans, and their alliance with them in February 1778 escalated a colonial dispute into a clash of European Empires.

16/10/1777, Thursday (-61,199) Lorenzo Dow, US religious writer, was born (died 2/2/1834).

13/10/1777, Monday (-61,202)

7/10/1777, Tuesday (-61,208) The Battle of Bemis Heights. A preliminary skirmish during the Saratoga Campaign in the US War of Independence.

6/10/1777, Monday (-61,209) Guillaume Dupuytren, French surgeon, was born (died 8/2/1835).

4/10/1777, Saturday (-61,211) George Washington was defeated by the British at Germanstown.  George Washington’s attack was foiled by fog, throwing the attacking columns into confusion.

10/1777, British forces ousted from most of USA.



26/9/1777, Friday (-61,219) British troops launched a major offensive and captured Philadelphia.

12/9/1777, Friday (-61,233) Henri Blainville, French naturalist, was born near Dieppe (died in Paris 1/5/1850).

11/9/1777, Thursday (-61,234) At the Battle of Brandywine Creek, British troops under General Howe defeated American forces under George Washington; however they failed to follow up this success.



16/8/1777, Saturday (-61,260) The Battle of Bennington, Vermont. Britain defeated by Captain Stark.


7/1777, Vermont banned slavery.

30/7/1777, Wednesday (-61,277) Karl Grolman, Prussian soldier, was born (died 1/6/1843).

27/7/1777, Sunday (-61,280) Thomas Campbell, Scottish poet, was born (died 15/6/1844).

9/7/1777, Wednesday (-61,298) Henry Hallam, English historian, was born.

8/7/1777, Tuesday (-61,299) Vermont became the first US State to adopt a constitution banning slavery


6/1777, US adopted the Stars and Stripes Flag.

27/6/1777, Friday (-61,310) William Dodd, English religious writer, was executed for fraud (born 1729).

14/6/1777, Saturday (-61,323) The Stars and Stripes was adopted by Congress as the flag of the USA.


5/1777, World’s first iron boat launched.

20/5/1777, Tuesday (-61,348) The world’s first iron boat was launched into the River Foss near York. She was a 12’ long pleasure craft capable of carrying 15 persons.


4/1777, Cherokee nation ceded all land to the US. Gauss,scientist, was born.

30/4/1777, Wednesday (-61,368) Carl Friedrich Gauss, scientist, was born.  His father, Gerhard Gauss, was a labourer and bricklayer, and his mother, Dorothea Gauss, was a maid.

20/4/1777, Sunday (-61,378) The Cherokee Nation ceded all their land in South Carolina to the US federal government by the De Witts Corner Treaty.

12/4/1777, Saturday (-61,386) Henry Clay, US politician, was born (died 29/6/1852).



31/3/1777, Monday (-61,398) (Science) Charles Cagniard de la Tour, French inventor, was born (died 5/7/1859).

30/3/1777, Sunday (-61,399) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1777, Wednesday (-61,410) Anton Falck, Dutch statesman, was born (died 16/3/1843).

10/3/1777, Monday (-61,419) Louis Hersent, French painter, was born (died 2/10/1860).



24/2/1777, Monday (-61,433) Joseph I, King of Portugal, died.

13/2/1777, Thursday (-61,444) In Paris, the Marquis de Sade was arrested, and later condemned to death. However he escaped from prison before the execution.

12/2/1777, Wednesday (-61,445) Friedrich Fouque, German writer, was born (died 23/1/1843).



10/1/1777, Friday (-61,478) Spranger Barry, British actor, died in London (born in Dublin 23/11/1719).

3/1/1777, Friday (-61,485) George Washington defeated the British under Lord Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton, in the War of American Independence.


12/1776, US negotiations with France fior help against Britain.

31/12/1776, Tuesday (-61,488) The American, Benjamin Franklin, arrived in Paris to negotiate French aid for the American rebels.

26/12/1776, Thursday (-61,493) The Battle of Trenton. Major victory for Washington, who took 1,000 prisoners.


11/1776, War of American Independence continued..

20/11/1776, Wednesday (-61,529) John Callcott, English  musician, was born (died 15/5/1821).

17/11/1776, Sunday (-61,532) (Technology) James Ferguson, Scottish inventor, died (born 25/4/1710).

16/11/1776, Saturday (-61,533) British forces captured Fort Washington.

14/11/1776, Thursday (-61,535) (Biology) Rene Dutrochet, physiologist, was born (died 4/2/1847).

7/11/1776, Thursday (-61,542) James Dunfermline, British statesman, was born (died 17/4/1858).


10/1776, War of American Independence continued..

28/10/1776, Monday (-61,552) Battle of White Plains; General Howe defeated General Washington.

17/10/1776, Thursday (-61,563) Pierre Courayer, French theological writer, died (born 17/11/1681).

3/10/1776, Thursday (-61,577) The American Congress borrowed 5 million dollars to halt the rapid depreciation of paper currency, which was being printed to finance the revolution. Fighting against the British continued.


9/1776, US colonists waging guerrilla war with British.

28/9/1776, Saturday (-61,582) Cadwallader Colden, US medical writer, died (born 17/2/1688).

24/9/1776, Tuesday (-61,586) The oldest of the classic horse races, the St Leger, was first run at Doncaster.

22/9/1776, Sunday (-61,588) The US patriot Nathan Hale was found hanged in New York City by the British, for being a spy during the American Revolutionary War.

21/9/1776, Saturday (-61,589) The British captured Nathan Hale, 21-year old US Army Captain, who had been spying on the British in Long Island. He also started numerous fires in New York to create confusion amongst the British.

15/9/1776, Sunday (-61,595) The British under General Howe occupied New York, and narrowly missed capturing General Washington.

9/9/1776. Monday (-61,601) American Congress changed the name of the United Colonies to the United States.

6/9/1776, Friday (-61,604) The US pioneered the use of the submarine for military purposes. David Bushnell’s Connecticut Turtle, a pear-shaped 2 metre long wooden vessel dived under British ships in New York Harbour in an attempt to bore holes with an augur and plant explosives, However the British ships had copper bottoms and the attempt was futile.



27/8/1776, Tuesday (-61,614) The Battle of Long Island. General Howe’s army, 20,000 regular soldiers, defeated 8,000 colonials under General Israel Putnam.

2/8/1776. Friday (-61,639) Formal signing of America’s Declaration of Independence. See 4/7/1776.


7/1776, US Declaration of Independence.

11/7/1776. Thursday (-61,661) Explorer Captain James Cook set sail from Plymouth on his third and last voyage of discovery. He was looking for a passage around the north west side of America from the Pacific side.

4/7/1776. Thursday (-61,668) The American Declaration of Independence. See 2/8/1776. The Declaration of Independence was drafted by Thomas Jefferson between 11/6/1776 and 28/6/1776 and became America’s most cherished symbol of liberty. Its political philosophy voiced the ideas of individual liberty and justified to the world the breaking of ties between the old colony and Britain. The Liberty Bell was cast to signal the Independence of the USA and was rung from the tower of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, calling citizens to hear the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence. The bell has cracked and is no longer rung but remains a tourist attraction. Firework displays on 4 July symbolise the Revolutionary war that began in 1776.

1/7/1776, Monday (-61,671) Marie Gay, French author, was born (died 5/3/1852).

7/1776, US Declaration of Independence.


6/1776, San Francisco founded by Spanish colonists. British forces repulsed at Charleston.

29/6/1776, Saturday (-61,673) San Francisco (Spanish for "Saint Francis") was founded, when colonists from Spain established a fort at the Golden Gate and a mission named after St. Francis of Assisi a few miles away.

28/6/1776, Friday (-61,674) The British were repulsed at Charleston.

16/6/1777, Sunday (-61,686) Jean Gresset, French poet, died (born 29/8/1709).

11/6/1776. Tuesday (-61,691) John Constable, landscape painter, was born in East Bergholt, Suffolk, the son of a landowner and miller.

9/6/1776, Sunday (-61,693) (Science) Amedeo Avogadro, physicist who formulated Avogadro’s law, was born in Turin (died in Turin 9/7/1856).

2/6/1776, Sunday (-61,700) Robert Foulis, printer, died (born 1707).

6/1776, San Francisco founded by Spanish colonists. British forces repulsed at Charleston.


5/1776, Virginia the first part of the US to declare independence from Britain.

15/5/1776, Wednesday (-61,718) Virginia declared independence from the British Empire and adopted George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was then included in a new constitution.

4/5/1776, Saturday (-61,729) Johann Herbart, philosophical writer, was born (died 14/8/1841).



20/4/1776, Saturday (-61,743) Vasily Golovnin, Russian Vice-Admiral, was born. He was given the mission, accomplished 1817-19, of sailing a Russian ship around the world. He died on 12/7/1831.

10/4/1778, Wednesday (-61,753) William Hazlitt, English writer, was born (died 18/9/1830).

7/4/1776, Sunday (-61,756) Easter Sunday.


3/1776, British forces withdrew from Massachusetts.

24/3/1776, Sunday (-61,770) John Harrison, watchmaker and inventor of the chronometer, died in London.

17/3/1776, Sunday (-61,777) George Washington forced British troops to withdraw from Boston, Massachusettssee 5/3/1770, 16/12/1773, and 30/4/1789.


2/1776, 1st President of the Greek Republic was born (died 1831).

28/2/1776, Wednesday (-61,795) Jean Boyer, President of Haiti, was born (died in Paris 1850).

11/2/1776, Sunday (-61,812) (Greece) Giovanni Capo d’Istria, President of the Greek Republic, was born (died 9/10/1831).


1/1776, Birkbeck College founded, as the London Mechanics Institute.

25/1/1776, Thursday (-61,829) Johann Gorres, German writer, was born (died 29/1/1848).

24/1/1776, Wednesday (-61,830) Ernst Hoffmann, German writer, was born (died 24/7/1822)

10/1/1776, Wednesday (-61,844) George Birkbeck, Professor of natural philosophy, was born in Settle, North Yorkshire. He gave unpaid lectures to working class men, and founded the London Mechanics Institute, now known as Birkbeck College, in 1824.


12/1775, Jane Austen was born  US attack on Quebec failed.

31/12/1775, Sunday (-61,854) An American attack on Quebec failed.

28/12/1775, Thursday (-61,857) John Campbell, Scottish author, died (born 8/3/1708).

16/12/1775, Saturday (-61,869) Jane Austen was born at Steventon in Hampshire, the seventh child of eight born to a rector.

15/12/1775, Friday (-61,870) Francois Boieldieu, French poet, was born in Rouen (died in Paris 8/10/1834).

14/12/1775, Thursday (-61,871) Thomas Dundonald, British Admiral, was born (died 30/10/1860).

13/12/1775, Wednesday (-61,872) Rene Exelmans, Marshal of France, was born (died 10/7/1852).

12/12/1775, Tuesday (-61,873) William Henry, English chemist, was born (died 2/9/1836).

12/1775, Jane Austen was born  US attack on Quebec failed.


11/1775, US Marine Corps established.

30/11/1775, Thursday (-61,885) Jean Courvoisier, French politician, was born

21/11/1775, Tuesday (-61,894) John Hill, Emglish writer, died.

14/11/1775, Tuesday (-61,901) Paul Feuerbach, German writer on criminal law, was born (died 29/5/1833).

10/11/1775, Friday (-61,905) The US Marine Corps was founded.


10/1775, US Navy established.

21/10/1775, Saturday (-61,925) Guiseppe Baini, Italian musician, was born in Rome (died in Rome, 21/5/1844).

18/10/1775, Wednesday (-61,928) The British bombarded Falmouth, now called Portland, Maine.

15/10/1775, Friday (-25,407) (Chile) Jose Miguel Carrera, fighter for Chilean independence, was born (died 4/9/1821).

13/10/1775, Friday (-61,933) The Continental Congress established an American Navy, ‘Two swift sailing vessels’.

12/10/1775, Thursday (-61,934) (USA) Lyman Beecher, US preacher, was born in New Haven, Connecticut (died in Brooklyn, New York, 10/1/1863).



18/9/1775, Monday (-61,958) Andrew Foulis, printer, died (born 1712).

14/9/1775, Thursday (-61,962) John Hobart, US religious writer, was born (died 12/9/1830).

1/9/1776, Friday (-61,975) Ludwig Holty, German poet, died (born 21/12/1748).


8/1775, King Geirge III of Britain rejected negotiation offer from US colonists.

26/8/1775, Saturday (-61,981) William Behr, German writer, was born in Salzheim (died in Bamberg 1/8/1851).

23/8/1775, Wednesday (-61,984) George III rejected an offer of peace, saying the Americans were in open rebellion against the Crown.

12/8/1774, Saturday (-61,995) Jean Boissonade, French scholarly writer, was born in Paris (died 8/9/1857).

6/8/1775, Sunday (-62,001) Daniel O’Connell, who fought against the 1801 Act of Union between Ireland and Great Britain, was born in County Kerry. See 15/5/1847.



5/7/1775, Wednesday (-65,033) William Crotch, English musician, was born (died 19/12/1847).


6/1775, US War of Independence progressed.

26/6/1775, Monday (-62,042) George Washington of Virginia arrived at Boston to take command of the American Army.

17/6/1775, Saturday (-62,051) British troops under Lord Howe defeated the rebel American colonists at Bunker Hill, near Boston, but suffered heavy losses themselves. The battle was actually fought on nearby Breeds Hill.

14/6/1775, Wednesday (-62,054) In the USA, the Second Continental Congress authorised the enlistment of ten companies of citizen soldiers; the beginning of the US Army.

12/6/1775, Monday (-62,056) General Gage imposed martial law, declared all armed colonists traitors, and offered pardons to those who swore allegiance to the Crown.

9/6/1775, Friday (-62,959) Georg Grotefrend, German writer, was born (died 15/12/1853).

6/1775, US War of Independence progressed.


5/1775, First Declaration of US Independence.

20/5/1775, Saturday (-62,079) Charlotte in North Carolina was the first place to declare Independence from Britain, the Mecklenburg Declaration.

11/5/1775, Thursday (-62,088) Caroline Matilda, former wife of King Christian VII of Norway and Denmark, died.

10/5/1775, Wednesday (-62,089) Fort Ticonderooga was captured from the British by the Green Mountain Boys of Vermont.

9/5/1775, Tuesday (-62,090) (USA) US soldier Jacob Brown was born (died 24/2/1828).

2/5/1775, Tuesday (-62,097)

5/1775, First Declaration of US Independence.


4/1775, Battle of Lexington; start of US War of Independence. First colonial anti-slavery group.

23/4/1775, Sunday (-62,106) Painter Joseph Mallory William Turner was born at Covent Garden, London. He was the son of a barber.

22/4/1775, Saturday (-62,107) Georg Hermes, German religious writer, was born (died 26/5/1831).

20/4/1775, Thursday (-62,109)

19/4/1775, Wednesday (-62,110) The Battle of Lexington, the opening engagement of the War of American Independence took place.  The British were marching to destroy a colonist’s arms depot near Concorde, Boston but were intercepted at Lexington.  The colonists avoided a set battle with the British but harried them, guerrilla-style, from the cover of hills and trees.  The British were forced to retreat.

18/4/1775, Tuesday (-62,111) Paul Revere and William Dawes rode through the night from Charlestown to Lexington to warn the Massachusetts colonists of the arrival of British forces at the start of the War of American Independence.

16/4/1775, Sunday (-62,113) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1775, Friday (-62,115) Benjamin Franklin and Dr Benjamin Rush formed the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held In Bondage – the first colonial anti-slavery group.

11/4/1775, Tuesday (-62,118) Birth of James Parkinson, the physician who identified Parkinson’s Disease.

4/1775, Battle of Lexington; start of US War of Independence. First colonial anti-slavery group.


3/1775, Britain became harsher with US colonists despite advice to reconcile.

22/3/1775, Wednesday (-62,138) Statesman Edmund Burke urged the House of Commons to adopt a policy of reconciliation with the Americans. However on 13/4/1775 Lord North extended the scope of the Restraining Act from New England to cover South Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New Jersey. The Act forbade trade with any other country except Britain and Ireland and was bitterly resented by the Americans. On 14/4/1775 General Gage was ordered to implement the Coercive Acts and halt the colonial military build-up.

5/3/1775, Sunday (-61,155) Pierre Buirette, French dramatist, died (born in Auvergne 17/11/1727).


2/1775, Britain and Massachusetts virtually at war.

15/2/1775, Wednesday (-62,173) After a long conclave, Pope Pius VI (250th Pope) acceded. Formerly Cardinal Gianangelo Braschi, he died in 1799.

10/2/1775, Friday (-62,178) Charles Lamb, English writer, was born in The Temple, London, son of a clerk.

9/2/1775, Thursday (-62,179) The UK Parliament declared Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion. On 21/2/1775 Massachusetts voted to buy military equipment for 15,000 men.

7/2/1775, Tuesday (-62,181)

6/2/1775, Monday (-62,182) William Dowdeswell, English politician, died (born 1721).

5/2/1775, Sunday (-62,183) (Christian) Eusebius Amort, German Catholic Theologian, died in Pulling, Bavaria (born 15/11/1692 in Bibermuhle, Upper Bavaria).

3/2/1775, Friday (-62,185) Maximilien Foy, French statesman, was born (died 28/11/1825).

1/2/1775, Wednesday (-62,187) Philippe Gerard, French inventor, was born (died 26/8/1845).


1/1775, Ampere, scientist, was born.

22/1/1775, Sunday (-62,197) Andre Ampere French mathematician and scientist, and founder of the science of electromagnetics, was born in Lyons, son of a wealthy merchant.

8/1/1775, Sunday (-62,211) (Books) John Baskerville, printer, died (born in Wolverley, Worcestershire 28/1/1706).


12/1774, Austria introduced world’s first State education system.

6/12/1774, Tuesday (-62,244) Austria introduced the world’s first state education system.

1/12/1774, Thursday (-62,249) (Arts) Johann Agricola, German musician died in Berlin (born 4/1/1720 in Dobitschen).



29/11/1774, Tuesday (-62,251) Johann Gruber, German writer, was born (died 7/8/1851).

25/11/1774, Friday (-62,255) (Science) Henry Baker, English scientist, died in London (born in London 8/5/1698).

24/11/1774, Thursday (-62,256) Thomas Dick, Scottish writer on astronomy, was born (died 29/7/1857).

22/11/1774, Tuesday (-62,258) Robert Clive, English soldier and Governor of India, died from an overdose of opium, shortly after being vindicated of improper behaviour regarding the East India Company.

15/11/1774, Tuesday (-62,265) William Horsley, English musician, was born (died 1858).


10/1774, American colonists moved to fight British, declare independence.

27/10/1774, Thursday (-62,284) Alexander Baring, British financier and politician, was born (died 13/5/1848)

26/10/1774, Wednesday (-62,285) A meeting of colonial leaders at Philadelphia criticised British influence in America and affirmed the American’s right to ‘life, liberty, and property’. Colonists began to step up their boycott of British goods, tarred and feathered traders and burnt their homes, and began to raise militias for a war against Britain.

16/10/1774, Sunday (-62,295) Robert Fergusson, Scottish poet, died (born 5/9/1750).

10/10/1774, Monday (-62,301) The Battle of Point Pleasant. Shawnee Indians were defeated when they attacked frontiersmen on the Ohio River.



22/9/1774, Thursday (-62,319) Pope Clement XIV (249th Pope) died.

14/9/1774, Wednesday (-62,327) (India) Lord William Bentinck, Governor-General of India, was born (died in Paris 17/6/1830).

5/9/1774, Monday (-62,336) America’s first Continental Congress was convened, at Philadelphia.



2/8/1774, Tuesday (-62,370) The first mail coach left London for Bristol. The journey took over 24 hours.

1/8/1774, Monday (-62,371) British chemist Sir Joseph Priestly announced he had discovered oxygen.


7/1774, Russia and Turkey signed Treaty; Russia gained pretext to intervene in Turkish internal affairs.

27/7/1774, Wednesday (-62,376) (Russia) Samuel Gmelin died whilst exploring the Caspian area.

16/7/1774, Saturday (-62,387) (Russia, Turkey) The Russians and Turks signed the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war. Moldavia and Wallachia were returned to Turkey and the Crimea became independent. Russia gained control of much of the northern Black Sea coast. The Sultan was allowed to remain spiritual leader of the Crimean Moslems; however Russia gained the right to build and protect an Orthodox church in Istanbul. Russian merchants were to have unrestricted access to the Black Sea and Mediterranean across Ottoman territories. This gave Russia a pretext to intervene in Turkish internal affairs.

1/7/1774, Friday (-62,402) Henry Holland, British statesman, died (born 28/9/1705).


6/1774, UK Parliament reactivated the Quartering Act, compelling colonists to provide accommodation for british troops. This caused resentment. Rhode Island banned the importation of slaves, and freed those already there.

24/6/1774, Friday (-62,409) Francois Haxo, French military engineer, was born (died 25/6/1838).

22/6/1774, Wednesday (-62,411) (Canada) The Quebec Act received Royal Assent.

15/6/1774, Wednesday (-62,418) Karl Bogatzky, German hymn writer, was born in Lower Silesia (died 15/6/1774).

13/6/1774, Monday (-62,420) (Race Equality)  Rhode Island became the first US State to ban the importation of slaves, and to free those already in the State.

9/6/1774, Thursday (-62,424) Joseph Hammer-Purgstall, German orientalist writer, was born (died 23/11/1856).

2/6/1774. Thursday (-62,431) The UK Parliament reactivated the Quartering Act (passed 24/3/1765), requiring that all British colonialists provide housing for British troops.

6/1774, UK Parliament reactivated the Quartering Act, compelling colonists to provide accommodation for british troops. This caused resentment. Rhode Island banned the importation of slaves, and freed those already there.


5/1774, London cracked down harder on Boston colonists, Coercive Acts passed.

27/5/1774, Friday (-62,437) American community leaders met unofficially in a tavern and decided upon the need for annual inter-colonial congresses.

20/5/1774, Friday (-62,444)  Because of the Boston Tea Party incident, London passed the Coercive Acts to punish the American colonies. Boston port was closed down and the powers of the Massachusetts legislature was reduced. The British Parliament passed the Boston Port Act, prohibiting the use by any ships, of the port of Boston, USA. This simply served to inflame the passions of American colonists against the British further in cities from Pennsylvania to New York.

15/5/1774, Sunday (-62,449) Johann Fuchs, German chemist, was born (died 5/3/1856).

13/5/1774, Friday (-62,451) Pierre Guerin, French painter, was born (died 6/7/1833).

10/5/1774, Tuesday (-62,454) King Louis XV of France died, aged 64, of smallpox. He had reigned for 58 years. He was succeeded by his 19-year old grandson, Louis XVI.

7/5/1774, Saturday (-62,457) (USA) William Bainbridge, US naval commodore, was born in Princeton, New Jersey (died 28/7/1833).

2/5/1774, Monday (-62,462) (Britain) John Elias, Welsh nonconformist preacher and reformer, was born (died 8/6/1841).

5/1774, London cracked down harder on Boston colonists, Coercive Acts passed.



28/4/1774, Thursday (-62,466) (Astronomy) Edward Baily, British astronomer, was born in Newbury, Berkshire. He died in London on 30/8/1844.

26/4/1774, Tuesday (-62,468) (Geology) Christian Buch, German geologist, was born (died 4/3/1853).

21/4/1774, Thursday (-62,473) Jean Biot, French scientific writer, was born in Paris (died in Paris 3/2/1862).

7/4/1774, Thursday (-62,487) Robert Elliston, English actor, was born (died 1831).

3/4/1774, Sunday (-62,491) Easter Sunday.



16/3/1774, Wednesday (-62,509) Matthew Flinders, English explorer who gave his name to the Flinders River and mountain range in Australia, was born.



24/2/1774, Thursday (-62,529) (Britain) Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, was born (died 8/7/1850).


1/1774, Captain Cook narrowly missed discovering Antarctica.

30/1/1774, Sunday (-62,554) Captain Cook turned his ship back at 71 degrees south, 105 degrees west, due to heavy mist, having failed to sight any land of the ‘southern continent’. In fact he was just 75 miles off the coastline of Antarctica.

29/1/1774, Saturday (-62,555) Olinthus Gregory, English mathematics writer, was born (died 2/2/1841).

19/1/1774, Wednesday (-62,565) Thomas Gillespie, Scottish religious writer, died (born 1708).


12/1773, Boston Tea party, Major rebellion against British tax burden on colonists.

21/12/1773, Tuesday (-62,594) (Biology) Robert Brown, botanist, was born (died 10/6/1858).

16/12/1773, Thursday (-62,599) The Boston Tea Party. See 28/10/1767,  5/3/1770 and 17/3/1776. American colonial rebels, dressed as American Indians, boarded three British tea ships anchored in Boston Harbour, opened 342 tea chests worth UK£ 9,000, and threw their contents overboard. The colonists vowed not to pay the British-imposed tax of 3 pence a pound on tea. This tax was intended to capitalise on a ‘tea mountain’ which had built up in London and threatened to bankrupt the East India Company. The East India Company faced financial problems because British demand for Indian goods exceeded Indian demand for British goods, so there was an outflow of British gold bullion, perceived to be against British interests (mercantilism). The East India Company failed to make money, whereas it had been hoped that the Company would be able to contribute to British public funds. Therefore the East India Company was given permission to export tea directly to the American colonists. In 1765 the Stamp Act was imposed by Britain to help pay for the costs of the Seven Years War; this was rejected by the American colonists. Repealed, this was replaced by the Townshend Acts, imposing duties on a range of goods including tea, lead, glass, paper and paint. In 1770 the Townshend Acts were in turn repealed, except for the Tea Tax.

14/12/1773, Tuesday (-62,601) Johannes Gossner, German preacher and philanthropist, was born (died 20/3/1858).



21/11/1773, Sunday (-62,624) Henry Holland, british statesman, was born (died 22/10/1840).

16/11/1773, Tuesday (-62,629) John Hawkesworth, English writer, died.

14/11/1773, Sunday (-62,631) Stapleton Combermere, British Field Marshal, was born (died 21/2/1865).

9/11/1773, Tuesday (-62,636) Thomasine Gyllembourg, Danish writer, was born (died 2/7/1856).



31/10/1773, Sunday (-62,645) Francois Droz, French writer, was born (died 1850).

6/10/1773, Wednesday (-62,670) Louis Philippe, King of France, was born.



22/8/1773, Sunday (-62,715) Aime Bonpland, botanist, was born in La Rochelle (died 4/5/1858).

20/8/1773, Friday (-62,717) Enrique Florez, Spanish historical writer, died (born 14/2/1701).

3/8/1773, Tuesday (-62,734) Marie Gontaut, Governess to the children of the French Royal Family, was born (died 1857).


7/1773, Jesuits abolished by the Pope.

23/7/1773, Friday (-62,745) (Astronomy) Sir Thomas Brisbane, Scottish astronomer, was born (died 27/1/1860).

21/7/1773, Wednesday (-62,747) The Pope dissolved the Society of Jesus. This was the result of pressure from Spain and France, where the Jesuits had been found too unbending and zealous.

5/7/1773, Monday (-62,763) Francisco Freire, Portuguese historical writer, died (born 3/1/1719).



7/6/1773, Monday (-62,791) Guatemala City was destroyed by an earthquake.



30/5/1773, Sunday (-62,799) Joseph Emmerich, French politician, was born (died 27/4/1833).

19/5/1773, Wednesday (-62,810) (Chemistry) Arthur Aikin, English chemist, was born in Warrington (died 15/4/1854 in London).

15/5/1773, Saturday (-62,814) Alban Butler, English religious writer, died (born 24/10/1710).



11/4/1773, Sunday (-62,848) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1773, Sunday (-62,855) Etienne Gerard, French General, was born (died 17/4/1852).



24/3/1773, Wednesday (-62,866) Philip Stanhope, British Earl and politician, died (born 22/9/1694).



14/2/1773, Sunday (-62,904) Jules Delessert, French writer, was born (died 1847).

10/2/1773, Wednesday (-62,908) John Gregory,Scottish physician, died (born 3/6/1724).

9/2/1773, Tuesday (-62,909) William Henry Harrison, American Whig and 9th President, was born in Berkeley in Charles City County, Virginia.


1/1773, Cook’s ship became first to cross the Antarctic Circle.

27/1/1773, Wednesday (-62,922) Death of Philippe Buache, cartographer who invented contour lines on maps.

21/1/1773, Thursday (-62,928) Clemens Droste-Vischering, German religious writer, was born (died 1845).

17/1/1773, Sunday (-62,932) Captain Cook’s ship Resolution became the first ship to cross the Antarctic Circle.

15/1/1773, Friday (-62,934) Antoine Chezy, French writer on the Orient, was born (died 1832)

5/1/1773, Tuesday (-62,944) Richard Heber, book collector, was born (died 4/10/1833).

4/1/1773, Monday (-62,945) Paul Courier, French writer, was born (died 18/8/1825).

1/1773, Cook’s ship became first to cross the Antarctic Circle.



28/12/1772, Monday (-62,952) Ernst Biren, Russian, died.

17/12/1772, Thursday (-62,963) (Medical) Francois Broussart, French physician, was born (died 17/11/1838).

12/12/1772, Saturday (-62,968) Bertand Clausel, Marshal of France, was born (died 21/4/1842).

6/12/1772, Sunday (-62,974) Henry Cary, English author, was born (died 14/8/1844).


11/1772, Lavoisier discovered that combustion increased a susbtance’s weight, as it ‘absorbed air’.

28/11/1772, Saturday (-62,982) Johann Hermann, German scholarly writer, was born (died 31/12/1848).

10/11/1772, Tuesday (-63,000) Pedro Garcao, Portuguese poet, died (born 1724).

1/11/1772, Sunday (-63,009) The French chemist Lavoisier announced that sulphur and phosphorus, when burned, gained weight because they had ‘absorbed air’; similarly metallic lead prepared from litharge lost weight because it had ‘lost air’. The nature of this ‘air’ was found to be oxygen in 1774 by Joseph Priestley.



25/10/1772, Sunday (-63,016) Geraud Duroc, French General, was born (died 23/5/1813).

21/10/1772, Wednesday (-63,020) The poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who wrote The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, was born at Ottery St Mary in Devon.  He was the son of a vicar.



30/9/1772, Wednesday (-63,041) James Brindley, who built the Bridgewater, Grand Trunk (Grand Union), and Manchester Canals, died at Turnhurst in Staffordshire.


8/1772, Poland partitioned between Prussia, Russia and Austria.

31/8/1772, Monday (-63,071) William Borlase, geologist, died (born in Penden, Cornwall 2/2/1695).

23/8/1773, Sunday (-63,079) Jakob Fries, German philosophical writer, was born (died 10/8/1843).

19/8/1772, Wednesday (-63,083) Gustavus III of Sweden re-established an absolute monarchy, as he removed the Riksdag’s power to legislate. However he also liberalised, abolishing torture and proclaiming the freedom of the press and of religious worship.

17/8/1772, Monday (-63,085) Marc Desaugiers, French composer, was born (died 9/4/1827).

11/8/1772, Tuesday (-63,090) Rowland Hill, British General, was born (died 10/12/1842).

6/8/1772, Thursday (-63,096) (Geology) Andre Brochant de Villiers, French geologist, was born (died 16/5/1840).

5/8/1772, Wednesday (-63,097) Russia, Prussia, and Austria signed a treaty agreeing on the partition of Poland. Poland lost about a third of its land and half its population. Frederick II of Prussia wanted the wedge of territory known as West Prussia separating Brandenburg from East Prussia. Catherine of Russia saw a weak Poland as an opportunity for Russian expansion. To appease Austrian concerns about an expansionist Russia, Austria was given the Polish land of Silesia.

2/8/1772, Sunday (-63,100) Louis Enghien, French soldier, was born (died 1804).

8/1772, Poland partitioned between Prussia, Russia and Austria.


6/1772, British anti-smuggling ship destroyed by American colonists.

9/6/1772, Tuesday (-63,154) The British schooner Gaspee was set on fire and destroyed by American colonists after it had run aground near Providence, Rhode Island. The schooner had been stationed to prevent a profitable smuggling trade in the region. A British investigation failed to find the culprits.

8/6/1772, Monday (-63,155) Robert Stevenson, engineer, was born.

5/6/1771, Friday (-63,158) Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, was born (died 18/11/1851).



20/5/1772, Wednesday (-63,174) (Innovation) Sir William Congreve, British inventor, was born (died 16/5/1828).

4/5/1772, Monday (-63,190) Freidrich Brockhaus, German publisher, was born (died 20/8/1823).


4/1772, Economist David Ricardo born.

30/4/1772, Thursday (-63,194) The first dial weighing machine was patented by John Clais in London.

19/4/1772, Sunday (-63,205) Easter Sunday. The economist David Ricardo was born.

17/4/1772, Friday (-63,207) (USA) Archibald Alexander, US Presbyterian clergyman, was born in Virginia (died 22/10/1851 in Princeton, New Jersey).

15/4/1772, Wednesday (063,209) Saint-Hilaire Geoffroy, French naturalist writer, was born (died 19/6/1844).

13/4/1772, Monday (-63,211) Warren Hastings was appointed Governor of Bengal.

7/4/1772, Tuesday (-63,217) Francois Fourier, French socialist writer, was born (died 10/10/1837).



26/3/1772, Thursday (-63,229) Charles Duclos, French author, died (born 1704).

22/3/1772, Sunday (-63,233) (Electricity) John Canton, English scientist died (born 31/7/1718).



29/2/1772, Saturday (-63,265)Marie Gerando, French philosophical writer, was born (died 9/11/1842).

24/2/1772, Monday (-83,260) William Crawford, US statesman, was born (died 15/9/1834).

20/2/1772, Thursday (-83,264) Isaac Chauncey, US naval commander, was born (died 27/2/1840).

18/2/1772, Tuesday (-83,266) Johann Bernstorff, Danish statesman, died (born 13/5/1712).

15/2/1772, Saturday (-83,269) Johann Ess, German religious writer, was born (died 13/10/1847).

9/2/1772, Sunday (-83,275) Frans Franzen Swedish poet, was born (died 14/8/1847).

3/2/1772, Monday (-83,281) (Medical) Jean Esquirol, French psychiatrist, was born (died 13/12/1840. In 1817 he began a series of lectures on the treatment of the insane in French asylums, exposing such mistreatment  that the Government appointed a commission to investigate.



31/1/1772, Friday (-63,284)



26/12/1771, Thursday (-63,320) Heinrich Collin, Austrian dramatist, was born (died 28/7/1811).



14/11/1771, Thursday (-63,362) Marie Bichat, French anatomist, was born in Jura (died 22/7/1802).



14/10/1771, Monday (-63,393) John Gill, English religious writer, died (born 1697).



10/9/1771, Tuesday (-63,427) Birth of the surgeon and west African explorer Mungo Park, at Foulshiels near Selkirk. He charted the course of the River Niger.

5/9/1771, Thursday (-63,432) Charles, Archduke of Austria, was born (died 30/4/1847).


8/1771, Joseph Priestley discovered that oxygen is released from growing plants.

17/8/1771, Saturday (-63,451) The Birmingham scientist Joseph Priestley discovered that oxygen is released from growing plants.

15/8/1771, Thursday (-63,453) The novelist Sir Walter Scott was born in Edinburgh.



30/7/1771, Tuesday (-63,469) Thomas Gray, English poet, died.

7/7/1771, Sunday (-63,492) (Britain) John Britton, English antiquary, was born (died1/1/1857).



27/6/1771, Thursday (-63,502) (Agriculture)  Philipp Fellenberg, promoter of agricultural education, was born (died 21/11/1844).

8/6/1771, Saturday (-63,521) George Halifax, Englush statesman, died (born 1716).




4/1771, Railway pioneer Richard Trevithick born.

30/4/1771, Tuesday (-63,560) Hosea Ballou, US writer, was born in Richmond, New Hampshire (died in Boston 7/6/1852).

13/4/1771, Saturday (-63,577) Engineer and railway pioneer Richard Trevithick was born, at Illogan near Redruth, Cornwall.

3/4/1771, Wednesday (-63,587) Hans Hauge, Norwegian religious writer, was born (died 29/3/1824).

4/1771, Railway pioneer Richard Trevithick born.



31/3/1771, Sunday (-63,590) Easter Sunday.

21/3/1771, Thursday (-63,600) Thomas Dibdin, English dramatist, was born (died 16/9/1841).

10/3/1771, Sunday (-63,611) Georg Creuzer, German historical writer, was born (died 16/2/1858).



24/2/1771, Sunday (-63,625) Johann Cramer, English composer, was born (died 16/4/1858).

12/2/1771, Tuesday (-63,637) Adolphus Frederick of Sweden died, aged 60, in Stockholm. He was succeeded by his 25-year old son, Gustavus III.



17/1/1771, Thursday (-63,663) Charles Brown, US novelist, was born (died 22/2/1810).

11/1/1771, Friday (-63,669) Jean Argens, French writer, died near Toulon (born 24/6/1704 in Aix en Provence).

3/1/1771, Thursday (-63,661) Louis Bignon, French historical writer, was born in Rouen (died 1841).


12/1770, Beethoven, composer, born.

22/12/1770, Saturday (-63,689) Demetrius Gallatzin, US priest, was born (died 6/5/1840).

16/12/1770, Sunday (-63,695) Beethoven, German composer, was born in Bonn, the son of an undistinguished tenor.



24/11/1770, Saturday (-63,717) Charles Henault, French historical writer, died (born 8/2/1685).

14/11/1770, Wednesday (-63,727) British explorer James Bruce discovered the source of the Blue Nile, at Lake Tana.

13/11/1770, Tuesday (-63,728) George Grenville, British statesman, died (born 14/10/1712).

1/11/1770, Thursday (-63,740) Alexander Cruden, Bible Concordance writer, died (born 31/5/1701).



18/10/1770, Thursday (-63,754) John Granby, British soldier, died (born 1721).


9/1770, Corsica submitted to French rule.

30/9/1770, Sunday (-63,772) Thomas Grantham, English politician, died.

17/9/1770, Monday (-63,785) John Foster, English writer, was born (died 15/10/1843).

15/9/1770, Saturday (-63,787) (see 15/5/1768), Corsica formally submitted to French rule.

9/9/1770, Sunday (-63,793) (Medical) Bernhard Albinus, German anatomist, died in Leiden (born 14/2/1697 in Frankfurt on Oder).



27/8/1770, Monday (-63,806) (Education-Philosophers) Georg Hegel, philosopher, was born (died 14/11/1831)

24/8/1770, Friday (-63,809) Thomas Chatterton, English poet, died (born 20/11/1752).

22/8/1770, Wednesday (-63,811) (Britain) Sir Jahleel Brenton, British Admiral, was born.

1/8/1770, Wednesday (-63,632) (USA) William Clark, US explorer, was born (died 1/9/1838).