Historical events from 1 January 1600 to 31 December 1699

Page last modified 25/7/2020

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero  =Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/1700 click here

 

7/1/1700, Sunday (-89,595) Raphael Fabretti, Italian historical writer, died (born 1618).

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20/12/1699, Wednesday (-89,613) Peter the Great changed New Year’s day in Russia from September 1 to January 1.

19/12/1699, Tuesday (-89,614) William Bowyer, printer, was born in London.

29/11/1699, Wednesday (-96,634) Patrick Gordon, Scottish-born Russian General, died (born 1635).

20/10/1699, Friday (-89,674)

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22/9/1699, Friday (-89,702) Citizens of Rotterdam went on strike over the high price of butter.

1/9/1699, Friday (-89,723) George Benson, English ecclesiastical writer, was born in Cumberland (died 6/4/1762).

25/8/1699, Friday (-89,730) Christian V, King of Norway and Denmark, died (born 15/4/1646).

14/7/1699, Friday (-89,772) William Bates, English writer, died in Hackney (born in London 11/1625).

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Q.2 1699, Early steam engine demonstrated to the Royal Society.

14/6/1699, Wednesday (-89,802) Thomas Savery demonstrated his first steam engine to the Royal Society.

1/5/1699, Monday (-89,846) Pierre le Moyne d’Iberville founded the first European settlement on the Mississippi at Fort Maurepas, now Ocean Springs, Mississippi.

9/4/1699, Sunday (-89,868) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1699, Early steam engine demonstrated to the Royal Society.

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Q.1 1699, Peace of Carlowitz; Turkey gave up Hungary to Austria.

12/3/1699, Sunday (-89,896) Peder Griffenfeldt, Danish statesman, died (born 24/3/1635).

4/3/1699, Saturday (-89,904) The Jews were expelled from Lubeck, Germany.

26/1/1699, Thursday (-89,941) Prince Eugene (see 29/8/1697), having invaded Serbia and Bosnia, forced the Turks to conclude the Peace of Carlowitz.  This restored the entire Kingdom of Hungary, with the exception of the Banat of Temesvar, to Austria from Turkey.  This was the start of the rise to power of the Hapsburg Dynasty.

14/1/1699, Saturday (-89,953) Massachusetts held a day of mourning for having wrongly persecuted witches.

Q.1 1699, Peace of Carlowitz; Turkey gave up Hungary to Austria.

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31/12/1698, Saturday (-89,967)

28/11/1698, Monday (-90,000) Frontenac, French colonial Governor of Canada, died. He was very much mourned by the French Canadians.

16/11/1698, Wednesday (-90,012) A congress began in Sremski Karlovici to discuss an end to the war between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire.

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Q.3 1698, Russia imposed a beard tax, to Europeanise the country. Early steam pump engine patented, for mines.

5/9/1698, Monday (-90,084) (Russia) Tsar Peter I of Russia imposed a tax on beards in an effort to move his country from Asiatic to European customs.

19/7/1698, Tuesday (-90,132) Johann Bodmer, author, was born near Zurich (died in Zurich 2/1/1783).

14/7/1698, Thursday (-90,137) The first settlers left Scotland for an ill-fated scheme to colonise Panama; the Darien scheme.

2/7/1698, Saturday (-90,149) (Innovation) Thomas Savery patented an early steam engine. This engine could be used to pump water out of mines, an increasing problem as miners went ever deeper. However Savery’s (1650-1715) engine was fairly primitive. It could not pump water up from more than 10metres below it, meaning it had to be installed deep within mines. This was dangerous as Savery’s engine  was prone to explosions. In 1721 Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729), working with Savery, produced an improved atmospheric engine. The full potential of the steam engine was not realised until James Watt (1736-1819) added a condenser in 1769, with the backing of businessman Matthew Boulton.

Q.3 1698, Russia imposed a beard tax, to Europeanise the country. Early steam pump engine patented, for mines.

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8/5/1698, Sunday (-90,204) (Science) Henry Baker, English scientist, was born in London (died in London).

24/4/1698, Sunday (-90,218) Easter Sunday.

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Q.1 1698, Massachusetts colonists made peace with Amerindians.

2/3/1698, Wednesday (-90,271)

16/2/1698, Wednesday (-90,285) Pierre Bouguer, French scientist, was born (died15/8/1758).

15/1/1698, Saturday (-90,117) Richard Boyle, Irish statesman, died (born 1612).

4/1/1698, Tuesday (-90,328) The Palace of Whitehall, London, was destroyed by fire.

1/1/1698, Saturday (-90,331) The Abenaki tribe and the Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty ending the conflict in New England.

Q.1 1698, Massachusetts colonists made peace with Amerindians.

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Q.4 1697, Hogarth and Canaletto born. St Pauls Cathedral opened.

14/12/1697, Tuesday (-90,349) Charles XII was crowned King of Sweden, aged 15.

5/12/1697, Sunday (-90,358) The first Sunday service was held in Sir Christopher Wren’s new St Paul’s Cathedral (consecrated 2/12/1697), London; the foundation stone had been laid on 22/6/1675.

10/11/1697, Wednesday (-90,383) The painter William Hogarth was born at Smithfield, London, the son of a teacher.

27/10/1697, Wednesday (-90,397) Lightning struck Athlone Castle, Ireland, igniting 260 barrels of gunpowder along with other munitions. The resultant fire destroyed the town of Athlone, although only 8 people were killed.

19/10/1697, Tuesday (-90,405) Claude Goujet, French religious writer, was born (died 1/2/1767).

18/10/1697, Monday (-90,406) Birth of the painter Canaletto. He was born in Venice, as Giovanni Antonio Canal, and was trained by his father who was a scene painter. As a youth Canaletto went to Rome to study under the classical painter Pannini. He returned to Venice to become the most famous painter of Venetian views of the 18th century. His patron was Joseph Smith who served as English consul in Venice; as a result Canaletto’s work became popular with English travellers and he came to England in 1746, staying there for most of the next 10 years. He painted his four views of Warwick Castle, the two largest of which are (2001) in the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery.

16/10/1697, Saturday (-30,408) Nicholas Amhurst, English poet, was born in Marden, Kent (died 27/4/1742 in Twickenham).

Q.4 1697, Hogarth and Canaletto born. St Pauls Cathedral opened.

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Q.3 1697, End of the Nine Years War. Britain assists Netherlands against France; Dutch curb UK Jacobites.

27/9/1697, Monday (-90,427) (Geology) Franz Bruckmann, German geologist, was born (died 21/3/1753).

20/9/1697, Monday (-90,434) (Benelux, Britain) The Treaty of Ryswick ended the Nine Years War. This Treaty led to the Barrier Treaties (1709-15) between Britain and the Netherlands, with the idea that Britain would assist The Netherlands to maintain a line of fortresses against any future French attacks. These fortresses included Ypres, Lille, Tournai, Valenciennes and Namur. In return the Dutch promised to send 6,000 troops to help Britain resist a Jacobite uprising, which they did supply in 1715.

11/9/1697, Saturday (-90,443) At the Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy, leading an Austrian army, defeated the Ottomans under Mustafa II, see 26/1/1699.

6/8/1697, Friday (-90,481) Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 20/1/1745).

11/7/1697, Sunday (-90,505) (Cartographer) Jean Anville, French cartographer, was born in Paris (died 1781).

7/7/1697, Wednesday (-90,509) John Eachard, English religious writer, died.

Q.3 1697, End of the Nine Years War. Britain assists Netherlands against France; Dutch curb UK Jacobites.

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30/6/1697, Wednesday (-90,516) Sir Thomas Blount, English author, died in Tittenhanger (born in Upper Holloway 12/9/1649)

7/5/1697, Friday (-90,570) The Royal Castle, Tree Kronor (Three Crowns) in Sweden burnt down, destroying a large part of the Royal Library.

23/4/1697, Friday (-90,584) (Britain) George Anson, British Admiral, was born in Shugborough, Staffordshire (died 6/6/1762).

9/4/1697, Friday (-90,598) William Craven, Lord Mayor of London, died (born 6/1608).

5/4/1697, Monday (-90,602) Death of King Charles XI of Sweden, aged 40, after a 37-year reign. He was succeeded by his 14-year-old son, Charles XII, who ruled until 1718, see 14/12/1697.

4/4/1697, Sunday (-90,603) Easter Sunday.

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14/2/1697, Sunday (-90,652) (Medical) Bernhard Albinus, German anatomist, was born in Frankfurt on Oder (died 9/9/1770 in Leiden).

28/1/1697, Thursday (-90,669) (Britain) Sir John Fenwick, Jacobite conspirator against King William, was executed.

1/1/1697, Friday (-90,696) (India) Joseph Dupleix, French colonial governor of India, was born (died 10/11/1763).

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12/12/1696, Saturday (-90,716) John Hampden, English historical writer, died.

17/10/1696, Saturday (-90,772) (Poland) Augustus III, King of Poland, was born in Dresden (died in Saxony 5/10/1763).

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Q.3 1696, Russia occupied Azov, at the mouth of the Don,

22/8/1696, Saturday (-90,828) Forces of Venice and Turkey fought near Molino.

28/7/1696, Tuesday (-90,853) Charles Colbert de Croissy, French diplomat, died (born 1625).

18/7/1696, Saturday (-90,863) The Fleet of Tsar Peter I of Russia occupied Azov, at the mouth of the River Don.

6/7/1696, Monday (-90,875) Frontenac, French colonial Governor of Canada, left Lachine for a campaign against the Iroquois people. However the Iroquois abandoned their villages and pursuit of them proved impracticable so on 10/8/1696 Frontenac left the area.

Q.3 1696, Russia occupied Azov, at the mouth of the Don,

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Q.2 1696, Greenwich Hospital founded. Britain further curbed export rights of American colonists.

30/6/1696. Tuesday (-90,881) Greenwich Hospital founded.

17/6/1696, Wednesday (-90,894) John III Sobieski, King of Poland, died aged 72, after a 20-year reign. In 1697 Poland chose the Elector of Saxony, Frederick Augustus, aged 27, to succeed him. He was crowned in September 1697 and ruled as Augustus II until his death in 1733.

15/5/1698, Friday (-90,927) Marie Champmesle, French actress, died (born 1642).

27/4/1696, Monday (-90,945) Simon Foucher, French philosophical writer, died (born 1/3/1644).

16/4/1696, Thursday (-90,956) Giovanni Batista Tiepolo, Venetian painter, was born.

12/4/1696, Sunday (-90,960) Easter Sunday

10/4/1696, Friday (-90,962) England’s Navigation Act forbade the Colonies in America from exporting directly to Ireland or Scotland.

Q.2 1696, Greenwich Hospital founded. Britain further curbed export rights of American colonists.

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Q.1 1696, Peter the Great became Russian Tsar, succeeding Ivan V

18/3/1696, Wednesday (-90,985) (Britain) Robert Charnock, conspirator to kill King William III of England near Turnham Green London, and restore a Stuart monarchy, was hanged.

14/3/1696, Saturday (-90,989) Jean Domat, French legal writer, died (born 30/11/1625).

29/1/1696, Wednesday (-91,034) Ivan V, Tsar of Russia, died.  Peter the Great became Tsar. He decreed that all Russians should be clean – shaven, or pay a beard tax.

Q.1 1696, Peter the Great became Russian Tsar, succeeding Ivan V

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Q.4 1695, Britain imposed a window tax. The Bank of England was founded.

31/12/1695. Tuesday (-91,063) A window tax was imposed in Britain, resulting in many being blocked up.

28/11/1695, Thursday (-91,096) Giovanni Colonna, Italian musician, died.

21/11/1695, Thursday (-91,103) Henry Purcell, English composer, died in London from tuberculosis.

5/10/1695, Saturday (-91,150) John Glas, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 1773).

Q.4 1695, Britain imposed a window tax. The Bank of England was founded.

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Q.3 1693, First dating advertisement in Britain.

21/9/1695, Saturday (-91,164)

19/7/1695, Friday (-91,228) The first dating advertisement appeared, in Britain. A gentleman of about 30 years of age of some wealth sought a woman with an estate of around £3,000 to match with.

Q.3 1693, First dating advertisement in Britain.

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11/6/1695, Tuesday (-91,266) Andre Felibien, French writer, died (born 5/1619).

8/6/1695, Saturday (-91,269) (Innovation) Christiaan Huygens, the Dutch scientist who invented the pendulum clock, died (born 1629)

8/4/1695, Monday (-91,330) Johann Gunther, German poet, was born (died 15/3/1723).

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24/3/1695,  Sunday (-91,345) Easter Sunday.

6/2/1695, Wednesday (-91,391) Ottoman Sultan Ahmed II died (born 1642, acceded 1691, succeeding his brother Suleiman II). He was defeated by the Austrians at Slankamen (20/8/1691), which denied possession of Hungary to the Ottomans, This battle established the Danube as the boundary between Austria and Ottoman Turkey.

2/2/1695, Saturday (-91,395) William Borlase, geologist, was born in Penden, Cornwall (died 31/8/1771).

27/1/1695, Sunday (-91,401) Nicolas Bernoulli, mathematician, was born (died 26/7/`1726).

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28/12/1694. Friday (-91,431) (Britain) Queen Mary II died from smallpox (born 1662), leaving William III to reign alone.

26/12/1694, Wednesday (-91,433) Charles, 2nd Earl of Dunfermline, died.

21/11/1694, Wednesday (-91,468) (Education-Philosophers) Voltaire, French philosopher and writer, was born in Paris as Jean Francois-Marie Arouet (died 1778).

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Q.3 1694, Bank of England founded.

22/9/1694, Saturday (-91,528) Philip Stanhope, British Earl and politician, was born (died 24/3/1773).

27/7/1694, Friday (-91,585) The Bank of England was founded, by Montagu, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, with government backing. Its remit was to carry out all the monetary business of the government and to obtain interest on the government’s money.

Q.3 1694, Bank of England founded.

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24/6/1694, Sunday (-91,618) Jean Burlamaqui, Swiss writer was born (died 3/4/1748).

11/5/1694, Friday (-91,662)

11/4/1694, Wednesday (-91,692) The Dukedom of Bedford was created.

8/4/1695, Sunday (-91,695) Easter Sunday.

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Q.1 1694, Last Palmares (escaped Black slave community) captured by the Portuguese colonists.

27/3/1694, Tuesday (-91,707)

17/2/1694, Saturday (-91,745) Antoinette Deshoulieres, French poet, died (born 1/1/1638).

6/2/1694, Tuesday (-91,756) Portuguese forces in Brazil captured Macaco, the last stronghold of the Palmares, after a siege of 42 days. The Palmares were Africans, Mocambos, who had fled from the Brazilian plantations and established their own de-facto independent state in eastern Brazil in the early 1600s. The name Palmares derives from the palm trees of the area which provided food and shelter.

27/1/1694, Saturday (-91,766)

Q.1 1694, Last Palmares (escaped Black slave community) captured by the Portuguese colonists.

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Q.4 1693, Bank of Scotland founded,

27/12/1693, Wednesday (-91,797)

1/11/1693, Wednesday (-91,853) The Bank of Scotland was founded.

11/10/1693, Wednesday (-91,874) Charleroi surrendered to the French.

Q.4 1693, Bank of Scotland founded,

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11/8/1693, Thursday (-91,935)

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Q.2 1693, In Britain, the first ladies magazine was published.

27/6/1693, Tuesday (-91,980) The Ladies Mercury, the first magazine for women, was published.

1/6/1693, Thursday (-92,006) Alexius Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Grand Chancellor of Russia, born in Moscow (died 21/4/1768).

22/5/1693, Monday (-92,016) Heidelberg was captured by the French; Heidelberg Castle surrendered on 23/5/1693.

16/4/1693, Sunday (-92,052) Easter Sunday.

9/4/1693, Sunday (-92,059) Roger Bussy, French writer, died (born 13/4/1618).

3/4/1693, Monday (-92,065) George Edwards, British naturalist, was born (died 23/7/1773).

Q.3 1693, In Britain, the first ladies magazine was published.

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7/3/1693, Tuesday (-92,092) Pope Clement XIII was born.

23/1/1693, Monday (-92,135) Georg Bilfinger, German statesman, was born in Wurttemberg (died in Stuttgart 18/2/1750).

11/1/1693, Wednesday (-92,147) Mount Etna erupted; a large earthquake affected Sicily and Malta.

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21/11/1692, Monday (-92,198) Carlo Frugoni, Italian poet, was born (died 20/12/1768).

15/11/1692, Tuesday (-92,204) (Christian) Eusebius Amort, German Catholic Theologian, was born in Bibermuhle, Upper Bavaria (died 5/2/1775 in Pulling, Bavaria).

31/10/1692, Monday (-92,219) Anne Claude Caylus, writer, was born (died 1765).

25/10/1692, Tuesday (-92,225) (Spain) Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, was born (died 1766).

4/10/1692, Tuesday (-92,246) Charles Fleetwood, English politician, died.

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11/9/1962, Sunday (-92,269)

10/8/1962, Wednesday (-92,301)

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Q.2 1692, French fleet for invasion of England destroyed. First of Salem Wicthes hanged.

10/6/1692, Friday (-92,362) The first of the Salem Witches was hanged.  She was Bridget Bishop, one of 150 respectable citizens accused of witchcraft by a hysterical band of young girls in the isolated Puritan town in Massachusetts.

7/6/1692, Tuesday (-92,365) (Earthquake, Jamaica) Earthquake in Jamaica. 3,000 killed, as Port Royal subsided into the sea.

19/5/1692, Thursday (-92,384) At the battle of La Hogue, the British and Dutch destroyed a French fleet off Cap de la

Hague. The French fleet under Colbert was severely reduced, ending French hopes of invading England.

18/5/1692, Wednesday (-92,385) Elias Ashmole, founder of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, died (born 23/5/1617).

Q.2 1692, French fleet for invasion of England destroyed. First of Salem Wicthes hanged.

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Q.1 1692, Glencoe Massacre, of Scottish Jacobites.

27/3/1692, Sunday (-92,437) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1692, Tuesday (-92,463) In the US, the Salem witch hunt began.

29/2/1692, Monday (-92,464) John Byrom, English poet, was born (died 26/9/12763).

13/2/1692, Saturday (-92,480) Massacre at Glencoe. 40 members of the MacDonald clan were massacred by the Campbells. This massacre was on the orders of William III, because of their Jacobite sympathies of the MacDonalds and their delay in swearing an oath of allegiance. On 27/8/1691 a proclamation was issued offering indemnity to all who took the oath of allegiance before 1/1/1692. All Scottish chiefs took the oath except MacIan, chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, who postponed the submission until 31/12/1691. He then could not take the oath until 6/1/1692 because there was no magistrate at Fort William. This irregularity gave Breadalbane (John Campbell, First Earl of Breadalbane) the excuse to destroy the clan that had for generations plundered the lands of himself and his neighbours. The Macdonalds were in fact giving hospitality to their murderers when they rose up and killed them.  Breadalbane managed to prevent most of the evidence against him from being presented; he was imprisoned for a short time in Edinburgh Castle on the grounds of earlier negotiations with the Highland chiefs, but was released when it was known he was acting with the knowledge of King William.

Q.1 1692, Glencoe Massacre, of Scottish Jacobites.

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Q.4 1691, Defeated pro-Jacobite Irish soldiers allowed to depart for France.

30/12/1691, Wednesday (-92,525) Robert Boyle, scientist, died.  He formulated Boyle’s Laws on gases.

16/10/1691, Friday (-92,600) Isaac de Benserade, French poet, died.

3/10/1691, Saturday (-92,613) The surrender of Limerick. Irish soldiers were allowed to depart for France; 11,000 did so.

29/9/1691, Tuesday (-92,617) Richard Challoner, English religious writer, was born (died 12/1/1781).

Q.4 1691, Defeated pro-Jacobite Irish soldiers allowed to depart for France.

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Q.3 1691, Decisive victory by William over Irish Jacobites at Aughrim.

12/7/1691, Sunday (-92,696) King William III won a decisive victory over the Jacobites at Aughrim, Ireland. The Jacobite army under Charles Chalmont, Marquis de St Ruth, had initial success in the battle until Chalmont was killed, his forces lost morale and fled. 7,000 Jacobite soldiers were killed. By the end of 1691 all Jacobite resistance to William in Ireland had ceased.

Q.2 1691, Jacobite uprising in English colony of New York failed.

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Q.2 1691, Jacobite uprising in English colony of New York failed.

26/5/1691, Tuesday (-92,743) James Lesler was executed for treason in New York.  He had led an uprising against the English in favour of James II.

12/4/1691, Sunday (-92,787) Easter Sunday

9/4/1691, Thursday (-92,790) Johann Gesner, German scholarly writer, was born (died 3/8/1761).

Q.2 1691, Jacobite uprising in English colony of New York failed.

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27/2/1691, Friday (-92,831) Edward Cave, English printer, was born (died 10/1/1754).

13/1/1691, Tuesday (-92,876) George Fox, English religious leader who founded the Society of Friends (often known as the Quakers) died in London.

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Q.4 1690, Ottoman Turks recaptured Belgrade.

31/12/1690, Wednesday (-92,889)

25/10/1690, Saturday (-92,957) Martin Folkes, English writer, was born (died 1754).

17/10/1690, Friday (-92,965) (France) Marguerite Alacoque, French nun who was beatified by Pope Pius IX in1846, died (born 22/7/1647 near Autun).

8/10/1690, Wednesday (-92,973) Belgrade was retaken by the Ottoman Turks.

3/10/1690, Friday (-92,978) Robert Barclay, Scottish Quaker writer, died (born 1648).

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Q.3 1690, William defeated Jacobites in Ireland at battle of the Boyne. James fled to France again.

24/8/1690, Sunday (-93,018) The port of Calcutta was founded by Job Charnock of the English East India Company.

9/8/1690, Saturday (-93,033) The siege of Limerick began.

11/7/1690, Friday (-93,062) William of Orange defeated the Jacobites under the deposed Catholic King James II at the Battle of the Boyne. The River Boyne was the only defensive barrier between Belfast and Dublin, and James II’s forces were well dug in on rising ground there. James II’s forces lost 1,600 men; William’s, only a third of that number. William won, and James fled to Waterford and then on to France.

7/9/1690,  Monday (-93,066) Karl Bogatzky, German hymn writer, was born in Lower Silesia (died 15/6/1774).

Q.3 1690, William defeated Jacobites in Ireland at battle of the Boyne. James fled to France again.

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Q.2 1690, Anglo-Dutch naval force defeated French Catholics wanting Catholic uprising in Britain,

30/6/1690, Monday (-93,073) The Battle of Beachy Head. An allied force of 37 British ships and 22 Dutch ships was at anchor off Beachy head whilst a French fleet of 70 ships waited off to the south-west, waiting to co-operate with an anticipated Catholic Jacobite uprising in England. The English commander, Torrington, wished to retire to the mouth of the Thames till he could be reinforced, but the Council of Regency ordered him to remain where he was, and fight if he could secure an advantageous position. Torrington took this as an order to fight the French and bore down on them; however with inferior numbers, there were gaps between the British ships. The Anglo-Dutch fleets began to suffer heavy losses from French fire. But the tide turned from flood to ebb during the engagement, and whilst the Anglo-Dutch ships dropped anchor, the French did not, and were carried away westwards on the current. Some of the most damaged British ships were abandoned in Pevensey Bay. Torrington was tried for his conduct but acquitted.

1/6/1690, Sunday (-93,102) At Fleurus, Belgium, a French Army fought an allied Spanish and Dutch army.  The French won.

21/5/1690, Wednesday (-93,113) (Christian) John Eliot, the ‘Apostle to the Indians’, died (born 1604). He preached to the Amerindian tribes, and translated the Bible into the Algonquian language.

22/4/1690, Tuesday (-93,142) John Granville, Emglish statesman, was born (died 22/1/1763).

20/4/1690, Sunday (-93,144) Easter Sunday.

18/4/1690, Friday (-93,146) Charles Duke of Lorraine died (born 3/4/1643).

1/4/1690, Tuesday (-93,163)

Q.2 1690, Anglo-Dutch naval force defeated French Catholics wanting Catholic uprising in Britain,

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19/2/1690, Wednesday (-93,204) (Russia) Alexius Petrovich, Tsarevich, was born (died 1718).

1/2/1690, Saturday (-93,222)

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31/12/1689, Tuesday (-93,254)

1/12/1689, Sunday (-93,284)

16/11/1689, Saturday (-93,299) Marquard Gude, German scholarly writer, died (born 1/2/1635).

22/10/1689, Tuesday (-93,324) John V, King of Portugal, was born.

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Q.3 1689, China made border treaty with Russia. Catholics failed to take Londonderry. Jacobites won in Scotland.

7/9/1689, Saturday (-93,369) China signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk with Russia. This was the first treaty signed by China with another country as opposed to a vassal state. The Treaty settled border disputes in the Amur region.

12/8/1689, Monday (-93,395) Pope Innocent XI died.

5/8/1689, Monday (-93,402) Massacre of Lachine, Canada.

1/8/1689, Thursday (-93,406) The Irish-French army of James II failed to take the besieged city of Londonderry, whose inhabitants reaffirmed their loyalty to William and Mary.

27/7/1689. Saturday (-93,411) The Scottish Jacobites, supporters of the deposed James II, won the Battle of Killiecrankie, near Pitlochry, against the English under William III. However the Jacobite leader John Graham, Earl of Dundee, was killed.

Q.3 1689, China made border treaty with Russia. Catholics failed to take Londonderry. Jacobites won in Scotland.

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Q.2 1689, Judge Jeffreys died before his trial. Relief for dissenting Protestants, but not dissentiong Catholics.

24/5/1689. Friday (-93,475) The English Parliament passed the Act of Toleration exempting dissenting Protestants from certain legal penalties so long as they have sworn oaths of allegiance to the Crown. Catholics are specifically excluded from this relief.

3/5/1689, Friday (-93,496) William Broome, English poet, was born (died 16/11/1745).

20/4/1689, Saturday (-93,509) The siege of Londonderry began.

19/4/1689, Friday (-93,510) Queen Christina of Sweden died; she had abdicated in 1654.

18/4/1689, Thursday (-93,511) Judge Jeffreys died in The Tower of London, aged 44, before he could be tried. A Protestant, he had been hired by King James II to set up a court to deal with the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685. He was the Lord Chancellor who was notorious for the harshness of his sentences at the ‘Bloody Assizes’. 300 of Monmouth’s peasant followers were sentenced to hang and a further 800 sent to forced labour in Barbados . After the trials, Jeffreys was made Lord Chancellor by James II, a position he held until the Glorious Revolution of 1688. See 19/8/1685.

16/4/1689, Tuesday (-93,513) Death of Aphra Benn, British novelist and early feminist.

11/4/1689, Thursday (-93,518) The coronation of King William III and Queen Mary as joint sovereigns (see 13/2/1689). The Bishop of London performed the service, as the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to participate.

3/4/1689. Wednesday (-93,526) After landing in Ireland with money and troops supplied by Louis XIV, James II was acknowledged as King of England by an Irish parliament in Dublin. England declared war on France on 17/5/1689.

Q.2 1689, Judge Jeffreys died before his trial. Relief for dissenting Protestants, but not dissentiong Catholics.

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Q.1 1689, William became King of England, with Mary.

31/3/1689, Sunday (-93,529) Easter Sunday.

13/2/1689. Wednesday (-93,575) William and Mary ascended the English throne. Mary was the daughter of James II; William was born in The Hague. This ended the ‘Glorious Revolution’ (see 6/6/1685 and 6/7/1685); James II fled to France on 22/12/1688. They were crowned by the Bishop of London, because the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to do this (see 11/4/1689). James II’s support for the Catholic cause had made him unpopular.

27/1/1689, Sunday (-93,592) Peter the Great of Russia married Eudoxia Lopukhina.

23/1/1689, Wednesday (-93,596) Joseph Ames, English author, was born in Yarmouth (died 7/10/1759 in Wapping).

22/1/1689, Tuesday (-93,597) The Convention Parliament agreed that Charles II had abdicated by fleeing to France (on 22/12/1688) and that the throne was vacant, for William and Mary to accede.

Q.1 1689, William became King of England, with Mary.

====================================================================================

Q.4 1688, William landed; James II resisted but army defections unsettled him. England welcomed him. James II fled to France.

12/12/1688, Wednesday (-93,638) Judge Jeffreys took refuge from a mob in the Tower of London.

26/11/1688. Monday (-93,654) Louis XIV declared war on The Netherlands.

11/11/1688, Sunday (-93,669) Louis Castel, mathematician, was born (died 1757).

5/11/1688, Monday (-93,675) (Britain) William of Orange landed at Torbay, having been invited by Whig and Tory leaders to save Britain from Catholicism on 30/6/1688; William accepted this invitation on 5/11/1688. See 30/6/1688. William had some 40,000 troops in 463 ships but they were not necessary. James prepared to fight him, but was unsettled by defections in his army. The English population welcomed William. They almost missed Torbay, due to poor navigation, and the next port was Plymouth, strongly guarded by James II’s garrison. However the wind turned and William’s fleet was able to make landfall at Torbay as planned. James later fled to France.

23/10/1688, Tuesday (-93,688) Charles du Cange, historical writer, died (bprn 18/12/1610).

19/10/1688, Friday (-93,692) (Medical) William Cheselden, English surgeon, was born (died 10/4/1752).

Q.4 1688, William landed; James II resisted but army defections unsettled him. England welcomed him. James II fled to France.

===================================================================================

31/8/1688, Friday (-93,741) John Bunyan religious writer, author of The Pilgrim’s Progress, died at the house of a friend in Holborn, London. See 12/11/1660.

11/7/1688, Wednesday (-93,792) Narai, King of Siam, died.

====================================================================================

Q.2 1688, Alarmed at a possible Catholic succession, England invited William of Orange to be King.

30/6/1688, Saturday (-93,803) William of Orange was invited to England.

26/6/1688, Tuesday (-93,807) Ralph Cudworth, scholarly writer, died (born 1617).

10/6/1688, Sunday (-93,823) A son (James Stuart, the ’Old Pretender’) was born to James II, opening up the possibility of a line of Catholic Kings to rule England.  He was James II’s only son; his mother was Mary of Modena.

15/4/1688, Sunday (-93,879) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1688, Wednesday (-93,890) Joseph Delisle, French astronomer, was born (died 12/9/1768).

Q.2 1688, Alarmed at a possible Catholic succession, England invited William of Orange to be King.

===================================================================================

17/2/1688, Friday (-93,937) Cadwallader Colden, US medical writer, was born (died 28/9/1776).

15/2/1688, Wednesday (-93,939) Nicolas Freret, French scholarly writer, was born (died 8/3/1749).

2/2/1688. Thursday (-93,952) Abraham Duquesne, French naval officer, died.

29/1/1688, Sunday (-93,956) Emmanuel Swedenborg, Swedish mystic, was born.

18/1/1688, Tuesday (-93,967) Lionel Cranfield Sackville, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was born (died 10/10/1765).

11/1/1688, Tuesday (-93,974) James Gardiner, Scottish soldier, was born (fell at Prestonpans 21/9/1745).

===================================================================================

Q.4 1687, Huguenots left Holland to start a colony in South Africa. They started a wine industry there.

31/12/1687, Saturday (-93,985) The first boatload of Huguenots sailed from Holland to settle in South Africa. They took vines to start a wine industry in the new colony.

13/11/1687. Sunday (-94,033) Nell Gywnne, actress, died, aged in London aged 37. The mistress of Charles II, who had borne him two sons, was perhaps the best known orange seller of all time.

10/10/1687, Monday (-94,067) Nicolas Bernoulli, scientist, was born (died 29/11/1759).

Q.4 1687, Huguenots left Holland to start a colony in South Africa. They started a wine industry there.

===================================================================================

Q.3 1687, Venetian forces attacked Turkey at Athens. Parthenon destroyed.

26/9/1687. Monday (-94,081) The Parthenon and the Propylea were destroyed when the Venetians bombarded Athens. The Venetian army was besieging the Turks when a mortar bomb fired by the Venetians set off Turkish gunpowder stored in the Acropolis.

12/9/1687, Monday (-94,095) (USA) John Adlen, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, died in Duxbury.

26/7/1687, Tuesday (-94,143)

Q.3 1687, Venetian forces attacked Turkey at Athens. Parthenon destroyed.

===================================================================================

Q.2 1687, England granted equal rights to Protestants.

24/6/1687, Friday (-94,175) (Germany) Johann Bengel, German scholar, was born in Winenden (died 1742).

26/5/1687, Thursday (-94,204)

16/4/1687, Saturday (-94,244) George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham died (born 30/1/1628).

14/4/1687. Thursday (-94,246) Having failed to persuade Parliament to repeal the 1673 Test Act (forbidding a  Catholic from being the monarch of England), James II issued a Declaration of Indulgence. This granted toleration to Catholics and to non-conformists.

Q.2 1687, England granted equal rights to Protestants.

===================================================================================

27/3/1687, Sunday (-94,264) Easter Sunday.

14/2/1687, Monday (-94,305)

==================================================================================

Q.4 1686, First successful haemorrhoid operation, on King Louis XIV of France.

14/12/1686, Tuesday (-94,367)

18/11/1686, Thursday (-94,393) King Louis XIV of France underwent a successful operation for haemorrhoids. The surgeon, Charles Francois, had specially-designed tools for the operation, and had practised on dozens of peasants and prisoners, some of whom died.

11/11/1686, Thursday (-94,400) Louis II de Bourbon, Prince of Conde, died (born 8.9.1621).

14/10/1686, Thursday (-94,428)

Q.4 1686, First successful haemorrhoid operation, on King Louis XIV of France.

===================================================================================

Q.3 1686, Austrians drove the Ottoman Turks out of Hungary.

19/8/1686, Thursday (-94,484) Eustace Budgell, writer, was born (died 4/5/1737).

10/7/1686, Saturday (-94,524) John Fell, English religious writer, died (born 1625).

6/7/1686, Tuesday (-94,528) The Austrians took Buda from the Ottoman Turks and annexed Hungary.

Q.3 1686, Austrians drove the Ottoman Turks out of Hungary.

===================================================================================

23/6/1686, Wednesday (-94,541) Sir William Coventry, English statesman, died.

24/5/1686, Monday (-94,571) Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, the German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer, was born in Danzig.

11/5/1686, Tuesday (-94,584) Otto von Guericke, German scientist, died (born 20/11/1602).

26/4/1686, Monday (-94,599) (Britain) Arthur Anglesey, British statesman, died in Blechingdon, Oxfordshire (born 10/7/1614 in Dublin).

9/4/1686, Friday (-94,616) James Craggs the younger, English politician, was born (died 16/2/1721).

4/4/1686, Sunday (-94,621) Easter Sunday.

====================================================================================

24/3/1686, Wednesday (-94,632)

25/2/1686, Thursday (94,659) Abraham Calovius, German Lutheran theologian (born 16/4/1612) died.

10/2/1686, Wednesday (-94,674) (Britain) Sir William Dugdale, English historian, died (born 12/9/1605). In 1641 he was commissioned by Sir Christopher Hatton (who foresaw the destruction of the Civil War) to make exact drafts of the monuments at all of England’s major cathedrals.

31/1/1686, Sunday (-94,684) (Christian) Hans Egede, Norwegian missionary to Greenland was born, see 3/5/1721.

==================================================================================

Q.4 1685, France halted Huguenot migration to England, and revoked their equal rights with Catholics.

31/12/1685, Thursday (-94,715)

10/11/1685, Tuesday (-94,766) Duncan Forbes, Scottish statesman, was born (died 10/12/1747).

18/10/1685. Sunday (-94,789) Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes which had been issued by Henry IV of France and had given Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. The laity were also forbidden to emigrate; Louis XIV was concerned about the drain of skilled Huguenot merchants and craftsmen, many of whom had fled to England.

1/10/1685, Thursday (-94,806) Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 20/10/1740).

Q.4 1685, France halted Huguenot migration to England, and revoked their equal rights with Catholics.

===================================================================================

Q.3 1685, After the failed rebellion against James II, Judge Jeffreys began a harsh purge of opponents.

19/8/1685. Wednesday (-94,849) Judge Jeffreys began sentencing people to death at what became known as the Bloody Assizes. This followed the Monmouth Rebellion, see 6/7/1685.

12/8/1686, Wednesday (-94,856) John Balguy, English writer, was born in Sheffield (died 21/9/1748 in Harrogate).

15/7/1685, Wednesday (-94,884) The Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of King Charles II and Lucy Walter, was executed on Tower Green, London, for leading a Protestant rebellion on the accession of King James II.

6/7/1685. Monday (-94,893) James II’s troops defeated the Duke of Monmouth at Sedgemoor, Somerset, the last battle fought on English soil. Monmouth’s troops had attempted a night attack late on 5/7/1685 but the King’s troops under John Churchill, later Duke of Marlborough, successfully counterattacked at dawn. The rebel Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of King Charles II, was executed on 15/7/1685. See 13/2/1689.

Q.3 1685, After the failed rebellion against James II, Judge Jeffreys began a harsh purge of opponents.

===================================================================================

Q.2 1685, James II became King of England. Abortive rebellion against him crushed.

11/6/1685, Thursday (-94,918) An abortive rebellion against King James II, by the same faction as promoted the Rye House Plot of 1683 (21/7). Monmouth, having been expelled from Holland upon the accession of James II, landed at Lyme Regis, Dorset, and issued a proclamation claiming the throne of England. He gathered a small army of 3-4,000, mainly of middle social class status, and managed to capture Taunton before being defeated by pro-Royal troops at Sedgemoor on 6/7/1683.

6/6/1685. Saturday (-94,923) James II became King of England. See 13/2/1689.

19/4/1685, Sunday (-94,971) Easter Sunday.

===================================================================================

Q.1 1685,  King Charles II of England died. Johann Bach and George Handel, composers, were born.

21/3/1685, Saturday (-95,000) Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer, was born in Eisenach, Thuringia.

18/3/1685, Wednesday (-95,003) (Britain) Ralph Erskine, Scottish divine, was born (died 6/11/1752).

12/3/1685, Thursday (-95,009) George Berkeley, scholarly writer, was born (died 14/1/1753).

23/2/1685, Monday (-95,026) George Frederick Handel, German composer, was born in Halle, the son of a barber-surgeon.

7/2/1685; Saturday (-95,042) Charles II, James II’s brother, died after suffering an apoplectic fit on 2/2/1685, see 6/6/1685.

7/1/1685, Wednesday (-95,073) (Sweden) Jonas Alstromer, Swedish industrialist, was born in Alingsas, Vestergotland. He died 2/6/1761.

2/1/1685, Friday (-95,078) Sir Harbottle Grimston, English politician, died (born 27/1/1603).

Q.1 1685, Johann Bach and George Handel, composers, were born.

===================================================================================

10/12/1684, Wednesday (-95,101) Isaac Newton’s derivation of Kepler’s Laws of Gravity was read in a paper to The Royal Society by Edmund Halley.

10/10/1684, Friday (-95,162)

===================================================================================

Q.3 1684, France began to establish a significant colonial settlement at New Orleans, North America.

30/9/1684, Tuesday (-95,172) Pierre Corneille, French poet and dramatist, died (born 6/6/1606).

10/8/1684, Sunday (-95,223)

24/7/1684, Thursday (-95,240) Rene-Robert Cavelier sailed from France with a large expedition, to establish a French colony on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the Mississippi River.

Q.3 1684, France began to establish a significant colonial settlement at New Orleans, North America.

===================================================================================

24/5/1684, Saturday (-95,301)

15/4/1684, Tuesday (-95,340) (Russia) Katherine I of Russia was born (died 1727).

=================================================================================

Q.1 1684, Frost Fair on the River Thames at London; sudden thaw, many drowned.

30/3/1684, Sunday (-95,356) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1684, Wednesday (-95,367) Jean Astruc, French writer, was born in Sauve, Languedoc (died 5/5/1766 in Paris).

15/3/1684, Saturday (-95,371) Francesco Durante, Italian composer, was born (died 13/8/1755).

4/2/1684, Monday (-95,411) The River Thames suddenly thawed, drowning many of the people shopping at the Frost Fair set up on the river.

10/1/1684, Thursday (-95,436) The Dukedom of St Albans was created.

9/1/1684. Wednesday (-95,437) During a deep freeze, the River Thames at London froze over and puppet shows and shopping stalls were set up on the ice.

1/1/1684, Tuesday (-95,445) Arnold Drakenborgh, Dutch scholarly writer, was born (died 16/1/1748).

Q.1 1684, Frost Fair on the River Thames at London; sudden thaw, many drowned.

===================================================================================

19/12/1683, Wednesday (-95,458) Philip V, King of Spain, was born.

15/12/1683, Saturday (-95,462) Izaak Walton, author of The Compleat Angler, died at Winchester aged 90.

19/11/1683, Monday (-95,488) Johann Carpzov, scholarly writer, died (born 1607).

10/11/1683, Saturday (-95,497) George II, King of England, was born in Hanover, Germany, the only son of George I.

===================================================================================

Q.3 1683, Ottomans defeated at Vienna. Bacteria were discovered. Charles II purged his opponents.

17/9/1683, Monday (-95,551) The Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek wrote to the Royal Society to report his discovery of bacteria.

11/9/1683. Tuesday (-95,557) (East Europe, Greece-Turkey), The conquering armies of Islam under Vizier Kara Mustafa were defeated at the gates of Vienna. The Turks had been besieging Vienna since July 1683. Relief came under Poland’s King John III (see 1/4/1683) and Charles, Duke of Normandy. The Ottoman Sultan ordered Mustafa to commit suicide.

7/9/1683, Friday (-95,561) German reinforcements arrived outside the besieged city of Vienna.

6/9/1683, Thursday (-95,562) Jean Colbert, French politician, died (born 1619).

31/7/1683, Tuesday (-95,599) Invading Turkish forces reached the gates of Vienna.   If Vienna fell, Germany would be open to a Turkish invasion.

21/7/1683, Saturday (-95,609) Algernon Sidney and William Russell were executed for their part on the Rye House Plot. Along with the Earl of Wessex (who cheated the executioner by committing suicide in gaol), they planned to ambush King Charles II and the Duke of York (future James II) on their return from Newmarket to London at a narrow point at Rye House, near Hoddesdon, and assassinate them. The plot failed because the monarch left Newmarket early. The Government took advantage of the plot to implicate others whose loyalty to Charles II was questionable.

Q.3 1683, Ottomans defeated at Vienna. Bacteria were discovered. Charles II purged his opponents.

===================================================================================

Q.2 1683, France, Prussia and Denmark allied against Sweden. Poland allied with the Holy Roman Empire against Ottoman Turkey.

23/6/1683, Saturday (-95,637) William Penn signed a treaty of peace and friendship with chiefs of the Lenapi Indian tribe, at Shakamaxon.

6/6/1683. Wednesday (-95,654) Elias Ashmole opened the first public museum, the Ashmolean, in Broad Street, Oxford. Exhibits included stuffed animals and a dodo.

3/6/1683, Sunday (-95,657) Sadlers Wells Theatre, London, was founded.

25/5/1683, Friday (-95,666) Elijah Fenton, English poet, was born (died 16/7/1730).

30/4/1683, Monday (-95,691) France, Brandenburg-Prussia, and Denmark agreed that Sweden should be expelled from German territories.

8/4/1683, Sunday (-95,713) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1683, Sunday (-95,720) (East Europe, Poland), Poland made a treaty of mutual defence with the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, against the threat from Ottoman Turkey (see 11/9/1683).

Q.2 1683, France, Prussia and Denmark allied against Sweden. Poland allied with the Holy Roman Empire against Ottoman Turkey.

===================================================================================

9/3/1683, Friday (-95,753) Michael Ettmuller, physician, died (born 26/5/1644).

1/3/1683, Thursday (-95,761) Caroline, wife of King George II of Britain, was born (died 20/11/1737).

5/2/1683, Monday (-95,775)

===================================================================================

Q.4 1682, Prince Rupert, Royalist Commander in the Civil War, died.

2/12/1682, Saturday (-95,840) The Dukedom of Beaufort was created.

29/11/1682, Wednesday (-95,843) Prince Rupert, commander of the Royalist troops in the English Civil war, died.

29/10/1682, Sunday (-95,874) Pierre Charlevoix, French historical writer, was born (died 1/2/1761).

27/10/1682, Friday (-95,876) Philadelphia, USA, was founded by William Penn.

19/10/1682, Wednesday (-95,885) Sir Thomas Browne, writer, died (born 19/10/1605).

Q.4 1682, Prince Rupert, Royalist Commander in the Civil War, died.

====================================================================================

1/8/1682, Tuesday (-95,963)

12/7/1682, Wednesday (-95,983) Death of Jean Picard, astronomer who first calculated the circumference of the Earth.

10/7/1682, Monday (-95,985) Roger Cotes, English mathematician, was born (died 5/6/1716).

===================================================================================

Q.2 1682, France discovered and claimed the Mississippi delta. Champagne was invented.

28/6/1682, Wednesday (-95,997) Dom Perignon, a blind Benedictine cellarman at Hautevilliers Abbey, invented Champagne.

17/6/1682, Saturday (-96,008) (Sweden) Charles XII, King of Sweden, was born (died 1718).

18/5/1692, Thursday (-96,038) Joseph Butler, English religious writer, was born (died 16/6/1752).

6/5/1682, Saturday (-96,050) King Louis XIV arrived at his new chateau of Versailles.

27/4/1682, Thursday (-96,059) Theodore III, Tsar of Russia, died.

16/4/1682, Sunday (-96,070) Easter Sunday.

9/4/1682, Sunday (-96,077) The explorer de La Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi and claimed it for Louis XIV of France, naming the area Louisiana.

Q.2 1682, France discovered and claimed the Mississippi delta. Champagne was invented.

===================================================================================

Q.1 1682, Chelsea Pensionsers Hospital was founded by King Charles II.

11/3/1682. Saturday (-96,106) Charles II founded the Chelsea Hospital for old soldiers (Chelsea Pensioners).It was designed by Wren, and opened in 1692.

10/1/1682, Tuesday (-96,166)

Q.1 1682, Chelsea Pensionsers Hospital was founded by King Charles II.

==================================================================================

28/11/1681, Monday (-96,209) Jean Cavalier, French Camisard leader, was born (died 1740).

17/11/1681, Thursday (-96,220) Pierre Courayer, French theological writer, was born (died 17/10/1776).

==================================================================================

Q.3 1681, France annexed Strasbourg, formerly independent.

28/9/1681, Wednesday (-96,270) Louis XIV’s army captured the previously independent city of Strasbourg. The French now controlled all of Alsace, except Mulhouse.

27/7/1681, Wednesday (-96,333) (Britain) Donald Cargill, Scottish Covenanter, born 1610, was executed.

26/7/1681, Tuesday (-96,334)

Q.3 1681, France annexed Strasbourg, formerly independent.

==================================================================================

25/5/1681, Wednesday (-96,396) Spanish dramatist Pedro Calderon de la Barca died.

3/4/1681, Sunday (-96,448) Easter Sunday.

==================================================================================

Q.1 1681, Pennsylvania was founded.

4/3/1681, Friday (-96,478) King Charles II granted the Quaker, William Penn, 38 years old, a Royal Charter for territory in North America, to be called Pennsylvania. In return Penn waived a debt of £16,000 owed by the Crown to his estate.

4/1/1681, Tuesday (-96,537)

Q.1 1681, Pennsylvania was founded.

==================================================================================

31/12/1680, Friday (-96,541)

28/11/1680, Sunday (-96,574) The Italian sculptor Giovanni Bernini died.

30/10/1680, Saturday (-96,603) Antoinette Bourignon, Flemish mystic, was born in Lille (died in Friesland 30/10/1680).

19/10/1680, Tuesday (-96,614) (Ireland) John Abernethy, Irish Presbyterian Minister, was born in Coleraine, County Londonderry.

12/10/1680, Tuesday (-96,621) Arthur Collier, scholarly writer, was born (died 1732).

==================================================================================

25/9/1680, Saturday (-96,638) Samuel Butler, English poet, died (born 1612).

22/9/1680, Wednesday (-96,641) Barthold Brockes, German poet, was born (died 16/1/1747).

2/9/1680, Thursday (-96,661) Per Brahe, Swedish statesman, died in Visingborg (born near Stockholm 18/2/1602).

23/8/1680, Monday (-96,671) Captain Blood, the famous Irish adventurer, died.   He had attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London on 9/5/1671.

20/8/1680, Friday (-96,674) (Britain) William Bledloe, English adventurer, died in Bristol (born Chepstow 20/4/1650)

====================================================================================

22/6/1680, Tuesday (-96,733) Ebenezer Erskine, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 2/6/1754).

24/4/1680, Saturday (-96,792)

11/4/1680, Sunday (-96,805) Easter Sunday.

====================================================================================

14/3/1680, Sunday (-96,833) Rene le Bossu, French literary critic, died (born in Paris 16/3/1631).

23/2/1680, Monday (-96,853) Thomas Goodwin, English religious writer, died (born 5/10/1600).

===================================================================================

31/12/1679, Wednesday (-96,907) Giovanni Borelli, Italian physicist, died in Rome (born in Naples 28/1/1608).

27/11/1679, Thursday (-96,941) A major fire in Boston, Massachusetts, burnt all the warehouses, all the ships in the dockyards, and 80 houses.

12/10/1679, Sunday (-96,987) William Gurnall, English author, died (born 1617).

====================================================================================

29/9/1679, Monday (-97,000) Thomas Chubb, religious writer, was born (died 8/2/1746).

18/9/1679, Thursday (-97,011)

17/7/1679, Thursday (-97,074) James Duport, English scholarly writer, died (born 1606).

====================================================================================

Q.2 1679, Habeas Corpus Act passed. It curbed Charles II, who tried to supersede Parliament.

22/6/1679, Sunday (-97,099) The Battle of Bothwell Bridge. The Duke of Monmouth defeated the Covenanters.

15/6/1679, Sunday (-97,106) Guillaume Courtois, French painter, died (born 1628).

1/6/1679, Sunday (-97,120) At the Battle of Drumclog, Scottish Covenanters defeated a small government force.

27/5/1679, Tuesday (-97,125) The Habeas Corpus Act, stating that nobody could be held in prison without a trial, was passed. The rights of a prisoner were mentioned as early as the 14th century in England, but it was Lord Shaftesbury who suggested such an Act on the statute books. Charles I believed himself to be above Parliament so the Act was passed to counter his rulings. This enabled political prisoners of the King to demand a trial, and to obtain bail if prison was not justified. Habeas Corpus can only be suspended in times of war or a terrorist threat.

22/4/1679, Tuesday (-97,160) John Davies, English scholarly writer, was born (died 7/3/1732).

20/4/1679, Sunday (-97,162) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1679, Habeas Corpus Act passed. It curbed Charles II, who tried to supersede Parliament.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1679, Third Treaty of Nijmegen ended 7 years of war in Europe.

6/3/1679, Thursday (-97,207) In England the Habeas Corpus Parliament, or First Exclusion Parliament, assembled for the first time.

5/2/1679, Wednesday (-97,236) (France) The Third Treaty of Nijmegen ended seven years of war in Europe.

24/1/1679, Friday (-97,248) (Britain) King Charles II of England dissolved the Cavalier Parliament.

18/1/1679, Saturday (-97,254) (Britain) John Hervey, courtier to Catherine, wife of King Charles II, died.

8/1/1679, Wednesday (-97,264) (USA, Canada)  La Salle, French explorer, reached the Niagara Falls.

Q.1 1679, Third Treaty of Nijmegen ended 7 years of war in Europe.

=====================================================================================

31/12/1678, Tuesday (-97,272)

24/11/1678, Sunday (-97,311)

12/10/1687, Tuesday (-97,352) Sir Edmund Godfrey, English politician, was murdered (born 23/12/1621).

====================================================================================

Q.3 1678, Titus Oates’ Popish Plot exposed.

19/9/1678, Thursday (-97,375) (Germany) Christoph Galen, Prince-Bishop of Munster, died (born 12/10/1606).

12/8/1678, Monday (-97,413) Titus Oates’ Popish plot was revealed to King Charles II.

26/7/1678, Friday (-97,430) Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I was born.

Q.3 1678, Titus Oates’ Popish Plot exposed.

===================================================================================

25/5/1678, Saturday (-97,492)

==================================================================================

Q.1 1687, Composer Vivaldi was born

31/3/1678, Sunday (-97,547) Easter Sunday

4/3/1678. Monday (-97,574) Birth of the Venetian composer and violinist Antonio Lucio Vivaldi.

18/2/1678, Monday (-97,588) John Bunyan, 50-year old Baptist, published his book Pilgrim’s Progress.

18/1/1678, Friday (-97,619)

Q.1 1687, Composer Vivaldi was born

====================================================================================

Q.4 1677, France made military gains against Germany in Europe, and against the Dutch in Africa.

31/12/1677, Monday (-97.637)

16/11/1677, Friday (-97,682) French troops occupied Freiberg.

4/11/1677, Sunday (-97,694) King William II married his cousin Princess Mary (future Queen Mary II of England), the eldest daughter of King James II and Anne Hyde.

30/10/1677, Tuesday (-97,699) French troops in West Africa captured Dutch ports on the River Senegal and took Goree, near Cape Verde.

Q.4 1677, France made military gains against Germany in Europe, and against the Dutch in Africa.

=====================================================================================

4/9/1677, Tuesday (-97,755)

14/7/1677, Saturday (-97,807) At the Battle of Landskrona, Sweden defeated Denmark.

=====================================================================================

Q.2 1677, Virginia colonists made peace with indigenous Amerindians.

31/5/1677, Thursday (-97,851) Danish ships defeated a Swedish naval force.

29/5/1677, Tuesday (-97,853) The Treaty of Middle Plantation established peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Indians.

4/5/1677, Friday (-97,878) (Mathematics) Isaac Barrow, English mathematician, died (born 1630).

15/4/1677, Sunday (-97,897) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1677, Wednesday (-97,901) The Battle of Cassel; Philippe I of Orleans defeated William of Orange.

Q.2 1677, Virginia colonists made peace with indigenous Amerindians.

=====================================================================================

20/3/1677, Tuesday (-97,923) (Britain) George Digby, First Earl of Bristol, died.

21/2/1677, Wednesday (-97,950) Benedict Spinoza, Jewish philosopher, died.

8/2/1677, Thursday (-97,963) (Astronomy) Jacques Cassini, astronomer, was born (died 18/4/1756).

21/1/1677, Sunday (-97,981)

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25/12/1676, Monday (-98,008) Sir Matthew Hale, Lord Chief Justice of England, died (born 1/11/1609)

18/12/1676, Monday (-98,015) Edward Benlowes, English poet, died.

4/12/1676, Monday (-98,029) The Swedish town of Lund was defended in the Battle of Lund, one of the bloodiest battles fought in Scandinavia.

10/11/1676, Friday (-98,053)

28/10/1676, Saturday (-98,066) Jean Desmarets, French dramatist, died (born 1595).

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Q.3 1676, Conflict between Amerindians and English colonists.

17/9/1676, Sunday (-98,107) Cesar du Marsais, French scholarly writer, was born (died 11/6/1756)

26/8/1676, Saturday (-98,129) Sir Robert Walpole, the first British Prime Minister, was born at Houghton Hall, Norfolk.

17/8/1676, Thursday (-98,138) Hans Jakob Grimmelshausen, German author, died.

12/8/1676, Saturday (-98,143) King Philip, American Indian Chief, was killed.  The Indian War in New England ended.

22/7/1676, Saturday (-98,164) Pope Clement X (239th Pope) died. Pope Innocent XI (240th Pope), acceded, formerly Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi (died 1689).

4/7/1676, Tuesday (-98,182) Jose de Canizares, Spanish dramatist, was born (died 4/9/1750).

Q.3 1676, Conflict between Amerindians and English colonists.

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21/6/1676, Wednesday (-98,195) Anthony Collins, English writer, was born (died 13/12/1729).

7/6/1676, Wednesday (-98,209) Paul Gerhardt, German hymn writer, died.

20/5/1676, Saturday (-98,227) Jacques Courtois, French painter, died (born 1621),

7/5/1676, Sunday (-98,240) Pietro Giannone, Italian historical writer, was born (died 7/3/1748).

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26/3/1676, Sunday  (-98,282) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1676, Friday (-98,291) (Britain) Thomas Boston, Scottish cleric, was born in Duns (died 20/5/1732).

12/2/1676, Saturday (-98,325)

1/1/1676, Saturday (-98,367)

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Q.4 1675, London coffee houses closed. Death of Thomas Willis, who noted a rise in diabetes in England.

29/12/1675, Wednesday (-98,370) The English Parliament ordered the closure of all coffee houses, believing they were centres from which malicious rumours about the government originated.

23/12/1675, Thursday (-98,376) Cesar Choiseul, French Marshal, died (born 1602).

15/12/1675, Wednesday (-98,384) Jan Vermeer died.

28/11/1675, Sunday (-98,401) William Denbigh, English Civil War soldier, died.

21/11/1675, Sunday (-98,408) (Mathematics) Leibniz became the first mathematician to use the modern notation of f[x] dx for integration/differentiation.

11/11/1675, Thursday (-98,418) (Medical, Food) Death of Thomas Willis, physician to King Charles II and to the Duke of York. He was the first to notice an increase in what we now know as diabetes amongst his more affluent clients – he called it ‘the pissing evil’. He also noted the very sweet nature of this urine. The wealthy in England were raising their consumption of sugar, now being imported from the Caribbean, both in desserts and in tea. In fact the issue of sweet urine and diabetes was also known to the ancient Greeks, Indians and Chinese.

11/10/1675, Monday (-98,449) Samuel Clarke, scholarly writer, was born (died 17/5/1729).

8/10/1676, Friday (-98,452) Benito Feijoo, Spanish monk and writer, was born (died 26/9/1764).

Q.4 1675, London coffee houses closed. Death of Thomas Willis, who noted a rise in diabetes in England.

====================================================================================

Q.3 1675, Greenwich Observatory, London, founded by King Charles II.

18/9/1675, Saturday (-98,472) Charles Duke of Lorraine died (born 5/4/1604).

11/9/1675, Saturday (-98,479) The Dukedom of Grafton was created.

10/8/1675, Tuesday (-98,511) (London, space exploration) King Charles II established Greenwich Observatory, at Flamsteed House, Greenwich.  Its foundation stone was laid this day.

9/8/1675, Monday (-98,512) The Dukedom of Richmond (Lennox & Gordon) was created.

14/7/1675, Wednesday (-98,538) (France) Claude Bonneval, French adventurer, was born (died in Constantinople 23/3/1747).

Q.3 1675, Greenwich Observatory, London, founded by King Charles II.

===================================================================================

Q.2 1675, London’s new St Paul’s Cathedral was begun.

21/6/1675, Monday (-98,561) The foundation stone of Sir Christopher Wren’s new St Paul’s Cathedral, London, was laid. The new place of worship faced the old church that burned down in the Great Fire of London, (see 2/9/1666). The first Sunday service there was held on 5/12/1697.

29/5/1675, Saturday (-98,584) Humphry Ditton, English mathematician, was born (died 15/10/1715).

17/4/1675, Saturday (-98,626) (France) Marie Aiguillon, charity worker for the poor, died (born 1604).

4/4/1675, Sunday (-98,639) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1675, London’s new St Paul’s Cathedral was begun.

===================================================================================

Q.1 1675, France thwarted an attempted German invasion.

4/3/1675, Thursday (-98,670) Charles II appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer-Royal.

3/2/1675, Wednesday (-98,699)

5/1/1675, Tuesday (-98,728) French forces inflicted a heavy defeat on the German Army at Turckheim, forcing them to abandon an invasion of France and withdraw back across the Rhine.

Q.1 1675, France thwarted an attempted German invasion.

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Q.4 1674, England recovered full control of New York. Poet John Milton died aged 65.

25/12/1674, Friday (-96,739) Thomas Halyburton, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 1712).

9/12/1674, Wednesday (-96,755) Edward Clarendon, British statesman, died (born 18/2/1609).

10/11/1674, Tuesday (-98,784) All Dutch-held areas of New York were returned to Britain under the Treaty of Westminster. During the third Anglo-Dutch war, the Dutch had captured New York on 9/8/1672.

8/11/1674, Sunday (-98,786) The poet John Milton died at the age of 65. His best known work was Paradise Lost. He was born in Chalfont St Giles, Buckinghamshire, and studied at Christ College, Cambridge, from 1652-53, writing poetry in English, Latin, and Italian. He served as secretary for Cromwell’s government and pamphleteered for civil and religious liberty. After the monarchy was restored, Milton was arrested as a supporter of the Commonwealth but soon released. Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained were published in 1667 and 1671, after he went blind in 1652.

27/10/1674, Tuesday (-98,798) John Bona, Italian clerical writer, died (born in Piedmont 10/10/1609).

22/10/1674, Thursday (-98,803) Gerbrand Eeckhout, Dutch painter, died (born 19/8/1621)

18/10/1674, Sunday (-98,807) Richard (Beau) Nash, Master of Ceremonies at Bath, who established the city as a centre of fashion, was born.

Q.4 1674, England recovered full control of New York. Poet John Milton died aged 65.

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3/9/1674, Thursday (-98,852)

12/8/1674, Wednesday (-98,874) Philippe de Champaigne, Belgian painter, died (born 1602).

2/8/1674, Sunday (-98,884) Philippe  II, Regent of France, was born.

13/7/1674, Monday (-98,904)

===================================================================================

Q.2 1674, England began to impose more taxation on its American colonists.

14/6/1674, Sunday (-98,933) Marin Gomberville, French novelist, died (born 1600).

13/6/1674, Saturday (-98,934) Philip Carteret, the governor of New Jersey, launched a campaign to enforce the payment of quitrents; rents charged on land initially granted free to settlers from Europe. The colony had rebelled against this taxation. In 1673 London had enacted the Plantation Duty Act, imposing duties on any ship carrying certain products, such as sugar, cotton, or tobacco, between colonial ports.

13/5/1674, Wednesday (-98,965)

19/4/1674, Sunday (-98,989) Easter Sunday.

18/4/1674, Saturday (-98,990) (Britain) John Graunt, English statistician, died  in London.

Q.2 1674, England began to impose more taxation on its American colonists.

===================================================================================

Q.1 1674, Third Anglo Dutch War ended.

23/3/1674, Monday (-99,016) Henry Cromwell, 4th son of Oliver Cromwell, died (born 20/1/1628).

15/3/1674, Sunday (-99,024) Jean Barbeyrac, French legal writer, was born in Beziers, Languedoc (died 3/3/1744).

22/2/1674, Sunday (-99,045) Jean Chapelain, French poet, died (born 4/12/1595).

19/2/1674, Thursday (-99,048) (Britain, Netherlands) The Treaty of Westminster ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

13/1/1674, Tuesday (-99,085) Prosper Crebillon, French poet, was born (died 17/6/1754).

Q.1 1674, Third Anglo Dutch War ended.

=================================================================================

Q.4 1673, French explorers discovered the Mississippi River.

19/12/1673, Friday (-99,110)

26/10/1673, Sunday (-99,164) (Moldova) Demeter Cantemir Prince of Moldavia was born. He acceded to the throne in 1710, but then joined forces with Peter the Great of Russia against Ottoman Turkey. The Turks were victorious, and Prince Cantemir emigrated to Russia.

13/10/1673, Monday (-99,177) Kristoffer Gabel, Danish statesman, died (born 6/1/1617).

10/8/1673, Sunday (-99,241) Johann Dippel, German religious writer, was born (died 25/4/1734).

10/6/1673, Tuesday (-99,302) (France) Rene Duguay-Trouin, French sea captain, was born (died 27/9/1736).

17/5/1673, Saturday (-99,326) Jacques Marquette, a French missionary, discovered the Mississippi River.

9/5/1673, Friday (-99,334) Jacques des Barreaux, French poet, died (born 1602).

Q.4 1673, French explorers discovered the Mississippi River.

===================================================================================

Q.1 1673, First regular postal service set up in North America.

30/3/1673, Sunday (-99,374) Easter Sunday.

15/3/1673, Saturday (-99,389) The painter Salvator Rosa died in Rome, aged 57.

1/1/1673. Wednesday (-99,462) A regular postal service was set up between New York and Boston. The mounted service used a special ‘post road’ along which men and horses are posted at intervals.

Q.1 1673, First regular postal service set up in North America.

=====================================================================================

31/12/1672, Tuesday (-99,463)

1/11/1672, Friday (-99,523)

====================================================================================

Q.3 1672, England’s Royal Africa Company founded, to promote the slave and sugar trades.

27/9/1672, Friday (-99,558) In Britain, The Royal African Company was granted a monopoly of the African slave trade. A healthy slave could be bought in America for under £20, but the trade was still very profitable.

12/9/1672, Thursday (-99,573) Frontenac was appointed as French colonial Governor of Canada, to succeed de Courcelle. This day Frontenac arrived in Quebec. However he was to prove too independent-minded and expansionist for the comfort of France.

20/8/1672, Tuesday (-99,596) (Netherlands) Johan de Witt, Dutch politician, was assassinated (born 24/9/1625).

1/7/1672, Monday (-99,646) England’s Royal Africa Company was formed this year to replace the Royal Adventurers of England set up by King Charles II. It was to supply Britain’s colonies with 3,000 slaves a year for a price of £17 each, or one ton of sugar, each slave. At this time slaves could be purchased in Africa for £3 each.

Q.3 1672, England’s Royal Africa Company founded, to promote the slave and sugar trades.

==================================================================================

30/5/1672. Thursday (-99,678) Peter the Great of Russia was born in Moscow. He was the son of Tsar Alexei.

5/5/1672, Sunday (-99,703) Samuel Cooper, English miniature painter, died (born 1609).

1/5/1672, Wednesday (-99,707) Birth of Joseph Addison, English writer and Whig who co-founded The Spectator in 1711.

7/4/1672, Sunday (-99,731) Easter Sunday.

===================================================================================

Q.1 1672, Third Anglo-Dutch war began. But England tended towards Protestantism, against Catholic France.

17/3/1672, Sunday (-99,752) The third Anglo-Dutch war began, because Charles II was bound under the secret provisions of the Treaty of Dover to support Louis XIV. The Treaty of Dover, 1670, was concluded between Charles II and Louis XIV of France, following negotiations begun back in 1668. However the weaker Dutch fleet held back the English, who were facing difficulties in financing this war. In 1673 the English Parliament agreed to raise taxes to fund the conflict in return for the passing of the Test Act. This Act required all holding civil or military office to accept the Church of England sacrament and reject the Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation. The subsequent resignation of the Duke of York (the future James II) and others betrayed the presence of Catholics in the English high office. Meanwhile in August 1672 a revolution in the Netherlands brought William of Orange (future King William III) to power. In August / September 1673 Spain, Austria and Brandenburg, and in January 1674 Denmark, all declared war on France. The Dutch encouraged the belief amongst the English that the war constituted a betrayal of Protestant interests by Catholics in high office. In 1674 England concluded a separate peace with The Netherlands, the Treaty of Westminster.

26/2/1672, Monday (-99,772) Antoine Calmet, French Benedictine monk and teacher (died 25/10/1757) was born.

19/2/1672, Monday (-99,779) (University) Charles Chauncy, President of Harvard College, died (born 11/1592).

13/2/1672, Tuesday (-99,785) Etienne Geoffroy, French chemist, was born (died 6/1/1731).

15/1/1672, Monday (-99,814) John Cosin, English religious writer, died (born 30/11/1594).

Q.1 1672, Third Anglo-Dutch war began. But England tended towards Protestantism, against Catholic France.

====================================================================================

31/12/1671, Sunday (-99,829)

12/11/1671, Sunday (-99,878) Thomas Fairfax, general and leader of the Parliamentary side in the Civil War, died in Nunappleton, Yorkshire.

6/11/1671, Monday (-99,884) Colley Cibber, English actor, was born (died 11/12/1757).

====================================================================================

12/9/1671, Tuesday (-99,939)

13/8/1671, Sunday (-99,969)

14/7/1671, Friday (-99,999) Florence Casaubon, English scholarly writer died (born 14/8/1500).

====================================================================================

9/5/1671, Tuesday (-100,065) Irish adventurer Captain James Thomas Blood made an unsuccessful attempt, dressed as a clergyman, to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. See 24/8/1680.

1/5/1671, Monday (-100,073) (Arts) Claude Capperonnier, French classical scholar, was born (died 1744).

23/4/1671, Sunday (-100,081) Easter Sunday.

21/4/1671, Friday (-100,083) John Law, financier, was born.

5/4/1671, Wednesday (-100,099) Edmund Calamy, English religious writer, was born (died 3/6/1732).

===================================================================================

20/2/1671, Monday (-100,143)

===================================================================================

31/12/1670, Saturday (-100,194)

7/12/1670, Wednesday (-100,218) (Britain) John Aislabie, English politician, was born in York (died 1742).

20/10/1670, Thursday (-100,266)

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21/8/1670, Sunday (-100,326) James Berwick, French Marshal, was born in Moulins (died at the siege of Philipsburg 12/6/1734).

===================================================================================

Q.2 1670, Hudson Bay Company began. Charles II of England allied to France against The Netherlands.

1/6/1670, Wednesday (-100,407) Two Treaties of Dover – one public, one secret – were made by Charles II with Louis XIV. Charles II secretly agreed to declare his conversion to Catholicism and subsequently to restore it to Britain. Charles II did not announce his conversion, to the annoyance of Louis XIV.  The public Treaty committed Britain and France to declare war on Holland – if this war was successful, Britain would receive Zeeland and the port of Ostend. Britain would assist Louis XIV’s claim on the Spanish throne. The private Treaty, known only to Charles II and a select few of his government ministers, stated that Charles would re-establish Catholicism in Britain in return for £150,000 from France and the use of 6,000 French troops to cope with any ‘internal resistance’.

12/5/1670, Thursday (-100,427) (Poland) Augustus II, King of Poland, was born in Dresden (died 1/2/1733 in Warsaw).

2/5/1670, Monday (-100,437) Charles II chartered the Hudson Bay Company.

3/4/1670, Sunday (-100,466) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1670, Hudson Bay Company began. Charles II of England allied to France against The Netherlands.

=====================================================================================

2/3/1670, Wednesday (-100,498)

10/2/1670, Thursday (-100,518) William Congreve, English dramatist, was born (died 19/1/1729).

9/2/1670, Wednesday (-100,519) Frederick III, King of Denmark, died.

21/1/1670, Friday (-100,538) (London) Claude Duval, highwayman, was hanged at Tyburn (born 1643).

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Q.4 1669, Dutch painter Rembrandt died aged 63.

16/12/1669, Thursday (-100,574) Nathaniel Fiennes, English politician, died

4/11/1669, Thursday (-100,616) Johannes Cocceius, Dutch religious writer, died (born 1603).

3/11/1669, Wednesday (-100,617) Charles Drelincourt, French religious writer, died (born 19/7/1595).

4/10/1669. Monday (-100,647) The Dutch painter Rembrandt died in solitude and poverty, aged 63, in Amsterdam, having survived both his wife and his mistress. He gradually went bankrupt after his wealthy wife died in 1642, although in his 30s he earned large sums of money from painting portraits of the elite in Amsterdam. He left a legacy of 600 paintings, 1500 drawings and 350 etchings.

====================================================================================

Q.3 1669, Crete finally taken by Ottoman Turkey from Venice.

28/9/1669, Tuesday (-100,653) London’s Royal Exchange Building was completed.

27/9/1669. Monday (-100,654) Candia, the capital of Crete, was captured by the Ottoman Turks from the Venetians after a 21 year siege. Spain, Britain, France, the Pope, Tuscany, and Malta, had all supplied troops to the Venetians but to no avail. Towards the end the Ottoman Turks intensified the blockade and disagreements broke out between the allies leading to the withdrawal of some of the Europeans.

27/7/1669, Tuesday (-100,716)

4/7/1669, Sunday (-100,739) Antonio Escobar, Spanish religious writer, died (born 1589).

Q.3 1669, Crete finally taken by Ottoman Turkey from Venice.

====================================================================================

Q.2 1669, Samuel Pepys ended his Diary. Aurangzeb, Muslim Indian Emperor, repressed Hindu temples.

31/5/1669. Monday (-100,773) Samuel Pepys, naval administrator and politician, made the last entry in his diary which began on 1/1/1660.

18/4/1669. Sunday (-100,816) Aurangzeb, the Moghul Emperor of India, ordered that all recently constructed Hindu temples should be demolished.

11/4/1669, Sunday (-100,823) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1669, Samuel Pepys ended his Diary. Aurangzeb, Muslim Indian Emperor, repressed Hindu temples.

====================================================================================

11/3/1669, Thursday (-100,854) Mount Etna, Sicily, erupted, killing 20,000.

23/2/1669, Tuesday (-100,870) (Netherlands) Lieuwe Aitzema, Dutch statesman, died (born 19/11/1600, in Doccum, Friesland).

13/2/1669, Saturday (-100,880) Jean Folard, French military author, was born (died 1752).

17/1/1669, Sunday (-100,907)

===================================================================================

31/12/1668, Thursday (-100,924) Hermann Boerhaave, Dutch physician, was born near Leiden (died in Leiden 23/9/1738).

27/11/1668, Friday (-100,958) Henri Aguesseau, Chancellor of France (died 9/2/1751) was born.

11/11/1668, Wednesday (-100,974) Johann Fabricius, German scholarly writer, was born (died 30/4/1736).

17/10/1668, Saturday (-100,999)

=====================================================================================

17/9/1668, Thursday (-101,029)

9/8/1668, Sunday (-101,068) Jakob Balde, German writer, died in Neuberg, (born in Ensisheim, Alsace, 4/1/1604).

17/7/1668, Friday (-101,091)

====================================================================================

Q.2 1668, John Dryden became england’s first Poet Laureate.

17/6/1668, Wednesday (-101,121)

2/5/1668, Saturday (-101,167) (Britain, France) Treaty of Aix la Chapelle.

13/4/1668, Monday (-101,186) John Dryden was appointed the first Poet Laureate. He kept this office until 1689.

7/4/1668, Tuesday (-101,192) Sir William Davenant, English poet, died (born 1606).

Q.2 1668, John Dryden became england’s first Poet Laureate.

=====================================================================================

Q.1 1668, Triple Alliance; England, Holland and Sweden, against French expansion into The Netherlands.

22/3/1668, Sunday (-101,208) Easter Sunday.

13/2/1668, Thursday (-101,246)

31/1/1668, Friday (-101,259) Herman Busenbaum, Christian writer, died (born 1600).

13/1/1668, Monday (-101,277) (Britain, France) The Triple Alliance was formed between England, Holland, and Sweden to defend The Netherlands from the ambitions of the French King, Louis XIV, who was pursuing a claim based on his wife’s rights as Spanish Infanta. This was the War of Devolution which was ended on 2/5/1668 by the Peace of Aix la Chapelle.

Q.1 1668, Triple Alliance; England, Holland and Sweden, against French expansion into The Netherlands.

====================================================================================

Q.4 1667, London’s Royal Exchange founded.

31/12/1667, Tuesday (-101,290)

30/11/1667, Saturday (-101,321) Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver’s Travels, was born in Dublin.

25/11/1667, Monday (-101,326) Earthquake at Samakhi, Azerbaijan.

23/10/1667, Wednesday (-101,359) The foundation stone of London’s Royal Exchange was laid by King Charles II.

18/10/1667, Friday (-101,364) Brooklyn received its Town Charter under Mathias Nichols, Governor of the New Netherlands, as ‘Brueckelen’.

Q.4 1667, London’s Royal Exchange founded.

====================================================================================

Q.3 1667, Peace of Breda ended Anglo-Dutch War. England concerned at growing French power.

23/9/1667. Monday (-101,389) A  law passed in Williamsburg, America, prevented slaves from gaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.

30/8/1667, Friday (-101,413) King Charles II dismissed the Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde over the humiliating terms imposed on Britain by Holland in the Treaty of Breda.

31/7/1667. Wednesday (-101,443) (Britain, France) The Peace of Breda ended the war between England and the Netherlands (Second Anglo-Dutch War) .Trade laws were modified in favour of the Dutch, who also gained Surinam but recognised British possession of New York.  See 18/6/1667 and 2/2/1665. The English sought peace with the Dutch in order to curb the growing military power of (Catholic) France. In the ‘War of Devolution’ France had already seized the Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comte; Holland and England now sought to mediate in this war between France and Spain. The other principal Protestant power in Europe, Sweden, then joined with (Protestant) Holland and Britain in a Triple Alliance (formalised by the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle, 2/5/1668). However (Catholic) King Charles II regretted this Triple Alliance against France and began negotiations with Louis XIV that led to the Treaties of Dover (1/6/1670).

28/7/1667, Sunday (-101,446) Abraham Cowley, English poet, died (born 1618).

27/7/1667, Saturday (-101,447) (Science) Jean Bernoulli, physicist, was born in Basel (died 1/1/1748).

Q.3 1667, Peace of Breda ended Anglo-Dutch War. England concerned at growing French power.

====================================================================================

Q.2 1667, First (attempted) blood transfusion. First art exhibition. Dutch navy humiliated the English.

18/6/1667, Tuesday (-101,486) The Dutch humiliated the English by breaking through a defensive chain in the Thames Estuary at Chatham and sailing up The Thames to burn or capture English ships. The English flagship Royal Charles was captured and carried off. See 31/7/1667.

12/6/1667, Wednesday (-101,492) The first blood transfusion was made at Montpellier University. A 15 year old boy was given 9 oz. of blood from a lamb – surprisingly he recovered from this, and the fever he had been suffering. It was likely that blood clotting, of the sheep’s blood, had prevented much from actually entering the boy’s own bloodstream.

26/5/1667, Sunday (-101,509) Abraham Demoivre, English mathematician, was born (died 27/11/1754).

16/5/1667, Thursday (-101,519) Samuel Bochart, French scholarly writer, died in Caen (born in Rouen 30/5/1599).

29/4/1667, Monday (-101,536) John Arbuthnot, British physician, was born (died 27/2/1735).

9/4/1667, Tuesday (-101,556) The world’s first art exhibition opened at the Palais Royale in Paris, organised by the Academie de Peinture et de Sculpture. It closed on 23/4/1667.

7/4/1667, Sunday (-101,558) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1667, First (attempted) blood transfusion. First art exhibition. Dutch navy humiliated the English.

===================================================================================

12/2/1667, Tuesday (-101,612)

==================================================================================

Q.4. 1666, The waistcoat first appeared.

31/1/1667, Thursday (-101,624) After eight years war between Russia and Poland, the Treaty of Andruszow between them divided up Ukraine between them, along the Dneiper River.

15/12/1666, Saturday (-101,671)

15/10/1666, Monday (-101,732) King Charles II, according to Pepys, wore the first waistcoat this day.

===================================================================================

Q.3 1666, Great Fire of London.

19/9/1666, Saturday (-101,758) Several plans for the reconstruction of London were drawn up or in progress. The first was by Christopher Wren (11/9); John Evelyn’s was complete on 13/9, and Robert Hooke’s was finished on 19/9. Plans, according to a Royal proclamation of 13/9, must include wider streets, replacement of wooden buildings by brick and stone, and a quayside along the Thames. However questions of accurate compensation precluded many of the concepts for wide boulevards. Instead, the Rebuilding Act of 1667 set standards and heights for new buildings according to the width of the street they were in.

6/9/1666, Thursday (-101,771) The Great Fire of London ended – see 2/9/1666.

2/9/1666. Sunday (-101,775) The Great Fire of London began on a Sunday morning at the house and shop of Thomas Farynor (Farriner), baker to King Charles II, in Pudding Lane. Farynor allegedly forgot to put out the fire in his oven, which spread to nearby stacked firewood. Farynor and his family escaped their burning house by climbing out of a window and along roof tops. Their maid was too scared to climb along the rooftops, and became the fire’s first victim. The fire rapidly spread. It burns for 4 days. In all, 436 acres were burned, destroying 87 churches and over 13,000 houses. However only nine lives were lost. The fire also helped end the Great Plague.

30/8/1666, Thursday (-101,778) Benedikt Carpzov, scholarly writer, died (born 27/5/1595).

10/7/1666, Tuesday (-101,829) John Grabe, religious writer, was born (died 3/11/1711).

Q.3 1666, Great Fire of London.

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17/6/1666, Sunday (-101,852) Antonio Maria Valsalva was born in Imola, Italy. In 1704 he provided the first detailed description of the physiology of the human ear.

2/5/1666, Wednesday (-101,898)

15/4/1666, Sunday (-101,915) Easter Sunday.

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Q.1 1666, Shah Jahan of India died aged 74.

2/3/1666, Friday (-101,959)

22/2/1666, Thursday (-101,967)

22/1/1666, Monday (-101,998) Shah Jahan died, aged 74, in the fort where his son Aurangzeb had imprisoned him with his harem for the previous eight years. Shah Jahan had built the Taj Mahal as a mausoleum for his wife Mumtaz-i-Mahal and Shah Jahan was buried beside her. Aurangzeb had fought and killed his brothers to attain the throne, as Shah Jahan had done in 1628.

Q.1 1666, Shah Jahan of India died aged 74.

====================================================================================

2/12/1665, Saturday (-102,049)

17/11/1665, Friday (-102,064) John Earle, English writer, died.

2/10/1665, Monday (-102,110)

====================================================================================

Q.3 1665, Many Londoners dying of The Plague

28/9/1665. Thursday (-102,114) London was in the grip of The Plague; 7,000 died in the last week alone. In July 1665, deaths averaged 200 a week. People were fleeing the city; graveyards were full, and corpses were thrown into Plague Pits.

17/9/1665, Sunday (-102,125) Philip IV, King of Spain, died, aged 60. He was succeeded by his son, Charles II.

27/8/1665, Sunday (-102,146) (Britain) John Hervey, First Earl of Bristol, was born.

17/7/1665, Monday (-102,187)

=====================================================================================

Q.2 1665, The Plague first reported in London.

11/6/1665, Sunday (-102,223) Sir Kenelm Digby, English author, died (born 11/7/1603).

7/6/1665, Wednesday (-102,227) The Plague was first reported in London. It was a very hot day. 70,000 people would die of the Plague by October. Plague forced Parliament to meet in Oxford.

3/6/1665, Saturday (-102,231) The Duke of York defeated a Dutch fleet off Lowestoft. The Dutch admiral was killed in the battle, and 16 of his ships sunk.

3/5/1665, Wednesday (-102,262)

3/4/1665, Monday (-102,292)

Q.2 1665, The Plague first reported in London.

===================================================================================

Q.1.1665, Britain took Manhattan Island from the Dutch.

29/3/1665, Wednesday (-102,297) Maria Agreda, Spanish religious visionary and Franciscan nun died 2/4/1602).

26/3/1665, Sunday  (-102,300) Easter Sunday.

15/3/1665, Wednesday (-102,311) (USA) John Endecott, British colonial Governor of America, died.

12/2/1665, Sunday (-102,342) (Biology) Rudolf Camerarius, botanist, was born (died 11/9/1721).

6/2/1665, Monday (-102,348) Queen Anne was born at St James Palace, the second daughter of James II by his first wife, Anne Hyde. She was the last Stuart monarch of Britain.

2/2/1665. Thursday (-102,352) The British captured Manhattan Island from the Dutch, almost 40 years after the Dutch bought it from the Indians for beads in 1626. The Dutch colony was ruled by Peter Stuyvesant under strict Puritanical principles. The British renamed it ‘New York’ after King Charles II’s brother the Duke of York. See 31/7/1667. British rule was more relaxed.

12/1/1665, Thursday (-102,373) French mathematician Pierre de Fermat (born 1601) died.

Q.1.1665, Britain took Manhattan Island from the Dutch.

===================================================================================

2/12/1664, Friday (-102,414)

2/11/1664, Wednesday (-102,444)

28/10/1664, Friday (-102,449) The Admiral’s Regiment was formed, later known as the Royal Marines.

======================================================================================

Q.3 1664, Ottoman advance into Europe halted at battle of St Gotthard.

8/9/1664, Thursday (-102,499)

24/8/1664, Thursday (-102,514) Maria Cunitz, Silesian astronomer, died.

1/8/1664. Monday (-102,537) The Ottoman Turkish advance into Austria was halted by Hapsburg (Austrian) defences at the Battle of St Gotthard.

16/7/1664, Saturday (-102,553) Andreas Gryphius, German poet, died (born 11/10/1616).

Q.3 1664, Ottoman advance into Europe halted at battle of St Gotthard.

=====================================================================================

31/5/1664, Tuesday (-102,599) (Italy) Giulio Alberoni, Italian statesman, was born near Piacenza (died 16/6/1752)

10/4/1664, Sunday (-102,650) Easter Sunday.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1664, New Jersey became an English colony.

12/3/1664, Saturday (-102,679) New Jersey became a colony of England.

20/1/1664, Wednesday (-102,731) Giovanni Gravina, Italian scholarly writer, was born (died 6/1/1718).

18/1/1664, Monday (-102,733) (Christian) Moses Amyraut, Protestant theologian (born 1596) died.

Q.1 1664, New Jersey became an English colony.

====================================================================================

31/12/1663, Thursday (-102,751)

12/11/1663, Thursday (-102,800)

18/10/1663, Sunday (-102,825) (France) Eugene of Savoy was born (died 21/4/1736).

===================================================================================

12/9/1663, Saturday (-102,861)

31/8/1663, Monday (-312,873) (Science) Guillaume Amontons, French scientist, was born in Paris (died 11/10/1705 in Paris).

12/7/1663, Sunday (-102,923)

===================================================================================

Q.2 1663, First Drury Lane theatre opened in London.

20/5/1663, Wednesday (-102,976) William Bradford, printer, was born in Leicestershire, UK (died in New York, USA, 23/5/1752).

7/5/1663, Thursday (-102,989) The first Drury Lane Theatre, London, opened.

20/4/1663, Monday (-103,006) The Dukedom of Buccleuch was created.

19/4/1663, Sunday (-103,007) Easter Sunday

Q.2 1663, First Drury Lane theatre opened in London.

======================================================================================

24/3/1663, Tuesday (-103,033) King Charles II of England granted Carolina (from Virginia down to Florida) to eight of his courtiers, who had helped him regain the throne.

22/3/1663, Sunday (-103,035) August Francke, German religious writer, was born (died 8/6/1727)

2/1/1663, Friday (-103,114) William Christian, Manx politician, died (born 14/4/1608).

=====================================================================================

Q.4 1662, Britain sold Dunkirk to France. First catamaran built.

22/12/1662, Monday (-103,125) The first catamaran was built at Dublin for Sir William Petty, a founder member of the Royal Society. The vessel weighed 30 tons and carried 5 guns; it had a crew of 30 men. In January 1663 it won the first open yacht race and in July 1663 beat the Dublin Packet in a sea going race. King Charles II, a keen yachtsman, considered the catamaran a joke but declined a racing challenge from Sir Petty.

13/12/1662, Saturday (-103,134) Francesco Bianchini, Italian astronomer, was born in Verona (died in Rome 2/3/1729).

27/10/1662, Monday (-103,181) King Charles II sold Dunkirk to the French King Louis XIV (Treaty of Dunkirk) for 2.5 million livres.

Q.4 1662, Britain sold Dunkirk to France. First catamaran built.

====================================================================================

Q.3 1662, Blaise Pascal, inventor of the first digital calculator, died.

22/9/1662, Monday (-103,216) (Britain) John Biddle, English preacher, died in a London prison (born in Wotton Under Edge, Gloucestershire 14/1/1615).

20/9/1662, Saturday (-103,218)

19/8/1662, Tuesday (-103,250) Blaise Pascal, French philosopher and mathematician, inventor of the first digital calculator, died in Paris.

5/8/1662, Tuesday (-105,264) (Britain) James Anderson, Scottish historian, was born in Edinburgh (died 3/4/1728).

15/7/1662, Tuesday (-103,285) The Royal Society received a royal charter.

Q.3 1662, Blaise Pascal, inventor of the first digital calculator, died.

====================================================================================

Q.2 1662, King Charles II of England promoted natural science research.

23.5/1662, Friday (-103,338) John Gauden, English writer, died (born 1605).

20/5/1662, Tuesday (-103,341) King Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza, starting a fruitful alliance with Portugal.

30/4/1662, Wednesday (-103,361) Mary II of England was born.

1/4/1662, Tuesday (-103,390) King Charles II of Britain granted Royal Patronage to the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge. The group of scientists and  naturalists had been meeting since 1645.

Q.2 1662, King Charles II of England promoted natural science research.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1662, World’s first bus service began, in Paris.

30/3/1662, Sunday (-103,392) Easter Sunday

18/3/1662. Tuesday (-103,404) The world’s first bus service began, in Paris. Eight seater horse drawn vehicles ran every 8 minutes, and were at first used by the aristocracy, who left their carriages at the terminus, for the novelty factor. However by the summer of 1662 the nobility had returned to their carriages and the less wealthy walked to save the fare. The bus service managed to stay going till the 1680s. Bus services did not restart anywhere until a Parisian service began in 1819. The word ‘omnibus’ was coined in Nantes in 1823, as people of all sorts were using the service there. See 4/7/1829.

27/1/1662, Monday (-103,454) Richard Bentley, English scholar and writer, was born near Wakefield (died 14/7/1742).

Q.1 1662, World’s first bus service began, in Paris.

======================================================================================

31/12/1661, Tuesday (-103,481)

1/11/1661, Friday (-103,541) Florent Dancourt, French dramatist, was born (died 7/12/1725).

=====================================================================================

Q.3 1661, First European banknotes issued, by Sweden.

7/9/1661, Saturday (-103,596) Gunno Dahlstjerna, Swedish poet, was born (died 7/9/1709).

16/8/1661, Friday (-103,618) Thomas Fuller, English historical writer, died (born 19/6/1608).

16/7/1661, Tuesday (-103,649) The first banknotes in Europe were issued, by the Bank of Stockholm.

Q.3 1661, First European banknotes issued, by Sweden.

====================================================================================

Q.2 1661, Britain introduced postmarks.

25/5/1661, Saturday (-103,701) Claude Buffier, French philosophical writer, was born (died 1737).

23/4/1661, Tuesday (-103,733) The coronation of King Charles II.

19/4/1661, Friday (-103,737) Postmarks were introduced in Britain by the Post Office.

16/4/1661, Tuesday (-103,740) Charles Montagu, founder of the Bank of England, was born.

14/4/1661, Sunday (-103,742) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1661, Britain introduced postmarks.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1661, Cardinal Mazarin died; Louis XIV of France assumed full kingship.

9/3/1661, Saturday (-103,778) (France) With the death of the French Regent, Cardinal Mazarin of cancer, the personal rule of King Louis XIV of France began. Louis was aged just 22 and knew that he was inexperienced in politics and would very much miss the advice of Mazarin. Louis signalled that his rule was to be Absolutist, by demanding that the entire Court, not just his immediate family, mourn for Mazarin.

5/2/1661, Tuesday (-103,810) (China) Emperor Kangxi began his reign in China; he ruled for over 61 years.

30/1/1661, Wednesday (-103,816) (Britain) The body of Oliver Cromwell (died 3/9/1658) was exhumed, hanged and beheaded, and reburied at Tyburn.

6/1/1661, Sunday (-103,840) The Royal Horse Guards Regiment was formed, by Royal Warrant.

Q.1 1661, Cardinal Mazarin died; Louis XIV of France assumed full kingship.

===================================================================================

Q.4 1660, England curbed the trade of its colonies to 3rd countries.

8/12/1660, Saturday (-103,869) The first (unnamed) actress appeared on the English stage.

28/11/1660, Wednesday (-103,879) The Royal Society was founded in England.

27/11/1660, Tuesday (-103,880) John Finch, English Judge, died (born 17/9/1584).

15/11/1660, Thursday (-103,892)

12/11/1660. Monday (-103,895) John Bunyan, 32, author of Pilgrim’s Progress, was arrested for preaching without a licence, and not in a parish church. He was put in Bedford gaol.

1/10/1660. Monday (-103,937) The English reinforced the Navigation Act by insisting that certain colonial goods were only to be shipped to Britain. This was directed against the Dutch but caused resentment in the British colonies.

Q.4 1660, England curbed the trade of its colonies to 3rd countries.

===================================================================================

12/9/1660, Wednesday (-103,956) Jacob Cats, Dutch poet, died (born 10/11/1577).

31/8/1660, Friday (-103,968) Johann Freinsheim, German scholarly writer, died (born 16/11/1608).

1/8/1660, Wednesday (-103,998)

===================================================================================

Q.2 1660, English monarchy restored with Charles II. Denmark recovered some lost territory from Sweden.

30/6/1660, Saturday (-104,030) William Oughtred, English mathematician who invented the slide rule in 1622, died in Albury, Surrey.

11/6/1660, Monday (-104,649) John Colepeper, English politician, died.

10/6/1660, Sunday (-104,650) (Madagascar) Etienne de Flacourt, French colonial Governor of Madagascar, died (born 1607).

9/6/1660, Saturday (-104,051) King Louis XIV of France, the ‘Sun King’, married Maria Theresa of Spain.

29/5/1660, Tuesday (-104,062) King Charles II entered London; he landed at Dover on 26/5/1660.

27/5/1660, Sunday (-104,064) The Treaty of Copenhagen. Denmark recovered some of its losses from the Peace of Roskilde (26/2/1658). Denmark recovered Trondheim and the island of Bornholm.

26/5/1660. Saturday (-104,065) The British monarchy was restored with Charles II, born 29/5/1630, as king.  He was crowned on 23/4/1661, ending an exile of nearly nine years.  On 29/5/1660, his 30th birthday, Charles II rode into London to scenes of great rejoicing.  Everyone was glad to see the end of the kill-joy Puritan regime that had banned Christmas, maypoles, and theatre; a regime that had run out of steam after Cromwell died.  The bodies of Cromwell and his chief associates were dragged from Westminster Abbey and buried beneath Tyburn Gallows.  Other regicides were executed.

23/5/1660, Wednesday (-104,068) King Charles II sailed from Scheveningen, to return to England, ending his exile. See 16/3/1660.

17/5/1660, Thursday (-104,074) Abraham de Fabert, Marshal of France, died (born 1599).

3/5/1660, Thursday (-104,088) At the Peace of Oliva (near Danzig), Frederick William ceded Eastern Pomerania to Sweden.

25/4/1660, Wednesday (-104,096) The English Parliament voted for the restoration of the Monarchy, see 26/5/1660.

22/4/1660, Sunday (-104,099) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1660, Monday (-104,105) Sir Hans Sloane, physician and collector, was born.

Q.2 1660, English monarchy restored with Charles II. Denmark recovered some lost territory from Sweden.

======================================================================================

Q.1 1660, Samuel Pepys began his Diary (to 1669). George I, King of England, born. Long Parliament dissolved.

28/3/1660, Wednesday (-104,124) George I, first Hanoverian king of England, was born at Osnabruck Castle in Hanover.

16/3/1660. Friday (-104,136) England’s Long Parliament was dissolved after sitting for 20 years (with a break, 1653-59), throughout the Civil War. This was an important step towards the restoration of the monarchy and the House of Lords. See 23/5/1660.

21/2/1660,  Tuesday (-104,160) The Rump (Long) Parliament, recalled on 7/5/1659, was rejoined by surviving MPs that had been purged on 6/12/1648.

13/2/1660, Monday (-104,168) Charles X of Sweden died, aged37. He was succeeded by his 4-year old son, Charles XI.

1/1/1660, Sunday (-104,211) Samuel Pepys began his Diary.  This was discontinued on 31/5/1669.

Q.1 1660, Samuel Pepys began his Diary (to 1669). George I, King of England, born. Long Parliament dissolved.

======================================================================================

Q.4 1659, Franco-Spanish war ended. Britain was helping France, and Spain was exhausted.

7/11/1659, Monday (-104,266) The war between France and Spain ended. Spain’s treasury was empty and England had joined on the side of the French.

28/10/1659, Friday (-104,276) Nicholas Brady, poet, was born in Cork (died 20/5/1726).

22/10/1659, Saturday (-104,282) The explorer Abel Tasman died.

Q.4 1659, Franco-Spanish war ended. Britain was helping France, and Spain was exhausted.

====================================================================================

22/8/1659, Monday (-104,343)

28/7/1659, Thursday (-104,368) (France) Charles Ancillon, French educationalist, was born in Metz (died 5/7/1715).

22/6/1659, Wednesday (-104,404)

=====================================================================================

Q.2 1659, Richard Cromwell resigned. The Protectorate was ending. First cheque was drawn.

24/5/1659, Tuesday (-104,433) Richard Cromwell resigned as Lord Protector.

7/5/1659, Saturday (-104,450) The Long (Rump) Parliament was recalled (see 20/4/1653). It called for Cromwell’s resignation.

5/5/1659, Thursday (-104,452) Saint Helena was occupied by Captain John Dutton of the East India Company.

4/5/1659, Wednesday (-104,453) John Dutton, English author, was born (died 1733).

22/4/1659, Friday (-104,465) (1) Richard Cromwell dissolved the English Parliament, at the request of the Army.

(2) (Price) The first cheque was drawn. It was for £10, on a London bank. This first cheque, written on 16/2/1659 by Nicholas Vanacker, made out almost exactly like a modern cheque, was sold at Sotheby’s in December 1976 for £1,000.

16/4/1659, Saturday (-104,471) Simon Dach, German poet, died (born 29/7/1605)

3/4/1659, Sunday (-104,484) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1659, Richard Cromwell resigned. The Protectorate was ending. First cheque was drawn.

=====================================================================================

Q.1 1659, Portugal secured its independence from Spain at Battle of Elvas.

8/3/1659, Tuesday (-104,510) (France)  Isaac de Beausobre, French theologian, was born in Niort (died 5/6/1738).

21/2/1659, Monday (-104,525)

14/1/1659, Friday (-104,563) (Spain, Portugal) The Battle of Elvas practically ensured Portuguese independence from Spain.

Q.1 1659, Portugal secured its independence from Spain at Battle of Elvas.

=====================================================================================

6/12/1658, Monday (-104,602) Baltasar Gracian, Spanish writer, died (born 8/1/1601).

6/11/1658, Saturday (-104,632) Pierre du Ryer, French dramatist, died (born 1606).

3/10/1658, Sunday (-104,666) Myles Sundish, leader of the Pilgrim Fathers, died.

=====================================================================================

Q.3 1659, Oliver Cromwell died, succeeded by his son Richard. Sweden abruptly invaded Denmark.

3/9/1658. Friday (-104,696) Oliver Cromwell died of pneumonia. A Puritan, he was aged 60 and had ruled England for 5 years. His son Richard succeeded him as Protector. However Richard lacked the authority of his father.

1/9/1658, Wednesday (-304,698) Jacques Bernard, French theological writer, was born in Nions (died 27/4/1718).

1/8/1658, Sunday (-104,729)

17/7/1658, Saturday (-104,744) Despite the Peace of Roskilde (26/2/1658), and without a declaration of war, Charles X of Sweden suddenly began an invasion of Denmark, to try and eliminate an inconvenient neighbour once and for all. The Swedish army landed at Korsor, Zeeland, and Copenhagen was poorly defended. However the Danes rallied vigorously against the Swedish threat and by 1/9/1658 the defenders of Copenhagen numbered 7,000, up from 2,000 earlier. See 29/10/1658.

1/7/1658, Thursday (-104,760) (Road, Price)  The stage coach fare from London to Salisbury (2 days journey) was 20 shillings. From London to Exeter cost 40 shillings (4 days), and from London to Durham cost 55 shillings (no set journey time).

Q.3 1659, Oliver Cromwell died, succeeded by his son Richard. Sweden abruptly invaded Denmark.

=====================================================================================

Q.2 1659, French victory over Spain (Spanish Netherlands) at Dunkirk. France assisted by Britain.

4/6/1658, Friday (-104,787) (France, Spain) The Battle of the Dunes was fought near Dunkirk. Marshal Turenne commanded the French and English armies, against the Spanish under Don Juan of Austria and the Prince of Conde. The Spanish were attempting to relieve Dunkirk, which Turenne was besieging. The Spanish were defeated, and Dunkirk surrendered to the French.

29/4/1658, Thursday (-104,823) John Cleveland, English poet, died (born 20/6/1613).

Q.2 1659, French victory over Spain (Spanish Netherlands) at Dunkirk. France assisted by Britain.

======================================================================================

Q.1 1659, Peace of Roskilde. Denmark ceded territory to Sweden.

26/2/1658, Friday (-104,885) The Peace of Roskilde, The Danes ceded the three provinces of Scania, the southern tip of Scandinavia, also the island of Bornholm, and Baahus and Trondheim in Norway, to Sweden. Denmark also promised not to make any anti-Swedish alliances and to exempt all Swedish vessels from tolls when passing through Danish waters out of the Baltic.

3/2/1658, Wednesday (-104,908)

Q.1 1659, Peace of Roskilde. Denmark ceded territory to Sweden.

====================================================================================

31/12/1657, Thursday (+104,942)

3/12/1657, Thursday (-104,970)

26/11/1657, Thursday (-104,977) William Derham, English religious writer, was born (died 5/4/1735).

3/10/1657, Saturday (-105,031)

===================================================================================

3/8/1657, Monday (-105,092)

24/7/1657, Friday (-105,128) (Cartography) Jean Chazelles, French hydrographer, was born (died 16/1/1710). He surveyed the French coast.

11/7/1657, Saturday (-105,115) Frederick I, King of Prussia, was born.

====================================================================================

Q.4 1656, Oliver Cromwell refused the kingship. First mention of chocolate in Britain. Denmark attacked Sweden.

17/6/1657, Wednesday (-105,139) Louis du Pin, French religious writer, was born (died 6/6/1719).

16/6/1657, Tuesday (-105,140) The first mention of chocolate in Britain, in the Public Advertiser. The foodstuff was then used either as a drink or as a paste for brewing a tasty but rather greasy beverage, as the ground beans were rich in cocoa butter. At that time it was being sold by a Frenchman in Bishopsgate, London. The first factory to produce chocolate bars opened at Vevey, Switzerland, in 1819; the bars were used as emergency rations. In 1842 John Cadbury introduced ‘French Eating Chocolate’, the first chocolate bar for pleasurable eating. Cadbury also introduced the first chocolate boxes to Britain, in 1866. Their first assortment included almond, lemon, orange and raspberry flavoured centres. Also in 1866 Cadbury introduced the first modern cocoa powder, with all the greasy butter removed, for an improved chocolate drink.

10/6/1657, Wednesday (-105,146) James Craggs, English politician, was born (died 16/3/1721).

3/6/1657, Wednesday (-105,153) William Harvey, anatomist and physician, died near Saffron Walden, Essex. He discovered and demonstrated the circulation of the blood.

27/5/1657, Wednesday (-105,160) Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell refused an offer to make him King of England. To have accepted the Crown would have lost him the loyalty of the anti-Royalist Army.

9/5/1657, Saturday (-105,178) Pilgrim Father William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth County in Massachusetts, died.

23/4/1657, Thursday (-105,194) The Danish Rigsraad approved a Danish attack on Sweden, believing the Swedes to be occupied with an invasion of Poland they had begun in 7/1654. However see 1/1658.

2/4/1657, Thursday (-105,215) Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III died aged 48. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Leopold I.

Q.4 1656, Oliver Cromwell refused the kingship. First mention of chocolate in Britain. Denmark attacked Sweden.

=====================================================================================

Q.1 1657, Huge fire in Japoanese city of Edo.

29/3/1657, Sunday (-105,219) Easter Sunday.

11/2/1657, Wednesday (-105,265) Bernard Fontenelle, French author, was born (died 9/1/1757).

2/2/1657, Monday (-105,274)

19/1/1657, Monday (-105,288) The Japanese city of Edo was destroyed in a huge fire; over 100,000 people died.

Q.1 1657, Huge fire in Japoanese city of Edo.

====================================================================================

Q.4 1656, Astronomer Edmund Halley was born.

31/12/1656, Wednesday (-105,307)

8/11/1656, Saturday (-105,360) Astronomer Edmund Halley, who discovered Halley’s comet, was born in London. He was the first to realise that comets do not appear at random, but have predictable orbits.

6/11/1656, Thursday (-105,362) Joao V of Portugal died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 13-year old son, Alfonso VI.

Q.4 1656, Astronomer Edmund Halley was born.

=====================================================================================

Q.3 1656, Spinoza was excommunicated. Cromwell’s Third Parliament convened.

17/9/1656, Wednesday (-105,412) Cromwell’s Third Parliament convened.

14/9/1656, Sunday (-105,415) (Britain) Thomas Baker, English antiquary, was born in Lanchester, Durham (died 2/7/1740).

8/9/1656, Monday (-165,421) Joseph Hall, English writer, died (born 1/7/1574).

6/9/1656, Saturday (-105,423) Guillaume Dubois, French statesman, was born (died 10/8/1723).

28/7/1656, Monday (-105,463) (Poland) The Battle of Warsaw began (ended 30/7/1656). Warsaw fell to a Swedish-Brandenburg army.

27/7/1656, Sunday (-105,464) (Jewish) Jewish religious authorities in Amsterdam excommunicated 24 year student Benedict Spinoza for maintaining that the Bible did not support the idea of an immortal soul, or that God has no body, or that angels exist. The secular authorities also banished Spinoza from Amsterdam for a short period. The Jewish community was concerned as Jews still did not have full citizenship rights in Amsterdam.

5/7/1656, Saturday (-105,486) (Britain) John Belhaven, British politician, was born (died in London 31/6/1708).

Q.3 1656, Spinoza was excommunicated. Cromwell’s Third Parliament convened.

=====================================================================================

Q.2 1656, Jews were allowed into England. Prusso-Swedish treaty against Poland.

25/6/1656, Wednesday (-105,496) The Treaty of Marienburg was concluded between Sweden and Brandenburg-Prussia.  The Poles under John Casimir had expelled the Swedes, and under this Treaty Brandenburg-Prussia was promised part of the spoils should Poland be defeated by Sweden.

30/5/1656, Friday (-105,522) The Grenadier Guards, the senior regiment of the British Army, was formed.

19/5/1656,  Monday (-105,533) Easter Sunday. John Hales, English writer, died (born 19/4/1584).

24/4/1656, Thursday (-105,558) The Jews petitioned Cromwell to be allowed to live and trade in England. This was permitted, although  they were denied legal toleration by the Puritan clergy of England.

6/4/1656, Sunday (-105,576) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1656, Jews were allowed into England. Prusso-Swedish treaty against Poland.

====================================================================================

30/3/1656, Sunday (-105,583)

1/2/1656, Friday (-105,641)

1/1/1656, Tuesday (-105,672) William Fleetwood, English cleric, was born (died 4/8/1723).

====================================================================================

Q.4 1655, Jews massacred in Poland.

1/12/1655, Saturday (-105,703) Samuel Pepys married Elizabeth St Michael in St Margarets, Westminster.

24/11/1655, Saturday (-195,710) Charles XI, King of Sweden, was born (died 5/4/1697).

24/10/1655, Wednesday (-105,741) Pierre Gassendi, French scientific writer, died (born 22/1/1592.

15/10/1655, Monday (-105,750) The Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred.

Q.4 1655, Jews massacred in Poland.

===================================================================================

1/8/1655, Wednesday (-105,825)

====================================================================================

Q.2 1655, England took Jamaica from Spain. Inventor of the piano born in Padua.

1/6/1655, Friday (-105,886)

13/5/1655, Sunday (-105,905) Pope Innocent XIII was born.

10/5/1655. Thursday (-105,908) The English captured Jamaica from the Spanish. Christopher Columbus had arrived in Jamaica in 1494, and claimed the island in the name of the King and Queen of Spain. However Europeans did not occupy the island until 1509. 146 years later the English forces arrived at Passage Fort in Kingston harbour. Commanded by Admiral Penn and General Venables they marched on Spanish Town. They had been sent by Oliver Cromwell to capture Hispaniola but failed so went to Jamaica instead. After surrendering, the Spanish were given a few days to leave Jamaica. Most went to Cuba, but a few secretly went to the north side of Jamaica.

2/5/1655, Wednesday (-105,916) Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italian who invented the first piano, was born in Padua.

15/4/1655, Sunday (-105,933) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1655, England took Jamaica from Spain. Inventor of the piano born in Padua.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1655, Titan, largest moon of Saturn, discovered by Huygens.

25/3/1655, Sunday (-105,954) Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, was discovered by Christiaan Huygens.

2/3/1655, Friday (-105,977)

22/1/1655. Monday (-106,016)

7/1/1655, Sunday (-106,031) Pope Innocent X died.

Q.1 1655, Titan, largest moon of Saturn, discovered by Huygens.

====================================================================================

Q.4 1654, Daily weather readings begun. Bernoulli, mathematician, born.

27/12/1654, Wednesday (-106,042) Jacques Bernoulli, mathematician, was born in Basel (died 16/8/1705).

15/12/1654. Friday (-106,054) A meteorological office in Tuscany began daily temperature readings.

30/11/1654, Thursday (-106,069) William Habington, English poet, died (born 4/11/1605).

27/11/1654, Monday (-106,072) Friedrich Canitz, German poet, was born (died 1699).

30/10/1654, Monday (-106,100) (Japan) The Japanese Emperor Go-Komyo died (born 1633).

Q.4 1654, Daily weather readings begun. Bernoulli, mathematician, born.

====================================================================================

Q.3 1654, Franco-Spanish was continued. Cromwell faced dissent, excluded his opponents.

12/9/1654, Tuesday (-106,148) (Britain) Cromwell ordered the exclusion of Members of Parliament that were hostile to him.

3/9/1654, Sunday (-106,157) (Britain) In the English Parliament, a Republican, Vance, questioned the pre-eminence of Cromwell.

28/8/1654, Monday (-106,163) (Sweden) Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna died (born 1583).

24/8/1654, Thursday (-106,167) (France) Battle of Arras. Turenne attacked the Spanish forces who were besieging Arras; Arras was relieved but the besieging forces under Conde managed to withdraw safely.

Q.3 1654, Franco-Spanish was continued. Cromwell faced dissent, excluded his opponents.

====================================================================================

Q.2 1654, Venice defeated Turkey at Dardanelles. First toll bridge in America. First Anglo-Dutch War ended.

16/6/1654, Friday (-106,236) (Sweden) Queen Christina of Sweden abdicated in favour of her cousin, Charles Gustavus (Charles X). There had been discontent at her luxurious lifestyle and failure to produce an heir. She had sold off large amounts of Crown Property to support the 500 nobles she had created. She fled disguised in men’s clothes as ‘Count Dohna’, to settle in Rome.

10/6/1654, Saturday (-106,242) Alessandro Algardi, Italian sculptor (born 1602 in Bologna) died in Rome.

3/6/1654, Saturday (-106,249) (France) Coronation of King Louis XIV of France.

13/5/1654, Saturday (-106,270) The Battle of the Dardanelles took place. The Venetian navy defeated Turkish forces.

3/5/1654, Wednesday (-106,280) The first toll bridge in America was licensed to Richard Thurley at Newbury River. There was a charge for animals but not for people.

27/4/1654, Thursday (-106,286) Charles Blount, English author, was born in Upper Holloway (died 8/1693).

16/4/1654, Sunday (-106,297) The Peace of Westminster ended the First Anglo-Dutch war between England and The Netherlands, but the Navigation Act which led to the war was retained. See 6/10/1651.

13/4/1654, Thursday (-106,300)

Q.2 1654, Venice defeated Turkey at Dardanelles. First toll bridge in America. First Anglo-Dutch War ended.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1654, Russia now ruled over Ukraine.

26/3/1654, Sunday  (-106,318) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1654, Wednesday (-106,357)

18/1/1654, Wednesday (-106,385) The Ukraine came under Russian domination.

10/1/1654, Tuesday (-106,393) Joshua Barnes, English writer, was born in London (died in Hemingford, Hampshire, 3/8/1712).

Q.1 1654, Russia now ruled over Ukraine.

===================================================================================

Q.4 1653, Cromwell now effectively English King.

31/12/1653, Saturday (-106,403)

16/12/1653, Friday (-106,418) Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of England, effectively an uncrowned King.  He ruled for over four years.

13/12/1653, Tuesday (-106,421) The Barebones Parliament  ended.

13/10/1653, Thursday (-106,482)

Q.4 1653, Cromwell now effectively English King.

=====================================================================================

Q.3 1653, Barebones Parliament in England. First Anglo-Dutch War; Admiral Tromp killed.

13/9/1653, Tuesday (-106,512)

9/8/1653, Tuesday (-106,547) Marten Harpertszoon Tromp, the Dutch Admiral who fought against Spain  and England, was killed in battle against England off the Dutch coast.

4/7/1653, Monday (-106,583) The Barebones Parliament began sitting.

Q.3 1653, Barebones Parliament in England. First Anglo-Dutch War; Admiral Tromp killed.

====================================================================================

Q.2 1653, Peasant’s Revolt in Switzerland, Cromwell dissolved the Long Parliament (Rump); later recalled.

22/6/1653, Wednesday (-106,595) Andre Fleury, French statesman, was born (died 29/1/1743).

8/6/1653. Wednesday (-106,609) A Peasant’s Revolt, the latest in a series of them, was put down in Switzerland.

20/4/1653,  Wednesday (-106,658) Cromwell dissolved the Long Parliament (Rump Parliament) due to its slowness in implementing Cromwellian reforms. It was recalled on 7/5/1659, after Cromwell’s death.

10/4/1653, Sunday (-106,668) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1653, Peasant’s Revolt in Switzerland, Cromwell dissolved the Long Parliament (Rump); later recalled.

==================================================================================

Q.1 1653, Dutch Navy defeated by English off Portsmouth.

20/3/1653, Sunday (-106,689)

20/2/1653. Sunday (-106,717) Admiral Robert Blake defeated the Dutch under Martin Van Tramp off Portsmouth.

16/1/1653, Sunday (-106,752) (Britain) John Digby Bristol, British diplomat, died in Paris.

Q.1 1653, Dutch Navy defeated by English off Portsmouth.

====================================================================================

Q.4 1652, King Louis XIV returned to Paris.

23/12/1652, Thursday (-106,776) John Cotton, religious writer, died (born 4/12/1585).

21/10/1652, Thursday (-106,839) The exiled boy-King, Louis XIV, returned from exile to Paris.

20/10/1652, Wednesday (-106,840) Antonio Coello, Spanish poet, died.

8/10/1652, Friday (-106,852) John Greaves, English mathematician, died (born 1602).

2/10/1652, Saturday (-106,858) In Paris, the middle class disputed with the Fronde, and allowed Louis XIV to enter the city.

Q.4 1652, King Louis XIV returned to Paris.

=================================================================================

Q.3 1652, First Anglo-Dutch War began.

2/9/1652, Thursday (-106,888)

20/8/1652, Friday (-106,901)

8/7/1652, Thursday (-106,944) The First Anglo-Dutch war began.

Q.3 1652, First Anglo-Dutch War began.

===================================================================================

Q.2 1652, First European settlement in Africa. French Fronde conflict. Architect Inigo Jones died.

23/6/1652, Wednesday (-106,959) Jacques Godefroy, legal writer, died (born 13/9/1587).

21/6/1652. Monday (-106,961) The great architect, Inigo Jones, died. He had designed the Queen’s House at Greenwich and the Banqueting Hall at Whitehall. He also laid out Lincoln’s Inn Fields and Covent Garden.

19/6/1652, Saturday (-106,963) Francis Cottington, English Lord Treasurer, died (born 1578).

18/5/1652, Tuesday (-106,995)

18/4/1652, Sunday (-107,025) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1652, Thursday (-107,035) The first permanent European settlement in Africa was founded by the Dutchman Jan Van Riebeck, at Table Bay. For decades earlier, since the 1500s, ships, mostly Dutch and English, had anchored here to refit their vessels for the voyage to the east. In 1620 two Englishmen, officers of the East India Company, took it upon their own initiative to possess Table Bay in the name of King James, for fear that the Dutch would claim the area and charge English ships to refit there. But London did not approve of their action and it had no effect. The Portuguese influence was declining and they were not in a position to resist the Dutch. The English seized St Helena island as a halfway house to the east. France took colonies in Madagascar and elsewhere. The Dutch settlement was the beginning of the Boer, farmer, settlers.

7/4/1652, Wednesday (-107,036) In France, the Battle of Bleneau; Conde defeated Marshall Turenne, who had defected back to the Royalist side. Both armies marched to Paris to negotiate. In July 1652 the Duchesse de Montpensier persuaded the Parisians to open the city gates to the Fronde (anti-Royalist) army, and the Bastille’s guns were turned on Turenne’s Royalists. See 2/10/1652.

Q.2 1652, First European settlement in Africa. French Fronde conflict. Architect Inigo Jones died.

====================================================================================

29/3/1652, Monday (-107,045) ‘Black Monday’ – a total eclipse of the Sun in Britain caused anxiety.

13/3/1652, Saturday (-107,061) Claude Bouthillier, French statesman, died in Paris (born 1581).

29/1/1652, Thursday (-107,105)

====================================================================================

Q.4 1651, English Navigation Act, harm to Dutch marine trade, led to Anglo-Dutch War.

14/12/1651, Sunday (-107,151) Pierre Dupuy, French scholarly writer, died (born 27/11/1582).

29/11/1651, Saturday (-107,166)

21/10/1651, Tuesday (-107,205) (France) Jean Bart, French naval commander, was born in Dunkirk (died 1702).

15/10/1651, Wednesday (-107,211) James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby, died (born 31/1/1607).

14/10/1651, Tuesday (-107,212) Massachusetts passed laws forbidding the poor to wear excessively luxurious dress.

6/10/1651, Monday (-107,220) The English issued a commercial challenge to the Dutch by passing the Navigation Act; this prohibited the import of goods into England from America, Asia, or Africa in any except British or colonial ships; with a crew at least half-English. This was a challenge to Amsterdam’s status as Europe’s leading port. This was an attempt to revive the English economy, depressed by three years of plague and bad harvests. In 1652 England declared war on The Netherlands (First Anglo-Dutch War) after an incident where a Dutch fleet refused to be searched by the British. See 15/4/1654, and 1/10/1660.

Q.4 1651, English Navigation Act, harm to Dutch marine trade, led to Anglo-Dutch War.

======================================================================================

Q.3 1651, Final defeat of Charles II in English Civil War. Charles fled to France.

3/9/1651, Wednesday (-107,253) Oliver Cromwell’s army defeated the Royalist army at Worcester. Charles II, destitute and friendless, spent the night in an oak tree at Boscobel to evade capture, and fled to France on 17/10/1651.

Cromwell’s troops hauled twenty large boats upstream to make a pontoon bridge, crossing the Severn into the Royalist side.  The battle concluded with fighting inside Worcester itself.  Some 3,000 Royalist forces were killed, and 10,000 taken prisoner, many of whom were transported to New England as slaves.  The Parliamentarian forces lost only 200 men.  This was the final battle for the Royalist cause.

28/8/1651, Thursday (-107,259) The Parliamentarians captured Upton bridge, 10 miles south of Worcester.  The Royalist General Massey was badly wounded.  Cromwell’s forces occupied the west bank of the Severn with 11,000 troops, so cutting off any support for Charles II from Wales, and aiming to attack Worcester from the south.

25/8/1651, Monday (-107,262) A force of Lancashire Royalists raised by the Earl of Derby was crushed by Colonel Robert Lilburne at Wigan.  Cromwell returned to England via the east coast from Scotland; harassing Charles II’s rearguard.  Cromwell marched on Worcester with a force of around 28,000 regular troops plus a further 3,000 militiamen who were against the Scots.  Lilburne blockaded Charles route back into Scotland. Charles hoped to draw extra forces from Wales and the south-west.

22/8/1651,  Friday (-107,265) Charles II occupied the loyal Royalist city of Worcester, but his army numbered less than 16,000 troops.  See 25/8/1651.

6/8/1651, Wednesday (-107,281) Francois Fenelon, French author and Archbishop of Cambrai (1695-1715) was born in Perigord (died 7/1/1715 in Cambrai).

5/8/1651, Tuesday (-107,282) King Charles II began a march south into England, crossing the border from Scotland this day.  His plan was to march through the traditionally Royalist regions of Lancashire and the Welsh border, picking up troops along the way.  However the English Royalists and Presbyterians failed to join him, due to anti-Scots propaganda from the Cromwellian camp.  See 22/8/1651.

2/8/1651, Saturday (-107,285) Cromwell’s army took Perth.

Q.3 1651, Final defeat of Charles II in English Civil War. Charles fled to France.

====================================================================================

2/6/1651, Monday (-107,346)

6/4/1651, Sunday (-107,403) Andre Dacier, French scholarly writer, was born (died 17/8/1720)

====================================================================================

Q.1 1651, Charles II crowned King of England at Scone.

30/3/1651, Sunday (-107,410) Easter Sunday

1/2/1651, Saturday (-107,467)

1/1/1651, Wednesday (-107,498) Charles II was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Palace. He then marched south into England (see 5/8/1651).

Q.1 1651, Charles II crowned King of England at Scone.

=====================================================================================

Q.4 1650, Quakers founded. Fronde/Mazarin conflict in France. Cromwell took Edinburgh.

19/12/1650. Thursday (-107,511 )  Cromwell’s army took Edinburgh Castle.

15/12/1650, Sunday (-107,515) (France) Battle of Blanc-Champ. The Fronde, under Turenne, was defeated. Turenne later changed sides to the Royalists.

13/12/1650, Friday (-107,517) (France) Pressis-Preslin (for Mazarin) secured the surrender of the town of Rethel. Turenne, who was marching to relieve the town, now fell back hurriedly.

4/11/1650, Monday (-107,556) William III, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born in The Hague, Holland, son of William II of Orange.

31/10/1650, Thursday (-107,560) John Bradshaw, English politician, died  (born 1602).

30/10/1650, Wednesday (-107,561) ‘Quakers’, the more common name for the Religious Society of Friends, came into being during a court case at which George Fox, the founder, told magistrates to “quake and tremble at the word of the Lord”.

29/10/1650, Tuesday (-107,562) David Calderwood, Scottish historian, died (born 1575).

8/10/1650, Tuesday (-107,583)

Q.4 1650, Quakers founded. Fronde/Mazarin conflict in France. Cromwell took Edinburgh.

=====================================================================================

Q.3 1650, Cromwell entered Scotland, Royalists defeated.

24/9/1650, Tuesday (-107,597) (France) Charles de Valois Angoulmeme (died (born 28/4/1573 in Fayet Castle).

23/9/1650, Monday (-107,598) Jeremy Collier, English writer, was born (died 26/4/1726).

13/9/1650, Friday (-107,608) Ferdinand, Elector of Cologne, died (born 7/1/1577).

8/9/1650, Sunday (-107,613) (British Royal Family) Elizabeth, 2nd daughter of Charles I if England, died of a chill after getting soaked in the rain upon arriving at Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight. Born 28/12/1635, when the English Civil War broke and Charles left London with his two elder princes, Elizabeth was left under the care of Parliament. Cared for by various nobility, she bid farewell to her father on 29/1/1649, the day before his execution. In June 1650 she was entrusted to the care of the earl and countess of Leicester at Penshurst, but when King Charles II landed in Scotland she was taken to Carisbrooke for security.

3/9/1650, Tuesday (-107,618) The Battle of Dunbar; Cromwell’s army marched into Scotland and defeated a Scottish Royalist Presbyterian army under David Leslie twice its size. This battle, along with Worcester (3/9/1651), put an end to Charles I’s Royalist cause.

25/8/1650, Sunday (-107,627) Richard Crashaw, English poet, died (born 1613).

3/7/1650, Wednesday (-107,680)

Q.3 1650, Cromwell entered Scotland, Royalists defeated.

====================================================================================

Q.2 1650, Charles II proclaimed King in Scotland. Death penalty for adultery proposed in England, not enacted.

24/6/1650, Monday (-107,689) Charles II landed in Scotland and was proclaimed King.

26/5/1650, Sunday (-107,718) The Duke of Marlborough, British general, was born as John Churchill in Ashe, Devon.

14/5/1650, Tuesday (-107,730) The UK Parliament voted in favour of the death penalty for adultery but this was never implemented.

20/4/1650, Saturday (-107,754) (Britain) William Bledloe, English adventurer, was born in Chepstow (died in Bristol 20/8.1680)

14/4/1650, Sunday (-107,760) Easter Sunday

Q.2 1650, Charles II proclaimed King in Scotland. Death penalty for adultery proposed in England, not enacted.

=====================================================================================

Q.1 1650, France, Mazarin/Conde conflict. Descartes, French philosopher, died.

14/3/1650, Thursday (-107,791)

11/2/1650, Monday (107,822) Death of Rene Descartes (born 31/3/1596), founder of French philosophy.

2/2/1650, Saturday (-107,831) Nell Gwynne, mistress of King Charles II, was born Eleanor Gwynne, the daughter of a fishwife. Originally an orange-seller, she became an actress at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.

14/1/1650, Monday (-107,850) In France, Cardinal Mazarin ordered the arrest of Conde and his associates. However in early 1651 the French Parliament dismissed Mazarin and released Conde. Mazarin left France.

Q.1 1650, France, Mazarin/Conde conflict. Descartes, French philosopher, died.

=====================================================================================

12/12/1649, Wednesday (-107,883)

4/12/1649, Tuesday (-107,891) William Drummond, Scottish poet, died (born 13/12/1585).

20/11/1649, Tuesday (-107,905) (Netherlands) Jan van Broekhuizen, Dutch classical scholar, was born (died 15/12/1707)

3/10/1649, Wednesday (-107,953) Giovanni Diodati, Swiss religious writer, died (born 6/6/1576).

=====================================================================================

Q.3 1649, Irish Rebellion harshly criushed by Cromwell, Britain’s first employment agency set up.

15/9/1649, Saturday (-107,971) Birth of Titus Gates, English Anglican priest who successfully stirred up anti-Catholic sentiments by creating a ‘Popish plot’.

12/9/1649, Wednesday (-107,974) The Sack of Drogheda by soldiers under Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell’s 16,000 troops put to death 2,000 Irish rebels to deter further insurrection. Another massacre was perpetrated at Wexford soon after.  The Irish rebellion had begun in 1641.

12/8/1649. Sunday (-108,005) Britain’s first employment agency, the Office of Entries, was set up in King Street, London, by newspaper proprietor Henry Walker.  He was running a paper called Perfect Occurrences in which he advertised jobs.  His agency charged 4d to both employer and employee. See 4/7/1631.

22/7/1649, Sunday (-108,026) Pope Clement XI was born in Urbino, Italy.

Q.3 1649, Irish Rebellion harshly criushed by Cromwell, Britain’s first employment agency set up.

======================================================================================

13/6/1639, Wednesday (-108,065) Adrien Baillet, French writer, was born in Neuville, Picardy (died 21/1/1706).

3/6/1649, Sunday (-108,075) Manuel de Faria y Sousa, Portuguese poet, died (born 18/3/1590).

10/5/1649, Thursday (-108,099) (Britain) Isaac Dorislaus, Anglo-Dutch lawyer and diplomatist, was murdered by English Royalist refugees in The Hague. Born 1595 in Alkmaar, Holland, he moved to England in ca. 1627 and helped prepare treason charges against King Charles I.

9/4/1649, Monday (-108,130) The Duke of Monmouth, son of King Charles II and Lucy Walter, was born in Rotterdam.

5/4/1649, Thursday (-108,134) Death of John Winthrop, first Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company.

=====================================================================================

Q.1 1649, Charles I executed; England declared a Republic.

25/3/1649, Sunday (-108,145) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1649. Friday (-108,154) Oliver Cromwell, (born 25/4/1599 in Huntingdon, died 3/9/1658) declared England to be a republic, and abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords.

9/3/1649, Friday (-108,161) James Hamilton, English Civil war Royalist, was executed (born 19/6/1609).

11/2/1649, Sunday (-108,187) (Britain) William Carstairs, Scottish statesman, was born (died 28/12/1715).

9/2/1649, Friday (-108,189) King Charles I was buried at St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

8/2/1649, Thursday (-108,190) Gabriel Daniel, French Jesuit historian, was born in Rouen (died 1728).

5/2/1649, Monday (-108,193) King Charles I’s son, 18 years old, was proclaimed Charles II.

30/1/1649. Tuesday (-108,199) Charles I, convicted of treason on 29/1/1649 (see 22/8/1642), was beheaded outside the Banqueting House in Whitehall. He stepped on to the scaffold at 2pm. Four years had passed since the decisive Royalist defeat at Naseby (14/6/1645). Since then Charles I had sought the support of the Irish and the Roman Catholics and even the Pope, all in vain. The Scots, too, were sceptical of his promises to re-establish Presbyterianism and handed him over to the English. The executioner, Richard Brandon, received £30 for a job well done. Charles I’s funeral and burial was in St George’s Chapel on 9/2/1649.

20/1/1649 - 27/1/1649, Saturday (-108,209) At the week-long trial of Charles I, no defence witnesses were called.

Q.1 1649, Charles I executed; England declared a Republic.

=====================================================================================

Q.4 1648, Thirty Years War ended. France, Sweden, Prussia gained. Treaty of Westphalia.

17/12/1648, Sunday (-108,243) George Gillespie, Scottish religious writer, died (born 21/1/1613)

6/12/1648, Wednesday (-108,254) Pride’s purge of Parliament. Oliver Cromwell’s troops surrounded Parliament and refused to admit the 200 Presbyterian MPs, purging the whole of the majority that was opposing Cromwell’s Independents. The remaining 50 MPs, all Independents, then voted for Cromwell’s purge. They then discussed the fate of King Charles, who Cromwell was holding prisoner on the Isle of Wight. The Presbyterian faction had tried to make a deal with the King, and Cromwell’s swift solution was unexpected. The remaining MPs were dubbed the Rump Parliament.

24/11/1648, Friday (-108,266)

24/10/1648. Tuesday (-108,297) The Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War. The Treaty was between the Holy Roman Empire and France. Under it, a large part of Alsace, formerly a German dukedom, was ceded to France, which seized the rest at the Peace of Ryswick, 1697. Sweden also received territories on the German coast of the Baltic, Spain was forced to acknowledge the independence of the United Netherlands, and the Protestant states of Saxony and Brandenburg (=Prussia) received additional territories.

22/10/1648, The French Parlement, having no army of its own to call upon to counter the Parisian rioters, was forced to issue placatory reforms, freeing prisoners; it then fled from Paris.

Q.4 1648, Thirty Years War ended. France, Sweden, Prussia gained. Treaty of Westphalia.

=====================================================================================

Q.3 1648, Cromwell victory at Preston, Conde defeated the Spanish.

10/9/1648, Sunday (-108,341) Nicolas Desmarets, French statesman, was born (died 1721).

20/8/1648, Sunday (-108,362) (France) Conde defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Lens.

17/8/1648. Thursday (-108,365) (Britain) Cromwell’s army was victorious at the Battle of Preston, against a small and poorly-trained force of Scottish soldiers under the Duke of Hamilton.

10/8/1648, Thursday (-108,372) Battle of Lens, Belgium.

8/8/1648, Tuesday (-108,374) In Constantinople, the Janissaries deposed Sultan Ibrahim after he ordered the lifting of the siege of Candia (Heraklion), Crete. On 18/8/1648 Ibrahim was strangled by his own executioner and replaced by his eldest son, 9-year old Mohammed IV.

17/7/1648, Monday (-108,396)

Q.3 1648, Cromwell victory at Preston, Conde defeated the Spanish.

=====================================================================================

Q.2 1648, Conde captured Ypres.

17/6/1648, Saturday (-108,426)

29/5/1648, Monday (-108,445) Conde captured Ypres.

20/5/1648, Saturday (-108,454) King Ladislas IV of Poland died aged 55, after a 16-year reign. He was succeeded by his 39-year-old Jesuit brother, who reigned until 1668 as John II Casimir.

17/5/1648, Wednesday (-108,457) Battle of Zusmarshausen, Germany.

13/5/1648, Saturday (-108,461) Conde commenced a siege of Ypres.

13/4/1648, Thursday (-108,491) Jeanne Guyon, French writer, was born (died 9/6/1717).

7/4/1648, Friday (-108.497) John Sheffield, poet and Duke, was born (died 24/2/1721).

2/4/1648, Sunday (-108,502) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1648, Conde captured Ypres.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1648, Spain gave independence to Spanish Netherlands, fighting France. England renounced King Charles.

14/3/1648, Tuesday (-108,521) Fairfax of Cameron, British Parliamentary General, died.

28/2/1648, Monday (-108,536) Christian IV, King of Denmark, died.

30/1/1648. Sunday (-108,565) (Spain, Netherlands) To free his forces for the war against France, Philip IV of Spain made peace in the United Provinces at Munster. Spain therefore made major concessions. The United Provinces (Netherlands) were recognised as independent by Spain, all Dutch conquests were recognised, and freedom of trade in the east and West Indies was conceded.

15/1/1648, Saturday (-108,580) The English parliament renounced allegiance to the King and voted to have no further communication with him. This was because of his secret treaty with Scotland.

Q.1 1648, Spain gave independence to Spanish Netherlands, fighting France. England renounced King Charles.

===================================================================================

Q.4 1647, English Parliament ultimatum to Charles. Torricelli, inventor of barometer, died.

31/12/1647, Friday (-108,595)

24/12/1647, Friday (-108,602) The British Parliament presented Charles I with four Bills to sign. One gave Parliament control of the army for 20 years, another required all declarations of Parliament so far to be recalled, a third excluded all peers created by Charles I from sitting in the Lords, and the last allowed the two Houses to adjourn at their own pleasure.

18/11/1647, Thursday (-108,638) (France) Pierre Bayle, French philosopher, was born near Pamiers (died in Rotterdam 28/12/1706).

11/11/1647, Thursday (-108,645) Charles I fled from Hampton Court to the Isle of Wight. He was arrested and detained in Carisbrooke Castle. He signed a secret treaty with the Scots, who promised to restore him by force.

25/10/1647, Monday (-108,662) Evangelista Torricelli, Italian mathematician and scientist who devised the barometer or ‘Torricellian Tube’, died in Florence.

Q.4 1647, English Parliament ultimatum to Charles. Torricelli, inventor of barometer, died.

======================================================================================

Q.3 1647, Danish Royal powers curbed.

25/8/1647, Wednesday (-108,723)

22/7/1647, Thursday (-108,757) (France) Marguerite Alacoque, French nun who was beatified by Pope Pius IX in1846, was born near Autun (died17/10/1690).

6/7/1648, Tuesday (-108,773) King Frederick III of Denmark was officially crowned, only after he had agreed to a diminution of Royal powers.

Q.3 1647, Danish Royal powers curbed.

===================================================================================

Q.2 1647, Charles I arrested. Masaachusetts banned Catholics.

12/6/1647, Saturday (-108,797) (Education-Schools) Thomas Farnaby, educationalist who founded a school in Cripplegate, London, died.

4/6/1647, Friday (-108,805) At Holmby House in Northamptonshire, Charles I was seized by the Army, and taken to Hampton Court

26/5/1647, Wednesday (-108,814) A new law in Massachusetts banned Catholic priests from the colony. The penalty was banishment, or death for a second offence.

18/4/1647, Sunday (-108,852) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1647, Charles I arrested. Masaachusetts banned Catholics.

=====================================================================================

Q.1 1647, Scotland agreed to hand over Charles I to Cromwell.

26/3/1647, Friday (-108,875)

14/3/1647, Sunday (-108,887) The Treaty of Ulm. Elector Maximillian I of Bavaria made an agreement with France to end his alliance with Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.

14/2/1647, Sunday (-108,915)

30/1/1647, Saturday (-108,930) The Scots agreed to hand over Charles I to the English Army for the sum of £400,000.

Q.1 1647, Scotland agreed to hand over Charles I to Cromwell.

====================================================================================

Q.4 1646, First advertisement in an English language newspaper.

31/12/1646, Thursday (108,960)

23/11/1646, Monday (-108,998) The first advertisement in in English-language newspaper. It was in Samuel Pecke’s Perfect Diurnall, for books.

12/10/1646, Monday (-109,040) (France) Francois de Bassompierre, French courtier (born 1579) died in Tillieres, Normandy.

Q.4 1646, First advertisement in an English language newspaper.

=====================================================================================

Q.3 1646, John Flamsteed, 1st Astronomer-Royal, was born .

14/9/1646, Monday (-109,068) Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, died (born 1591).

19/8/1646, Wednesday (-109,094) John Flamsteed, first Astronomer Royal, was born in Denby, near Derby.

Q.3 1646, John Flamsteed, 1st Astronomer-Royal, was born .

=====================================================================================

Q.2 1646, Charles I surrendered to Scots at Newark.

19/6/1646, Friday (-109,155)

5/5/1646, Tuesday (-109,200) Charles I surrendered to the Scots at Newark, ending the military phase of the Civil War.

16/4/1646, Thursday (-109,219) Birth of Jules Hardouin-Mansart, French court architect to King Louis XIV who designed the Hall of Mirrors and the Orangery at Versailles.

15/4/1646, Wednesday (-109,220) Christian V, King of Norway and Denmark, was born (died 25/8/1699).

4/4/1646, Monday (-109,229) Antoine Galland, French historical writer, was born (died 17/2/1715).

Q.2 1646, Charles I surrendered to Scots at Newark.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1646, Parliamentarian forces captured Chester.

29/3/1646, Sunday (-109,237) Easter Sunday.

3/2/1646, Tuesday (-109,291) Chester fell to Parliamentarian forces.

4/1/1646, Sunday (-109,321)

Q.1 1646, Parliamentarian forces captured Chester.

===================================================================================

Q.4 1645, Royalists forced to retreat towards home base in south Midlands.

31/12/1645, Wednesday (-109,325)

4/11/1645, Tuesday (-109,382)

14/10/1645,  Tuesday (-109,403) (Britain) Battle of Basing House, near Basingstoke, Charles could not risk fighting here in case Parliamentarian forces cut him off from Oxford, so he retreated back towards Newbury.

Q.4 1645, Royalists forced to retreat towards home base in south Midlands.

====================================================================================

Q.3 1645, Royalist losses continued.

13/9/1645, Saturday (-109,434) The Battle of Philiphaugh, at which Montrose’s forces army, supporting Charles I, was routed by General Leslie’s forces. Montrose escaped to the Continent.

11/9/1645, Thursday (-109,436) (Hungary) Miklos Esterhazy died (born 8/4/1582)

29/8/1645, Friday (-109,449) Hugo Grotius, Dutch statesman, died.

3/8/1645, Sunday (-109,475) Battle of Allerheim, Germany

23/7/1645, Wednesday (-109,486) The Royalist town of Bridgewater fell to the Parliamentarians.

12/7/1645, Saturday (-109,497) The Russian Tsar, Michael Romanov, died aged 49. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Alexis.

2/7/1645, Wednesday (-109,507) At the Battle of Alford, Royalists beat the Covenanters.

Q.3 1645, Royalist losses continued.

=====================================================================================

Q.2 1645, Royalists effectively lost the Civil War, at Naseby. Leicester also bad for their cause.

14/6/1645. Saturday (-109,525) Battle of Naseby, Northamptonshire, in the Civil War. 10,000 Royalists (Cavaliers), under Prince Rupert, were heavily defeated by 14,000 Roundheads under Cromwell and Fairfax, and effectively lost the Civil War. The Royalists had lost their best officers as well as artillery and other weaponry they could ill-afford to lose. The Royalists successfully attacked Cromwell’s left wing, but then made the fatal mistake of pursuing the fleeing soldiers. Cromwell regrouped the right wing of his cavalry to rout Prince Rupert’s army.

13/6/1645, Friday (-109,526) Cromwell arrived at Naseby, raising the morale of the Parliamentary troops there.

11/6/1645, Wednesday (-109,528) Cromwell’s New Model Army marched northwards from its siege of Oxford, travelling from Stony Stratford to Wootton, three miles from Northampton. Rainy weather hampered their progress, turning dirt roads into mud.

30/5/1645, Friday (-109,540) (Britain) A Royalist Army, 10,000 strong led by Prince Rupert attacked and besieged Parliamentarian forces in Leicester. The Parliamentarians, 480 soldiers, 900 armed townsmen, and 150 volunteers from the rest of Leicestershire, were heavily outnumbered. Moreover the city’s walls had been badly maintained and had to be hurriedly bolstered with earthen banks. Nevertheless the Royalists suffered heavy losses as they finally took the city; they then brutally slaughtered the defenders. Ultimately, Charles’ treatment of the defenders of Leicester proved to be a turning point in his popularity amongst Britons.

2/5/1645, Friday (-109,568) Battle of Mergentheim, Germany.

19/4/1645, Saturday (-109,581) (Australia) Anthony Van Diemen, Dutch explorer of Australia, died in Batavia (born 1593).

17/4/1645, Thursday (-109,583) Daniel Featley, English religious writer, died (born 15/3/1582).

6/4/1645, Sunday (-109,594) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1645, Royalists effectively lost the Civil War, at Naseby. Leicester also bad for their cause.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1645, Peace of Bromsebro; Sweden made gains from Denmark.

6/3/1645, Thursday (-109,625) Battle of Jankow, Bohemia.

8/2/1645, Saturday (-109,651) By the Peace of Bromsebro, Sweden acquired Osel and Gotland from Denmark. Denmark also lost Jemteland and Herjedal in Norway.

2/2/1645, Sunday (-109,657) At the Battle of Inverlochy, Royal Highlanders under the Marquess of Montrose defeated the covenanters under the Earl of Argyll

10/1/1645, Friday (-109,680) At Tower Hill, William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury since 1633, was beheaded for treason.  He was not replaced until 1660.

Q.1 1645, Peace of Bromsebro; Sweden made gains from Denmark.

=====================================================================================

Q.4 1644. English Civil War continued. China tea first mentioned in Britain.

31/12/1644, Tuesday (-109,690)

8/12/1644, Sunday (-109,713) ‘China drink’, probably tea, was mentioned on a bill in Yorkshire, A bottle of it cost 4 shillings. It was initially viewed as a tonic for the sick.

10/11/1644, Sunday (-109,741) Luis Guevara, Spanish novelist, died (born 1/8/1579).

27/10/1644, Sunday (-109,755) The second Battle of Newbury was indecisive. After it, Charles escaped to Oxford.  The Parliamentarian Army, under Charles Montagu, Duke of Manchester, failed to prevent a Royalist force relieving the siege of Donnington Castle.

14/10/1644, Monday (-109,768) The Quaker Leader William Penn, founder of the State of Pennsylvania, was born in London, the son of an admiral.

3/10/1644, Thursday (-109,779) Battle of Freiburg, Germany.

Q.4 1644. English Civil War continued. China tea first mentioned in Britain.

====================================================================================

Q.3 1644, Marston Moor; Royalists lost the north of England. Thirty Years War continued in Europe.

8/9/1644, Sunday (-109,804) Sir John Coke, English politician, died (born 5/3/1563).

2/9/1644, Monday (-109,810) Royalists defeated the Roundheads at the Battle of Lostwithiel (Cornwall). Charles now planned an advance on London.

1/9/1644, Sunday (-109,811) At the Battle of Tippamuir, Royalist Highlanders beat the Covenanters.

16/8/1644, Friday (-109,827) Francois Choisy, French author, was born (died 2/10/1724).

3/8/1644, Saturday (-109,840) At Freiberg, Saxony, the French fought a combined force of Bavarians and Austrians during the Thirty Years War.  Fighting at Frieburg also occurred on 5th and  15th August.

2/7/1644, Tuesday (-109,872) Battle of Marston Moor, near York, in the Civil War. The Royalists were crushed, and Cromwell’s forces took some 1,500 prisoners and killed 4,000 Royalist troops.  This was the turning point in the Civil War; the Royalists had effectively lost the north of England.

1/7/1644, Monday (-109,873) Prince Rupert lifted the siege of York.

Q.3 1644, Marston Moor; Royalists lost the north of England. Thirty Years War continued in Europe.

=====================================================================================

Q.2 1644, Royalists feeling the pressure in northern and southern England.

30/6/1644, Sunday (-109,874) Prince Rupert reached Knaresborough, near York.

15/6/1644, Saturday (-109,889) Essex, Parliamentarian, relieved the siege of Lyme Regis, and occupied Weymouth. Elsewhere in the South, Parliamentarian forces were pressing closer to Oxford, although Charles was able to manoeuvre skilfully in an area around Oxford Gloucester, Abingdon, Stourbridge and Northampton, avoiding total defeat by the Parliamentarian forces.

26/5/1644, Sunday (-109,909) Michael Ettmuller, physician, was born (died 9/3/1683).

16/5/1644, Thursday (-109,919) Prince Rupert left Shrewsbury and fought his way across hostile country to Lancashire, where he hoped to drum up more support for the Royalists. He took Stockport and Liverpool, then swung towards Yorkshire, intending to relieve the siege of York. Once York was relieved, or if it was lost before he arrived, Rupert was to head back south to the Woircester area to help the Royalist forces there. See 1/7/1644.

25/4/1644, Thursday (-109,940) China’s last Ming Emperor committed suicide. The Qing Dynasty began.

21/4/1644, Sunday (-109,944) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1644, Saturday (-109,952) Fairfax and Leven commenced a siege of the Royalist forces in York. Demolition of the Globe Theatre on the South Bank, London.

11/4/1644, Thursday (-109,954) Fairfax, Parliamentarian, stormed into Yorkshire from Lancashire, occupying Selby this day. The Marquis of Newcastle, Royalist, had to retreat from fighting the Scots in Durham and consolidate his position in York.

Q.2 1644, Royalists feeling the pressure in northern and southern England.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1644, Mixed quarter for the Royalists, but even with successes, they were being stretched too far.

29/3/1644, Friday (-109,967) (Britain) Battle of Cheriton, a few miles east of Winchester, Hampshire. Hopton, Royalist, was defeated. Although he had the advantage in the initial stages of this battle, indiscipline and bad coordination undermined his efforts, and Waller gained the final victory.

22/3/1644, Friday (-109,974) Newark capitulated to Prince Rupert. Rupert captured a large quantity of armaments. However he was being too thinly stretched, with Royalists in the Noirth of England, Lancashire and the South all needing his assistance.

1/3/1644, Friday (-109,995) Simon Foucher, French philosophical writer, was born (died 27/4/1696).

13/2/1644, Tuesday (-110,012)

25/1/1644, Thursday (-110,031) Royalists were defeated at the Battle of Nantwich.

22/1/1644, Monday (-110,034) King Charles summoned a ‘Counter Assembly’, a rival Parliament to the London one,  at Oxford. He was pleased to find that 83 Peers and 175 MPs attended. However there was bad news for Charles on the military front, with the arrival on the Parliamentarian side of a Scottish army of 18,000 foot soldiers and 3,000 horsemen. London agreed to pay the Scots £31,000 a month plus cost of equipment for this military assistance. From the Scottish point of view, they were being invited to invade a larger country, at its own expense, and would gain considerable influence over its religious affairs.

10/1/1644, Wednesday (-110,046) Louis Boufflers, French Marshal, was born (died in Fontainebleau 22/8/1711).

6/1/1644, Saturday (-110,050) Waller, Parliamentarian, recaptured Arundel (see 9/12/1643).

Q.1 1644, Mixed quarter for the Royalists, but even with successes, they were being stretched too far.

===================================================================================

Q.4 1643, Some successes for the Royalists, in the English Civil War.

13/12/1643, Wednesday (-110,074) Parliamentarians under Waller made a surprise attack on a Royalist force at Alton (Hampshire) (see 15/9/1643).

9/12/1643, Saturday (-110,078) Lord Hopton captured Arundel for the Royalists. See 6/1/1644.

8/12/1643, Friday (-110,079) Pym, Parliamentarian English politician, died.

24/11/1643, Friday (-110,093) Battle of Tuttlingen, Germany.

3/10/1644, Tuesday (-110,145) The London-based Parliamentarian regiments defending Reading deserted back home, leaving Essex too weak to defend the town, which was recaptured by the Royalists this day.

1/10/1643, Sunday (-110,147) Frederick III, King of Denmark, married Sophia Amelia of Brunswick.

Q.4 1643, Some successes for the Royalists, in the English Civil War.

=====================================================================================

Q.3 1643, Royalist successes in western England. However they were being pushed back in the east. Charles attempted to utilise Irish troops, but these were less than reliable to his cause.

20/9/1643, Wednesday (-110,158) The First Battle of Newbury was indecisive.  The Royalist Army was attempting to block the path of the Parliamentarians under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, who were returning to their base at Reading after raising the siege of Gloucester.   Essex’s Army failed to break through the Royalist position but made such an impact that the Royalists withdrew anyway.

18/9/1643, Monday (-110,160) Eastern Association Parliamentary forces reinforced Hull with more infantry and ammunition supplies, against the Royalists attacking the town from the rural East Riding. Meanwhile cavalry released from Hiull (by the arrival of the Parliamentarian infantry) – the sea routes from the town were open – crossed the Humber and defeated the Royalists at Winceby this day, just east of Horncastle, Lincolnshire.

16/9/1643, Saturday (-110,162) Parliamentary ‘Eastern Association’ forces moved into Lincolnshire and besieged Royalist Kings Lynn, which surrendered this day. See 18/9/1643.

15/9/1643, Friday (-110,163) (Ireland, Britain) King Charles made a truce with rebels in Ireland, to free up more forces for the Civil War. . However these troops proved less than reliable fighters for Charles, and at Alton (13/12/1643) many defected to the Parliamentarian side.

5/9/1643, Tuesday (-110,173) In the face of Essex’s newly arrived army, now at Cheltenham, the Royalists suddenly raised the siege of Gloucester and withdrew to Painswick. The danger to Gloucester now over, Essex’s men now began a march back to their headquarters at Reading; hiowever see 20/9/1643.

3/9/1643, Sunday (-110,175) (Medical) Lorenzo Bellini, Italian physician, was born in Florence (died in Florence 8/1/1704).

26/8/1643, Saturday (-110,183) Parliamentarian forces under Essex began a march westwards to relieve the siege of Gloucester. Moving through Aylesbury and then by-pasing Royalist Oxford to the north, going via Stow on the Wold, Essex’s forces successfully withstood both food shortages and flanking skirmishes by Royalist forces from Oxford. See 5/9/1643.

10/8/1643, Thursday (-110,199) Royalist forces began a siege of Gloucester. The city constituted a vital strategic link between the Royalist areas of Wales and Oxfordshire, and its governor, the Parliamentarian Massey, was rumoured to be ready to switch allegiance.

26/7/1643, Wednesday (-110,214) Prince Rupert, Royalist, captured Bristol after a 4-day siege. Waller, with his forces badly mauled, was powerless to intervene from his headquarters in Bath. The Royalists now overran all of Dorset.

13/7/1643, Thursday (-110,227) Wallers Parliamentarian forces attempted to surround and capture Devizes, along with Hopton’s army and guns defending the town. However the Royalists fought back strongly, and Royalist reinforcements soon arrived from Oxford. Waller’s forces were detstroyed, and the Royalists now advanced on Parliamentarian-held Bristol.

6/7/1643, Thursday (-110,234) Royalist forces, having failed to make a breakthrough at Bath, and with Hopton badly wounded, moved east to Devizes, closely followed by Parliamentarian soldiers.

5/7/1643, Wednesday (-110,235) Waller, Parliamentarian commander holding Bath, to avoid being surrounded, engaged the Royalists at Lansdown, just north of Bath. Neither side really won this battle, having fought to exhaustion all day, and Hopton was severely injured next day by the explosion of an ammunition wagon.

30/6/1643, Friday (-110,240) Fairfax’s Parliamentarian forces were decisively defeated at the battle of Adwalton (Atherton) Moor, near Bradford, Yorkshire, This led to the fall of the West Riding clothing towns to the Royalists.

24/6/1643, Saturday (-110,246) John Hamden, Parliamentarian commander, died after eing wounded in the shoulder by gunfire at the Battle of Chalgrove.

18/6/1643, Sunday (-110,252) An epidemic had weakened Essex’s Parliamentarian forces holding Reading, and this day the Parliamentarian forces were routed, and their commander John Hampden mortally wounded at the Battle of Chalgrove Field (Chiselhampton, between Wallingford and Oxford). When Essex obtained reinforcements and attempted to take Oxford from the Aylesbuty side he found his men demoralised and withdrew from Rupert’s Parliamentarian cavalry over towards Bedfordshire, in July 1643.

Q.3 1643, Royalist successes in western England. However they were being pushed back in the east. Charles attempted to utilise Irish troops, but these were less than reliable to his cause.

==================================================================================

Q.2 1643, Charles planned to advance on London and besiege it into surrender. However the proivincial towns that held out for Parliament constituted a fatal flaw to this plan.

19/5/1643, Friday (-110,282) Battle of Rocroi. The French, under the Prince of Conde, defeated the Spanish.

16/5/1643, Tuesday (-110,285) Hopton, Royalist, virtually annihilated Parliamentarian forces in a battle at Stratton, Cornwall/Devon border.

14/5/1643. Sunday (-110,287) Louis XIV became King of France at the age of four years, 231 days, and then reigned for over 72 years.  He succeeded his father, Louis XIII.

27/4/1643, Thursday (-110,304) 27/4/1643, Charles’ plan for victory was now to tie down Essex’s forces with the Royalist stronghold in the Oxford area whilst other Royalist forces fought their way towards London from the North and West. London would ultimately be surrounded and starved into surrender. However this plan failed due to the number of towns still held by the Parliamentarians, even as the Royalists controlled the countryside around. Places like Hull, Parliamentarian-held, tied up Royalist forces and thwarted Charles’ plans. However this day Parliamentarian forces captured Reading, an important part of the Royalist Oxford defence perimeter, a development which, although not fatal to Charles’ plans, would severely delay him.

25/4/1643, Tuesday (-110,306) Hopton’s Royalist forces were defeated at Sourton Down, Dartmoor.

24/3/1643, Monday (-110,307) The Parliamentarian position was improving somewhat after a bad winter 1642/3. Parliament had feared foreign intervention in support of Charles, and had to impose taxation, alienating some, whilst others in London wanted peace at almost any cost. Parliament was considering calling in the Scots to help against Charles.. However this day Sir William Waller defeated the Royalists at Highnam, just west of Gloucester, reinforcing the Parliamentarian hold on Gloucester. Parliament still held the West Riding of Yorkshire, and Hampshire and Wiltshire were cleared of Royalist forces. Some of Charles’ supporters too wanted to negotiate a peace.

12/4/1643, Wednesday (-110,319) The Dukedom of Hamilton was created.

3/4/1643, Monday (-110,328) Charles Duke of Lorraine was born (died 18/4/1690).

2/4/1643, Sunday (-110,329) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1643, Charles planned to advance on London and besiege it into surrender. However the proivincial towns that held out for Parliament constituted a fatal flaw to this plan.

====================================================================================

Q.1 1643, Royalist successes in the Civil War.

19/3/1643, Sunday (-110,343) An indecisive battle at Hopton Heath, Staffordshire.

2/2/1643, Thursday (-110,388) Royalist forces from Oxford captured Cirencester, widening the area they controlled in the south Midlands. In the lower Severn Valley, the Parliamentarians still controlled the garrison towns of Gloucester and Bristol.

16/1/1643, Monday (-110,405) Hopton, Royalist, defeated the Parliamentarians under the Earl of Stamford at Bradock Down, near Liskeard.

Q.1 1643, Royalist successes in the Civil War.

=====================================================================================

Q.4 1642, Charles I marched on London but turned back just west of the capital. Richelieu succeeded by Mazarin in France; French nobility alienated by high taxes. Tasmania and New Zealand discovered by Europeans. Isaac Newton born.

30/12/1642, Friday (-110,422) Vicenzo da Filicaja, Italian poet, was born (died 24/9/1707).

25/12/1642, Sunday (-110,427) Isaac Newton was born at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham, the son of a farmer.

13/12/1642. Tuesday (-110,439) New Zealand was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman.

4/12/1642, Sunday (-110,448) Cardinal Richelieu (Armand du Plessis), French politician and chief minister to Louis XIII from 1624, died aged 57 in Paris. He was succeeded by Mazarin. Mazarin was to alienate the nobility of France, and parliament, due to his policies of high taxation and supreme position, provoking the rebellion by the Fronde.

24/11/1642. Thursday (-110,458) Tasmania was discovered by Abel Tasman, Dutch explorer.  It was originally called van Diemen’s Land, and renamed in 1853.

12/11/1642, Saturday (-110,470) Charles I marched on London, but was turned back at Turnham Green.

2/11/1642, Wednesday (-110,480) (Germany), In the Thirty years War, at Breitenfeld, Swedish forces under Torstensson defeated the Imperialists under Archduke Leopold and Prince Piccolomini, who were attempting to relieve the siege of Lepizig.

1/11/1642, Tuesday (-110,481) Death of Jean Nicolet (born ca. 1598), French explorer of the Lake Michigan area (now Wisconsin).

25/10/1642, Tuesday (-110,488)

24/10/1642, Monday (-110,489) Essex retured from the battle scene at Edgehill, leaving the Royalists to claim victory. The Royalists now continued towards London, taking Banbury and Oxford, London started quickly erecting defences, although some Londoners wanted to sue for peace..

23/10/1642. Sunday (-110,490) The Royalists narrowly beat the Roundheads at the Battle of Edgehill, the first of the English Civil War. Both sides claimed victory.

22/10.1642, Saturday (-110,491) Essex, marching at full speed, reached Kineton, just 7 miles from the Royalist headquarters at Edgecote.

12/10/1642, Wednesday (-110,501) Prince Rupert, Royalist, found many of his army in Shrewsbury keen to attack the Parliamentarians under Essex at their new headquarters at Worcester. However the road from Shrewsbury to London was now open and the Royalists decided to take it, anticipating that Essex would intercept them. They were keen to attack the Parliamentarian forces before they grew too strong. This day the Royalist Army left Shrewsbury gaining two days start on the Parliamentarians, moving south east via Bridgnorth, Birmingham and Kenilworth. Parliament in London became alarmed and ordered Essex to find and defeat Charles.

Q.4 1642, Charles I marched on London but turned back just west of the capital. Richelieu succeeded by Mazarin in France; French nobility alienated by high taxes. Tasmania and New Zealand discovered by Europeans. Isaac Newton born.

===================================================================================

Q.3 1642, Royalist and Parliamentarian forces moved northwest from London. Charles raised his standard at Nottingham, effectively opening the Civil War.

23/9/1642, Friday (-110,520) A cavalry skirmish at Worcester between the retreating Royalists, moving north, and an advance guard of Parliamentarian cavalry The Royalists won, raising their morale.

13/9/1642, Tuesday (-110,530) King Charles marched west from Nottingham to marshal his supporters and their armouries in Derbyshire and Staffordshire, and to link up, via Chester, with his regiments in Ireland. The Parliamentarian forces shadowed this move, also moving west from Northampton towards Worcester.

22/8/1642. Monday (-110,552) The English Civil War began, between the Cavaliers who supported King Charles I and the Roundheads who supported Parliament, when the King raised his standard at Nottingham. Parliament raised an army of 20,000; the nobility and gentry supported the King, fearing a Parliament of commoners.

18/8/1642, Thursday (-110,556) Reni Guido, Italian painter, died (born 4/11/1575).

2/7/1642, Saturday (-110,603)

Q.3 1642, Royalist and Parliamentarian forces moved northwest from London. Charles raised his standard at Nottingham, effectively opening the Civil War.

==================================================================================

Q.2 1642, English Parliament presented King Charles I with 19 demands, which he refused to agree to.

9/6/1642, Thursday (-110,626) Battle of Schweidnitz, Moravia.

1/6/1642, Wednesday (-110,634) Parliament presented nineteen propositions (demands) to Charles I. These asked for Parliamentary control of the military, the Church, and of the tutors of the Royal children

18/5/1642. Wednesday (-110,648) Montreal in Canada was founded.

10/4/1642, Sunday (-110,686) Easter Sunday.

Q.2 1642, English Parliament presented King Charles I with 19 demands, which he refused to agree to.

===================================================================================

Q.1 1642, Charles entered Parliament to seize 5 opponents,but was thwarted. Charles began preparations for war with the Parliamentarians. The English Navy was captured by Parliament.

10/3/1642, Thursday (-110,717) Parliament requested the Lord High Admiral to appoint Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, as commander of the fleet. Simultaneously Charles told him to appoint the Royalist Sir John Pennington. Warwick was appointed, and Charles had lost the navy.

10/1/1642, Monday (-110,776) Charles I withdrew from London, to Hampton Court. The Commons, emboldened, prepared Bills excluding bishops from the House of Lords and giving Parliament control of the army.

8/1/1642, Saturday (-110,778) Galileo, Italian mathematician physicist and astronomer, professor at the University of Padua, died.

4/1/1642, Tuesday (-110,782) Charles I entered Parliament and attempted to arrest five members for treasonable correspondence with the Scots. He failed; the five were in hiding, and Parliament refused to back the arrests. The five MPs were John Hampden, Arthur Haselrigg, Denzil Holles, John Pym and William Strode. This was the first time a monarch had entered the Commons, with militia, in defiance of convention. Charles left the Commons, angry, and five days later left London and began raising an army against Parliament.

Q.1 1642, Charles entered Parliament to seize 5 opponents,but was thwarted. Charles began preparations for war with the Parliamentarians. The English Navy was captured by Parliament.

======================================================================================

1641, English Parliament attempted to curb King Charles I. Scene was set fot the Civil War.

9/12/1641, Thursday (-110,808) Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish court painter to Charles I from 1632, died in his studio in Blackfriars, London, aged 42, and was buried in Old St Pauls.

29/11/1641, Monday (-110,818) The first English newspaper was published.

22/11/1641, Monday (-110,825) The Long Parliament passed the Grand Remonstrance, part of a series of measures to curb the excesses of King Charles I’s absolutist ambitions.

4/11/1641, Thursday (-110,843) A Dutch fleet defeated a Spanish fleet off Cape St Vincent.

10/5/1641, Monday (-111,021) (Sweden) Johan Baner, Swedish soldier during the Thirty Years War, died in Halberstadt (born in Djursholm Castle 23/6/1596).

25/4/1641, Sunday (-111,036) Easter Sunday.

15/4/1641, Thursday (111,046) Zampieri Domenichino, Italian painter, died (born 21/10/1581).

18/3/1641, Thursday (-111,074)

18/2/1641, Thursday (-111,102)

18/1/1641, Monday (-111,133) Pau Claris proclaimed the Catalan Republic.

11/1/1641, Monday (-111,140) Franz Gomarus, Dutch religious writer, died (born 30/1/1563).

1641, English Parliament attempted to curb King Charles I. Scene was set fot the Civil War.

====================================================================================

1640, English Parliament denied tax money to Charles I, which was to fund a war against Scotland. Portugal independent from Spain.

13/12/1640, Sunday (-111,169) The Duke of Braganza was crowned John IV, King of Portugal.

6/12/1640, Sunday (-111,176) Claude Fleury, French historical writer, was born (died 14/7/1723).

1/12/1640, Tuesday (-111,181) Portugal regained its independence from the Spanish.

13/11/1640, Friday (-111,199) Laurence Chaderton, religious writer, died.

3/11/1640, Tuesday (-111,209) In Britain, the Long Parliament assembled. It lasted until 1660, due to the Civil War.

20/10/1640, Tuesday (-111,223) John Ball, writer, died (born 10/1585).

29/9/1640, Sunday (-111,253) Charles Coysevox, French sculptor, was born (died 10/10/1720).

17/9/1640, Thursday (-111,256) The French captured Turin.

17/7/1640, Friday (-111,318)

9/6/1640, Tuesday (-111,356) The Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, was born.

30/5/1640, Saturday (-111,366) Peter Paul Reubens, Flemish Baroque painter, died in Antwerp.

18/4/1640, Saturday (-111,408) Etienne Chauvin, French religious writer, was born (died 1725).

13/4/1640, Monday (-111,413) In order to raise money for a war against Scotland, Charles I convened Parliament for the first time since 1629. This ‘Short Parliament’ was dissolved on 4/5/1640 after refusing to give the King any money.

5/4/1640, Sunday (-111,421) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1640, Thursday (-111,424) Paul Fleming, German poet, died (born 5/10/1609).

25/1/1640, Saturday (-111,492) William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire, was born (died 18/8/1707).

14/1/1640, Tuesday (-111,503) Thomas Coventry, Lord Keeper of England, died (born 1578).

1640, English Parliament denied tax money to Charles I, which was to fund a war against Scotland. Portugal independent from Spain.

====================================================================================

1639, Spain weakened by secession of Portugal and rise of France. Spain lost some colonies. Spanish Netherlands also seeking to break away. English American colonists started their own Constitution.

31/12/1639, Tuesday (-111,517)

24/11/1639, Sunday (-111,554) A transit of Venus across the Sun was first observed by Jeremiah Horrocks.

21/10/1639, Monday (-111,588) (Netherlands, Spain) Battle of the Downs. A Dutch fleet under Maarten Tromp defeated the Spanish in The Channel, effectively ending Spain’s role as a major naval power.  Spain was weakened by the breakaway of Portugal, and the rise of France.  Spain’s colonial quarrels with the Dutch, in Brazil and the Portuguese spice islands, were now superseded by these areas now being under Portuguese rule.

4/8/1639, Sunday (-111,666)  (Arts) Juan Alarcon, Spanish dramatist, died in Madrid.

17/6/1639, Monday (-111,714)

21/5/1639, Tuesday (-111,741) Tommaso Campanella, Italian philosophical writer, died (born 1568).

14/4/1639, Sunday (-111,778) Easter Sunday

3/3/1639, Sunday (-111,820)

3/2/1639, Sunday (-111,848)

24/1/1639, Thursday (-111,858) American settlers meeting in Hartford voted to adopt a new constitution called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. It allowed colonists to administer their own laws and to raise taxes, and made no mention of allegiance to the British Crown.

19/1/1639, Saturday (-111,863) (France) Noel Alexandre, French theologian (died 1724) was born in Rouen.

8/1/1639, Tuesday (-111,874) Henry, son of Charles I, was born.

1639, Spain weakened by secession of Portugal and rise of France. Spain lost some colonies. Spanish Netherlands also seeking to break away. English American colonists started their own Constitution.

=====================================================================================

1638, Japan’s isolationist period started. Harvard University Library began.

8/12/1638, Saturday (-111,905) Ivan Gundulich, Serbian poet, died (born 8/1/1588).

6/11/1638, Tuesday (-111,937) James Gregory, Scottish mathematician who gave a demonstration of the first practical reflecting telescope, was born.

28/10/1638, Sunday (-111,946) Mr John Harvard left a bequest of 400 books and £700 to what is now Harvard University, see 28/10/1636.

5/9/1638, Wednesday (-111,999) Louis XIV, King of France, known as the ‘Sun King’, born in St German en Laye, just outside Paris.

2/6/1638, Saturday (-112,094) Henry Clarendon, English statesman, was born (died 31/10/1709)

27/5/1638, Sunday (-112,100)

25/3/1638, Sunday (-112,163) Easter Sunday.

14/3/1638, Wednesday (-112,174) (Christian) Johann Gichtel, German preacher, was born (died 21/1/1710).

28/2/1638, Wednesday (-112,188) Japanese peasants occupying Hara Castle, near Nagasaki, surrendered to Shogun Iemitsu’s besieging 124,000-strong army because of lack of food. The army then massacred most of the 37,000 peasants. Furthermore, Iemitsu expelled the Portuguese traders from Japan, suspecting them of complicity in stirring up the peasant’s demands, and prohibited the building of large seagoing ships that might carry Japanese to other countries. The isolation of Japan began.

24/1/1638, Wednesday (-112,223) Charles Sackville, English poet, was born (died 29/1/1706).

1/1/1638, Monday (-112,246) Antoinette Deshoulieres, French poet, was born (died 17/2/1694).

1638, Japan’s isolationist period started. Harvard University Library began.

==================================================================================

1637, English colonists massacred Pequot Amerindians. Dutch Tulip Bubble collapsed.

6/12/1637, Wednesday (-132,272) (USA) Sir Edmond Andros, English colonial Governor of the North American colonies, was born in London (died in London February 1714).

3/10/1637, Tuesday (-112,336) (Britain) George Aberdeen, Scottish lawyer and statesman (died 20/4/1720) was born.

8/9/1637, Friday (-112,361) Robert Fludd, English mystical writer, died (born 1574).

20/8/1637, Sunday (-112,380) Johann Gerhard, religious writer, died (born 17/10/1582).

6/8/1637. Sunday (-112,394) The first poet laureate, Ben Johnson, died in poverty.

28/7/1637, Friday (-112,403)

26/5/1637, Friday (-112,466) The English massacred women and children of the Pequot Indians, in revenge for the murder of a slave trader, John Oldham, in July 1636. The Pequot men were away from their villages, tending the fields, so the English massacre was a very one-sided affair. Other Amerindian tribes were either enemies of the Pequot, or intimidated into not assisting them, and a guerrilla war by the Pequot finally ended when these other tribes captured and killed the Pequot leader, Sassacus.

9/4/1637, Sunday (-112,513) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1637, Wednesday (-112,566) Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II died, aged 57, in Vienna. He was succeeded by his 28-year old son, Ferdinand III.

12/2/1637, Sunday (-112,569) (Medicine) Jan Swammerdam was born this day in Amsterdam. In 1658 he became the first person to see and describe red blood cells.

3/2/1637, Friday (-112,578) The price of tulip bulbs in Dutch markets, which had reached the heights of 15 years’ salary for just one bulb, collapsed, ruining many.

13/1/1637, Friday (-112,599)

1637, English colonists massacred Pequot Amerindians. Dutch Tulip Bubble collapsed.

==================================================================================

1636, English American colonists formed armed guard against Pequot Amerindians. Harvard and Utrecht Universities founded.

31/12/1636, Saturday (-112,612)

13/12/1636, Tuesday (-112,630) The Massachusetts Bay Colony organised three militia regiments to defend against the Pequot Indians.  This was the founding of the United States National Guard.

2/11/1636, Wednesday (-112,671) Edward Colston, English philanthropist, was born (died 1721).

1/11/1636, Tuesday (-112,672) Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux, French poet, was born in Paris (died 13/3/1711).

28/10/1636, Friday (-112,676) Harvard University, the oldest in the USA, was founded at Cambridge, Massachusetts by Puritan emigrants from Britain. The General Council of Massachusetts set up a college with the comparatively modest sum of £400. However on 28/10/1638 Mr John Harvard, assistant pastor of the First Church of Charleston, who died aged 31, left the College a bequest of £780 and 400 books. The aim was establish an educational institution equal to Oxford or Cambridge in England.

9/10/1636, Sunday (-112,695) (Britain) King Charles I issued a third writ for ship money

15/8/1636, Monday (-112,750) The Spanish besieged Corbie, France.

4/7/1636, Monday (-112,792) (USA) The city of Providence, Rhode island, was founded.

17/4/1636, Sunday (-112,870) Easter Sunday.

26/3/1636, Saturday (-112,892) (Education) The University of Utrecht was founded in the Netherlands.

18/3/1636, Friday (-112,900)

24/2/1636, Wednesday (-112,923) (Denmark) King Christian of Denmark ordered that all beggars able to work must be sent to Brinholmen Island, to work at building ships or work as galley rowers.

24/1/1636, Sunday (-112.954)

1636, English American colonists formed armed guard against Pequot Amerindians. Harvard and Utrecht Universities founded.

===================================================================================

1635, France declared war on Spain; Spain later weakened by secessions. Saxony left the Thirty Years War.

28/12/1635, Monday (-112,981) (British Royal) Elizabeth, 2nd daughter of Charles I, was born. See 8/9/1650.

25/12/1635, Friday (-112,984) (Canada) Explorer Samuel de Champlain died (born ca.1567).

22/11/1635, Sunday (-113,017) (Biology) Naturalist Francis Willoughby was born in Middleton, England. His systematic work on birds and fish helped pave the way for Linnaeus’ classification.

20/9/1635, Sunday (-113,080)

7/9/1635, Monday (-113,093) (Hungary) Paul Esterhazy was born (died 26/3/1713).

4/8/1635, Tuesday (-113,127) (Britain) King Charles I issued a second writ for ship money (see 11/2/1628), again the writ was resisted.

31/7/1635. Friday (-113,131) (Britain) British inland public postal services were established, with charges of between 2d and 8d.

18/7/1635, Saturday (-113,144) Robert Hooke, English scientist, was born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight.

25/6/1635, Thursday (-113,167) The French Compagnie des Iles d’Amerique took possession of Martinique. A colony established by Pierre Belain, Sieur d’Esnambuc, grew to 700 inhabitants by 1637.

30/5/1635, Saturday (-113,193) The Peace of Prague was signed, ending Saxony’s role in the Thirty Years War.

19/5/1635, Tuesday (-113,204) France declared war on Spain.  Spain initially had success, capturing Corbie, near Amiens.  However the Spaniards did not follow up their successes and faced with revolts in Portugal and Catalonia, lost Artois and Roussillion.

19/4/1635, Sunday (-113,234)

29/3/1635, Sunday (-113,255) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1635, Tuesday (-113,260) Peder Griffenfeldt, Danish statesman, was born (died 12/3/1699).

10/3/1635, Tuesday (-113,274) The Academie Francaise in Paris was expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite.

1/2/1635, Sunday (-113,311) Marquard Gude, German scholarly writer, was born (died 16/11/1689).

27/1/1635, Tuesday (-113,316) Edward Fairfax, English poet, died.

2/1/1635, Friday (-113,341) Cardinal Richelieu established the Academie Francaise to protect the purity of the French language.

1635, France declared war on Spain; Spain later weakened by secessions. Saxony left the Thirty Years War.

=====================================================================================

1634, Sweden defeated Hapsburgs at Nordlingen. First tavern opened in America.

18/10/1634, Saturday (-113,417) Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, Austrian statesman (born 1568) died at Laibach.

6/9/1634, Saturday (-113,459) (Sweden, Germany) Battle of Nordlingen, Germany. Hapsburg forces defeated Sweden.

3/9/1634, Wednesday (-113,462) Sir Edward Coke, English lawyer, died (born 1/2/1552).

22/7/1634, Tuesday (-113,505) (Austria) Johann Aldringer, Austrian military commander, died at the defence of Landshut against the Swedes on the Danube.

21/4/1634, Monday (-113,597) Jan van Riebeck, Dutch surgeon and founder of Cape Town, was born in The Netherlands.

6/4/1634, Sunday (-113,612) Easter Sunday

25/3/1634, Tuesday (-113,624) George Bull, English religious writer, was born (died 17/2/1710).

4/3/1634, Tuesday (-113,645) Samuel Cole opened the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts.

1/3/1634, Saturday (-113,648) (Russia) The Poles and Cossacks lifted the Russian siege of Smolensk.

16/1/1634, Thursday (-113,692) Dorthe Engelbrechtsdatter, Norwegian poet, was born (died 19/2/1716).

1634, Sweden defeated Hapsburgs at Nordlingen. First tavern opened in America.

=================================================================================

1633, Trial of Galileo. First bananas in London. Samuel Pepys born.

31/12/1633, Tuesday (-113,708)

14/10/1633, Monday (-113,786) James II was born at St James Palace, the second son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria.

14/8/1533, Wednesday (-113,847)

5/8/1633, Monday (-113,856) George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, died (born 19/10/1562).

5/6/1633, Wednesday (-113,917)

16/5/1633, Thursday (-113,937) Charles I was crowned King of Scotland at Edinburgh.

15/5/1633, Wednesday (-113,938) (France) French military engineer Sebastian le Prestre de Vauban was born in Nivernais, France. He developed a system of fortifications to defend France against invasion.

21/4/1633, Sunday (-113,962) Easter Sunday.

12/4/1633, Friday (-113,971) The trial of Galileo Galilei before the Inquisition began. At the end of which he would be ordered to recant his belief that the Sun not the Earth was the centre of the Universe, as heretical.

10/4/1633. Wednesday (-113,973) Bananas were displayed for the first time in a London shop window.

23/2/1633, Saturday (-114,019) Samuel Pepys, diarist, born in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London. He was the son of a tailor.

20/2/1633, Wednesday (-114,022) Nathan Field, English dramatist, died (born 17/10/1587).

31/1/1633, Thursday (-114,042) (Britain) Nathaniel Crew, Bishop of Durham, was born (died 18/9/1721).

1633, Trial of Galileo. First bananas in London. Samuel Pepys born.

=====================================================================================

1632, Swedish victory against Bavaria, Thirty Years War. Christopher Wren born.

31/12/1632, Monday (-114,073)

27/11/1632, Tuesday (-114,107) Sir John Eliot, English politician, died (born 1592).

24/11/1632, Saturday (-114,110) Benedict Spinoza, Jewish philosopher, was born in Amsterdam.

16/11/1632, Friday (-114,118) (Sweden, Germany) Gustavus II, King of Sweden from 1611, killed as his army gained victory in the Battle of Lutzen (Thirty Years War) near Leipzig. He was succeeded by his 6-year old daughter, Christina; in the interim, Sweden was governed by Count Axel Oxenstierna.

31/10/1632, Wednesday (-114,134) Jan Vermeer, Dutch painter, was born in Delft, the son of an art dealer.

24/10/1632, Wednesday (-114,141) Anthony van Leeuwenhoek, naturalist, was born. Inventor of the microscope, he was the first person to see bacteria.

20/10/1632, Saturday (-114,145) Christopher Wren, English astronomer and architect, designer of St Paul’s Cathedral, was born in East Knoyle, Wiltshire, the son of a dean.

30/9/1632, Sunday (-114,165) (Mathematics) Thomas Allen, English mathematician, died at Gloucester Hall (born 21/12/1542 at Gloucester Hall).

31/8/1632, Friday (-114,195) Battle of Alte Veste, Germany.

29/8/1632, Wednesday (-114,197) John Locke, philosopher, was born.

20/8/1632, Monday (-114,206) (France) Louis Bourdaloue, French Jesuit, was born in Bourges (died in Paris 13/5/1704).

10/6/1632, Sunday (-114,277) Esprit Flechier, French religious writer, was born (died 16/2/1710).

15/4/1632, Sunday (-114,333) (Sweden, Germany) Battle of Rain, Bavaria. Swedish forces destroyed the Bavarian army, which had been allied to the Hapsburgs.

1/4/1632, Sunday (-114,347) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1632, Wednesday (-114,393) Dudley Dorchester, English statesman, died (born 10/3/1573).

29/1/1632, Sunday (-114,410) Johann Graevius, German scholarly writer, was born (died 11/1/1703).

1632, Swedish victory against Bavaria, Thirty Years War. Christopher Wren born.

=====================================================================================

1631, Swedish victories in Germany; to make all Baltic a ‘Swedish Lake’. North African pirates raided Irish village. World’s first emplopyment agency set up, in France.

23/12/1631, Friday (-114,447) (Sweden, Germany) The Swedes captured Mainz, Germany.

16/12/1631, Friday (-114,454) Major eruption of Vesuvius killed 18,000 people.

7/11/1631, Monday (-114,493) Pierre Gassendi observed the transit of Mercury across the Sun.  This was the first observation of a planetary transit.

4/11/1631, Friday (-114,496) Mary, daughter of Charles I, was born.

17/9/1631, (-114,544) (Sweden, Germany) During the Thirty Years War, a battle was fought between Gustavus II, King of Sweden (1594-1632) and the Holy Roman Empire forces under Tilly at Brietenfeld, Germany. (see 4/7/1630).  The Swedes overwhelmingly won. Gustavus II had extended the Kingdom of Sweden right around the eastern Baltic, turning it into a ‘Swedish lake’. Gustavus now began to conquer the wealthy lands of the rivers Main and Rhine.

9/8/1631, Tuesday (-114,583) John Dryden, poet, was born at Aldwinde in Northampton.

16/7/1631, Saturday (-114,607) Francis Erroll, Scottish nobleman, died.

4/7/1631, Monday (-114,619) The first employment agency, the ‘Bureau d’Adresse’ was established in Paris by Theophraste Renaudot. It charged 3 sous to both employers and employees; unless too poor to pay, when the bureau was free.  In 1639 the Paris police ordered that all unemployed strangers arriving in Paris must register at the bureau within 24 hours or be sent to the galleys for vagabondage. Vacancies were mainly for domestic servants and shop assistants.  See 12/8/1649.

20/6/1631, Monday (-114,633) (Ireland) Pirates attacked the Irish village of Baltimore, abducting 100 for slavery. These would be sold in the slave markets of Algiers, the men for galley work, the women for harems. The village was abandoned afterwards.

23/5/1631, Monday (-114,661) (Britain) John Buckeridge, Bishop of Ely from 1628, died.

6/5/1631, Friday (-114,678) Sir Robert Cotton, writer, died (born 22/1/1571).

2/5/1631, Monday (-114,682) (Britain) John Murray, 1st Earl of Atholl, was born (died 6/5/1703).

10/4/1631, Sunday (-114,704) Easter Sunday.

31/3/1631, Thursday (-114,714) John Donne, English poet, born in London in 1572, died in London.

16/3/1631, Wednesday (-114,729) Rene le Bossu, French literary critic, was born in Paris (died 14/3/1680).

28/2/1630, Monday (-114,745)

4/2/1631, Friday (-114,769) Lupercio Argensola, Spanish poet, died in Saragossa (baptised in Barnastro 14/12/1559).

1631, Swedish victories in Germany; to make all Baltic a ‘Swedish Lake’. North African pirates raided Irish village. World’s first emplopyment agency set up, in France.

=====================================================================================

1630, Jupiter’s markings first observed. Boston, America, founded. First deaty sentence passed in America. Sweden landed troops in Germany, to occupy the entire Baltic coast.

31/12/1630, Friday (-114,804)

24/11/1630, Wednesday (-114,841) Etienne Balzuc, French writer, was born in Tulle (died in Paris 28/7/1718).

15/11/1630, Monday (-114,850) Johannes Kepler, astronomer, died in Regensburg, Germany.

14/10/1630, Thursday (-114,882) Sophia, Electress of Hanover, was born.

30/9/1630, Thursday (-114,896) The first death sentence in America. John Billington was executed for murder in New Plymouth.

17/9/1630. Friday (-114,909) The city of Boston, USA, officially received its name.  It was named after Boston, Lincolnshire, from where the Puritan leaders of the town had come.

4/7/1630, Sunday (-114,984) (Sweden, Germany) During the Thirty Years War, Gustavus Adolphus, Protestant King of Sweden, landed at Peenemunde with an army of 13,000 men, in an attempt to bring the entire Baltic under Swedish control.  See 17/9/1631.

12/6/1630, Saturday (-115,006) The fleet of the Massachusetts Bay Company docked at Salem, with 700 Puritan colonists on board.

29/5/1630, Saturday (-115,020) King Charles II was born.

17/5/1630, Monday (-115,032) The belts of the planet Jupiter were first observed.

29/4/1630, Thursday (-115,050) Theodore Aubigne, French poet, died in Geneva (born 8/2/1552 in St Maury, Pons).

28/4/1630, Wednesday (-115,051) Charles Cotton, English poet, was born (died 1687).

17/4/1630, Saturday (-115,062)

28/3/1630, Sunday (-115,082) Easter Sunday.

26/1/1630, Tuesday (-115,143) (Mathematics) Henry Briggs, mathematician, died.

1630, Jupiter’s markings first observed. Boston, America, founded. First deaty sentence passed in America. Sweden landed troops in Germany, to occupy the entire Baltic coast.

====================================================================================

1629, Sweden halted war with Poland, to take on Germany. Charles I of England dissolved Parliament, to rule absolutely. Edict of Restitution favoured Catholics in Holy Roman Empire.

31/12/1629, Thursday (-115,169)

2/10/1629, Friday (-115,259) Pierre de Berulle, French statesman, died (born near Troyes 4/2/1575).

25/9/1629,  Friday (-115,266) (Germany, Poland, Sweden) The Treaty of Altmark ended the Polish-Swedish war, for six years. Gustavus of Sweden was now, summer 1627, to start a campaign in northern Germany.

20/7/1629, Monday (-115,333) English adventurer Sir David Kirke seized Quebec from the French.

4/6/1629, Thursday (-115,379) The VOC (Dutch) ship Batavia ran aground west of Australia.

17/5/1629, Sunday (-115,397)

14/5/1629, Thursday (-115,400)

5/4/1629, Sunday (-115,439) Easter Sunday.

10/3/1629, Tuesday (-115,465) King Charles I of England dissolved Parliament, starting the Eleven Years Tyranny.

9/3/1629, Monday (-115,466) Tsar Alexis I of Russia was born (died 1676).

6/3/1629, Friday (-115,469) Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Edict of Restitution.  Under this, all Catholic properties lost to Protestantism since 1552 were to be restored and only Catholics and Lutherans (not Calvinists, Hussites, or other groups) were to be allowed to practise their faith.

4/3/1629, Wednesday (-115,471) Massachusetts Bay Colony was granted a Royal Charter.

3/1/1629, Saturday (-115,531)

1629, Sweden halted war with Poland, to take on Germany. Charles I of England dissolved Parliament, to rule absolutely. Edict of Restitution favoured Catholics in Holy Roman Empire.

==================================================================================

1628, English King Charles I denied funds for naval war against France by Parliament; decided to rule absolutely.

31/12/1628, Wednesday (-115,534)

28/11/1628, Friday (-115,567) (Britain) John Felton, assassin of the 1st Duke of Buckingham, was hanged.

28/10/1628, Tuesday (-115,598) (France) The siege of La Rochelle ended.

3/9/1628, Wednesday (-115,653)

23/8/1628, Saturday (-115,664) The Duke of Buckingham, courtier and royal favourite of James I, was assassinated in Portsmouth.

12/8/1628, Tuesday (-115,675) Gabriel Gerberon, French religious writer, was born (died 29/3/1711).

10/8/1628, Sunday (-115,677) (Sweden) The Swedish flagship Vasa sank on her maiden voyage at Stockholm.

13/6/1628, Friday (-115,735)

13/4/1628, Sunday (-115,796) Easter Sunday

17/3/1628, Monday (-115,823) Francois Girardon, French sculptor, was born (died 1715).

12/3/1628, Wednesday (-115,828) John Bull, composer and organist, died.

10/3/1628, Monday (-115,830) (Medical) Marcello Malpighi was born in Crevalcore, Italy. In 1660 he demonstrated, using the newly-invented microscope. that the lungs consist of many small air pockets and a complex system of capillaries.

11/2/1628, Monday (-115, 858) King Charles I demanded ‘ship money’ of £173,000 to secure Britain against French invasion.  Ship money could be levied by The Crown without Parliamentary consent, although it was of dubious legality.,  However on this occasion the demands caused serious unrest but Charles I was determined to rule without parliamentary consent.  See 4/8/1635.

30/1/1628, Wednesday (-115,870) George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham was born (died 16/4/1687).

25/1/1628, Friday (-115,875) Shah Jehan was crowned ruler of the Mughal Empire.

20/1/1628, Sunday (-115,880) Henry, fourth son of Cromwell, was born.

1628, English King Charles I denied funds for naval war against France by Parliament; decided to rule absolutely.

=====================================================================================

1627, Robert Boyle, physicist, born. Jahangir, Mogul Indian Emperor, died.

31/12/1627, Monday (-115,900)

28/10/1627, Sunday (-115,964) Jahangir, ruler of the Moghul Empire, died.

27/9/1627, Thursday (-115,995) Jacques Bossuet, French writer, was born in Dijon (died 12/4/1704).

24/5/1627, Thursday (-116,121) Luis de Gongora, Spanish poet, died (born 11/7/1561).

20/5/1627, Sunday (-116,125) Jan Gruter, Dutch scholarly writer, died (3/12/1560).

27/4/1627, Friday (-116,148)

27/3/1627, Tuesday (-116,179) Sir Stephen Fox, English statesman, was born (died 28/10.1716).

25/3/1627, Sunday (-116,181) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1627, Tuesday (-116,200) Richard Barnfield, English poet, died in Stone (born in Norbury, Staffordshire 8/2/1544).

27/2/1627, Tuesday (-116,207)

25/1/1627, Thursday (-116,240) Robert Boyle, Irish chemist and physicist, was born at Lismore Castle, Munster, Eire.

1627, Robert Boyle, physicist, born. Jahangir, Mogul Indian Emperor, died.

===================================================================================

1626, Manhattan Island bought by Dutch from Amerindians for 60 Guilders.

10/12/1626, Sunday (-116,286) Edmund Gunter, English mathematician, died (born 1581).

8/12/1626, Friday (-116,288) (Sweden) Queen Christina of Sweden was born.

21/11/1626, Tuesday (-116,305) (Education, Schools) Edward Alleyn, actor, who also founded Dulwich School on 21/6/1619, died.

18/11/1626. Saturday (-116,308) St Peter’s Church in Rome was consecrated.

4/10/1626, Wednesday (-116,353) Richard Cromwell, third son of Oliver Cromwell, was born.

30/9/1626, Saturday (-116,357) Manchu leader Nurhaci died (born 1559)

24/8/1626, Thursday (-116,394) (Germany, Denmark) Battle of Lutter, Germany. The Danes were routed by the Hapsburgs.

4/7/1626, Tuesday (-116,445)

16/6/1626, Friday (-116,463) Christian of Brunswick, Dutch General, died (born 20/9/1599).

6/5/1626, Saturday (-116,504) (USA) Manhattan Island, now part of New York, was bought by Peter Minuit, Director-General of the Dutch West India Company,  from the local Indian tribes for goods and trinkets worth 60 Dutch Guilders (1980 US$ 24).

25/4/1626, Tuesday (-116,515) (Germany) Battle of Dessau, Germany. Mansfield was defeated by Wallenstein.

9/4/1626. Sunday (-116,531) Easter Sunday. The statesman and philosopher Francis Bacon died near Highgate, London, (as Lord Verulam) of bronchitis. This was brought on by a cold caught whilst stuffing a fowl with snow to observe the effects of cold in preserving meat.

12/3/1626, Sunday (-116,559) John Aubrey, English writer, was born near Malmesbury (died June 1697 in Oxford).

8/2/1626, Wednesday (-116,591)

20/1/1626, Friday (-116,610)

1626, Manhattan Island bought by Dutch from Amerindians for 60 Guilders.

===================================================================================

1625, Spain fighting to retain Spanish Netherlands. Dutch American colonists founded fort at Manhattan.

9/12/1625, Friday (-116,652) Ubbo Emmius, Dutch historical writer, died (born 5/12/1547).

30/11/1625, Wednesday (-116,661) Jean Domat, French legal writer, was born (died 14/3/1696).

24/9/1625, Saturday (-116,728) John de Witt, Dutch statesman, was born (died 1672).

6/9/1625, Tuesday (-116,746) Thomas Dempster, Scottish historical writer, died (born 1579).

20/8/1625, Saturday (-116,763) Thomas Corneille, French dramatist, was born (died 8/12/1709).

2/7/1625. Saturday (-116,812) The Spanish, fighting to gain control over The Netherlands, captured the town of Breda after nearly a year of siege.

8/6/1625, Wednesday (-116,836) (Astronomy) Giovanni Cassini astronomer, was born (died 11/9/1712).

5/6/1625, Sunday (-116,839) Orlando Gibbons, English composer, died (born 1583).

11/5/1625. Wednesday (-116,864) Charles I married Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France.

22/4/1625, Friday (-116,883) Fort Amsterdam was on the southern tip of Manhattan Island founded by Dutch colonists from the Dutch West India Company.

17/4/1625, Sunday (-116,888) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1625, Tuesday (-116,900)

27/3/1625. Sunday (-116,909) Charles I became king.

5/3/1625, Saturday (-116,931) King James I, the ‘wisest fool in Christendom’ died suddenly at Theobalds Park, Hertfordshire.. He had been born in Edinburgh Castle on 19/6/1566, and was originally King James IV of Scotland. As King James I of England he was the first Stuart King.

19/2/1625, Monday (-116,943) (Ireland) Arthur Chichester, Lord Deputy of Ireland, died (born 5/1563).

4/1/1625, Tuesday (-116,991)

1625, Spain fighting to retain Spanish Netherlands. Dutch American colonists founded fort at Manhattan.

===================================================================================

1624, Measles and scarlet fever identified as diseases; iron to treat anaemia.

31/12/1624, Friday (-116,995)

26/11/1624, Friday (-117,030) Benedict Carpzov, scholarly writer, died (born 22/10/1565).

13/11/1624, Saturday (-117,043) Thomas Erpenius, Dutch writer on the Orient, died (born 11/9/1584).

10/9/1624, Friday (-117,107) (Medical) Physician Thomas Sydenham was born in England. He was the first to describe measles and identify scarlet fever. He advocated the use of opium to alleviate pain, chinchona bark (quinine) to relieve malaria, and iron to treat anaemia.

8/9/1624, Wednesday (-117,109) (Christian) Marco Dominis, Italian theologian, died (born 1560).

4/7/1624, Sunday (-117,175)

2/6/1624, Wednesday (-117,207) John Sobieski, King of Poland, was born.

29/4/1624, Thursday (-117,241) Louis XIII of France appointed Richelieu as his chief minister.

28/3/1624, Sunday (-117,273) Easter Sunday

28/2/1624, Saturday (-117,302)

13/2/1624, Friday (-117,317) Stephen Gosson, English satirical writer, died (born 17/4/1554).

31/1/1624, Saturday (-117,330) Arnold Geulincx, Belgian philosophical writer, was born (died 11/1669).

1624, Measles and scarlet fever identified as diseases; iron to treat anaemia.

===================================================================================

1623, Blaise Pascal born; invented calculating machine, also led to syringe and hydraulic press.

31/12/1623, Wednesday (-117,361)

2/12/1623, Tuesday (-117,390)

9/11/1623, Sunday (-117,413) William Camden, historian, died (born 2/5/1551).

8/11/1622, Saturday (-117,414) Charles X, King of Sweden, was born.

2/10/1623, Thursday (-117,451)

17/9/1621, Wednesday (-117,466) (Christian) Roberto Bellarmine, Italian Cardinal, died in Rome (born in Tuscany 4/1-/1542).

6/8/1623. Wednesday (-117,508) (1) (Germany) Battle of Stadtlohn, western Germany. The Protestant Army was destroyed.

(2) Anne Hathaway, wife of Shakespeare, died. They were married on 27/11/1582, when Shakespeare was aged 18.

8/7/1623, Tuesday (-117,537) Pope Gregory XV died.

19/6/1623. Thursday (-117,556) Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, was born in Clermont. He invented the first calculating machine; other research of his led to the invention of the syringe and the hydraulic press; and so to Pascal’s law of pressure.

6/5/1622, Tuesday (-116,600) Battle of Wimpfen, southern Germany.

13/4/1623, Sunday (-117,623) Easter Sunday.

1623, Blaise Pascal born; invented calculating machine, also led to syringe and hydraulic press.

====================================================================================

1622, Jamestown Massacre of colonists by Amerindians. Baffin, English Arctic explorer, died.

31/12/1622, Tuesday (-117,726)

30/11/1622, Saturday (-117,757)

10/9/1622, Tuesday (-117,838) (Germany) Heidelberg was captured from Frederick.

7/9/1622, Saturday (-117,841) Denis Godefroy, French jurist, died (born 17/10/1549).

13/7/1622, Saturday (-117,897) English and Dutch ships defeated the Portuguese near Mozambique.

20/6/1622, Thursday (-117,920) Battle of Hochst, Germany.

16/6/1622, Sunday (-117,924) Alexander Dunfermline, 1st Earl of Sefton, died.

20/5/1622, Monday (-117,951) (Turkey) Ottoman Sultan Osman II was murdered. He had alienated the powerful Janissaries by attempting to eliminate them; instead, he was imprisoned in his own palace by them, before being strangled this day.

21/4/1622, Sunday (-117,980) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1622, Friday (-118,010) The Jamestown Massacre.  Algonquin Indians killed 347 English settlers outside Jamestown, Virginia, a third of the colony’s population, and burnt the Henricus settlement.

24/2/1622, Sunday (-118,036) Johann Clauberg, German philosophical writer, was born (died 1665).

8/2/1622, Friday (-118,052) In England, King James I disbanded the Parliament.

23/1/1622, Wednesday (-118,068) William Baffin, British explorer who searched for the North West passage and gave his name to Baffin Island and Baffin Bay, died.

1/1/1622, Tuesday (-118,090) In the Gregorian Calendar, January 1 was declared the first day of the year, instead of March 25.

1622, Jamestown Massacre of colonists by Amerindians. Baffin, English Arctic explorer, died.

=================================================================================

1621, Pilgrim Fathers in America drafted a Constitution. Dutch West India Company formed.

23/12/1621, Sunday (-118,099) Sir Edmund Godfrey, English politician, was born (died 12/10/1678).

21/10/1621, Sunday (-118,162) (Spain) Rodrigo Calderon, Spanish adventurer, died.

24/9/1621, Monday (-118,189) Jan Chodkiewicz, Polish General, died (born 1560).

8/9/1621, Saturday (-118,205) Louis II de Bourbon, Prince of Conde, was born (died 11/11/1686).

19/8/1621, Sunday (-118,225) Gerbrand Eeckhout, Dutch painter, was born (died 22/10/1674)

15/8/1621, Wednesday (-118,229) John Barclay, Scottish poet, died in Rome (born 28/1/1582).

3/8/1621, Friday (-118,241) Guillaume du Vair, French author, died (born 7/3/1556).

3/6/1621, Sunday (-118,302) (Netherlands) The Dutch West India Company was formed, to organise the trade from the Dutch colonies in Africa and America.

1/6/1621, Friday (-118,304) The Pilgrim Fathers issued the Mayflower Compact, organising formal rules for their governance. See 6/9/1620 and 21/12/1620.

3/5/1621, Thursday (-118,333) The Lord Chancellor, Sir Francis Bacon, was charged with accepting bribes to grant monopolies, and impeached.

9/4/1621, Monday (-118,357) The 12 years truce between the Dutch and Spain came to an end, and hostilities resumed.

1/4/1621, Sunday (-118,365) Easter Sunday.

31/3/1621, Saturday (-118,366) Philip III, King of Spain, died aged 42. He was succeeded by his 15-year old son, Philip IV.

30/1/1621, Tuesday (-118,426)

28/1/1621, Sunday (-118,428) Pope Paul V died.

27/1/1621, Saturday (-118,429) (Medical) Birth of Thomas Willis at Great Bedwyn, England. In 1659 he published  De febribus, describing typhoid fever.

1621, Pilgrim Fathers in America drafted a Constitution. Dutch West India Company formed.

==================================================================================

1620, Pilgrim Fathers migrated to America. First English language newspaper; opposed by King James I. Catholic Hapsburgs and Bavarians  defeated Protestant Bohemians at Battle of the White Mountain.

31/12/1620, Sunday (-118,456)

21/12/1620, Thursday (-118,466) (USA) The Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth Rock.

2/12/1620, Saturday (118,485) (ArtsComms) The first English-language newspaper was printed. Produced in Amsterdam, it consisted of a single sheet, 6 by 12 inches, printed both sides, reporting on foreign news only. When imported into Britain it was condemned  by King James I.

9/11/1620, Thursday (-118,508) (USA) 67 days after leaving Plymouth, the Pilgrim Fathers sighted land as they approached America.

8/11/1620, Wednesday (-118,509) (Germany, East Europe) Protestant Bohemian forces were defeated by the Catholics (Hapsburgs and Bavaria) under Maximillian  at the Battle of the White Mountain (Thirty Years War). The Protestant Kingdom of Bohemia had revolted against its rulers, the Hapsburgs, and Bohemia had invited Frederick, Elector of the Palatinate of the Rhine, to become its new monarch. Frederick’s advisors counselled against this move, as rebel Protestant Bohemia was likely to lose against the Hapsburgs, but Frederick took up the monarchy of Bohemia nevertheless. Frederick was forced to flee to Bavaria, and stripped of his title as Elector of the Rhineland Palatinate by the Holy Roman Emperor. Spain’s Catholic Army occupied his lands. Frederick died in 1632 during a clandestine visit to the Palatinate, leaving his widow Elizabeth to bring up their 20 children, produced in some 20 years of marriage.

6/11/1620, Monday (-118,511) Richard Carew, poet, was born (died 6/11/1620).

31/10/1620, Tuesday (-118,517) John Evelyn, English diarist and author, was born in Wotton, near Dorking, Surrey.

6/9/1620. Wednesday (-118,572) The 101 Pilgrim Fathers, mostly uneducated farmers, set sail from Plymouth on the Mayflower, captained by Myles Standish. They arrived at Plymouth Rock, off Cape Cod, Massachusetts, on 21/12/1620. They were fleeing religious persecution, and had originally fled from Britain to Holland in 1608 to escape Catholic persecution by King Charles I. They settled in Leyden where they were free to worship but did not adapt to Dutch society, and decided to migrate to America.

3/7/1620, Monday (-118,637) The Treaty of Ulm was signed.

29/6/1620. Thursday (-118,641) After earlier denouncing tobacco as a health hazard, King James I banned the growing of tobacco in Britain. However he gave the Virginia Company a monopoly of tobacco growing in exchange for a tax of one shilling per pound of tobacco.

16/5/1620, Tuesday (-118,685) (Japan) William Adams, English sailor, died in Japan. He worked as a pilot for the East India Company but in 1600 was forced to anchor off Japan due to illness amongst the crew of his ship. His knowledge of shipping construction impressed the Japanese shogun, who presented him with an estate at Hemi near Yokusaka, but forbade him to leave for home. He married a Japanese women and founded a factory for the East India Trading Company. He was given permission to return home but delayed this due to his commercial activities, his death occurring some three years before the factory was closed down.

29/4/1620, Saturday (-118,702)

16/4/1620, Sunday (-118,715) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1620, Monday (-118,742)

1/3/1620, Wednesday (-118,761) Thomas Campion, English poet, died (born 12/2/1567).

15/2/1620, Tuesday (-118,776) Francois Carpentier, French writer, was born (died 1702).

1/2/1620, Tuesday (-118,790) (Jewish) Mario de Calasio, scholar of the Hebrew Bible, died (born 1550).

4/1/1620, Tuesday (-118,818)

1620, Pilgrim Fathers migrated to America. First English language newspaper; opposed by King James I. Catholic Hapsburgs and Bavarians  defeated Protestant Bohemians at Battle of the White Mountain.

==================================================================================

1619, First Thanksgiving in America, by English colonists. Protestants defeated, Thirty Years War.

28/12/1619, Tuesday (-118,825) Antoine Furetiere, French writer, was born (died 1688).

4/12/1619, Saturday (-118,849) 38 colonists from Berkeley Parish, England, disembarked in Virginia and gave thanks to God; this is considered by some to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas.

8/10/1619, Friday (-118,906) The Treaty of Munich was signed by Ferdinand II and Maximillian I, Elector of Bavaria.

28/8/1619, Saturday (-118,947) Ferdinand II was elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

10/8/1619, Tuesday (-118,965) The Treaty of Angoulmeme ended the civil war in France.

5/8/1619, Thursday (-118,970) In the Thirty years War, Bohemian forces defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Vestonice.

30/7/1619, Friday (-118,976) The first meeting of representatives in America, the House of Burgesses, met at Jamestown, Virginia.

21/6/1619, Monday (-119,015) (Education, Schools, London) Dulwich College was founded by Edward Alleyn, actor (1566-1626).

10/6/1619, Thursday (-119,026) In the Thirty Years War, Protestant forces were defeated at the Battle of Zablati.

10/5/1619, Monday (-119,057)

10/4/1619, Saturday (-119,087)

28/3/1619, Sunday (-119,100) Easter Sunday

6/3/1619, Saturday (-119,122) Cyrano de Bergerac, French novelist, was born in Paris.

5/1/1619, Tuesday (-119,182)

1619, First Thanksgiving in America, by English colonists. Protestants defeated, Thirty Years War.

===================================================================================

1618, Defenestration of Prague triggered Thirty Years War. Protestant rebellion against catholic Holy Roman Emperor; Germany, split, was weakened. Sir Walter Raleigh executed.

31/12/1618, Thursday (-119,187)

3/11/1618, Tuesday (-119,245) (India) Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb born (died 1707).

29/10/1618. Thursday (-119,250) Sir Walter Raleigh, 54, English seafarer and once a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I - he named Virginia after her – was beheaded at Whitehall after being falsely accused of treason.  The execution was to appease Spain. Elizabeth was possessive towards Raleigh and when she found he had married she sent him and his wife to The Tower of London. However Raleigh bought their release and went adventuring overseas, plundering Spanish possessions. His aggression towards Spain led  the new monarch, James I, to believe Raleigh was plotting to overthrow him. However again Raleigh escaped in 1616 when the death sentence was lifted at the last minute, without, however, an official pardon. It was now re-invoked when Raleigh returned empty-handed from a gold-seeking expedition in Guiana, and at this time a Spanish settlement had been burnt by Raleigh’s men.

6/9/1618, Sunday (-119,303) (France) Jacques Duperron, French cardinal, died (born 15/11/1556).

29/8/1618, Saturday (-119,311)

29/6/1618, Monday (-119,372)

23/5/1618, Saturday (-119,409) (Germany, East Europe). The defenestration of Prague.  Rebel nobles hurled the Holy Roman Emperor’s  advisers from the windows of Hradcany Castle (they survived due to landing in a refuse heap), triggering the Thirty Years War (Reformation). Rebel Protestant Bohemian nobles were in protest against their Catholic King, who had been elected as Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. The conflict this started spread to involve other European powers, who were eager to cash in on the weakened state of a severely-split Germany.

21/5/1618, Thursday (-119,411) (Medical) Death of Italian physician Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente, who discovered one-way valves in veins.

13/4/1618, Monday (-119,449) Roger Bussy, French writer, was born (died 9/4/1693).

5/4/1618, Sunday (-119,457) Easter Sunday.

23/3/1618, Monday (-119,470) (Britain) James Hamilton Abercorn, Sheriff of Linlithgow (born ca. 1575), died.

7/1/1618, Wednesday (-119,545) Francis Bacon, lawyer philosopher and writer, became Lord Chancellor of England.

1618, Defenestration of Prague triggered Thirty Years War. Protestant rebellion against catholic Holy Roman Emperor; Germany, split, was weakened. Sir Walter Raleigh executed.

==================================================================================

1617, Napier, inventor of logarithms, died. Venice-Sicily conflict. First one-way street in London.

12/10/1617, Friday (-119,571) Bernardino Baldi, Italian writer, died in Urbino (born in Urbino 6/6/1533).

17/11/1617, Monday (-119,596) A naval battle between Sicily and Venice ended inconclusively.

9/10/1617, Thursday (-119,635) The Treaty of Pavia was signed, between Spain and Savoy.  Savoy returned Monferrato to Mantua.

26/9/1617, Friday (-119,648)

23/8/1617, Saturday (-119,682) The first one-way street was established, in London. It was Pudding Lane.

13/8/1617, Wednesday (-119,692) Johann Grynaeus, Swiss religious writer, died (born 1/10/1540).

31/7/1617, Thursday (-119,705) Nicolas Antonio, Spanish writer, was born in Seville (died 1684).

19/7/1617, Saturday (-119,717) (East Europe) Ferdinand was crowned King of Bohemia.

6/6/1617, Friday (-119,760)

23/5/1617, Friday (-119,774) (Britain) Elias Ashmole, English antiquarian and founder of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, was born in Lichfield (died 18/5/1692).

24/4/1617, Thursday (-119,803) Concino Concini, Minister of King Louis, died.

20/4/1617, Sunday (-119,807) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1617, Monday (-119,813) At the Second Battle of Playa Honda, the Spanish navy defeated the Dutch in the Philippines.

4/4/1617, Friday (-119,823) The mathematician John Napier died, at Merchiston Castle, Edinburgh.  He was the first to publish logarithm tables, in 1614.

21/3/1617, Friday (-119,837) Algonquin Indian princess Pocohontas, born ca.1595,died.

15/3/1617, Saturday (-119,843) Thomas Brackley, English Lord Chancellor, died.

27/2/1617, Thursday (-119,859) The Treaty of Stolbovo ended the Ingrian War between Sweden and Russia.  Sweden gained Ingermanland and Karelia.

4/2/1617, Tuesday (-119,882) Louis Elzevir, Dutch scholarly writer, died.

6/1/1617, Monday (-119,911) Kristoffer Gabel, Danish statesman, was born (died 13/10/1673).

1/1/1617, Wednesday (-119,916) Hendrik Goltzius, Dutch painter, died (born 1558).

1617, Napier, inventor of logarithms, died. Venice-Sicily conflict. First one-way street in London.

===================================================================================

1616, First Dutch voyage round Cape Horn. Galileo orderd by Church to recant. Shakespeare died (b.1564).

31/12/1616, Tuesday (-119,917)

31/10/1616, Thursday (-119,978)

11/10/1616, Friday (-119,998) Andreas Gryphius, German poet, was born (died 16/7/1664).

6/10/1616, Sunday (-120,003) (Britain) Henry Airay, English Puritan divine, died.

23/4/1616, Tuesday (-120,169) The playwright William Shakespeare, born on 23/4/1564, died.

23/3/1616, Saturday (-120,200)

26/2/1616, Monday (-120,226) The Church ordered Galileo to abandon his theory that the Sun, not the Earth, is the centre of the Universe.

31/1/1616, Wednesday (-120,252) The Dutch navigator Willem Schouten completed the first voyage around Cape Horn. He named it Cape Hoorn after his birthplace in the Netherlands.

13/1/1616, Saturday (-120,270) Antoinette Bourignon, Flemish mystic, was born in Lille (died in Friesland 30/10/1680).

1616, First Dutch voyage round Cape Horn. Galileo orderd by Church to recant. Shakespeare died (b.1564).

====================================================================================

1615, First British Ambassador to India. Shogun Ieyasu took Osaka.

31/12/1615, Sunday (-120,283)

24/11/1615, Thursday (-120,321) Sethus Calvisius, German scholarly writer, died (born 21/2/1556).

28/7/1615, Friday (-120,439) (Canada, USA) Samuel de Champlain discovered Lake Huron.

4/6/1615, Sunday (-120,493) The Japanese Shogun Ieyasu took Osaka after a 6-month siege.

27/5/1615, Saturday -120,501)

9/4/1615, Sunday (-120,549) Easter Sunday.

27/3/1615, Monday (-120,562) Marguerite de Valois, Queen of Navarre, died.

13/3/1615, Monday (-120,576) Pope Innocent XII was born.

14/1/1615, Saturday (-120,634) (Britain) John Biddle, English preacher, was born in Wotton Under Edge, Gloucestershire (died 22/9/1662 in a London prison).

10/1/1615, Tuesday (-120,638) Sir Thomas Roe, Britain’s first Ambassador to India, presented his credentials at Agra.

1615, First British Ambassador to India. Shogun Ieyasu took Osaka.

=====================================================================================

1614, Pocohontas, Amerindian princess, married English colonist. Charterhouse School London opened.

31/12/1614, Saturday (-120,648)

3/10/1614, Monday (-120,737) Charterhouse School, London, opened.

29/9/1614, Thursday (-120,741)

10/7/1614, Sunday (-130,822) (Britain) Arthur Anglesey, British statesman, was born in Dublin (died 26/4/1686 in Blechingdon, Oxfordshire).

9/7/1614, Saturday (-130,823) Thomas Grey, English statesman, died.

1/7/1614, Friday (-130,831) Isaac Casaubon, scholarly writer, died (born 18/2/1559).

7/6/1614, Tuesday (-120,855)  England, the Addled Parliament was dissolved by James I without having passed a single Bill since it first sat on 5/4/1614, hence its name.

24/4/1614, Sunday (-120,899) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1614. Friday (-120,915) The Greek-born Spanish painter Domenikos Theotokopoulos, or El Greco died in Toledo.

5/4/1614. Tuesday (-120,918) (1) An Indian Princess, Pocahontas, was married to John Rolfe, a Jamestown settler, in an effort to bring peace to the settlement between the Powhatan Indians and the British.

(2) The ‘Addled Parliament’ began sitting. It was dissolved on 7/6/1614 without passing a single Bill, hence its name.

2/1/1614, Sunday (-121,011) (Britain) Luisa de Carvajal, Catholic missionary in England, died (born 2/1/1568).

1614, Pocohontas, Amerindian princess, married English colonist. Charterhouse School London opened.

======================================================================================

1613, Russian House of Romanov founded. London, Globe Theatre burnt down, New River opened.

31/12/1613, Friday (-121,013)

29/9/1613, Wednesday (-121,106) The New River water supply for London opened.

7/8/1613, Saturday (-121,159) Sir Thomas Fleming, English Judge, died (born 4/1544).

22/7/1613, Thursday (-121,175)

29/6/1613, Tuesday (-121,198) The Globe Theatre in London burnt down after a cannon was fired during a Shakespeare play and set fire to the roof.  

20/6/1613, Sunday (-121,207) John Cleveland, English poet, was born (died 29/4/1658).

7/4/1613, Wednesday (-121,281) Gerhard Douw, Dutch painter, was born (died 1680).

4/4/1613, Sunday (-121,284)) Easter Sunday.

21/3/1613, Sunday (-121,298)

21/2/1613, Sunday (-121,326) Michael Romanov was elected Tsar of Russia, founding the House of Romanov, which ruled until the Revolution began on 12/3/1917.

28/1/1613, Thursday (-121,350) Galileo noted the undiscovered planet Neptune but failed to realise what it was. Neptune was officially discovered 233 years later by John Couch Adams.

21/1/1613, Thursday (-121,357) George Gillespie, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 17/12/1648).

20/1/1613, Wednesday (-121,358) (Sweden) The Peace of Knared. Sweden paid a large ransom for the return of the fortress of Alvsborg, on the frontier with Denmark.

1613, Russian House of Romanov founded. London, Globe Theatre burnt down, New River opened.

====================================================================================

1612, Last execution in London for religious beliefs.

31/12/1612, Thursday (-121,378)

31/10/1612, Saturday (-121,439)

31/8/1612, Monday (-121,500)

4/8/1612, Tuesday (-121, 527) Hugh Broughton, English scholarly writer, died (born 1549).

29/7/1612, Wednesday (-