Chronography of Switzerland and Liechtenstein

Page last modified 6/9/2022

 

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Leichetenstein � see Appendix 1

 

Click here for map of Lausanne � Thonon area, 1955 and 2000. See also France for more old-new maps.

 

9/2/2014, In a referendum, 50.3% of voters backed a quota on immigration proposed by the Right-wing Swiss Peoples Party (SVP). Turnout was 56%. A quarter of the Swiss population are immigrants. The Francophone west was opposed to quotas but the German-speaking east backed them. The EU criticised the vote; although Switzerland is not part of the EU it has close economic ties with it, and is part of the Schengen Agreement. The Swiss Government and business leaders opposed the quotas.

12/12/2008, Switzerland became the 25th country to join the Schengen Agreement, eliminating cross-border checks.

10/9/2002, Switzerland joined the United Nations.

2001, Switzerland rejected EU membership in a referendum.

5/10/1994, Fifty members of the Solar Temple cult were found dead in Switzerland.

1992, Switzerland joined the IMF and the World Bank.

1986, A referendum opposed joining the United Nations, and immigrant numbers were restricted.

28/7/1984. George Gallup, whose name is synonymous with opinion polls, died in Switzerland aged 62.

1971, Most women gained the right to vote in Federal elections.

1967, Right wing political groups made gains, campaigning to restrict immigration.

1959, Switzerland became a founder member of the European Free trade Area (EFTA).

19/7/1945, Heinrich Wolfflin, Swiss art historian, died aged 81.

1939-1945, Switzerland remained neutral during World War Two.

31/3/1928, Gustave Ador, Swiss statesman (born 23/12/1845) died.

10/6/1923. Switzerland and Liechtenstein formed a customs union.

1920, Switzerland joined the League of Nations, which was based at Geneva.

1919, Switzerland adopted proportional representation, to ensure political stability.

20/5/1900, Voters in Switzerland overwhelmingly rejected a law providing for sickness and accident insurance. The Kranken und Unfallversicherungsgesetz (KUVG), sponsored by Ludwig Forrer and passed the Federal Assembly, but was challenged by a referendum, where more than 70% of the voters were against it. Health reform would finally pass in 1911.

13/1/1896, Emilie de Morsier, Swiss social activist, died.

1882, The Swiss National Redoubt was finally defined as an outer and inner defensive zone, the concept having been first conceived in the 1820s following a period of French occupation. The outer zone defended the Swiss Plateau; the inner zone was an Alpine refuge area. In 1929 Mussolini bullt a road to San Giacomo, from which the St Gotthard Pass and railway tunnel were within artillery range from. This signal of Italian military capability and territorial ambition spurred the Swiss to build a network of fortifications as soon as Italy entered World War Two.

11/3/1881, Henri Frederic Amiel, Swiss philosopher, died in Geneva (born in Geneva 27/9/1821).

9/10/1874, The Universal Postal Union was established, with its headquarters in Berne, Switzerland.

 

Alpine Mountaineering

8/7/1910, Alexander Burgener, 65, Swiss mountaineer, died in an avalanche

13/7/1865, Edward Whymper became the first person to climb the Matterhorn.

11/8/1858, The summit of the Eiger, in the Swiss Alps, was reached for the first time, by Charles Barrington of Bray, Ireland.

27/4/1840, Edward Whymper, mountaineer who conquered the Matterhorn, was born.

 

1857, Prussia renounced its claim tio Neuchatel.

12/9/1848, Switzerland adopted a Federal constitution.

24/11/1847, In Switzerland, end of the brief and almost bloodless Sonderbund War. Protestant Swiss Liberals attempted to impose their policies, which included a stronger central government, freedom of worship, and secularised education (entailing expulsion of the Jesuits) on all of Switzerland. This was strongly opposed by Swiss Catholics, and seven mainly Catholic cantons (Lucern, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Fribourg, Zyg and Valais) formed, in 1845, the Sonderbund (Separatist League). This move was voted down by the Reformist majority in the Sweiss Diet, who ordered the dissolution of the Sonderbund in 1847. The Sonderbund appealed, vainly, for outside help and Federal troops under General Guillaume Henri Dufour (1787-1875) moved in against the Sonderbund forces, who were greatly outnumbered. This episode led to the establishment of a strong Federal Government in Switzerland.

8/4/1839, Pierre Prevost, Swiss philosopher, born 3/3/1751, died.

19/2/1833, Elie Ducommun, Swiss journalist and pacifist was born in Geneva, Switzerland (died 7/12/1916 in Berne, Switzerland).

 

Switzerland during the French Napoleonic era. 1798-1803 See also France

1803, The Canton of Argau joined the Swiss Confereration.

16/4/1798, Francce annexed Geneva.

29/3/1798, Swiss revolutionaries proclaimed the �Helvetian Republic� and allied to France.

5/3/1798, Bern declared war on France, fighting two separate battles this day, winning one and losing the other. Bern then surrendered to France.

1/1798, Napoleon invaded Switzerland, and created the Helvetic Republic, which lasted until 1803.

 

8/10/1798, Felix Neff, Swiss Protestant divine, was born.

16/8/1794, Jean Aubigne, Swiss historian, was born near Geneva (died 1872).

25/7/1712, A Swiss Bernese army won the Battle of Villmergen. This established the dominance of Protestants over Catholics in Switzerland.

8/6/1653. A Peasant�s Revolt, the latest in a series of them, was put down in Switzerland.

21/5/1653, Bern was besieged by a 16,000 strong peasant army; revolt later suppressed at Herzogenburg.

1648, The Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War, and fully recognised Swiss independence.

13/9/1515, The French beat the Swiss at the Battle of Marengo (Marignano).

9/1513, At Dijon, the Swiss accepted a French indemnity and made peace, letting down their English and German allies.

1501, Schaffhausen and Basel joined the Swiss Confederation.

22/9/1499, Under the Treaty of Basel, Maximilian granted the Swiss independence. Formal independence was not achieved for another century.

22/7/1499, The Battle of Dornach. Swiss Confederation forces defeated the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian. This was the last battle between Switzerland and the Holy Roman Empire.

1481, Solothurn and Freibourg joined the Swiss Confederation.

28/12/1478, Swiss infantrymen defeated a larger Milanese force at the Battle of Giornico. Ths was essentially a border dispute between Switzerland and Milan. Although the Swiss generally were not in favour of territorial conquests into Milanese territory, the Canton of Uri did manage to capture the Milanese border town of Bellinzona in 1500.

 

Burgundian-Swiss War 1474-47

5/1/1477, Battle of Nancy. Swiss pikemen defeated Charles the Duke of Burgundy�s cavalry. The 43-year old Duke was killed in the battle, and his body was found later, half-eaten by wolves.

22/6/1476, The Battle of Morat. The Swiss again defeated the Burgundians.

2/3/1476, The Swiss defeated a Burgundian Army at Granson, Switzerland.

1474, Burgundian expsnsionism now led to war between Burgundy and Switzerland.

 

1467, First ballad about the Swiss national hero, William Tell, appeared.

1460, Switzerland conquered Thurgau from Austria.

24/8/1444, Battle of St Jakob, near Basle. Frederick III, seeking to regain Hapsburg control of Switzerland, allied with Charles VII of France who was seeking employment for troops de,mobilised after the Hunderd Years War. The French veterans, 30,00 strong, were met by some 1,500 Swiss. The Swiss force was annihilated but not before they had killed some 3,000 French. The determination of the Swiss deterred any further French attacks, who instead turned to harassing Frederick�s domains in Alsace.

1415, The Bernese captured the fortress of Aaarau from the Hapsburgs.

1403, The Appenzell War began. |The Abbey of St Gall attempted to reassert feudal control over the free town of St Gall, with its prosperous textile strade, and the town appealed to Appenzell for help. Appenzell, and another free town, Schwyz, resisted and in 1403 defeated forces sent to enforce the Abbey�s wishes. The Hapsburg Duke, Frederick of Austria, went to assist St Gall to mreassert the feudal order, amnd a further attack on St Gall and Appenzell ensued in 1405, but was also beaten back. In 1411 Appemnzell and St Gall came under the protection of the Swiss Confederation, taking them beyond any risk of feudal control.

9/7/1386, The Battle of Sempach. Hapsburg Duke Leopold III of Austria, alarmed at the growth of the Swiss Confederation, marched to attack the Swiss town of Lucerne. Swiss victory ensured the continuation of the Swiss Confederation.

3/3/1353, Bern signed an alliance with the Swiss Confederation.

27/6/1352, Zug joined the Swiss Confederation.

4/6/1352, Glarus joined the Swiss Confederation.

1/5/1351, Zurich joined the Swiss Confederation.

21/6/1339, Bern had acquired a protectorate over the town of Laupen, which Burgundy now tried to reclaim, besieging it. This day a Swiss force of pikemen and archers., although outnumbered 3 to 1, repoulsed Burgundian forces and lifted the siege of Laupen, establishing |Bern as a dominant force in the region.

7/11/1332, Lucerne joined the Swiss Confederation with Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden.

15/11/1315. A small army of Swiss foot soldiers routed a Hapsburg army sent to bring the valleys of central Switzerland under Hapsburg rule at the Battle of Morgarten. The Hapsburgs had for long had manorial rights in these valleys but not political control. The Swiss had begun to assert their political independence, fortifying the entrances of the valleys. This conflict was precipitated by a dispute over grazing rights; the men of Schwyz attacked an abbey and took some of the monks hostage.

 

Founding of Switzerland

1/8/1291, According to tradition, the Swiss Confederation was formed by Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden, the "three forest cantons", at R �tli by the Federal Charter. The Alliance was initially for mutual defence and they did not claim indpendence from Austria. See 1315. The name �Switzerland� derives from Schwyz.

 

534, Geneva, previously held by Burgundy, passed to the Franks.

See Roman Empire for Roman conquest of Switzerland

6,000 BCE, Dogs were domesticated in the Swiss Lakes region (see food), and oxen were being used for ploughing.

 

Appendix 1 � Leichtenstein

1990, Leichenstein joined the United Nations.

1938, Prince Franz Josef II maintained neutrality during World War Two.

10/6/1923. Switzerland and Liechtenstein formed a customs union.

1868, Leichtenstein abolished its standing army.

1852, Leichtenstein formed a customs union with Austria, adoipting its currency. This union lasted until the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918.

23/1/1719, The Principality of Liechtenstein was constituted.

1712, Leichtenstein was enlarged by the purchase of Vaduz by Prince Johann Adam Andreas von Leichtenstein.

1416, The last Montfort Count bequeathed Vaduz to Baron von Brandis of Emmental, who in 1419 also gained possession of Schellenberg, north of Vaduz.

1342, Graf Hartmann von Montfort gained possession of the Castle of Vaduz. In 1396 Vaduz was confirmed as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire.

 

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