Science, Technology and Innovation


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See also maritime innovations


Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.” Albert Einstein, 1954.

“Judge a man by his questions rather than his answers”, Voltaire.

“Naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret”, Horace. You can expel nature with a pitchfork, but she will keep returning.

“Perfection (in design) is achieved not when there is nothing more to add, but rather when there is nothing more to take away.” Antoine de Saint-Exupéry


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Scientific laws and principles

Telephonic communication


Textiles and clothing

The atom and atomic power – see Appendix 1 below

Computing – see Appendix 2 below

Electricity – see Appendix 3 below

Elements (Discovery of) – see Appendix 4 below

Environment & Conservation – see Appendix 5 below


17/11/2010, Scientists at the CERN Large Hadron Collider announced they had trapped anti-matter for the first time in

human history.

14/10/2010, French-American mathematician who developed fractal geometry, Benoit Mandelbrot, died aged 85.

20/5/2010, Craig Venter announced the creation of the world’s first synthetic organism.

31/12/2004, The world’s tallest skyscraper, Taipei 101, 508 metres or 1.676 feet tall, was opened.

26/10/2000, Lord Phillips issued his report into BSE and variant-CJD; he was critical of UK government policy.

20/5/1999, Bluetooth was announced.

23/7/1998, A team of scientists at the University of Hawaii, led by Ryuzo Yanagimachi, announced they had produced three generations of cloned mice.

5/6/1995, Bose-Einstein condensate was created.

19/10/1993, The UK Post Office began selling self-adhesive stamps that didn’t need licking.

7/11/1991, The first report on carbon nanotubes was reported in Nature.

28/9/1990, At the first ever Robot Olympics, held in Glasgow, an 8-legged machine called Penelope built at Edinburgh University won the flat race for robots without wheels, achieving 0.13 metres per second.

22/8/1989, British Telecom launched the first ‘pocket phones’ which worked within 100 metres of a base station.

21/4/1989, Nintendo began selling Game Boys in Japan.

23/2/1989, Stanley Pins and Martin Flieschmann announced Cold Fusion at the University of Utah.

1/9/1988, Luis Walter Alvarez, researcher into subatomic particles, born 13/6/1911 in San Francisco, California, died in Berkeley, California.

2/9/1987, Philips introduced the CD-video.

5/1/1987, Genetic fingerprinting was first used to catch a murderer, Colin Pitchfork. Police asked all men in Narborough, Leicestershire, to take DNA tests after two 15 year old girls were killed.

1/1/1985, The first mobile phone call in the UK was made, by Ernie Wise to Vodafone.

23/10/1984. The end was announced for the old ‘H’ shaped TV aerials, used for the old 405-line service. The 43 transmitters broadcasting on this frequency were to be closed to make way for the growing number of mobile and car phones.

14/4/1983, The first cordless telephone was introduced in Britain.

9/4/1981, Nature magazine published a paper with the longest-ever scientific word, with 207,000 letters.

6/4/1980. Art Fry invented the ‘Post-It’ note.

30/10/1979, The aeronautical engineer and  inventor Sir Barnes Wallis died aged 92. He invented the bouncing bombs for the Dambusters raid.

24/9/1979. A remote control cordless telephone, imported from the USA to UK stores, was declared illegal in Britain as it had not been allocated a radio frequency. It was on sale for £260.

17/5/1978. Compact Discs created by Philips.

7/6/1975, Sony introduced the Betamax home videotape recorder.

8/4/1975, Pagers were launched in Britain.

26/6/1974, The first use of barcodes in a supermarket. A pack of Wrigley’s Juicy Fruit was scanned at a March’s supermarket in Troy, Ohio.

3/4/1973, The world’s first ever mobile phone call was made, in New York.

17/6/1970. Edwin Land patented the first Polaroid camera.

12/11/1968. One thousand people attended the first public meeting of the Greater London Council. Ideas discussed included a monorail down Oxford Street by 1972 and an ‘end to the architecture of totalitarianism’. The Milton Keynes Development Corporation announced that the first blueprint for the new city would be available by February 1969.

19/9/1968, Death of Chester Carlson, US inventor of the Xerox photocopier.

17/5/1968. The director of the Transport studies centre predicted that in the future people would be ‘piped’ in high speed pneumatic trains like oil and gas.

15/10/1967. In Tokyo the Nippon Electric Co was offering the world’s first commercial television telephone.

14/6/1967. At a telecommunications conference in London, the Postmaster General discussed the imminent arrival of household robots.

1965, Holography was first discovered by D Gabor.

12/10/1965, Paul Muller, the Swiss chemist who formulated the insecticide DDT in 1939, died in Basle.

8/10/1965, The UK Prime Minister Harold Wilson made the first telephone call as the £2 million, 620 foot tall, Post Office Tower in London’s Tottenham Court Road opened.

18/11/1963. The push button phone was introduced.

21/1/1962  The Met Office started using centigrade as well as Fahrenheit and ring pull cans came into use.

7/12/1961, The London County Council approved the building of 300-foot high blocks of flats at Hammersmith, the tallest in Britain.

1960, The laser was discovered by Thoedore Maiman.

1960, Hitchin Council in the UK became the first to use black plastic polythene bin bags for refuse collection. Previously, rubbish was put loose straight into bins, causing smells and being scattered in the road when the bin was emptied.

20/8/1960, Plastic carrier bags were used for the first time, by a Swedish shoe retailer.

1/4/1960. The US launched the world’s first meteorological satellite, Tiros I. Launched from Cape Canaveral, it only orbited earth for 78 days, but proved that satellites could be useful for surveying global weather conditions. The satellite was 42 inches in diameter, 19 inches high, weighed 270 pounds, and had 9,200 solar cells to power it. It had two television cameras and could store pictures taken whilst out of range of the ground radar station. In total, Tiros I took 22,500 pictures of weather conditions.

3/10/1959, The postcode system for sorting mail was first used in Britain, in Norwich.

28/7/1959. Postcodes were introduced to Britain by the Postmaster General, along with new postal sorting machines. They were used first in the Norwich area on 3/10/1959.

5/12/1958. The first STD telephone exchange in the UK opened.  It was in Bristol, and was inaugurated by Queen Elizabeth II calling up the Lord Provost of Edinburgh.

1957, The first twin-tub washing machine was produced.

14/4/1956,  The first videotape was demonstrated in Chicago.

1955, The first electronic musical synthesisiser was built. Operating on punched tape, it took up a whole room.

1955, The contraceptive pill was first manufavtured. Artificial diamonds were first made.

12/12/1955, Christopher Cockerell patented hit prototype of the hovercraft.

18/4/1955. Albert Einstein, born 14/3/1879, died in Princeton, New Jersey, of a stroke. He was born to a middle class German family of Jewish ancestry. Einstein graduated in 1900 from the Federal institute of technology in Zurich; he worked hard in the laboratory but skipped lectures. He completed his general theory of relativity in 1915 and received the Nobel Prize in 1922. He became an American citizen in 1940.

31/1/1955, RCA introduced the first musical synthesiser.

11/11/1952. John Mulin and Wayne Johnson at the Bing Crosby Enterprises Laboratory in Beverly Hills, California demonstrated the first video recorder.

31/8/1951. Long playing 33 rpm records went on sale in West Germany.

5/1/1951, Sir Ernest Swinton, British soldier and inventor of the military tank, died.

9/11/1950, ICI announced its to build a factory at Redcar to manufacture a new fabric, Terylene.

29/9/1950, The first automatic telephone answering machine was tested by the US Bell Telephone |Company.

26/12/1949. Einstein's Theory of Relativity was announced.

25/8/1949. The UK began experiments with colour TV transmission.

10/1/1949 33.3 and 45 rpm vinyl records went on sale in the USA.

1948, The transistor was discovered.

28/11/1948. The first Polaroid cameras went on sale, in Boston, USA. The price was US$ 89.75 – the equivalent of US$ 900, or UK£595 in 2015. All 37 had sold by the end of the day.

22/6/1948. Dr Peter Goldmark of Columbia Records unveiled the first successfully produced micro-groove, or long playing, record.

9/10/1947. The first radio-telephone call was made, from a car to a plane, above Wimington, Delaware, USA. However radio contact between a person in a car and a person on the ground had been made in 1922. This was at Brooklands motor circuit where a Morse message was transmitted from a racing car at 80mph. The aerial was on large poles propped up on the car.

4/10/1947, The German physicist, Max Planck, died at his home in Gottingen, aged 89. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1918 for his work on quantum physics and black-body radiation.

21/11/1946, The first commercial aerosol sprays were marketed in the US by Airosol Inc of Kansas. The US army had discovered the usefulness of aerosol insect sprays whilst fighting the Japanese in the rainforests of south east Asia.

14/6/1946. Death of John Logie Baird, at Bexhill on Sea, Sussex, aged 58. He was born on 13/8/1888 at Helensburgh, Scotland. In 1926 he demonstrated the first true television before the Royal Institution of Great Britain, following developments on the first prototype in his laboratory in Hastings in 1924. In 1939 Baird demonstrated colour television, and had reportedly developed stereoscopic television by April 1946.

30/4/1944, Pre-fabricated houses went on show in London. 500,000 of them were planned as temporary housing for those who had lost their homes to Luftwaffe bombs.

23/2/1944, Leo Hendrik Baekeland, Belgian-born American chemist, inventor of a plastic called Bakelite, died.

10/6/1943. The ball point pen was patented by its inventor, a Hungarian called Laszlo Biro. He had devised a prototype pen that would not blot in 1938, but fled to Paris and then Argentina in 1940, to escape the Nazis. In 1944 the RAF began using the pens as they were not affected by low air pressure in aircraft.

7/4/1943. The drug LSD (lysergic acid di-ethylamide) was first synthesised by Swiss scientist Albert Hoffman.

1942, Soft toilet paper first appeared in Britain. It was made at the St Andrews paper mill, Walthamstow, London.

22/12/1942, Franz Boas, anthropologist, born 9/7/1858 in Minden, Germany, died in New York.

3/10/1941. The aerosol was patented by L D Goodhue and W N Sullivan.

See Fashions – Clothing for the new fashions and cosmetics that the newly invented plastics and other artificial materials made possible.

23/1/1941, Nylon was first produced in Britain, at Coventry.

22/8/1940, Sir Oliver Lodge, pioneer of wireless telegraphy, died.

20/4/1940. The electron microscope was first demonstrated in America.

20/2/1939. The first washing machine went on show in London at the British Industries Fair.

6/4/1938. Teflon was accidentally invented by US lab assistant Jack Rebok. He opened a gas cylinder of freon (tetrafluorothylene) and no gas came out; however the cylinder was still heavy. Upon inspection, the gas had polymerised into a greasy white powder. During World War Two, Teflon, being extremely inert, was found to be the only material that would resist the corrosive effects of uranium hexafluoride, a key chemical in the construction of the atom bomb; hence Teflon became a military secret. In 1960 it began to be used on non-stick pans, although initial problems with the non-stick coating not adhering tp the pan had to be overcome. It now has uses in coating buildings to prevent corrosion, as electrical insulation, a flame retardant, and in artificial body joints.

22/10/1938, Chester F Carlson made the first photocopy image.

24/2/1938, Manufacture began of the first commercially produced nylon product, toothbrush bristles, by DuPont in their Arlington, New Jersey, plant.

17/2/1938, John Logie Baird demonstrated a prototype colour television.

20/7/1937, Guglielmo Marconi, Italian scientist who pioneered the use of radio communications, died in Rome, aged 63.

29/4/1937, American chemist Wallace Hume Carothers committed suicide just two months after he patented nylon.

16/2/1937. Nylon was patented by the American chemical company E.I.Du Pont, having been developed under the direction of Dr Carothers. The material was first produced in Britain in Coventry on 23/1/1941. It was used for military needs only, mainly for parachute fabric; nylon stockings were made from December 1946.

27/2/1936, Death of Ivan Pavlov (born 14/9/1849 in Ryazan, Russia). He is famous for his work on conditioned reflexes in dogs.

4/12/1935. The game of monopoly was born, invented by unemployed engineer Charles Darrow. It is the world’s most successful box game, having sold over 500 million sets.

20/8/1935, In the US, H McLean announced the isolation of Vitamin E.

26/2/1935. Radar (Radio Detection And Ranging) was tested at Daventry. Engineers had reported that passing aircraft distorted radio transmissions. The BBC transmitter at Daventry was used this day by Robert Watson Watt to detect a bomber 8 miles away at 10,000 feet. See 20/3/1934.

4/7/1934. The French physicist, Marie Curie, died.  She was born in Poland, and pioneered the medical uses of radioactivity.

20/3/1934, Radar was first demonstrated in Kiel Harbour, Germany. See 26/2/1935.

1933, ICI chemist R.O.Gibson produced polyethylene, the polymer of ethylene gas. An easily-moulded white inert water-resistant solid insulator, it was marketed as ‘polythene’. It was used for electric cable insulation. In 1938 Tupperware was produced from this plastic.

19/5/1933,  Edward de Bono, who developed the concept of lateral thinking, was born.

14/2/1933, The world’s first speaking clock became available to telephone users in the Paris area.

10/7/1932, Richard Threlfall, English chemist and engineer, died aged 70.

4/4/1932. Vitamin C was isolated by Charles Glen King, professor of chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh.

26/12/1931, Melvil Dewey, inventor of a classification system for library books, died.

1/5/1931. The Empire State Building was opened by President Hoover in New York. 102 storeys and 1,245 feet high, it had a 220 foot TV antenna added in 1950. This total height of 1,472 feet was reduced to 1,454 feet when the antenna was replaced in 1985. In 2001 the world’s tallest building was the  twin Petronas Towers in Malaysia, 1,483 feet high.

11/2/1931, Sir Charles Pearsons, inventor of the first practical steam turbine, died in Kingston, Surrey.

8/9/1930, The first roll of Scotch Tape (Sellotape) was made. Although introducing a new product to US consumers during the recession was risky, in fact the mood of thriftiness at the time ensured the success of the product as it was used for mending and fixing things. The UK version, called Sellotape, was introduced in 1937.

3/8/1929, Emile Berliner, US inventor of the flat phonographic record, died.

30/10/1928, Static pictures were first transmitted by radio. Receivers required a special device called a Fultograph, attached to the radio set. This utilised a revolving drum upon which a stylus marked half-tone lines on special paper. The result was about as good as a mediocre picture in an underfunded local newspaper, and the device never became popular.

1/2/1928. In the USA, Dr Herbert Evans discovered vitamin E.

1927, The first petrol driven chainsaw was demonstrated in the forests of Thuringia, Germany. This greatly speeded up wood harvesting and forest clearance.

31/12/1927, The use of the lance was abandoned by the British Army, except for ceremonial purposes.

16/10/1927, The first remnant of Peking Man, a tooth, was found by paleontologist Anders Birger Bohlin at Chou K'ou Tien (Zhoukoudian), under sponsorship of Davidson Black, who gave it the scientific name Sinanthropus pekinensis. More remains would be discovered over the next ten years, and reclassified as Homo erectus pekinensis, estimated to be more than 300,000 years old.

12/11/1927. The first automatic telephone exchange opened, in Holborn, London.

29/1/1927. In London the Park Lane Hotel opened, the first with en-suite bathrooms.

6/8/1926, The first LP record discs, at 33.3 rpm, went on sale.

27/1/1926. Scottish inventor John Logie Baird, aged 38, demonstrated the principle of transmitting moving images by radio. The demonstration was to members of the Royal Institution, at his workshop in Soho, London. He called this ‘television’.

30/10/1925. In his workshop in London, John Logie Baird achieved the first TV pictures using a dummy’s head. He then persuaded a 15 year old office boy, William Taynton, to sit in front of the camera to become the first live person captured on TV.

12/2/1924, Calvin Coolidge became the first US President to deliver a speech on radio.

30/11/1924, Radio photographs were first transmitted from Britain to the USA.

1/4/1924. The first gramophone to automatically change records went on sale, produced by HMV.

27/3/1923, Sir James Dewar, Scottish scientist, inventor of the vacuum flask, died aged 80.

23/2/1893, The diesel engine was patented by Rudolf Deisel.

2/8/1922. Death of Alexander Graham Bell, aged 75, at his home near Baddock, Nova Scotia. He was born on 3/3/1847 and patented the telephone on 7/3/1876. Many others had been working on the idea of sending speech by wire but Bell was the first to succeed. With his assistant Thomas Walsop, Bell began making improvements to the telegraph system, and formed the Bell Telephone Company in 1872. Bell also invented the photophone transmission of sound, precursor of fibre-optics, as well as techniques of teaching speech to the deaf.

14/2/1922. Marconi began first regular radio broadcasts from England (Writle, Essex). This invention had been patented by Marconi on 22/6/1896. See 14/11/1922.

10/5/1920, John Wesley Hyatt, American inventor who discovered celluloid, the first synthetic plastic, died.

28/8/1919, Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, who invented the EMI scanner and winner of the Nobel prize for psychology in 1979, was born.

30/6/1919, Lord Rayleigh, British scientist who discovered the inert gas argon in 1894 and won the Nobel prize, died in Witham, Essex, aged 76.

14/4/1917, Dr Zamenof, Polish linguist and inventor of Esperanto, died.

24/11/1916, Sir Hiram Maxim, English-born US inventor of the machine gun in 1883, died in London.

15/9/1916. Tanks went into battle for the first time, for the British Army at the battle of Flers on the  Somme.  They were invented by Sir Ernest Swinton, weighed 30 tons, and travelled at 4mph. It was hoped they would break the stalemate of trench warfare. Some German soldiers fled, thinking the Devil had come. The tank forces achieved their objective but infantry reserves could not arrive in time to consolidate the successes.

23/7/1916, Sir William Ramsey, chemist who discovered helium, and isolated neon, krypton, and xenon, died in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire.  He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1904.

19/2/1916, Ernst Mach, Austrian scientist after whom the speed of sound in air is named, died the day after his 78th birthday.

6/9/1915. The first military tank, the No.1 Lincoln, modified and renamed Little Willie, had its first run.

21/3/1915, Frederick Winslow Taylor, the inventor of modern scientific time-management, died.

29/7/1914, The first test call was made on the new transcontinental telephone line between New York and San Francisco.

1913, 1) Formica was first produced, initially as a substitute ‘for-mica’. Mica being used for electrical insulation. Formica is made by compressing layers of paper impregnated with phenolic acid. Formica initially was always black or brown, but in the 1920s coloured versions became available, and were used for ‘modern’ furniture coveriings. It was easy to clean and water=resistant.

2) The Brillo pad was patented and first sold. It was produced in response to complaints about how difficult it was to clean the aluminium pans which were becoming popular at that time.

20/8/1913. Harry Brearley of Sheffield cast the first stainless steel.

29/4/1913, The improved version of the zip fastener, as we have it today, was patented by a Swedish engineer, Gideon Sundback, from New Jersey.

17/6/1912. Discovery of the production of synthetic rubber on a commercial scale.

1911, Advances in telegraphic technology meant that a message could be sent from New York to London in 30 seconds, at a cost just 0.5% of the 1866 level.

31/12/1911. Marie Curie received her second Nobel prize, unprecedented in the history of the award.

27/8/1910. Thomas Edison, in New Jersey, demonstrated talking movie pictures for the first time in his New Jersey laboratory. He used a device that was part phonograph, part camera, to record sounds and pictures simultaneously. He predicted that moving pictures with sound in colour would soon be possible.

2/4/1910. A German scientist made artificial rubber.

7/5/1909, Edwin Land, American inventor of the Polaroid lens and the instant camera, was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut.

28/2/1909, Professor Linus Pauling, American chemist and physicist, Nobel Prize winner, was born.

1908, Cellophane was first produced when Swiss chemist Dr Jacques Brandenburger used regebnerated celluloise to make a thin plastic sheet. Cellophane was first made commercially in Paris from 1912.

29/2/1908, Onnes, a Dutch scientist in Leyden, announced he had liquefied helium.

1907, 1) The first electric washing machine was produced; the Thor, designed by Alva J Fisher of the USA.

2) The first clothes washing powder was launched in Dusseldorf, Germany. It was called Persil, from two of its active ingredients, perborate and silicate.

17/12/1907, Lord Kelvin, physicist and inventor, died.

6/6/1907. Persil washing powder went on sale for the first time, in Dusseldorf, Germany.

1/12/1906. The world’s first purpose-built picture palace, the Cinema Omnia Pathe, opened in Paris.

17/10/1906. First transmission of a picture by telegraph.

1/7/1905, Albert Einstein propounded the Theory of Relativity.

31/10/1904. The radio valve was invented by John Fleming at London University.

4/8/1904. The first Atlantic weather forecast was received by radio telegraph.

14/4/1904. The first attempt to produce ‘talking pictures’ was made at the Fulham Theatre, London, using cinematography and a phonograph.

26/2/1903. Richard Gatling, US inventor of the rapid-fire gun, died aged 84.

1902, The first automatic tea maker was produced, set by an alarm clock for morning tea.

31/10/1902, The Pacific Cable was completed at Suva.

30/9/1902. Rayon, or artificial silk, was patented by Samuel Slocum.

23/6/1902. Albert Einstein began work in the Swiss Patent Office.

12/12/1901. The first transatlantic wireless message (the letter ‘S’, three dots in Morse, was continually transmitted) was sent from a164 foot aerial at Poldhu, Cornwall to Signal Hill, St John’s, Newfoundland, a distance of 1,800 miles, where it was received by Marconi on an aerial suspended from a kite.  Three previous transmission attempts, in which the aerial had been raised by balloon, were unsuccessful, thwarted by bad weather.

 10/12/1901. Nobel prize first awarded. Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel had invented a powerful new explosive, called dynamite. He thought that, if two armies could annihilate each other in an instant, war would become impractical, an idea similar to the MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction) concept that kept the peace during the Cold War of the 1950s, 60s and 70s. Nobel made a fortune from his new explosive and when he died in 1896 he left most of that fortune to a Foundation to award prizes annually to those who in the preceding year have most benefitted mankind. The first Nobel Prize was worth US$ 30,000. They are awarded in Stockholm and Oslo, in the categories of literature, chemistry, physics, medicine and peace. The first ever Nobel Prize was shared between Jean Henri Dunant (founder of the Red Cross) and Frederic Passy (founder of the French Society for the Friends of Peace).

1/12/1901. King Camp Gillette patented his first safety razor..

15/11/1901. The first hearing aid, the Acousticon, was patented by Miller Reese Hutchinson of New York.

30/8/1901. Scotsman Hubert Cecil Booth patented the vacuum cleaner.

8/8/1901, Ernest Lawrence, US physicist who invented the first subatomic particle accelerator and the first colour TV tube, and won the Nobel Physics prize in 1939, was born.

28/2/1901, Dr Linus Pauling, American biochemist and twice winner of the Nobel Prize, was born in Portland, Oregon.

6/2/1901. Paris installed the first public telephones at railway stations.

1900, The paper clip was patented by Johann Vaaler, a Norwegian working in Germany.

14/12/1900, The German physicist Max Planck proposed a quantum theory of energy.

10/12/1900. The first Nobel prizes were awarded.

16/4/1900. The world’s first book of stamps was issued, in the USA.

16/8/1899. Death of the German chemist Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, inventor of the Bunsen burner.

12/1/1899, Paul Muller, the Swiss chemist who formulated DDT, was born.

15/3/1898, Sir Henry Bessemer, inventor of a process for converting cast iron into steel in 1856, died aged 85.

12/6/1897, Carl Elsener took out a patent for the Swiss Army Knife.

12/1/1897, Sir Isaac Pitman, who invented phonetic shorthand in 1837, died in Somerset aged 84.

12/12/1896, Guigliemo Marconi gave his first public demonstration of radio, at Tonybee Hall, east London.

10/12/1896. Alfred Bernhardt Nobel, Swedish chemist who invented dynamite, died in San Remo, Italy. See 14/7/1867.

2/6/1896, Marconi was granted patent no.12039 for his system of communication using radio waves. The maximum communications range was then about 12 miles.

22/12/1895, The physicist Wilhelm Roentgen made a radiograph (X-ray photograph) of his wife’s hand.

8/11/1895. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered X rays, during an experiment at the University of Wurtzburg. He made the first radiograph, or X-ray, of his wife’s hand, on 22/12/1895.

22/3/1895, The first demonstration of celluloid cinema film was given in Paris by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.

14/4/1894, Edison’s kinetoscope, or moving pictures, were shown to the public for the first time.

30/1/1894. Charles King of Detroit received a patent for the pneumatic hammer.

5/11/1892, John Haldane, pioneer in genetic research, was born.

15/3/1892. The world’s first ‘escalator’ was installed at Coney Island, New York. This had a continuous sloping surface. It was called the ‘Reno inclined elevator’.  The American inventor Charles A Wheeler patented the first escalator with flat steps on 2/8/1892.

15/4/1891. Thomas Edison publicly demonstrated his ‘kinetoscope’, or moving picture machine, in New York.

15/3/1891, Sir Joseph William Bazalgette, engineer, died.

10/3/1891, US undertaker Almon Brown Strowger patented the Strowger Switch, enabling automated dialling. He was motivated by the fact that the wife of a rival undertaker worked at the local phone exchange, and was diverting calls for his business to her husband.

7/5/1890, James Nasmyth, inventor of the first steam hammer, died in London.

17/2/1890, Christopher Sholes, American inventor of the typewriter, died in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

23/11/1889, The first jukebox was installed, in the Palais Royal Saloon in San Francisco.

11/10/1889, James Joule, who established the First Law of Thermodynamics, died.

13/8/1889. The coin operated phone was patented in the USA by William Gray of Hartford, Connecticut.

31/3/1889. The 300 metre Eiffel Tower was completed, in time for the Universal Exhibition in Paris, and opened by Premier Tirard on 6/5/1889..  Many people said it was ugly.

7/11/1888, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born. In 1931 he won the Nobel Physics Prize for his discovery of the changing wavelengths of light when it passed through a transparent material.

30/10/1888, The first patent for a ball point pen was issued to the American, John H Loud.

4/9/1888, George Eastman, founder of the Kodak film company, patented the first camera film roll.

16/5/1888, Emile Berliner demonstrated the first gramophone, to the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia.

6/10/1887, Le Corbusier, who promoted the idea of a house as a ‘machine for living’, was born in Switzerland.

26/9/1887, The first gramophone player, invented by Emile Berliner, a German immigrant living in Washington DC, was patented.

22/1/1887, Sir Joseph Whitworth, the engineer who standardised screw threads, died at Monte Carlo.

26/3/1885, The first cremation in modern times, of Mrs Pickersgill, took place at Woking.

13/10/1884. Greenwich was adopted as the universal time meridian from which world longitude is calculated.

13/3/1884, Standard time zones were established in the USA.

6/1/1884, Gregor Mendel, Augustine monk and botanist who pioneered the study of genetics, died in Brunn, Austria, aged 62.

17/2/1883, The vacant / engaged toilet sign was patented by Mr Ashwell of Herne Hill, London.

19/4/1882. Charles Darwin, who developed his theory of evolution, died aged 73 near Orpington, Kent. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

9/11/1881, Dr Herbert Thomas Kalmus, US inventor of Technicolor, was born.

30/8/1881. Clement Ader of Germany patented the first stereo system, for a telephonic broadcasting service.

15/1/1880. The first telephone directory in Britain was published by the London Telephone Company. It contained 255 entries.

4/11/1879. James R Ritty of Dayton, Ohio patented the first cash register. Pilfering by bartenders from Ritty’s saloon so undermined his health that he went on a sea voyage to Europe to recover. On board the ship, Ritty saw a machine that recorded the number of revolutions made by the ship’s propellers, which gave him the initial idea. In 1884 he formed the National Cash Register Company.

6/9/1879, The first British telephone exchange opened, in Lombard Street, London.

27/8/1879, Sir Rowland Hill, pioneer of the postal service, died.  He devised the Penny Post in 1840.

14/3/1879. Albert Einstein, physicist and mathematician, was born in Ulm, Bavaria, to Jewish parents.

19/2/1878. Thomas Edison patented the phonograph.

14/1/1878. Queen Victoria was given a demonstration of Alexander Graham Bell’s new invention, the telephone, at Osborne House.

22/12/1877. Liquid oxygen was made for the first time, in Geneva.

11/12/1877, Englishman Eadward Muybridge, photographer of the American West, used a novel photographic technique to resolve a bet made by the Governor of California, rail magnate Leland Stanford. Stanford believed that all four legs of a racehorse left the ground simultaneously as it galloped. Muybridge proved Stanford right by stringing tripwires across a racecourse and galloping a horse down it, setting off camera shots to obtain a series of still shots. Muybridge then used the novel technique to study dancers and runners in action.

6/12/1877. Thomas Alva Edison made the first recording of a human voice. He spoke Mary had a little lamb into his phonograph. Edison was working to improve the efficiency of the telegraph transmitter, and noticed that the machine gave off sounds resembling the spoken word when played at high speed. He wondered if he could record a telephone message. He attached the diaphragm of a telephone receiver to a needle, using the needle to prick paper to record a message. He then progressed to using a cylinder wrapped in tinfoil instead of paper, which succeeded in playing back the nursery rhyme he had recorded.

17/9/1877, William Henry Fox Talbot, English pioneer of photography, died at Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire.

19/9/1876. Melville R Bissell of Grand Rapids, Michigan patented the Bissell carpet sweeper, the first practical way to sweep carpets of dust. He suffered from headaches caused by his allergy to straw dust which came from the straw packing he used in his china shop. He invented a sweeper with a sprung brush roller that responded to pressure on the handle.

17/5/1876, Nikolaus August Otto patented the world’s first four-stroke internal combustion engine. However the patent office uncovered earlier work done on the fo9ur stroke cycle by Frenchman Alphonse Beau de Rochas in 1862. Otto’s patent was deemed invalid and others were free to use his idea. Karl Benz refined the four stroke engine and made it run not on gas but liquid fuel, kerosene or gasoline, thereby making the engine mobile.

10/3/1876, Alexander Graham Bell transmitted the first telephone message to his assistant, from 5 Exeter Place, Boston, Massachusetts. The words were ‘Come here Watson, I want you’.

7/3/1876. The first telephone was patented by the American Alexander Graham  Bell, who was born on 3/3/1847. Bell was just a few hours ahead of a similar patent by Elisha Gray.

18/2/1876. A direct telegraph link was set up between Britain and New Zealand.

19/10/1875, Sir Charles Wheatstone, English physicist who pioneered telegraphy, died in Paris.

23/7/1875, Isaac Singer, American inventor of the modern sewing machine, died in Torquay, Devon.

25/4/1874, Guglielmo Marconi, Italian scientist and radio pioneer, was born in Bologna.

26/8/1873, Birth of Lee de Forest, inventor of the Audion vacuum tube which made broadcasting possible.

2/8/1875, Britain’s first roller skating rink opened, in Belgravia, London.

14/12/1873, Louis Agassiz, who developed the theory of Ice ages, died –see 28/5/1807, when born.

2/4/1872, Samuel Morse, American inventor of the Morse Code for telegraphy, died in New York City aged 80.

18/10/1871, Charles Babbage, pioneer of computing, died.

1869, Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian scientist (1834-1907), published the Periodic Table. By grouping the elements by properties, it was now possible to see where gaps existed and new elements awaited discovery.

23/11/1869, Valdemar Poulson, Danish inventor of the tape recorder, was born.

15/6/1869, A thermoplastic called celluloid, a technically-improved version of the plastic invented by the British chemist Alexander Parkes, was patented by American inventor John Wesley Hyatt of Albany, New York.

10/3/1869, The first scientifically-designed cremator was used, in Padua, Italy, by Dr L Brunetti to cremate the body of a 35-year-old woman

21/10/1868, Sir Ernest Swinton, one of the inventors of the military tank, was born in Bamgalore, India.

11/2/1868, Jean Foucault, French physicist who invented the gyroscope, died in Paris.

7/11/1867. Marie Curie, who discovered radium, was born in Warsaw, as Marie Sklodowska.

3/10/1867, Elias Howe, inventor of the first practical sewing machine in 1846, died. He made US$ 2 million from his invention.

16/7/1867, Joseph Monier of Paris patented reinforced concrete.

14/7/1867. Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel first demonstrated the use of dynamite in Merstham Quarry, Redhill, Surrey.

1/4/1867. In Paris, the World Fair opened. The first hydraulic lift was demonstrated by the engineer Edoux, and Japanese art was on show in the West for the first time.

27/7/1866, The Atlantic Telegraph Cable was completed.

7/11/1865, The Repeating Light Company of Springfield, Massachusetts manufactured the first pocket lighter.

24/10/1865, Nobel was granted a patent in the USA for his new invention of dynamite.

19/12/1863. Frederick Walton of London patented linoleum.

14/11/1863. Leo Baekeland, US chemist who invented Bakelite, an early plastic, was born in Ghent, Belgium.

4/11/1862. Richard Gatling, in Indiana, invented a gun that could fire hundreds of rounds a minute using rotating barrels.  Mounted on wheels, it had 10 parallel barrels and fired 1200 shots a minute.

19/10/1862, Auguste Lumiere was born. With his brother Louis, he developed the motion picture projector.

10/1/1862, Samuel Colt, who invented the Colt revolver in 1835, died at Hartford, Connecticut.

17/5/1861. The first colour photograph was exhibited at the Royal Institution, London.

8/4/1861, Elisha Graves Otis, American inventor of the first safe elevator in 1852, died in Yonkers, New York.

12/10/1860, Elmer Sperry, prolific inventor, notably of the gyroscopic compass, was born in Corland, New York State.

14/9/1860, Niagara Falls was illuminated for the first time.

1859, Glasgow opened its new water supply from Loch Katrine; this was a significant developemtn in the hygiene of the city.

27/8/1859. The world’s first oil well was drilled at Titusville, Pennsylvania, by Edwin Drake of Seneca Oil. Oil had been known in this area for 300 years. It used to seep from the ground and was used for curing many ailments from blindness to rheumatism, colds, coughs, sprains, and baldness. It was also skimmed from creeks and used for lighting, although it gave off a foul smell when burned. Chemists turned the oil into a better lighting fuel. Drake drilled down 69 feet and got a steady flow of 25 barrels a day from his well. By the end of the year the well once called ‘Drake’s Folly’ had produced 2,000 barrels, and other prospectors joined in the search for more oil.

23/8/1859, The first hotel elevator was installed in the 6 storey building of Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York.

12/7/1859. (1) William Goodale patented the paper bag manufacturing machine.

(2) Robert Stephenson, engineer, died.

15/5/1859, Pierre Curie, French scientist, was born in Paris. He was the son of a physician.

28/7/1858. The first use of fingerprinting. William Herschel, a British civil servant in India, took the entire palm print of a Bengali hired to surface roads, to ensure that he did not back out of the contract.

1857, The first mass production of toilet paper began, in the USA, pioneered by Joseph Cayetty. Toilet paper had been in use at the Imperial Court of 14th century China, but most people in 19th century Europe and America simply used torn up newspaper. Cayett’s paper, at 50 cents for 500 sheets, was not cheap; it was impregnated with aloe as a supposed cure for piles. Gradually the cost fell and it became universally used. The term ‘toilet paper’ was first used by the New York Times in 1888.

1/7/1858. Charles Darwin first presented his theory of evolution, to the Linnean Society.

23/3/1857, The first passenger lift was installed in a department store, in the 5-storey building of E V Haughwout and Co on Broadway, New York. The elevator system cost US$ 300.,

10/7/1856, Nikola Tesla was born.  His father, the Reverend Milutin Tesla, was a Greek Orthodox priest, and his mother Duka Mandic was the daughter of a priest who made handcraft tools.

20/3/1856, Frederick Winslow Taylor, the inventor of modern scientific time-management, was born.

17/10/1855, Henry Bessemer patented a steel-making process.

11/4/1855, London’s first six ‘pillar boxes’ were installed, and were painted green.

5/1/1855, King Camp Gillette, American inventor of the safety razor, was born in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin.

27/9/1854, The Lady Isabella waterwheel at Laxey, Isle of Man was completed.  It was the largest in the UK, at 72 foot 6 inches in diameter, and was once used for draining a lead mine.

12/7/1854. George Eastman, USA photographic pioneer who founded Kodak, was born in Waterville, New York State. (see 7/5/1888).

13/6/1854, Sir Charles Parsons, engineer who invented the steam turbine, was born in London.

20/9/1853, Elisha Graves Otis opened a factory in New York State for the production of the first modern lifts.

17/3/1853, Death of Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who coined the term Doppler effect to explain the apparent change of frequency of a wave when the source is moving relative to the observer.

23/11/1852. Britain’s first pillar box was erected, in St Helier on Jersey.

15/10/1852, Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, founder of the gymnastic movement (Turnverein) in Germany, died at Freybug aged 74.

2/10/1852, Lord Ramsay, who discovered the inert gases, was born in Glasgow.

11/2/1852. The first flushing public toilet for women opened in Fleet Street, London. The cost was 2d. See 2/2/1852.

2/2/1852, The first public convenience for men opened in Fleet Street, London. See 11/2/1852.

6/1/1852, Louis Braille, who invented the raised-dot system of writing used by the blind, died.

10/12/1851, Melvil Dewey, US librarian who devised a system of library cataloguing, was born in Adams Centre, New York State.

12/7/1851, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, French pioneer in photography, died.

6/5/1851, Linus Yale patented the Yale lock.

10/4/1849. Walter Hunt of New York patented the safety pin. He made it in only three hours, then sold the rights for $400 to pay off debts.

17/3/1849. Elastic bands patented, by Stephen Perry’s London rubber company.

3/3/1847, The inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, was born in Edinburgh.  He was the son of a teacher of elocution.

10/9/1846, Elias Howe received the patent for his sewing machine. It could sew at 250 stitches per minute, five times faster than any human could.

27/3/1845, Wilhelm von Roentgen, German scientist and discoverer of X-Rays, was born in Lennep, Prussia.

27/7/1844, John Dalton, chemist and physicist, died.  He developed modern atomic theory and also made advances in meteorology.

24/5/1844. The inventor Samuel Morse sent the first telegraph message, from his home in Washington to a friend in Baltimore, 40 miles away. The message was “What hath God wrought”.

25/7/1843, Charles MacIntosh, the chemist who patented waterproof fabric in 1823, died in Glasgow.

25/3/1843. The first tunnel under the Thames, the 1300 foot Wapping Tunnel, linking Wapping and Rotherhithe, opened. Work had begun on 2/3/1825.

1842, Sir William Herschel, astronomer, patented the blueprinting process, or cyanotyping. A sheet of paper was coated in chemical, dired to a bronze colour, then left in contact with the drawing to be copied under glasss in the sunlight. The paper turned blue with a white image of the drawing lines. The process was cheap, the prints lomg-lasting, and could be done by anybody.

12/11/1842, The physicist and Nobel Prize winner Lord Rayleigh was born at Witham, near Maldon, Essex.

18/10/1842. The first telegraph cable was laid by Samuel Morse. It ran from Governor’s Island to The Battery across New York Harbour, and lasted only 24 hours; 200 feet of it was wrecked when a ship weighed anchor.

20/9/1842. Sir James Dewar, Scottish physician and chemist, and inventor of the vacuum flask, was born at Kincardine on Forth, in Fife.

27/5/1842, The first public library was opened, in Frederick Street, Salford, Manchester.

30/9/1841. The stapler was patented by Samuel Slocum.

5/2/1840, Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, American inventor of the first fully automatic machine gun, was born in

Sangersville, Maine.

1839, Ozone was discovered and named by German-Swiss chemist Christian F Schonbein (1799-1868)

20/8/1839, In Paris, LJM Daguerre demonstrated a way of capturing images on a metallic plate; the birth of photography.

2/1/1839, Frenchman Louis Daguerre took the first photograph of the Moon.

1/7/1838. Charles Darwin presented a paper on his evolutionary theory.

12/3/1838, Sir Henry Perkin, British chemist who synthesised the first artificial dye (aniline purple) was born.

18/2/1838, Ernst Mach, Austrian scientist, was born in Moravia.

6/1/1838. Samuel Morse first publicly demonstrated the telegraph.

28/11/1837, John Wesley Hyatt, inventor of celluloid, was born in Starkey, New York State.

15/11/1837. Isaac Pitman’s stenographic shorthand, the first shorthand system, was published, price 4d.

25/8/1837. Henry William Crawford of London patented a process for galvanising iron.

17/5/1836, Norman Lockyer, discoverer of helium, was born.

25/2/1836, Samuel Colt was granted a patent for his new revolver firearm.

23/12/1834. The English architect Joseph Hansom patented his safety cab, known as the Hansom Cab.

18/4/1834. The world’s first launderette opened in Fort Worth, Texas.

21/10/1833, Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist who invented dynamite in 1867, was born in Stockholm.

5/7/1833, Nicorie Nie, pioneer in photography and creator of the first negative on paper,died.

1/1/1833, The first fire brigade to have full time permanent staff was established in London.

15/12/1832, Gustave Eiffel, French engineer who designed the Eiffel Tower, built for the Paris Exhibition of 1889, was born in Dijon.

27/12/1831. The Admiralty survey ship The Beagle left Plymouth with Charles Darwin on board on a scientific voyage around the world. This led to Darwin’s controversial book, The Origin of the Species. Darwin was inspired by Professor Henslow (1796-1861), a renowned mineralogist at Cambridge, 13 years older than Darwin, who was elected unopposed to the Chair of Botany at Cambridge when that position fell vacant. Henslow supported ‘evolutionary’ theories, although retaining a strong religious faith.

16/5/1831, David Hughes, English-American inventor of the teleprinter and microphone, was born in London.

12/2/1831, J W Goodrich of Boston, USA, invented the rubber galosh.

18/5/1830. Edwin Budding of Stroud signed an agreement for the manufacture of his invention, the lawnmower. The first customer was Regents Park Zoo. See 27/4/1828.

18/12/1829, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Lamarck, French scientist, died aged 75. He believed that extra usage of  some feature of an animal strengthened it, and this enhancement could be passed down the generations.

29/5/1829. Sir Humphrey Davy, born 17/12/1778, inventor of the safety lamp (see 9/1/1816) died in Geneva.

26/6/1827, Samuel Crompton, inventor of the spinning mule in 1779, died in Bolton.

7/4/1827, Friction matches, the invention of Stockton on Tees chemist John Walker, went on sale. In 1826 Walker was mixing antimony and chlorate of potash with a stick; when he rubbed the stick to clean it, it caught fire. Such matchsticks would catch fire if rubbed on any rough surface, even each other, and in 1855 the first safety match was by the Swedish firm of Johan Edvard Lundstrom. In Britain, Bryant and May bought the rights to these matches where they went on sale in August 1855.

1826. First directly fixed image with a camera onto a pewter plate was produced – see the year 1813.

3/11/1825, The Hungarian Academy of Sciences was founded.

8/1/1825, Eli Whitney, American inventor of the cotton gin, which made separating of fibre and seed easier, died in New Haven, Connecticut.

1824, English physician Peter Mark Roger discovered that the human eye can retain an image for a fraction of a second after it has seen it. This became the basis for converting a rapid series of still images into an apparently animated film which the brain sees as continuous motion.

21/10/1824, Portland Cement was patented by Joseph Aspdin of Wakefield, Yorkshire.

26/6/1824, The physicist and mathematician Lord Kelvin was born in Belfast as William Thomson.

24/7/1824, The result of the first public opinion poll was published in the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian.  The poll was conducted at Wilmington to determine voters’ intentions in the 1824 Presidential election.

30/10/1823, Edmund Cartwright, inventor of the power loom in 1785, died at Hastings, Sussex, aged 80.

17/6/1823, Charles Macintosh patented a waterproof material for clothes.

22/7/1822, Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk and botanist who discovered the principles of modern genetics, was born at Heinzendorf near Odrau, in Austrian Silesia.

16/2/1822. Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, founder of a new science called eugenics, was born in Birmingham, England. Among his ideas was the systematic creation of a superior race of human beings, an idea later adopted by Hitler.

23/9/1819, Death of Armand Hippolyte, French physicist who was the first to measure the speed of light. Methods to find this speed include, 1) timing the eclipses of Jupiter’s satellites when at closest and furthest point from Earth, 2) Adjusting the speed of a rotating cog wheel so it turns just one tooth-breadth whilst light travels to a distant mirror and back, and 3) Send a light beam from a source to a rotating mirror and thence to a distant mirror and back, by which time the first mirror has rotated a little, and see how the beam direction has changed.

18/9/1819, Jean Foucault, French scientist, was born in Paris.

9/7/1819, Elias Howe, inventor of the first practical sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Massachusetts.

28/3/1819, The engineer Sir Joseph William Bazalgette was born.

14/2/1819. American inventor Christopher Latham Stokes, who invented an early typewriter, was born near Mooresburg, Pennsylvania.

24/12/1818, The physicist James Joule was born at Salford, Manchester.

12/9/1818, Richard Gatling, US inventor of the revolving battery gun, was born in Winton, North Carolina.

17/2/1818, Baron Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun patented the Draisine , forerunner of the bicycle.

9/1/1816. Sir Humphrey Davy’s safety lamp used in a coal mine for the first time.

31/10/1815, Sir Humphrey Davy patented the miner’s safety lamp.

5/3/1815, Friedrich Mesmer, Germen doctor who developed the theory of animal magnetism, or mesmerism, for curing diseases, died aged 80.

9/12/1814, Death of Joseph Bramah, English inventor of the beer pump.

25/8/1814, Benjamin Thompson, scientist who researched heat (born in North Woburn, Massachusetts, on 26/3/1753), died near Paris, France.

19/7/1814, Samuel Colt, the inventor of the Colt revolver (patented 1835), was born.

29/12/1813, Alexander Parkes, the chemist who invented celluloid, was born in Birmingham.

1/10/1813, Following the explosion at Brandling Main colliery (15/5/1812) the Sunderland Society was formed, to promote mine safety.

19/1/1813. Sir Henry Bessemer, inventor of the blast furnace for converting cast iron to steel, was born at Charlton, Hertfordshire.

4/1/1813, Isaac Pitman, who invented phonetic shorthand, was born in Trowbridge, Wiltshire.

1813 Lithography (early photography) became fashionable in France. J N Niepce (born 7/3/1765) conducted experiments to produce light-dependent images, which he called Heliography. In 1826 he produced the first directly fixed image with a camera onto a pewter plate.

15/5/1812, Mine explosion at Brandling Main (Felling) colliery, Sunderland. See 1/10/1813.

27/11/1811, Isaac Singer, US inventor and sewing machine manufacturer, was born in Pittsdown, New York State.

3/8/1811, Elisha Graves Otis, US inventor, was born in Halifax, Vermont.

31/3/1811, Robert Bunsen, German chemist, was born in Gottingen, Lower Saxony.

11/3/1811, The Luddite Riots began as textile workers protested against new technology replacing jobs.

24/2/1810, Henry Cavendish, English scientist who discovered the properties of hydrogen and other gases, died.

18/8/1809, Matthew Boulton, partner of James Watt, British engineer, died in Soho, London.

4/1/1809, Louis Braille, French benefactor of the blind, was born in Coupvray, near Paris.

19/8/1808, James Nasymth, Scottish engineer who invented the first steam hammer, was born in Edinburgh.

28/5/1807, Louis Agassiz, who developed the theory of Ice Ages, was born in Motier en |Vully, Switzerland. His father, a Christian minister, wanted his son to become a medical doctor, although as a boy he showed a strong interest in zoology. Later, during his travels through the Alps, in 1836, he developed the theory that much of the Earth had once been underneath great ice sheets. He died on 14/12/1873.

28/1/1807. London’s Pall Mall became the first street in the world to be lit by gaslight.

7/10/1806. Ralph Wedgewood of London patented carbon paper. In the 1820s Wedgwood had a successful business selling his invention at 4 Rathbone Place, near Oxford Street, London.

20/12/1805, Thomas Graham, chemist whose 1829 paper on gaseous diffusion introduced Graham’s Law, was born in Glasgow.

30/4/1804, The British used shrapnel in warfare for the first time, against the Dutch in Suriname.

6/2/1804, Joseph Priestley, English clergyman and chemist who discovered oxygen, died in Northumberland, Pennsylvania.

21/12/1803, Sir Joseph Whitworth, engineer, was born.

6/2/1802, Sir Charles Wheatstone, physicist and pioneer of telegraphy, was born in Gloucester.

1799, The Rosetta Stone wad discovered in Egypt.

4/12/1798. Luigi Galvani, Italian scientist who researched animal electricity, died.

3/12/1795. Sir Rowland Hill, who pioneered the postal service, was born in Kidderminster.

8/5/1794. The chemist Antoine Lavoisier, who discovered the composition of water, was executed in Paris.

20/7/1793, Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin, a machine for separating cotton fibre from seeds.

3/8/1792, Sir Richard Arkwright, English inventor who developed a mechanical cotton spinning process, died.

21/6/1791, The Ordnance Survey, Britain’s mapping service, was created. On this day a payment of £373, 14 shillings was made to Jesse Ramsden for the construction of a ‘great theodolite’, 3 feet in diameter and weighing 200 pounds (90 kilogrammes) for the purpose of making precise military maps of Britain. The need for this had been foreseen in 1763 by William Roy, amidst fears of invasion from France and a lack of reliable maps for the military. By 1784 UK-France relations had improved and cross-Channel efforts were being made to establish the longitude and latitude of Greenwich and Paris. In 1800 the first cartographical unit of the British Army, the Corps of Royal Military Draughtsmen, was formed, based at the Tower of London.

27/4/1791, Samuel Morse, inventor of the Morse Code, was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts.

2/3/1791. The worlds first optical telegraph, or semaphore machine, was unveiled in Paris.

17/7/1790, The sewing machine patented by Thomas Saint, cabinet maker of Greenhill Rents, St Sepulchre parish, London.

18/11/1789, Louis Daguerre, French artist and pioneer of photography, was born near Paris.

23/5/1785, Benjamin Franklin announced his invention of bifocals.

9/5/1785. Joseph Bramah patented the beer pump handle.

25/6/1783, Lavoisier announced that water was the combustion product of oxygen and hydrogen.

17/3/1782, The Swiss physicist Edward Bernoulli died.

9/10/1779. The first Luddite riots began in Manchester against the introduction of machinery for spinning cotton.

17/12/1778, Sir Humphrey Davy, inventor of the miner’s safety lamp, was born in Penzance (died 1829).  He was the son of a woodcarver. He also discovered the elements sodium, calcium, barium, magnesium, potassium and strontium by passing electricity through molten metal compounds.

6/12/1778, Joseph Gay-Lussac, French scientist, was born in St Leonard.

22/4/1778, James Hargreaves, inventor of the ‘spinning jenny’ in 1764, died in Nottingham.

10/1/1778, Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish botanist who devised the modern system of naming and classifying plants, died in Uppsala.

30/4/1777, Carl Friedrich Gauss, scientist, was born.  His father, Gerhard Gauss, was a labourer and bricklayer, and his mother, Dorothea Gauss, was a maid.

24/3/1776, John Harrison, watchmaker and inventor of the chronometer, died in London.

1/11/1772, The French chemist Lavoisier announced that sulphur and phosphorus, when biurned, gained weight because they had ‘absorbed air’; similarly metallic lead prepared from litharge lost weight because it had ‘lost air’. The nature of this ‘air’ was found to be oxygen in 1774 by Joseph Priestley.

30/4/1772, The first dial weighing machine was patented by John Clais in London.

17/8/1771. The Birmingham scientist Joseph Priestley discovered that oxygen is released from growing plants.

11/12/1769, In London, venetian blinds were patented by Edward Beran.

25/9/1769, The first recorded cremation in Britain. The body of Honoretta Pratt was burnt in her open grave at  St Georges Burial Ground, London.

14/9/1769, Birth of Baron von Humboldt, German scientist who explored Central and South America, and founded the science of ecology.

26/5/1769. John Kay, Sir Richard Arkwright’s assistant, patented the Flying Shuttle to operate on Arkwright’s spinning frame. Arkwright was born at Preston, Lancashire, on 23/12/1732, the youngest of 13 children to a poor family. He became a barber in Bolton in around 1750. In 1767 he gave up this business to build a spinning frame. This was an improvement on Hargreave’s Spinning Jenny since it could spin threads of any degree of hardness or fineness, unlike the spinning jenny which could not spin any but fine thread. Now 20 or 30 threads could be spun with no more labour than was previously required to spin one thread.

29/12/1766, Charles Macintosh, inventor of waterproof fabrics, was born in Glasgow.

6/9/1766, John Dalton, English chemist was born in Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth, Cumbria, the son of a Quaker weaver.

8/12/1765, Eli Whitney, American inventor of the cotton gin, which made cotton-growing much more profitable, was born in Westborough, Massachusetts.

15/5/1765, James Watt invented the condenser, effectively trebling the energy output of the existing Newcomen steam pumps. The earlier Newcomen engine pumped steam into a cylinder, forcing back a piston; the cylinder was then sprayed with cool water, condensing the steam and creating a vacuum that pulled the piston back. Alternately heating and cooling the cylinder was inefficient. Watt’s idea was to attach a separate chamber off the main cylinder into which the steam could be allowed to enter, and cooled there by water, again creating the vacuum that pulled the piston back again. The main cylinder could be kept hot, saving considerable energy. The energy content of Britain’s coal reserves was effectively trebled.

7/3/1765, Joseph Niepce, French doctor who produced the first photograph from nature using a camera obscura, pewter plates, and an 8 hour exposure, was born.

31/3/1763, Abraham Darby (Junior), ironmaster, died.

22/4/1760. The first pair of roller skates were seen.

14/9/1759, The earliest dated English board game, A Journey Through Europe, or The Play of Geography, invented by John Jeffries, was sold by him at his London home.

21/8/1754, William Murdock, inventor of coal-gas lighting in 1792, was born at Auchinlek, Ayrshire.

3/12/1753, Samuel Crompton, inventor of the Spinning Mule which revolutionised the textiles industry, was born at Firwood, near Bolton.  He was the son of a farmer.

3/9/1752. The date changed this day to 14/9/1752 with the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar. See 5/4/1753. See also 5/10/1582, start of Gregorian calendar. Crowds of people protested, believing their lives had been ‘shortened’ by 11 days (days 3-13 September 1752 inclusive did not exist).  The old calendar had a leap year every 4th year, and therefore was 365.25 days long.  However the calendar had now got out of step with the real year.  The new calendar omitted leap years every century, unless the year was divisible by 400.

31/7/1752. The oldest zoo in the world opened, in Vienna.

1/1/1752, Officially the first ‘new year’ to fall on 1st January; previously the new year had begun on 25th March.

13/4/1748, Joseph Bramah, inventor, was born.

1/8/1744, The Chevalier de Lamarck, naturalist, was born.

25/4/1744, Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer who devised the Centigrade temperature scale in 1742, died.

14/2/1744, Joseph Hadley, optician who invented the reflecting octant, ancestor of the sextant, died in East Barnet in Hertfordshire.

26/8/1743, Antoine Lavoisier, French founder of modern chemistry, was born in Paris.

24/4/1743. Edward Cartwright, inventor of the power loom in 1785, was born at Marnham, Nottinghamshire.

28/5/1742. The first indoor swimming pool in England opened in London. The entrance fee was one guinea.

28/5/1738, Dr Joseph Guillotin, inventor of the Guillotine, was born.

9/9/1737, Luigi Galvani, Italian scientist and anatomist, was born in Bologna.

16/9/1736, The German scientist Gabriel Fahrenheit, who devised a scale of temperature, died.

23/5/1734, Franz Anton Mesmer, Austrian doctor and founder of Mesmerism, was born near Constance. He was the son of a gamekeeper.

4/9/1733, The first lioness to be kept in Britain died of old age.

13/3/1733, Joseph Priestley, who discovered oxygen in 1774, was born in Leeds, the son of a cloth merchant.

23/12/1732. Sir Richard Arkwright, inventor of the spinning frame, was born at Preston, the last of 13 children.

10/10/1731, Henry Cavendish, who discovered hydrogen, was born in Nice, France.

20/6/1726, The first municipal fire brigade was established, at Beverley, Yorkshire.

15/5/1718, The machine gun was patented by a London lawyer, James Puckle.

20/3/1717, Abraham Derby (senior), first ironmaster to use coke to smelt iron, died at Worcester.

12/3/1711, Abraham Darby, iron worker, was born.

23/5/1707, Carl Linnaeus, Swedish botanist who established principles for classifying living organisms, was born as Carl Linne, the son of the parish clergyman of Rashult.

3/3/1703, The scientist Robert Hooke died.

27/11/1701, Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer who devised the Centigrade scale of temperature in 1742, was born in Uppsala.

2/7/1698, Thomas Savery patented an early steam engine. See also railways, 1699. This engine could be used to pump water out of mines, an increasing problem as miners went ever deeper.

8/6/1695, Christiaan Huygens, the Dutch scientist who invented the pendulum clock, died.

30/12/1691, Robert Boyle, scientist, died.  He formulated Boyle’s Laws on gases.

24/5/1686. Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, the German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer, was born in Danzig.

17/9/1683, The Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek wrote to the Royal Society to report his discovery of bacteria.

1682, Isaac Newton proposed the Law of Gravitation.

28/11/1660, The Royal Society was founded in England.

25/10/1647, Evangelista Torricelli, Italian mathematician and scientist who devised the barometer or ‘Torricellian Tube’, died in Florence.

18/7/1635, Robert Hooke, English scientist, was born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight.

25/1/1627, Robert Boyle, Irish chemist and physicist, was born at Lismore Castle, Munster, Eire.

19/6/1623. Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, was born in Clermont. He invented the first calculating machine; other research of his led to the invention of the syringe and the hydraulic press; and so to Pascal’s law of pressure.

1/1/1622, In the Gregorian Calendar, January 1 was declared the first day of the year, instead of March 25.

15/10/1608, Evangelista Torricelli, Italian mathematician and scientist who invented the barometer in 1643, was born in Faenza.

5/12/1594, Gerard Mercator, Flemish geographer and cartographer, died in Duisberg, aged 82. He projected the world map onto a flat surface using lines of longitude and latitude.

1581. An earthquake in the Italian town of Pisa set the great chandeliers in the church swinging. A 17 year old student called Galileo noticed that, timed by his own pulse, the time of each swing was constant regardless of the range of the swing.

24/2/1525. The Battle of Pavia. Pavia, held by the French, had been under siege by Spanish forces since October 1524. Italy itself was a territory being fought over by the rival powers of France, Germany, Turkey and Spain. The French under King Charles VIII defended Pavia with cavalry and cannon, but the Spanish had adopted the arquebus or hackenbushe, an early version of the handgun; this weapon replaced the Spanish crossbow. The arquebus meant an unskilled infantryman could kill a skilled knight and Pavia was the start of the dominance of the handgun as a military weapon. By the 1740s the Prussians had imporved their military technology to achieve a fire rate of 5 rounds per minute per soldier. The proportion of cavalry in European armies declined sharply, falling to one third in 1650, one quarter in 1750 and one sixth in 1810. However armies still needed large numbers of horses, to pull guns and supplies. These horses need large quantities of fodder; along with limited agricultural productivity this limited the capability of an army to fight and sustain itself in the field by requisitioning food. Campaigns and conquests could often only be undertaken from April until October, when grass grew; the winter break enabled defeated armies to regroup. This restriction on European invaders was especially acute in areas like Spain; in more fertile areas such as central Europe the fighting season was longer. An aggressor backed by naval power could also be resupplied by ship, if the battlefields were near the sea or large rivers.

24/5/1519. Leonardo Da Vinci died, at the Chateaux Cloux near Amboise, aged 67.

5/3/1512, Gerardus Mercator, Flemish cartographer, was born in Flanders, as Gerhard Kremer.

24/12/1508, London houses received piped water for the first time.

1/7/1507, The earliest records of coal-mining at Nailsea, near Bristol. Coal was being transported to Yatton for household fireplaces. By the late 19th century coal mining had died out south of Bristol as the industry migrated to the richer seams of south Wales.

21/4/1503, The Battle of Cerignola.  The Spanish under Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated the French under the Duc de Nemoura, who was killed.  This was the first battle considered to have been won by gunpowder and small arms.

1495, John Tate set up England’s first paper mill, at Hertford. Spain and Italy had such mills from the 13th century.

17/12/1493, Paracelsus was born.

3/2/1468, Johann Gutenberg (born ca. 1395), German inventor of printing from moveable type, died.

30/9/1442, Johannes Gutenberg’s Bible became the first book to be printed using moveable metal type.

1337, William Merlee of Oxford attemoted the first scientifically-based weather foreasts.

1303, Spectacles invented.

851, Crossbows began to be used in France.

462, Birth of Aryabhata, Indian mathematician who wrote on the powers and roots of numbers.

360, Scrolls began to be replaced by books.

285, Pappus of Alexandria described ‘five machines’ in use.These were the cogwheel, lever, pulley, screw and wedge.

271, The compass began to be used in China.

250, Diophantes of Alexandria wrote the first known book on algebra.

50 AD, Romans learnt the use of soap, from the Gauls.

159 BCE, The first water clock (clepsydra), in Rome.

230 BCE, Oil lamps introduced in Greece.

250 BCE, Parchment was produced, at Pergamum.

323 BCE, Euclid published his work ‘Elements’, the standard text on geometry.

545 BCE, Death of Thales of Miletus. He derived the ‘Thales Proposition’; that traingles over the diameter of a circle are always right-angled.

876 BCE, First known use of a symbol for zero, in India.


Appendix 1 – The atom and atomic power

9/9/2003. Edward Teller, the scientist known as the father of the H-bomb, died aged 95. Teller was born in Hungary and fled Hitler’s rule to work on the Manhattan Project in the USA to develop atomic weapons. He produced the bombs used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which brought about Japan’s surrender and the end of World War Two. However Teller had argued for exploding this atomic bomb high in the skies above Tokyo, where it would do no damage but ‘shock and awe’ the population into surrender. Robert Oppenhiemer, the scientist in charge of building the Japanese A-bombs, disagreed with Teller.

Later, Teller persuaded President Harry Truman of the need to develop a more powerful H-bomb. This was tested at 7am on 31/10/1952. The fireball was larger than expected, frightening observers; the entire island of Elugelab, a mile across, vanished. The blast was 500 times more powerful than the Hiroshima blast of 1945. Two years later an even bigger bomb was exploded at Bikini Atoll, making it as sparse as the garment it gave its name to. Soon, however, the Russians had their own H-bomb. Oppenheimer, having seen the damage at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, disagreed with building the H-bomb, saying the A-bomb was powerful enough for America’s purposes. This led the USA to suspect Oppenheimer of disloyalty and Communist sympathies at the time of the McCarthy witch hunts. Oppenheimer died in 1967, aged 62.

Teller was admired by President Ronald Reagan, whose election Teller described as ‘a miracle for Western civilisation’. The ‘Star Wars’ defensive shield for the USA was Teller’s idea, enthusiastically adopted by Reagan. This was a set-back to the USSR, already suffering financially from its efforts to keep up militarily with the USA, and Star Wars may have even hastened the break-up of the Soviet Union. Teller saw his native Hungary suffer first Fascist, then Communist, tyranny; he saw the USA as a bastion of freedom, and the H-bomb as its ‘trusty sword’. At the time of his death, Teller, father of two, was a senior research fellow at the Hoover Institute in Stanford, USA. Although Mr Teller lived modestly, liking playing the piano and tennis, he persuaded the USA to spend billions on nuclear weapons, on Star wars, and on nuclear shelters in case of nuclear war. Most of this is now scrap, but the dividend for the USA was the collapse of Soviet Communism.

30/4/1986, After unusually high radiation levels were detected in Scandinavia, the USSR acknowledged that an accident had taken place at Chernobyl.

26/4/1986. The nuclear power station at Chernobyl, near Kiev, suffered a major fire, explosion, and radiation leak. 31 were killed directly, but many thousands more were exposed to radiation. Unseasonably warm weather on 25/4/1986 led to number 4 reactor being shut down; with coolant systems down, an engineer ordered more power to test a turbine; this caused the no.4 reactor to explode.

23/3/1980. In a referendum, Sweden approved the use of nuclear power.

9/4/1979, Officials declared Three Mile Island nuclear power station to be safe, see 29/3/1979.

29/3/1979, Valves in the cooling system at Three Mile Island nuclear reactor malfunctioned, and due to staff error part of the reactor was left without coolant and melted. Radioactive steam escaped outside. A meltdown was averted. This pushed public opinion in the USA and Europe strongly against nuclear power. See 9/4/1979.

24/7/1974, Sir James Chadwick, physicist and discoverer of the neutron, Nobel Prize winner, died aged 82.

18/5/1974. India exploded its first nuclear bomb. Pakistan, which lost its third war with India in 1970, was nervous.

24/8/1970. Radioactive leak at Windscale, Cumbria.

19/1/1970. India’s first nuclear power station opened.

25/8/1968, The French exploded their first Hydrogen Bomb.

18/9/1967, Sir John Cockroft, British scientist who along with Ernest Walton split the atom, died.

1964, China exploded its first nuclear bomb, near Lop Nor, Sinkiang.

5/4/1963, Bradwell nuclear power station opened in the UK.

5/12/1962, Britain exploded a thermonuclear device underground in Nevada.

15/6/1962, Berkeley nuclear power station in Gloucestershire began operating.

21/1/1962 . It was announced that, 20 years after the birth of the atomic Age, the world now possessed 280 atomic bombs, 40 of them in Britain

10/1961, The USSR set off the most powerful anuclear explosion ever. The ‘Tsar Bomba’ (King Bomb) was detomated in the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya. It yielded the equivalent of 59 million tonnes of TNT, some 3,000 times as powerful as the Hiroshima bomb. There was nothing to be gained from more powerful nuclear bombs as they would simply punch up through the Earth’s atmosphere and most pf the yield would be lost to space.

1960, Radiocarbon dating was discovered by Willard Libby.

13/2/1960. France exploded its first atom bomb, in the Sahara.

14/11/1959, The Dounreay fast breeder reactor in Scotland began operating.

2/5/1959, The first nuclear power station in Scotland, at Chapelcross, began operations.

8/12/1958, The last of the four nuclear reactors at Calder Hall began operating.

17/8/1958, Britain announced plans to resume Atom Bomb testing on Christmas Island.

17/10/1957. A fire at Windscale (now Sellafield) nuclear plant shut down one of the piles producing Plutonium and released radioactivity into the air. Thousands of gallons of milk from some Cumbrian cows had to be dumped, due to radio-iodine contamination, despite government assurances that the radiation had been carried out to sea.

10/10/1957. A major radiation leak was detected at Windscale after an accident three days earlier.

29/7/1957. International Atomic Energy Agency established.

15/5/1957. Britain’s first H – Bomb was exploded on Christmas Island in the southern Pacific Ocean.

17/10/1956. Calder Hall, Britain’s first nuclear power station, in Cumbria, was opened by Queen Elizabeth II.  Generation of power had begun on 20/8/1956.

20/8/1956. Calder Hall, the world’s first large-scale nuclear power station, began operating.

18/4/1955. Albert Einstein, born 14/3/1879, died in Princeton, New Jersey, of a stroke. He became an American citizen in 1940 after having signed a famous letter to President F D Roosevelt warning that Germany might try and build an atomic bomb.

17/2/1955, The UK Government announced it would proceed with the manufacture of H-Bombs.

15/2/1955, The UK Government announced it would build 12 nuclear power stations in the next 10 years. Nuclear power was expected to be much cheaper than that from coal fired power stations; the costs of safety and the disposal of nuclear waste had been overlooked.

28/11/1954, Enrico Fermi, atomic physicist, died in Chicago, USA..

1/8/1954, The UK Atomic Energy Authority was founded.

27/6/1954. The first Soviet nuclear power station was opened, at Obninsk, 55 miles from Moscow.

1/3/1954, (1) The UK Parliament approved of establishing an Atomic Energy Authority.

(2) A US test of a 12 megaton hydrogen bomb exposed 23 Japanese fishermen, 70 to 90 miles away, to such severe radiation that one subsequently died. The bomb, weighing ten tons, named Bravo, was expected to deliver just 5 megatons and so the 10,000 observers were relatively near and the Marshall Islands, 100 miles away, were not evacuated. Some Marshall islanders also suffered radiation sickness. In the event the bomb delivered 15 megatons, the fireball was 4 miles across, and the heat could easily be felt 30 miles away. America now realised that just one Hydrogen Bomb could obliterate a major city such as New York.

21/1/1954. The world’s first nuclear submarine, USS Nautilus, was launched from Groton in Connecticut.

1953, CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, was set up near Geneva.

12/8/1953. The USSR tested its first hydrogen bomb, in the Pacific.  Moscow announced the test explosion on 20/8/1953.  Both superpowers now had them.

22/7/1953, Construction of Calder Hall nuclear power station began.

3/10/1952. The first British Atomic Bomb exploded, aboard a ship in the Monte Bello Islands, in the Pacific off north west Australia. The ship was almost totally vaporised, apart from a few hot fragments which fell on neighbouring islands, starting fires. Watching news reporters felt the blast 4 minutes 15 seconds after the flash, from a distance of 65 miles.

14/6/1952, Construction began on the world’s first nuclear submarine.

25/2/1952, The Plutonium plant at Windscale began operations.

19/11/1951, The world’s first atomic central heating plant began operating, in Harwell.

1949, The USSR conducted its first atom bomb test.

15/12/1948. France’s first nuclear reactor began operating.

15/8/1947. The UK’s first atomic reactor, at Harwell, began operating.

1946, The isotope Carbon-13 was discovered.

1/7/1946. The first US atom bomb test at Eniwetok atoll. A second test with an underwater bomb was on 25/7/1946.

1945, The first atom bomb explosion was achieved, at Alamogordo, USA.

6/11/1945. The USSR said it would build its own atom bomb.

29/10/1945. The Harwell Atomic Energy Research Establishment was set up.

20/12/1942. The US began to produce electricity from nuclear fission.

2/12/1942. Controlled release of energy by nuclear fission was first achieved. The first atomic pile began operating in Chicago.  It was at Stagg Field, University of Chicago, under physicists Enrico Fermi and Arthur Compton.

1941, US chemist Glenn Seaborg isolated Plutonium, a key element in a nuclear bomb.

1940, The critical mass of Uranium-235 was forst calculated. The possibility of a ‘superbomb’ (atom bomb) was now a reality.

30/8/1940, Sir Joseph John Thomson, British scientist who discovered the electron in 1897, died in Cambridge.  He was buried near Isaac Newton in the nave of Westminster Abbey.

1938, Nuclear fission first achieved.

19/10/1937. The New Zealand born physicist Lord Rutherford died in Cambridge, England.. He is regarded as the founder of atomic energy.  He won the Nobel Prize in 1908.

1932, English physicist Sir James Chadwick (1891-1974) discovered the neutron.

1932, US physicist Carl Anderson (1905-1991) discovered the positron, an electron with a positive charge.

1932, Sir James Cockcroft and Ernest Walton split a lithium nucleus into two alpha particles using a particle accelerator.

29/12/1931, US chemist Harold C Urey of Columbia University announced the discovery of heavy water.

1928, The Gieger-Muller Counter was invented by H Geiger and W Muller. It was the first practical version of the Geiger Counter, first developed by Hans Geiger (1882-1945) in 1908. The counter contains a gas, e.g. argon, that is ionised by an incoming radioactive particle. The gas container has two wires connected to a loudspeaker and amplifier. When the gas is ionised a current flows between the wires and an electric pulse produces a click.

1927, German physicist Werner Karl Heisenberg formulated his famous Uncertainty Principle – the more one knows about the position of a subatomic particle, the less one knows about its motion, and vice versa.

3/1/1919, Rutherford split the atom. He bombarded nitrogen nuclei with alpha particles.

1913, Danish scientist Neils Bohr (1881-1962) described the structure of the atom.

1911, New Zealand physicist Ernest Lord Rutherford (1871-1937) discovered the atomic nucleus.

16/2/1910. Madame Curie succeeded in isolating one tenth of a milligram of Polonium, which was more radioactive than Radium. She named the element after her native Poland.

17/12/1908, Birth of US chemist Willard Frank Libby, who developed radio-carbon dating.

10/12/1908. Ernest Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on radioactivity and the atom.

25/8/1908, Henri Becquerel, French scientist who studied radioactivity, died (born 1852).

19/4/1906, Pierre Curie, French scientist who discovered Radium, was run over and killed in Paris.

15/1/1905, Edward Teller, who developed the Hydrogen Bomb in 1952, was born to Jewish parents in Budapest.

10/12/1903. Marie Curie, aged 33, won the Nobel Prize jointly with her husband for the discovery of radioactivity.

29/9/1901, Enrico Fermi, atomic physicist, was born in Rome, Italy.

26/12/1898,  Radium was discovered and isolated by Pierre and Marie Curie and G Bemont.

1897, British physicist Sir Joseph Thomson (1856-1940) discovered the electron.

27/5/1897, John Cockroft, nuclear physicist, was born in Yorkshire.

1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity.

20/10/1891, Sir James Chadwick, who discovered the neutron in 1932, was born in Manchester.

8/3/1879, Birth of Otto Hahn, discoverer of nuclear fission, who received the Nobel prize for Chemistry in 1944.

30/8/1871, Lord Rutherford, British scientist noted in the field of atomic research, was born in Spring Grove, near Nelson, South Island, New Zealand.

18/12/1856, Sir Joseph John Thomson, discoverer of the electron, was born in Cheetham Hill near Manchester.  He was the son of a bookseller.


Appendix 2  – Computing

14/2/2005, The video sharing website YouTube was started by three workers at PayPal.

4/2/2004, Mark Zuckerberg and some Harvard roommates launched a social networking site called Facebook.

31/12/2001, Microsoft ended support for Windows 1.0, Windows 2x, Windows 3x, and Windows 95.

25/10/2001, Microsoft released Windows XP.

23/10/2001, Apple Computers released the iPod.

15/1/2001, Wikipedia, a free online encyclopedia, was launched.

14/8/2000, Microsoft released Windows ME (Millennium Edition).

3/4/2000, Microsoft was found guilty by a US court of breaking US anti-trust laws by attempting to monopolise the Internet browser market.

14/1/2000, The height of the Dot-Com bubble; the Dow Jones Index reached an all-time high of 11,792.98.

1/6/1999, Napster was released, enabling users to share music files and changing forever the music industry.

5/5/1999, Microsoft released Windows 98 Second edition.

26/3/1999, The Melissa worm attacked the Internet.

18/9/1998, ICANN, the Internet naming company, was formed.

7/9/1998, Google was founded.

25/6/1998, Microsoft released Windows 98 (first edition).

8/5/1998, The US Department of Justice filed a lawsuit against the Microsoft Corporation, claiming it had abused its monopoly power by tying its Web browser, Internet Explorer, to its operating system, Windows.

10/2/1996, The computer programme Deep Blue beat Gary Kasparov at chess, the first victory by a computer over a human.

24/8/1995, Microsoft launched Windows 5.

15/12/1994, The Web browser Netscape 1.0 was launched.

25/8/1991, Linus Torvalds introduced the first version of the Linux operating system.

19/1/1986, The first computer virus, called Brain, began to spread.

20/11/1985, Microsoft released its first version of Windows, Windows 1.0.

24/1/1984, The first Apple Macintosh computer went on sale.

30/11/1983, Microsoft Word was first released.

29/3/1983. The first laptop computer went on sale, in the USA.

5/3/1981, Clive Sinclair launched the XZX81 computer in the UK, at a price of £69.95 fully assembled.

1979, Bubble memory was invented. Using tiny magnetised areas, it could store the equivalent of a 40-page book on 215 square millimetres.

5/6/1977, Apple 2 computers first went on sale.

26/11/1976, An obscure company called Microsoft was officially registered in the US State of New Mexico.

1/4/1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak founded the Apple computer company. It sold its first Apple-1 computer in July 1976 for US$666.66, with 8 kB RAM.

23/9/1974. The world’s first Ceefax service began, operated by the BBC.

1971, A small company called Intel released a microprocessor called the 4004. At 12 square millimetres it contained 2,300 transistors, with the gap between them measuring about 10,000 nanometres (billionths of a metre), the size of a red blood cell. In 2015 Intel was producing the Skylake chip, with the transistors just 14 nonometres apart, some 100 atoms across, smaller than the wavelength of visible light. However the continuous improvement in chip processing performance, known as Moore’s Law, may now (2016) be coming to an end as problems of heat and of electronic cross-talk between the closely packed tiny transistors rises.

1971, The first pocked calculators came on sale.

17/11/1970. A US patent was granted to Doug Engelbart for his invention of the computer mouse – so called because of its long cable tail.

15/10/1967. The Guardian offered its readers ‘the first binary computer kit’ called Digi-Comp 1, for £3 10 shillings.

14/6/1967. At a telecommunications conference in London, the Postmaster General predicted shopping by picture television and news reports by computer before the end of the century.

1965, The silicon chip was introduced, in the USA.

1960, Transistors replaced valves in computers.

4/8/1959. Barclays Bank became the first to use computers for its branch accounts.

28/10/1955, Bill Gates was born. He founded Microsoft in 1975 and was the world’s richest man, 1995-2007.

24/2/1955, Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple, was born.

7/6/1954, Alan Turing, mathematician who broke the Nazi codes during World War Two, died.

24/5/1954. IBM announced the development of an ‘electronic brain’ and planned to rent the 30 models out to offices for US$ 25,000 a month. The computer used valves.

1950, The first mass-produced computer, Univac-1 (Universal Automatic Computer) was manufactured by the Eckert & Mauchly Computer Company in Philadelphia, USA.

1948, The first computer using stored programmes was built at Manchester University, UK

1946, John van Neumann, Institute of Advanced Studies, Princeton, USA, constructed the first binary computer.

1945, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) was built at the University of Pennsylvania; the first completely electronic computer.

12/1943, The first electronic computer was built secretly at Bletchley Park; it began operations in December 1943 to crack the German Enigma codes. It worked with punched tape and could scan and analyse 5,000 characters a second. In 1946 the US military developed the first all-purpose, i.e. programmable, electronic computer. Called ENIAC, it weighed 30 tons and contained some 18,000 vacuum tubes. It was used for calculating trajectories of artillery shells, accounting for variables like wind velocity, air temperature, and type of shell.

1942, The first electronic digital calculator was built, by Professor John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University

23/6/1912, Alan Mathison Turing, British mathematician who invented the Turing Machine, was born. He was the son of Julius and Sara Turing.

8/1/1889. The first electric computer for data processing was patented by Dr Herman Hollerith in New York. The company Dr Hollerith formed to market his invention became the giant IBM. Charles Babbage had designed and partially built a mechanical ‘Analytical Engine’ between 1821 and 1871. The 1889 computer was designed to compute the results of the 1890 census, using punched cards. The inspiration for this machine came from a scheme on the US railways to enter the physical details of every passenger on their ticket by means of a punched hole card system – so that train robbers could be identified when they posed as ordinary travellers. The railway sceheme did not win wide acceptance.

1834, Charles Babbage, English mathematician, invented a programmable mechanical  computer. However the technologiy for manufacturing the components to the required precision did not yet exist (see 1801).

1801, The Flemish weaver  Joseph Jacquard developed a hole-punched card system for manufacturing elaborate patterns on fabrics. The holes allowed needles to pass through, or not, lifting corresponding threads of the warp. This systek inspired Charles Babbage (1834)

1642, Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, invented the first adding machine.

1622, English mathematician William Oughtred invented the slide rule.


Appendix 3  – Electricity

15/10/1985, Sir Clive Sinclair, maker of the C5 electric tricycle, called in the receivers.

10/1/1985, Clive Sinclair launched the C5, a battery-powered tricycle. Priced at £399, the C5 could be driven by 14 year olds without a licence, insurance or helmet, and was not subject to road tax. A factory that could produce 200,000 C5s a year was to open at Merthyr Tydfil in June 1985.

26/11/1966. Charles De Gaulle in Brittany opened the world’s first tidal power station.  It was in the Rance Estuary, in the Golfe de St Malo. The station, first planned in 1955, cost French Francs 420 million (UK£ 42 million) to build.

7/1/1943. Nikola Tesla, the Croatian-American scientist who developed alternating current, died.

29/10/1937, The first truly national electricity grid was created in Britain. Before 1926 private generating companies supplied power, all at different standards and voltages. A standard national system would have been better, but the Conservative Government pf the time was against ‘socialist’ nationalisation, so a compromise was reached. A ‘National Gridiron’ of power lines was to be created, connecting up the most reliable power companies; in fact several regional ‘grids’ were established, with emergency connections if needed. This ‘gridiron’ was set up under the Electricity Supply Act of 1926, and the regional Grids were completed by September 1933. On this day in October 1937 electricity engineers, without authorisation, connected up all the Grids to make one national grid. Everything worked fine, and the Grid has remained National ever since.

9/5/1932. Piccadilly Circus first lit by electricity.

18/10/1931. The prolific inventor, Thomas Alva Edison, died in the USA, aged 84. He was most famous for inventing the light bulb, but he also invented  the phonograph, the ticker tape machine, much of the technology of moving pictures, and some 1,300 other items. Born in 1847 in Ohio, Edison was bottom of the class in school and left to be a newsboy at 12. He moved to Boston in 1866 and became very interested in electricity. He set up a laboratory in new jersey and worked on improving telegraphy. In 1878 he worked on electric light and produced a commercially viable bulb in 1879. By 1900 he was also researching in chemistry.

17/7/1883, A boat powered by stored electricity ran from the Temple Pier, London, to Greenwich in 37 minutes.

30/9/1882, Water power was used to produce electricity for the first time, at a plant on the Fox River near Appleton, Wisconsin, USA.

4/9/1882, The Edison Electric Illuminating Company began producing electricity at Pearl Street, New York, USA. It had a total of 85 customers.

6/7/1882, The first electric iron was patented, by Henry Seeley of New York.

20/1/1882, A drapers shop in Newcastle on Tyne, England, became the first shop to be lit by electric light.

12/1/1882. The Edison Electric Light Company at 57 Holborn Viaduct established London’s first electric power station. It supplied the area between Holborn Circus and the Old Bailey with street lighting from 12/1 and with domestic current from 12/4/1882.

1/10/1881. The world’s first electric power station was built at Godalming, Surrey, and began operating this day. It supplied Godalming town council and a leather mill on the River Wey.

1/10/1880, The Edison Lamp Works began operations in New Jersey to manufacture the first electric light bulbs.

4/9/1881. The Edison electric lighting system went into action in New York as a generator serving 85 paying customers was switched on.

20/12/1880, Charles F Brush demonstrated his arc lamps along Broadway, preceding Edison’s lamp in commercial use.

27/1/1880. Edison patented the electric filament light (the electric light bulb).

20/12/1879, Thomas Edison privately demonstrated his ‘incandescent light’ at Menlo Park, New Jersey.

21/10/1879. Thomas Edison successfully demonstrated the first durable light bulb.

25/8/1867. Michael Faraday, scientist and inventor, pioneer in electromagnetism, died at Hampton Court.

21/2/1858. The first electric burglar alarm was installed by Edwin T Holmes of Boston Massachusetts.

7/7/1854, George Ohm, German scientist who pioneered work on electricity, died in Munich.

29/3/1853, Elihu Thomson, English inventor who co-founded the General Electric Company with Thomas Edison, was born.

4/12/1850, William Sturgeon, who devised the first electro-magnet, died at Prestwich, near Manchester.

11/2/1847. Thomas Alva Edison, American inventor, was born.

25/2/1837. The first practical electric motor was patented, by Thomas Davenport of Rutland, Vermont. However in 1850 it was pointed out that power from these motors was about 25 times more expensive than steam power.

10/6/1836, Andre Ampere, French scientist noted for his work on electro-magnetics, died.

25/7/1835. The first practical electric light was displayed at the Watt Institution in Dundee.

27/10/1831, Physicist and chemist Michael Faraday, 40, invented a device to convert mechanical energy into electrical current, by spinning a copper disc between the poles of a magnet.

17/10/1831, The physicist Michael Faraday proved that a magnet inserted into a coil of wire and moved would cause a current to flow in the wire.

29/8/1831, Michael Faraday demonstrated the first electrical transformer

31/10/1828, Sir Joseph Swan, inventor of the electric light bulb independently of Edison, was born in Sunderland.

5/3/1827. Death of Count Alessandro Volta, aged 82, at Como, Italy.  He was born on 18/2/1745.  An Italian, he made the first battery, and gave his name (Volt) to the unit of electrical power.

22/9/1791, The chemist and physicist Michael Faraday was born at Newington Butts, London.  He was the son of a blacksmith.

16/3/1787, Georg Simon Ohm, German scientist, was born in Bavaria. In 1827 he discovered the laws of electric current.

22/5/1783, William Sturgeon, English scientist who made the first practical electromagnet, was born in Whittington, Lancashire.

22/1/1775, Andre Ampere French mathematician and scientist, and founder of the science of electromagnetics, was born in Lyons, son of a wealthy merchant.

15/6/1752, Benjamin Franklin demonstrated electricity, by flying  a kite in a thunderstorm.

18/2/1745, Alessandro Volta, Italian scientist, was born in Como.


Appendix 4 – Elements (Discovery of)

Noble Gases

Halogens, Other Non-metals, Metalloids

Alkali metals, Alkali Earth metals

As of 2016, no element beyond number.118 has been synthesised.

12/2015, The synthesis of element 115, Ununpentium, was recognised as having been accomplished by the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The element has not yet been officially named.

2010, The synthesis of element 117, Ununseptium, was recognised as having been accomplished by the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The element has not yet been officially named.

2004, The officially-recognised synthesis of element 113, Nihonium, at RIKEN, Japan.

2002, The The officially-recognised synthesis of element 118, Oganesson, at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR.

19/7/2000, The The officially-recognised synthesis of element 116, Livermorium, at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR.

12/1998, The The officially-recognised synthesis of element 114, Flerovium, at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR.

1996, The officially-recognised synthesis of element 112, Copernicium, at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany.

1994, The officially-recognised synthesis of element 111, Roentgenium, at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany.

1994, The officially-recognised synthesis of element 110, Darmstadtium, at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany.

1984, The officially-recognised synthesis of element 108, Hassium at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany.

1982, The officially-recognised synthesis of element 109, Meitnerium at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany.

1981, The officially-recognised synthesis of element 107, Bohrium, at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany.

6/1974, Element 106, now known as Seaborgium, was synthesised at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR.

105th 1969, The synthesis of Rutherfordium was confirmed at the University of Berkeley California.

1968, Dubnium was synthesised at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR.

1966, After several false starts, Nobelium was synthesised at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR.

14/2/1961, The synthesis of element Lawrencium was confirmed at University of Berkeley California.

1955, Mendelevium was synthesised at the University of Berkeley California.

100th 12/1952, Einstinium was first identified by Albert Ghiorso and others at the University of Berkeley California.

1/11/1952, The new element Fermium was first discovered in the fall-out from a nuclear test of a Hydrogen Bomb..

17/3/1950, Californium was announced to have been made at the University of Berkeley California

12/1949, Berkellium was first synthesised at the University of Berkeley California by Glenn Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso, and Stanley Thompson.

1945, Promethium was first synthesised at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US, by Jacob Marinsky, Lawrence Geldenin and Charles Corvell, from the fission by-products of uuranium.

95th 1944, Americium and curium were first identified at the University of Berkeley California by Glenn Seaborg, Leon Morgan, Ralph James and Albert Ghiorso.

1940, The first confirmed discovery of the element Astatine.

14/12/1940, Plutonium was first produced by Dr Glenn Seaborg, Joseph Kennedy, Edwin McMillan and Arthur Wall at the University of California, Berkeley.

1939, Neptunium was produced as a fission product by Edwin McMillan at the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, California.

90th 1939, Francium was discovered by Marguerite Peary at the Curie Institute, Paris.

12/1936,Technetium was confirmed as a new lement at the University of Palermo by Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segre.

1925, Rhenium was discovered by Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke and Otto Berg in Germany.

1923, Hafnium was dscovered by Dirk Coster and Georg von Hevesy in Copenhagen, Denmark.

1923, Lanthanum was first isolated in pure form.

85th 1907, Lutetium was discovered independently by the French chemist Georges Urbain, the US chemist Charles James and the Asutrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach.

1905, Tantalum was first isolated in pure form by Werner von Bolton. In 1902 an impure sample had been prepared by Moissan.

1900, Protactinium was isolated by William Crookes.

1900, Radon was discovered by Freidrich Ernst Dom.

1899, Actinium was discovered by the French chemist Andre-Louis Debierne.

80th 1898, Polonium was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898, after samples of radium proved more radioactive than expected. They named the metal after their native Poland to highlight the lack of independence of that nation.

1898,The new element radium was first identified, as radium chloride, by Marie and Pierre Curie. Pure radium was first prepared by Marie Curie and Andre Louis Debierne in 1911.

1898, Xenon was discovered by William Ramsay and Morris Travers. They also discovered Neon and Krypton the same year.

75th 1895, Helium was discovered by two Swedish chemists, Per Teodor Cleve and Nils Abraham Langlet.

1890, Europium was discovered by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbradan.

1894, Argon was first discovered by British chemists Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsey. It was the first Noble Gas found.

1886, Germanium was discovered by Dr Winkler.

1886, Elemental fluorine was first isolated by Henri Moissan.

70th 1886, French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbradan isolated the new elements dysprosium and  gadolinium.

1885, Praseodymium and Neodymium were isolated by the Austrian chemist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach.

1882, Elemental caesium metal was isolated by German chemist Carl Setterberg.

65th 1879, Samarium was discovered by the French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbradan.

1879, Scandium was discovered.

1879, Thulium was discovered by the Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve.

1878. Holmuim was discovered by Marc Delafontaine and Jacques Louis Soret.

1878, Ytterbium was discovered by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac.

60th 1875, Gallium was discovered, by Mr Lecoq de Boisbaudran.

1867, Vanadium was first isolated by Roscoe.

1864, Indium was first isolated in pure form by the German chemist Hieronymous Theodor Richter.

1864, Niobium was first isolated by De Marignac.

1861, Thallium was discovered by Mr Crookes.

55th 1861, Rubidium was discovered by German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff.

1844, Ruthenium was officially discovered by Karl Ernst Klaus, at Kazan University.

1843, Swedish chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander discovered erbium and  terbium in 1843.

1841, Uranium was first isolated in pure form by Frenchy chemist Professsor Eugene Melchior Peligot.

50th 1829, Thorium was discovered by Berzelius.

1828, Yttrium was first isolated by Friedrich Wohler.

1828, Beryllium was isolated independently by Freidrich Wohler and by Antoine Bussy.

1827, Aluminium was first isolated by Friedrich Wohler.

1825, Bromine was discovered by Carl Jacob Lowig in 1825.

45th 1824, Zirconium was first isolated by Berzelius.

1817, Silicon was first formally identified as a new element by the Scottish chemist Thomas Thomson. In 1811 some impure silicon was first isolated by Gay-Lussac and Thenard, but not actually identified as such.

1817, Lithium was recognised as a new element by Johan August Arfwedson.

1817, Cadmium, as an element, was discovered in Germany simultaneously by Freidrich Stromeyer and by Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann.

1817, Selenium was discovered by Swedish chemists Jons Jakob Berzelius and Johan Gottlieb Gahn.

40th 1811, Iodine was discovered by French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811.

1808, Calcium was first isolated in pure form by Sir Humphrey Davy.            

1808, Boron was first isolated and recognised as an element by Sir Humphrey Davy.

1808, Barium was first isolated as a new elememnt by Sir Humphrey Davy.

1808, Strontium was isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy

35th 1808, Magnesium metal was first isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy.

1807, Elemental sodium metal was first isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy.

6/10/1807, Sir Humphrey Davy discovered a new metal which he called potassium.

1803, Cerium was discovered independently by both Martin Heinrich Klaproth of Germany and by Wilhelm Hisinger and Jins Jakob Berzelius of Sweden.

1803, Rhodium ws discovered by William Hyde Wollaston.

30th 1803, Osmium and iridium were discovered by Smithson Tennant and William Hyde Wollaston, in London, UK.

1802, Palladium was discovered by William Hyde Wollaston.

1798, Chromium metal was isolated by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin.

1791, Titanium was discovered in Cornwall by the clergyman and amateur geologist William Gregor.

25th 1789, Antoine Lavoisier listed carbon as an element in his 1789 textbook. Carbon in the form of diamond was known in China as early as 2,500 BC. Carbon as soot or charcoal has been known to mankind since prehistoric times.

1789, Tellurium was isolated by a Hungarian scientist, Pal Kitaibel. However he gave the credit to Franz Joseph Muller von Reichtenstein, Austrian Inspector of Mines, who had worked for several years on some anomalous ore before determining the densityand other properties of the new element in 1785.

1783, Tungsten was first islotaed in oure form by the brothers Jose and Fausto Elhuyar.

1781, Molybednum was first isolated by Peter Jacob Hjelm.

1777, Antoine Lavoisier found that sulphur is an element. Sulphur has been known since prehistoric times, being easily available as surface deposits in volcanic areas.

20th 1774,Manganese was first isolated by Johan Gottleib Gahn.

1774, Chlorine was first recognised as an element by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm. In 1630 cholrine had been studied by the Flemish chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont but he did not recognise it as a new element.

1/8/1774, British chemist Sir Joseph Priestly announced he had discovered oxygen.

1772, The Scottish physicist Daniel Rutherford is credited with the discovery of nitrogen in 1772; he called it ‘noxious air’, although he did not at the time recognise ut as a separate element.

1766, Henry Cavendish first recognised hydrogen as a separate substance, calling it ‘inflammable air’. He went on to discover that the ‘inflammable air’ produced water when burnt. Hydrogen was goven its name by Antoine Lavoisier, meaning ‘producer of water’, when he replicated Cavendish’s experiment og producing water by burning hydrogen.

15th 1748, Platinum was recognised as an element by Charles Wood if the UK and Antonio de Ulloa of Spain. Hiowever for several centuries before that platinum had been recognised as a sometimes unwelcome adulterant of gold.

1735, Cobalt, whose compounds have been used to colour glass blue for over 4,000 years (and feared by miners because it was always associated with arsenic, whose oxide was poisonous), was proved to be a separate element by Swedish chemist Georg Brandt.

1669, Phosphorus (the 13th element to be recognised as such) was discovered by the German alchemist Hennig Brand.

1546, Bismuth was mentioned by Agricola in De Natura Fossilium; however the metl has been knwn since well nbefore 0 AD, albeit sometimes confused with tin and lead.

1540, A procedure for isolating antimony was written down in the book De la Pirotechnica, by Vannoccio Biringuccio. However antimony and its compounds have been used by mankind since before 3,000 BC.

10th 1374, Zinc, in use in brass items since as early as 1400 BC, was first named specifically in the Jasada, a medical dictionary ascribed to the Hindu King Madanapala.

1250, Arsenic, in use since at least 1,000 BC, was first isolated in pure form by Albertus Magnus.

600 BC, Pure tin began to be used. Tin as an alloy with copper, brinze, has been in use from 3,000 BC.

1,500 BC, Mercury artefacts found in Egyptian tombs dating from this time. Meanwhile nickel (white copper) was known in China from about this time. Mediaeval German miners encountered ore that looked like copper ore but gave no copper, andmnamed it after a mischievous sprite, ‘nickel’, analogous to the name ‘old Nick’ for the Devil’.

5th 3,500 BC Iron artefacts found originating from this time.

4,000 BC, Gold artefacts found dating from this time. Silver useage also dated back to this time.

7,000 BC Lead began to be used widely across the world. Lead and tin, both malleable and both reasonably abundant and easily mined, were used together and sometimes interchangeably.

9,000 BC, Copper in use by mankind.


Appendix 5  – Environment & Conservation

3/1/2016, The United Kingdom designated Ascension Island and its surrounding waters in the Atlantic Ocean as a Marine protected area. The reserve was almost as big as the UK with just over half of the protected area completely closed to fishing.

26/7/2004, The Frozen Ark Project was launched, to preserve the DNA of endangered species.

23/3/1993. The UN stated that record low levels of ozone had been registered over large areas of the Western Hemisphere.

1992, The United Nations Earth Summit was held. This led to the UN Framework Convention oin Climate Change, which came into force in 1994. This Framework called for developed countries to reduce CO2 emissions to 1990, and provided for technological assistance to developing countries. These measures were strengthened by the Kyoto Protocol, 1997.

5/3/1989, As environmental awareness grew worldwide, the Ozone Layer Conference opened in London.

17/2/1989. Scientists warned of a threat to the ozone layer over the Arctic.

16/9/1987, 70 countries signed an agreement in Montreal to save the ozone layer, to freeze CFC production (used as a refrigeration gas) at current levels and halve it within 12 years. The hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica had been discovered in 1984.

17/6/1987, The Dusky Seaside Sparrow became extinct as the last individual died.

29/12/1985,, Dian Fossey, US zoologist and conservationist, died.

8/3/1985, Every Chinese child was ordered to donate one Feng (then equivalent to 2p) to save the Giant Panda from extinction.

31/8/1983, Russell Doig of Surrey won a special prize for catching a salmon in the Thames, the first salmon caught there for 150 years. The fish weighed 6 lb.

1982, Dutch Elm Disease killed 20 million elm trees in Britain, 66% of the total population.

23/7/1982, The International Whaling Commission decided to end whaling by 1986.

12/8/1980, The first Giant Panda born in captivity was successfully delivered at a zoo in Mexico.

23/1/1978, Sweden became the first country to ban aerosol sprays, because of the damage they cause to the ozone layer.

11/5/1977. The USA said CFCs  would be banned as propellants in aerosol cans within two years, after worries about ozone depletion.

10/7/1976. After an explosion at a chemical plant at Seveso, Italy, a 7 km radius was contaminated with dioxin, a weed killer. Crops and 40,000 animals died, and the number of abnormal births rose dramatically.

12/11/1974. A salmon was caught in the Thames, the first since around 1840. It was retrieved from the filters of West Thurrock power station.

1962, Rachel Carson published ‘Silent Spring’.

1961, The World Wildlife Fund was founded.

1958, A plague of locusts in Somalia was so large it covered 1,000 square kilometres.

1951, Britain’s first smokeless zone was set up, in Coventry. In 1955 London was declared a smokeless zone. In 1956 Britain passed the Clean Air Act.

22/12/1938. The coelacanth, a fish though to have been extinct for 65 million years, was caught off the coast of South Africa.

3/4/1934, Jane Goodall, British zoologist who studied gorillas in Tanzania in the 1960s, was born.

18/1/1933, The botanist and conservationist David Bellamy was born.

16/12/1932, Dian Fossey, US zoologist and conservationist was born.

1929, In Britain, the National Smoke Abatement Society was set up.

1925, In Britain, the Council for the Protection of Rural England (CPRE) was set up.

11/12/1903, The first wildlife preservation society was formed in Britain.  It was called The Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the Empire.

27/5/1907, Rachel Louise Carson, marine biologist and US author, author of Silent Spring, was born.

20/4/1906, An Australian wombat, the oldest known marsupial, died in London Zoo aged 26.

1899, In Britain, the Coal Smoke Abatement Society was formed.

12/8/1883, The last quagga died, at Amsterdam Zoo.

1856, In Britain, between 1853 and 1856, a series of Smoke Abatement Acts were passed in order to improve the quality of air in urban areas.

1840, Kew Botanical Gardens, London, opened.

1593, The first botanical gardens in France were established by the University of Montpellier.

26/6/1545. A botanical garden was established in Padua. This, or the garden in Pisa, is the oldest such garden in Europe.

1220, The first giraffes were exhibited in Europe.


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