Significant milestones and people associated with Man’s exploration of space
Space shuttle programme 1981 - 2011
27/8/2016, The NASA space probe Juno successfully skimmed the planet Jupiter, the start of an 18-month mission to gather data on the planet.
14/9/2015, Gravity waves generated by a collision between two Black Holes were detected by interferometers at the LIGO facility in the US.
12/11/2014, The Philae Lander touched down onto a comet, 320 million miles from Earth; the first such landing accomplished. Although the craft bounced and ended up partially shaded from the Sun, useful data was returned until the probe finally ‘died’ on 9/7/2015.
6/9/2014, A small meteorite landed in woods near Managua, Nicaragua, leaving a crater 5 metres deep and 24 metres across.
15/2/2013, A large meteor exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia; 1,491 were injured and over 4,000 buildings damaged.
25/8/2012, Voyager I became the first man-made object to leave the solar system.
6/8/2012, Curiosity, the US space probe, successfully landed on Mars.
24/6/2012, Three Chinese astronauts successfully docked with an orbiting module, making China the 3rd country to accomplish this mission.
26/11/2011, The US launched its probe Curiosity towards Mars.
21/7/2011, The Space Shuttle Atlantis landed at Kennedy Space Centre, concluding the Space Shuttle Programme.
8/7/2011, After making 134 missions, the space shuttle Atlantis made the final space shuttle fight.
16/12/2009, Astronomers reported the discovery of an exoplanet where liquid water might exist.
10/2/2009, A Russian and an American satellite collided, creating large amounts of space debris.
9/12/2008, Scientists confirmed the existence of a Black Hole at the centre of the Milky Way.
28/9/2008, Space X launched the first private satellite, Falcon I, into orbit.
25/5/2008, NASA successfully landed a probe on the north polar regions of Mars.
24/8/2006, Pluto was officially demoted from ‘planet’ to ‘dwarf planet’ by the International Astronomical Union,
12/10/2005, The second Chinese space flight, Shenzhou 6, was launched, taking Fei Junlong and Nie Haisheng into orbit for 5 days.
9/8/2005, The space shuttle Discovery landed in the US, after taking off on 26/7/2005.
26/7/2005, The US launched its first space shuttle mission since the Columbia broke up on re-entry in early 2003.
23/1/2004, The Mars Express space probe found evidence of frozen water at Mars’ south pole.
5/11/2003, Voyager I became the first man-made object to leave the solar system.
1/2/2003, The space shuttle Columbia disintegrated over Texas on re-entering the earth’s atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts on board.
31/10/2000. One astronaut and two cosmonauts became the first inhabitants of the International Space Station.
20/9/2000, Gherman Titov, Soviet cosmonaut who was the second person to orbit the Earth, died.
11/12/1998, The Mars Climate Orbiter was launched from Cape Canaveral; the craft was later lost because one team was using metric and another using imperial measurements.
2/3/1998, Data sent from the Galileo probe indicated that Jupiter’s Moon Europa had an ocean of liquid water beneath a frozen crust of ice.
8/1/1998, Scientists announced that the expansion rate of the universe was increasing.
27/9/1997, The Pathfinder probe on Mars ceased functioning, after 2 months on the planet’s surface.
4/7/1997, NASA’s Pathfinder probe landed on the surface of Mars.
31/3/1997. The Pioneer space probe ended its useful life 6 billion miles from Earth.
4/12/1996, NASA launched the Pathfinder probe towards Mars.
19/9/1996. The US spacecraft Atlantis docked with the Russian space station Mir.
6/10/1995, Michael Mayor and Didier Queloz announced the discovery of the first extra-solar planet, 51 Pegasi b.
29/6/1995, The space shuttle Columbia docked for the first time with the Russian Mir space station.
10/12/1993. The Hubble telescope was successfully repaired in space by Shuttle astronauts. Its mirror had been slightly misshapen, blurring its vision of deep space. The Shuttle landed safely on 13/12/1993.
2/12/1993. The Space Shuttle Endeavour was launched on a mission to repair flaws in the Hubble Space Telescope.
28/3/1993, Type II supernova detected in M81.
19/1/1993 The space shuttle Endeavour landed after a 6-day mission.
19/5/1991, Helen Sharman, the first Briton in space, lifted off with two Soviet astronauts to join up with the Soviet Mir space station.
27/6/1990, Scientists admitted that the Hubble Space Telescope, launched in April 1990, had a wrongly-shaped mirror.
25/4/1990. The Hubble Space telescope was launched from the Space Shuttle ‘Discovery’.
25/8/1989. Voyager 2 sent back pictures of Neptune and its moon, Triton, flying within 5,000 kilometres of the planet.
29/9/1988, NASA recommenced space flights, grounded after the Challenger disaster.
19/2/1986, The USSR launched the Mir space station.
28/1/1986. The US space shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds after take off o its 10th flight, killing 7 astronauts. 90 seconds after blast off from Cape Canaveral, and nine miles up. An ‘O’ ring failed due to the extreme and unseasonal cold; ice had to be chipped from the shuttle before take-off. The fuel tanks containing liquid hydrogen and oxygen ignited. Rescue ships reached the crash site a few miles offshore but were held up for an hour due to the rain of burning debris. There were five men and two woman on board, including a schoolteacher, Mrs Christa McAutcliffe. It was President Reagan’s idea to send a schoolteacher into space, and she won the competition from over 11,000 applicants. Her husband and two children were amongst the thousands of spectators. The space shuttle fleet was grounded for three years, and this disaster was a factor in the termination of the shuttle programme in 2011.
24/1/1986. US spacecraft Voyager 2 passed within 51,000 miles of the cloud tops of Uranus. The space probe detected an ocean of water some 6,000 miles deep.
28/8/1984, The space shuttle Discovery made its maiden flight.
25/7/1984, Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to walk in space.
7/2/1984, Bruce McCandless made the first space walk without an attachment to the spacecraft, from the space shuttle Challenger.
3/2/1984, The space shuttle Challenger was launched on its 10th mission.
13/6/1983. The US spacecraft Pioneer 1 became the first man-made object to leave the Solar System.
22/3/1982. The US space shuttle Columbia made its third flight.
12/11/1981, The US Space Shuttle Columbia became the first space vehicle to make a second trip.
14/4/1981, The space shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards Air Force base, California, after 2 days in space.
12/4/1981. The USA launched its first space shuttle, Columbia, from Cape Canaveral, crewed by Robert Crippen and John Young.
12/11/1979, The NASA probe Voyager 1 passed within 140,000 kilometres of Saturn, taking high-resolution pictures of the cloud tops.
1/9/1979, The US spacecraft Pioneer 1 visited Saturn, passing by the planet 210,000 kilometres away.
11/7/1979. America’s Skylab I fell to earth after 34,981 orbits in six years. It had been launched on 14/5/1973. Debris landed in Australia.
4/3/1979, Voyager 1 photographed Jupiter’s rings, approaching within 290,000 kilometres of the planet on 5/3/1979.
9/12/1978, Two US spacecraft reached Venus, sending back pictures of its surface hidden below clouds. On 5/12/1978 the Pioneer I craft went into orbit around Venus, analysing the atmosphere and mapping the surface by radar. This day the Pioneer 2 craft launched probes which landed, surviving the hellish conditions for four hours.
22/6/1978, Charon, a satellite of Pluto, was discovered.
5/9/1977, The US launched the Voyager 2 spacecraft to add to the information gathered by Voyager 1 on Saturn. It continued on to Uranus, then to Neptune, where it arrived in September 1989, its last planetary visit.
20/8/1977. The Voyager I space craft was launched on a journey via Jupiter and Saturn, later to become the first man-made object to leave the solar system.
15/8/1977, Radio astronomers at Ohio State University picked up a powerful radio burst at 1420 Megahertz. This was thought to be a frequency at which intelligent aliens might broadcast as it is a significant radio absorption and emission frequency of hydrogen atoms. It was dubbed the ‘Wow’ signal after the comment scribbled on the radio transcript document by Jerry Ehman. In 2016 astronomers decided it might have been from passing comets.
16/6/1977, Werner von Braun, German-born pioneer of rocketry who worked under the Nazis, then assisted in the American manned flights to the Moon programme, died in Alexandria, Virginia, USA.
18/2/1977, The Space Shuttle Enterprise went on its maiden ‘flight’ on the top of a Boeing 747 plane.
3/9/1976. The US spacecraft Viking 2 landed on Mars after a journey lasting 359 days. It landed in the Utopia Planitia region and broadcast back the first colour pictures of the planet.
7/8/1976. The Viking 2 probe entered orbit around Mars.
20/7/1976. The US spacecraft Viking I landed on Mars after an 11-month journey from Earth. On 31/7/1976 NASA released the famous ‘face on Mars’ photograph.
20/8/1975, NASA launched the Viking I probe towards Mars.
17/7/1975. The crews of Apollo 18 (USA) and Soyuz 19 (USSR) visited each other’s capsules in the first such joint space venture between the two countries. They shook hands 140 miles over the south coast of Britain. The Apollo 18 mission was reckoned to have cost US$ 500 million, and the expense of this put an end to the Apollo project.
15/7/1975, Apollo 18 was launched, crewed by Vance Brand, Thomas Stafford, and Donald Slayton.
8/6/1975, The USSR launched the Venera 9 probe towards Venus. It landed on the surface, transmitting data and pictures for 53 minutes.
16/11/1974, The Arecibo radio telescope beamed a message towards the M13 star cluster encoding information about mankind, in case any aliens are there to receive it.
29/3/1974. The US spacecraft Mariner 11 sent back the first photos of the planet Mercury.
8/2/1974, America’s final Skylab mission ended after 84 days, as Gerald Carr, Edward Gibson, and William Pogue returned to Earth.
5/2/1974. The US spacecraft Mariner 10 sent back pictures of Venus.
14/5/1973. The US put Skylab I into orbit. It eventually returned to earth on 11 July 1979 after 34,981 orbits.
7/3/1973, Comet Kohoutek was discovered by Czech astronomer Luboš Kohoutek.
7/12/1972, The US spacecraft Apollo 17 was launched, crewed by Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans and Dr Harrison Schmitt. Cernan and Schmitt made the 6th Moon landing.
20/4/1972. Apollo 16 landed on the Moon.
16/4/1972, Apollo 16 was launched with John Young, Charles Duke, and Thomas Mattingley. Young and Duke made the 5th Moon landing.
2/3/1972, The US spacecraft Pioneer 10 blasted off to Mars and Jupiter, a 21-month long mission.
31/7/1971, David Scott and James Irwin became the first to ride on the Moon, in their Lunar Roving Vehicle.
30/7/1971. Apollo 15 landed on the Moon. David Scott and James Irwin rode on the Moon in a buggy. 2 days later.
26/7/1961, The US launched Apollo 15, crewed by David Scott, James Irwin, and Alfred Worden. Scott and Irwin made the 4th Moon landing.
30/6/1971. The USSR spacecraft Soyuz 11 returned to earth but the 3 cosmonauts were found dead in their seats.
30/5/1971, Mariner 9 was launched by the US at Cape Kennedy on a mission to Mars.
24/4/1971 The Russian spacecraft Soyuz 10 linked up with the orbiting Salyut space station.
19/4/1971, The Soviet Union launched the world’s first space station, Salyut 1.
5/2/1971. US spacecraft Apollo 14, launched on 31/1/1971, landed on the Moon. Mitchell. Shephard and Mitchell made the 3rd Moon landing.
31/1/1971, The US spacecraft, Apollo 14, the third mission to the Moon, was launched with a three-man crew. On board were Alan Shephard, Stuart Roosa, and Edgar
17/11/1970. The unmanned Russian spacecraft Luna 17 landed on the Moon and released the first moon walker vehicle.
24/4/1970, China launched its first satellite.
17/4/1970, The Apollo 13 astronauts were rescued after their craft failed 200,000 miles from earth and they had to navigate back home by the Sun. They crashed into the Pacific Ocean and were picked up by the US Navy. Apollo 13 was launched on 11/4/1970. An oxygen tank in the service module exploded, destroying both oxygen tanks and blowing the side off the service module; this was later determined by NASA to have been caused by wires in a fan thermostat having been tested at too high a voltage, burning off the insulation and causing a short circuit when the fan was activated. There was now insufficient oxygen for both power and breathing. The three astronauts retreated to the lunar module, designed only for two people, and shut down the main module until required for the Earth landing. Having reported the famous words “Houston we have a problem” the astronauts had no option but to continue out to orbit the Moon, being out of Earth contact for a period, until returning home.
11/4/1970, The US spacecraft Apollo 13 was launched.
11/2/1970, Japan launched its first Earth satellite.
14/11/1969. The US launched Apollo 12, crewed by Charles Conrad, Richard Gordon, and Alan Bean. Conrad and Bean made the 2nd Moon landing on 19/11/1969.
24/7/1969, The Apollo 11 astronauts returned successfully to earth, splashing down in the Pacific Ocean.
22/7/1969, Apollo 11 left the Moon.
20/7/1969. Neil Armstrong became the first man on the Moon. He said, as he emerged from the Eagle lunar module, “One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind”. The Eagle had separated from the Apollo 11 spacecraft. See 7/10/1968 and 19/11/1969. The Apollo 11 mission had launched from Cape Canaveral on 16/7/1969.
18/5/1969, Apollo 10 was launched, crewed by Thomas Stafford, John Young, and Eugene Cernan.
16/5/1969, The Russian spacecraft Venus 5 touched down on Venus.
3/3/1969, Apollo 9 was launched, manned by James McDivitt, David Scott, and Russell Schweickart.
25/2/1969, Mariner 6 was launched from Cape Canaveral, to fly by Mars.
21/12/1968. The first flight of a man around the Moon, when Apollo 8 was launched. It was crewed by Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders.
11/10/1968, The USA’s Apollo 7 spacecraft was launched flawlessly by its 700 ton Saturn 1B rocket and began 10 days and 21 hours in space. It was crewed by Walter Schirra, Don Eiselle and Walter Cunningham.
27/3/1968. Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space in 1961, was killed in a plane crash near Moscow, on a routine training flight.
18/10/1967, The Soviet space probe Venera 4 made the first soft landing on Venus.
24/4/1967. The first space casualty occurred when Vladimir Komarov was killed as the Russian spacecraft Soyuz I crashed to earth after leaving orbit. It came to Earth on the steppes of Orenburg.
27/1/1967, Fire broke out on the spacecraft Apollo I during ground tests at Cape Kennedy. Virgil Grissom, Edward White, and Roger Chaffee were killed. Normally fire-resistant plastics ignited in the pure oxygen used by the astronauts.
10/8/1966, America’s first Moon satellite, Orbiter 1, was launched.
18/7/1966, The US launched the Gemini 10 spacecraft, crewed by John Young and Michael Collins.
2/6/1966. The US unmanned spacecraft Surveyor made the first soft landing on the Moon.
17/3/1966. US astronauts docked in space.
15/3/1966, The US spacecraft Gemini 8 was launched, with Neil Armstrong and David Scott.
1/3/1966, The Russian spacecraft Venus III became the first man-made object to land on another planet when it made a hard landing on Venus. It had been launched on 16/11/1965.
3/2/1966, The Soviet unmanned spacecraft, Luna IX, made the first soft landing on the Moon.
1965, Technicians working for the Bell Telephone Company reported radio interference at 3.2 cm wavelength which they initially blamed on birds. In fact the radiation was from space and confirmed the Bug Bang Theory, which had forst been proposed by the Belgian astronomer Georges Lemaitre in 1927. In fact Us astronomer Robert Dicke had calculated the expected frequency of this radiation a year earlier in 1964, as the ‘afterglow’ of the Big Bang.
15/12/1965, US astronauts achieved the first rendezvous of two vehicles in space. Gemini 6, crewed by Walter P Shirra and Thomas P Stafford, met alongside Gemini 7, crewed by Frank Borman and James A Lovell. The two craft then orbited together, about 3 metres apart, completing two earth orbits at an altitude of 315 kilometres. This exercise was vital in planning the manned lunar programme, where a lunar module would detach from the command ship to land on the Moon, then rejoin the main ship to return to Earth.
4/12/1965, The US spacecraft Gemini 7 was launched, crewed by Frank Borman and James Lovell.
16/11/1965, The Russians launched Venus III on a voyage to Venus.
21/8/1965, The US launched the spacecraft Gemini 5, crewed by Gordon Cooper and Charles Conrad. It orbited the Earth for 8 days before a safe splashdown in the Atlantic.
15/7/1965, Mariner 4 flew by Mars, returning images of the planet’s surface. It revealed that Mars was covered with impact craters, demonstrating a lack of geological activity. A measurement of the changes in radio transmissions as the signals passed through the Martian atmosphere also showed that surface pressure was 94% less than had been predicted, showing that it was mostly carbon dioxide and that the Martian ice caps were actually frozen CO2.
3/6/1965, Gemini IV was launched, crewed by James McDivitt and Edward White. During the flight, Edward H White became the first man to walk in space, for 20 minutes.
23/3/1965, US spacecraft Gemini I was launched, crewed by Virgil Grissom and John Young.
18/3/1965. The first walk in space, lasting about 10 minutes, was made by Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, from the spaceship Voskhod 2.
19/1/1965, The unmanned Gemini 2 was launched on a suborbital test of various spacecraft systems, in preparation for the first US mission to send two astronauts into space.
28/11/1964, Mariner 4 was launched; 228 days later it passed within 9,700 kilometres of Mars.
12/10/1964. Russia launched the first three man space ship.
31/7/1964, NASA succeeded in landing the Ranger 7 probe on the Moon.
5/6/1964, The first British space flight, as the Blue Streak rocket took off from Woomera in Australia.
17/6/1963, The USSR achieved the first link-up of two spacecraft in space. Valentina Tereshkova (26) aboard the Vostok 6 rocket met with Valery Bykovsky (28) who had been orbiting Earth aboard Vostok 5 for two days. Crowds celebrated in the streets of Moscow.
16/6/1963. Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman to travel into space. She was born to a peasant family in Maslennikovo, Russia, in 1937, and made her first parachute jump aged 22 with a local aviation club. Her enthusiasm for skydiving brought her to the attention of the soviet space programme, which wanted a woman in space in the early 1960s. Tereshkova was launched into space on 16/6/1993 from Tyaturum aboard Vostok 6, guided by an automatic control system. After just under 3 days in space, and 48 Earth orbits, Vostok 6 re-entered the atmosphere and Tereshkova successfully parachuted to Earth after ejecting at 20,000 feet. She later received the Order of Lenin and Hero of the Soviet Union awards.
5/2/1963, Maarten Schmidt identified red shifts in quasars.
14/12/1962. Mariner II sent back the first close-up pictures of the planet Venus.
13/11/1962. America launched its biggest rocket yet, the Saturn booster, in its effort to reach the Moon.
29/9/1962, Canada launched its first satellite, the Alouette.
9/9/1962. President Kennedy called for the USA to launch a full speed drive for the Moon and first place in space over Russia, so that space will be an area of peace and not a terrifying theatre of war.
27/8/1962, The US spacecraft Mariner II was launched, on the first interplanetary space mission, to Venus.
22/7/1962, The Mariner 1 spacecraft flew erratically several minutes after launch and had to be destroyed after less than five minutes, at a cost of $4,000,000 for the satellite and $8,000,000 for the rocket. The $12 million dollar loss was later traced to the omission of an overbar in the handwritten text from which the computer programming for the rocket guidance system was drawn.
14/6/1962, The European Space Research Organisation was formed in Paris.
26/4/1962, Britain’s first satellite, Ariel, was launched from Cape Canaveral.
20/2/1962. Astronaut John Glenn made three orbits of the Earth in his spacecraft Mercury VI, the first American in orbit. Bad weather on 26/1/1962 at Cape Canaveral had delayed his launch. On 27/1/1962 an unmanned US craft passed within 20,000 miles of the moon.
25/5/1961, US President Kennedy announced the Apollo space programme.
5/5/1961. The Americans put Alan Shephard into space for 15 minutes, reaching an altitude of 116 miles before splashing down 303 miles from the launch site. He was the second man and the first American to reach space. However the Russian space flight on 12/4/1961 had lasted 108 minutes and circled the Earth.
12/4/1961. Yuri Gagarin (1934-68) made the first orbit of the Earth, at an altitude of 300km, in his spaceship Vostok 1. He took off from Tyuratom in Kazakhstan, made a single Earth-orbit, and landed near Engels in the Saratov region.
22/8/1960. Two dogs returned to Earth in a Soviet space craft. The Russian dogs, named Byelka (Squirrel) and Strelka (Arrow) returned on board Sputnik V, along with 40 mice, two rats, and some plants, as they prepared for a human launch. President John F Kennedy angrily asked US scientists why the first pair of space dogs were called Strelka and Byelka and not Rover and Fido.
15/5/1960, Sputnik IV was launched.
14/3/1960, Jodrell Bank radio telescope set a record for the furthest communication with a man made object. Radio communications were established with the US satellite Pioneer 5, over 407,000 miles away.
7/10/1959, The first photographs of the far side of the Moon were transmitted by the Russian spacecraft Lunik III.
14/9/1959, The first man-made object landed on the Moon; the Russian space probe Lunik II, near the Mare Serenitatis.
28/3/1959, Two monkeys returned alive to earth after being sent into space by the USA.
12/1/1959, A US$ 400 million contract for the Mercury US space programme was awarded to the McDonnell Aircraft Corporation of St Louis.
2/1/1959, The Russians launched Lunik 1, the first rocket to pass near the Moon, from Tyuratam.
29/7/1958. NASA, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration, was founded.
21/3/1958. London Planetarium opened in Marylebone Street, the first planetarium in Britain.
31/1/1958, The US Army at Cape Canaveral launched America’s first Earth satellite, Explorer I. This led to the accidental discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts around the Earth, when the satellite’s radiation meters suddenly showed zero readings. US astronomer James Van Allen realised that the meters had been overloaded and broken down.
4/1/1958, Sputnik 1 disintegrated after completing 1,367 orbits of the Earth. It had travelled some 43 million miles in 92 days.
3/11/1957. The Soviets sent a dog into Earth-orbit. The dog, called Laika (meaning ‘barker’) was a Siberian husky rounded up as a stray. She probably died of overheating after measuring systems on board the Sputnik 2 failed, after a few hours in orbit 2,000 miles above Earth. The space capsule continued to orbit Earth until April 1958 when after 2,570 orbits it crashed to Earth, burning up in the atmosphere. Yuri Gagarin was the first human in space, in April 1961 aboard Vostok 1. The Soviets sent 13 more dogs into space, 8 of which survived.
11/10/1957. The radio telescope at Jodrell Bank, Cheshire, planned by Sir Bernard Lovell, went into operation.
4/10/1957. The first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik I, by the USSR was launched from Tyuratam, 170 miles east of the Aral Sea. It weighed 80 kg.
24/4/1957. The BBC broadcast Patrick Moore’s ‘The Sky at Night’ for the first time.
12/1/1957, President Eisenhower urged the USSR to agree to a ban on warfare in space.
2/1/1956, The British Astronomer-Royal said the idea of space travel was ‘bilge’.
18/4/1955. Albert Einstein, born 14/3/1879, died in Princeton, New Jersey, of a stroke. He was born to a middle class German family of Jewish ancestry. Einstein graduated in 1900 from the Federal institute of technology in Zurich; he worked hard in the laboratory but skipped lectures. He completed his general theory of relativity in 1915 and received the Nobel Prize in 1922. He became an American citizen in 1940 after having signed a famous letter to President F D Roosevelt warning that Germany might try and build an atomic bomb.
30/11/1954, Mrs Hewlett Hodges, of Sylacauga, Alabama, USA, became the only person to have been struck be a meteorite. The 4kg rock crashed through the roof of her house, bounced off a radio, and hit her hip, causing a massive bruise but no other injuries.
26/8/1952, The Soviet Union announced the first successful intercontinental ballistic missile test.
1951, US astronomers Harold Ewen and Edward Purcell measured, from Harvard University, the 1.42 GHz radio waves from the Milky Way, the signature of clouds of neutral hydrogen gas, which is what collapses to form new stars.
26/1/1949, The first test photograph was made at Mount Palomar observatory.
27/3/1945. The last German V-2 rocket fell on Britain, at Orpington. (see 8/9/1944). The Allies then overran the last V-2 launching site. In all, 1,050 rockets fell on England, each carrying a ton of explosive with a range of 200 miles. The V-2s were designed by Werner von Braun, who surrendered to the Americans in 1945. Von Braun was given US citizenship and helped design the rockets for the US space programme, including the Saturn rockets and the Apollo missions.
8/9/1944, The first V-2 fell in on Chiswick in the London area, killing three people. By the end of the war, 1,100 V-2s fell in England an a further 1,675 on the continent, mainly on Antwerp. V-2 stood for Vergeltungswaffe, or ‘reprisal weapon’. The V-2 rocket weighed 12 tons and travelled at 3,600 mph, faster than sound, so there was no warning of its imminent arrival. It had a range of 200 miles and carried a one ton bomb. The Germans fired them from launchers in The Netherlands, but the explosions in London were attributed, by the authorities, to gas explosions to mislead the German intelligence. The earlier V-1 rocket was slower and had a shorter range; V-1 strikes on London ceased as the Allies captured the launch sites in France.
13/6/1944. The first V-1 flying bomb, or doodlebug, to hit Britain landed on a house in Southampton, killing three people. Within 24 hours, others hit London.
1942, The Sun’s radio emissions were discovered by the British scientist Robert Hey.
8/1/1942, Stephen Hawking, astrophysicist, was born.
25/5/1939, Sir Frank Dyson, British astronomer and director of Greenwich Observatory, died.
25/1/1938. The aurora borealis, or northern lights, were seen as far south as London’s West End and throughout Western Europe. It was due to intense sunspot activity.
1937, The US astronomer Grote Reber built the first radio telescope.
30/10/1937. The 500,000 ton asteroid Hermes missed the earth by 485,000 miles.
6/3/1937, Valentino Tereshkova, Russian astronaut and first woman in space in 1963, was born.
9/11/1934, Carl Sagan, US astronomer, was born in New York.
14/3/1934, Eugene Cernan, one of the sixth pair of US astronauts to land on the Moon, was born in Chicago, Illinois.
9/3/1934. Yuri Gagarin, first man in space, was born near Smolensk, son of a collective farmer.
14/11/1933, Fred Haise, US astronaut, was born in Biloxi, Mississippi.
1932, The US engineer Karl Jansky (1905-50) became the first person to detect radio waves from space. He discovered these waves accidentally because they caused static whilst he was researching long-distance radio communications for the Bell Telephone Company. However there was little interest in radio astronomy until after World War Two.
30/8/1931, John Swigert, US astronaut, was born in Denver, Colorado.
31/10/1930, Michael Collins, US astronaut who piloted the command module during the first Moon landing, was born in Rome, Italy.
24/9/1930, John Young, US astronaut, whose spacecraft made the 5th landing on the Moon, was born in San Francisco, California.
17/9/1930, Thomas Stafford, US astronaut, was born in Weatherford, Oklahoma.
5/8/1930. Birth of US astronaut Neil Armstrong, first man on the Moon, in Wapakoneta, Ohio.
2/6/1930, Charles Conrad, American astronaut whose spacecraft made the second landing on the Moon, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
11/4/1930. US scientists predicted that man would have landed on the Moon by 2050.
18/2/1930. American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered the planet Pluto from a series of pictures taken during the previous month at the Lowell Observatory.
20/1/1930. Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin, second man on the Moon, was born at Glen Ridge, New Jersey.
1929, US astronomer Edwin Hubble found that the further a galaxy was away from Earth, the more its light was red-shifted. This red-shift had first been observed in 1912 by another US astronomer, Vesto Slipher. Hubble worked out that this effect was caused by the galaxies receding from us as the Universe expands.
25/3/1928, James Lovell, American astronaut, was born in Cleveland, Ohio.
3/4/1926, Virgil Grissom, third man in space, was born.
30/3/1926, American physicist Robert Goddard successfully tested the world’s first liquid-propellant rocket.
18/11/1923, Alan Shepard, the first US astronaut in space, was born in East Derry, New Hampshire.
21/10/1923, The world’s first planetarium opened, in Munich.
27/3/1923, The astronomer and broadcaster Patrick Moore was born in Pinner.
10/12/1921, Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize for Physics, for his work on Relativity.
18/7/1921, John Glenn, US astronaut and first man to orbit the Earth, was born in Cambridge, Ohio.
12/11/1916, Percival Lowell, US astronomer who predicted the existence of the planet Pluto prior to its discovery in 1930, died in Flagstaff, Arizona.
1918, Harrow Shapley discovered the size of the Milky Way galaxy.
24/6/1915, Professor Fred Hoyle, British astronomer and science fiction writer, was born.
31/8/1913, The astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell, pioneer in the field of radio astronomy was born in Gloucestershire. 23/3/1912, Wernher von Braun, German rocket scientist, was born in Wirsitz.
2/10/1910, The asteroid Interamnia, seventh largest in the Solar System (300 km in diameter) was discovered by Italian astronomer Vincenzo Cerulli from an observatory in Teramo.
18/5/1910. The Earth passed through the tail of Halley’s Comet; some people feared disaster.
21/10/1909, Halley’s Comet was sighted from Cambridge Observatory, UK.
11/9/1909, Halley’s Comet was first observed, at Heidelberg.
13/7/1908, An explosion 1,000 x greater than Hiroshima flattened 80 million trees over 800 square miles near the River Tungaska, Siberia. It is thought to have been a meteor or comet.
21/1/1892, John Couch Adams, English astronomer associated with the discovery of the planet Neptune, died.
2/1/1892, Sir George Airy, Astronomer-Royal who modernised the Greenwich Observatory, died at Alnwick, Northumberland.
1885, The first supernova outside the Milky Way galaxy was seen, in the Andromeda ‘nebula’ (now known to be another galaxy). At its peak it was estimated to have been 15 million times as bright as the Sun.
17/10/1883, The Ben Nevis observatory was opened.
14/3/1879. Albert Einstein, physicist and mathematician, was born in Ulm, Bavaria, to Jewish parents.
11/2/1868, Jean Foucault, French physicist who measured the speed of light, died in Paris.
8/1/1868, Sir Frank Dyson, British astronomer, was born in Measham, then in Derbyshire.
13/3/1855, Percival Lowell, US astronomer, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.
23/9/1846. The German astronomer Johann Galle discovered the planet Neptune. This followed predictions made by Leverrier and Adams.
1838, The German astronomer Friedrich Bessel announced the first calculation of a distance from Earth to another star. He used triangulation from two different points in the Earth’s orbit to measure the apparent change in position of the star, 61 Cygni, and came up with 10.3 light years (modern figure 11.08 L Y). Another astronomer, the Englishman Thomas Henderson, had also made calculations of the distance to Alpha Centauri, and announced these the following year.
25/8/1822, The astronomer Sir William Herschel died. He discovered Uranus in 1781.
5/6/1819, John Couch Adams, who co-discovered Neptune, was born near Launceston, Cornwall.
12/4/1817, Charles Messier, French astronomer who made a list of nebulae known as the Messier catalogue, died.
1801, French astronomer Joseph Lalande published a catalogue of the 47,390 known stars.
1/1/1801, Guiseppe Piazzi at Palermo, Italy discovered Ceres, the largest of the minor planets.
7/3/1792. Sir John Herschel, the astronomer who mapped the stars of the southern hemisphere, was born in Slough.
13/3/1781. Astronomer William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus. He called it Georgium Sidus (George’s Star) in honour of King George III.
14/1/1742. The Astronomer-Royal Edmond Halley died at Greenwich aged 85.
15/11/1738, Sir William Herschel, who discovered Uranus in 1781, was born in Hanover, Germany.
31/12/1719, John Flamsteed, first Astronomer-Royal, , died. His catalogue of stars for ship’s navigators was still incomplete after 40 years of work.
1668, Isaac Newton built the first reflecting telescope.
10/12/1684, Isaac Newton’s derivation of Kepler’s Laws of Gravity was read in a paper to The Royal Society by Edmund Halley.
12/7/1682, Death of Jean Picard, astronomer who first calculated the circumference of the Earth.
10/8/1675. Charles II established Greenwich Observatory. Its foundation stone was laid this day.
4/3/1675, Charles II appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer-Royal.
2/1669, Isaac Newton first described his reflecting telescope in a letter to Henry Oldenburg (1619-77), first Secretary of the Royal Society.
8/11/1656. Edmond Halley, who discovered Halley’s comet, was born in London. He was the first to realise that comets do not appear at random, but have predictable orbits.
25/3/1655, Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, was discovered by Christiaan Huygens.
29/3/1652, ‘Black Monday’ – a total eclipse of the Sun in Britain caused anxiety.
19/8/1646, John Flamsteed, first Astronomer Royal, was born in Denby, near Derby.
25/12/1642, Isaac Newton was born at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham, the son of a farmer.
8/1/1642, Galileo, Italian mathematician physicist and astronomer, professor at the University of Padua, died.
24/11/1639, A transit of Venus across the Sun was first observed by Jeremiah Horrocks.
6/11/1638, James Gregory, Scottish mathematician who gave a demonstration of the first practical reflecting telescope, was born.
12/4/1633, The trial of Galileo Galilei before the Inquisition began. At the end of which he would be ordered to recant his belief that the Sun not the Earth was the centre of the Universe, as heretical.
7/11/1631, Pierre Gassendi observed the transit of Mercury across the Sun. This was the first observation of a planetary transit.
15/11/1630, Johannes Kepler, astronomer, died in Regensburg, Germany.
17/5/1630, The belts of the planet Jupiter were first observed.
26/2/1616. The Church ordered Galileo to abandon his theory that the Sun, not the Earth, is the centre of the Universe.
28/1/1613, Galileo noted the undiscovered planet Neptune but failed to realise what it was. Neptune was officially discovered 233 years later by John Couch Adams.
7/1/1610, Galileo first observed four of the moons of Jupiter.
1608, The Dutch lensmaker Jan Lippershey invented the telescope.
24/10/1601, Tycho Brahe, Danish Royal Astronomer, died in Benatky, near Prague, Czechoslovakia.
17/2/1600, Italian astronomer Giordano Bruno was burnt at the stake, for the heresy of suggesting that the stars were distant suns, possibly with their own planets.
8/8/1576, The first purpose-built observatory was constructed in Denmark.
11/11/1572. The astronomer Tycho Brahe saw a ‘new star’, a supernova, in the constellation of Cassiopeia. The fixed stars were meant to be eternal, unchanging. Along with Copernicus’ assertion that the Sun, not the earth, is the centre of the Universe, this undermined traditional church cosmology.
27/12/1571, Johannes Kepler, astronomer, was born. He discovered that planets have elliptical orbits
15/2/1564, Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy.
14/12/1546, Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer and mathematician, was born in Knudstrup.
24/5/1543. The Polish astronomer, Nicolas Copernicus died of apoplexy. Born on 19/2/1473, in Torun, Poland, Copernicus is regarded as the founder of modern astronomy. When his father died, Copernicus’ uncle Lucas Waczenrode became his guardian. In 1491 Copernicus went to the University of Krakow to study Latin, mathematics, astronomy, geography, and philosophy. He returned home after 4 years without a degree, and studied Canon Law at the University of Bologna so as to have a church career. From a turret on the walls of Bologna Cathedral, Copernicus studied the stars, and in 1530 produced a 400 page treatise, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the revolutions of the celestial spheres). This put forward the idea that the earth rotated on its own axis daily and annually around the Sun. It was published in the year of his death, 1543, and greeted with a hostile reception as it challenged the ancient teaching that the earth was the centre of the Universe.
1491, Copernicus studied at Cracow University.
19/2/1473, Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, was born in Torun, Poland.
1420, The Mongol ruler Ulugh Beg established a large observatory at Samarkand, probably inspired by earlier Muslim observatories such as the one at Maragha, Azerbaijan. The Samarkand observatory was much larger than its predecessors. Ulugh Beg completed a large star catalogue in 1439. However this work was destroyed by his son Adballatif after Ulugh Beg was murdered in 1449, because Adballatif had been exiled on the advice of astrologers.
1259, Nasreddin (1201-74), ruler of Iran, completed his observatory at Maragha. It had a staff of 15 and a library of 400,000 books, and observational enabled Nasreddin to compile accurate tables of planetary motion.
18/6/1178, A violent explosion was seen on the face of the Moon. Later, astronomers calculated this may have been the meteor that created the crater known as Giordano Bruno.
4/7/1054, Chinese astronomers recorded a supernova so bright it could be seen in daylight for 23 days and at night for almost 2 years.
813, A school of astronomy opened in Baghdad.
517, Aryabhata wrote a manual of astronomy.
Ca. 120 BCE, Hipparchus of Nicaea died (born ca. 190 BCE). He calculated the distance from the Earth to the Moon, as 238,600 miles (384,000 km).
Ca. 200 BCE, The Greek astronomer Eratosthenes (276 – 194 BCE) calculated the circumference of the Earth. He noticed that the Sun cast no shadow in Aswan, Egypt, but in the same day of the year in Alexandria, 800km further north, it was 7 degrees off vertical. From this Eratosthenes calculated the Earth’s circumference as around 40,000 km. This is very close to the true figure of 40,007 km, through the Poles. He also suggested that the Earth moved around the Sun. However Claudius Ptolemy (87-150) believed the Earth to be at the centre of the Universe; it was this Ptolemaic view that prevailed in Church thinking right down to the time of Copernicus.
Ca. 230 BCE, Death of Aristarchus (born ca. 310 BCE). He was one of the first to assert that neither the Earth nor the Sun were the centre of the Universe – a principle rediscovered by Copernicus nearly 2,000 years later. Aristarchus observed the shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse, and calculated that the Earth was 3x the diameter of the Moon.
472 BCE, Pythagoras was born. He provided the first scientific proof that the Earth is round; the star Canopus could be seen at Alexandria, Egypt, but not further north in Athens, Greece; also the shadow of the Earth on the Moon in a lunar eclipse was curved, so the Earth must also be curved.
17/7/709 BCE, An eclipse of the Sun was recorded in China.
19/3/721 BCE, An eclipse of the Sun was recorded by the Babylonians.
3/5/1375 BCE, The first total eclipse of the Sun recorded outside China, by the Babylonians.
21/10/2137 BCE. The first recorded total eclipse of the sun, in China.