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3/4/2017, An Islamist terrorist bomb exploded on the St Petersburg metro system; a second bomb was defused.  14 were killed and 50 injured. The bomber was from Kyrgyzstan.

24/11/2015, Turkey shot down a Russian jet fighter that was taking part in Russia’s pro-Assad campaign in Syria, against both ISIS and non-ISIS rebels. Turkey said the aircraft had transgressed into Turkish airspace, and was warned several times. Russia denied the warnings, and it appeared the jet had at most been in Turkish airspace for 2 or 3 seconds as it (might have) crossed a finger of Turkish territory jutting into Syria.

27/2/2015, The Russian opposition politician, Boris Nemtsov, was assassinated in Moscow; born 9/10/1959 he was aged 55. In the late 1990s Nemtsov was a close associate of Yeltsin, who put him in charge of economic reforms, although the economic crash of 1998, in which many ordinary Russians lost everything, severely dented his credibility. Nemtsov was a co-founder of the Union of Rightists, which won 8.6% of the vote, 6 million votes, in the Russian elections of 1999, and became Deputy Speaker of the Russian Parliament in February 2000, a month after Putin became President. However Nemtsov’s party was perceived as having confused policies in the face of stronger leadership by Putin and in 2003 the Union of Rightists failed to meet the threshold for qualifying for any seats in the Duma. Outside the political arena, Nemtsov became more critical of Putin, who in turn attempted to undermine Nemtsov’s business interests. Nemtsov continued to criticise Putin and government corruption generally, also censuring Putin’s involvement in the Ukraine, the shooting down of a Malaysian aircraft, and Russian annexation of the Crimea, whilst Putin was trying to publically distance himself from ‘Ukrainian rebel forces’ in eastern Ukraine. Nemtsov had been organising an anti-Ukraine-war march in Moscow for 1/3/2015 and this march became his silent memorial procession by tens of thousands of Russians. The Kremlin, in order to prevent the bridge where Nemtsov had been killed from becoming a memorial to him, hosted a celebration of the annexation of Crimea there later in March 2015.

1/9/2014, Russian-backed separatists took control of Luhansk Airport, and of Novalsk, eastern Ukraine.

28/8/2014, Pro-Russian rebels took the Ukrainian town of Novoazovsk.

13/8/2014, The UN estimated that a total of 2,086 people had been killed in the Ukraine conflict so far, double the toll from 2 weeks earlier. In mid-August, Ukrainian forces were making headway against rebel Russian backed forces.

12/8/2014, Nearly 300 Russian lorries laden with ‘aid’ for the rebels in Luhansk, eastern Ukraine, set off from Moscow.  The Ukrainian Government in Kiev attempted to halt the convoy.

30/7/2014, The EU imposed more sanctions on Russia for its backing of Ukrainian rebels.

26/7/2014, The death toll in the Ukraine conflict reached 1,129; 799 of them were civilians.

17/7/2014, A Malaysian airliner, flight MH17, with 298 on board was shot down 30 kilometres west of the Ukraine-Russia border with no survivors, en route from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur.

13/7/2014, Russia warned of severe consequences after a Ukranian shell was fired across the border and killed a Russian.

12/7/2014, Ukraine sent war jets into Donetsk, and claimed to have killed 500 rebels.

5/7/2014, Pro-Russian rebels abandoned the Ukrainian town of Slavyansk after heavy fighting.

24/6/2014, Rebels shot down a Ukrainian helicopter, killing 9. The UN estimated that over 420 had died in the conflict so far.

20/6/2014, Ukrainian President Poroshenko declared a week-long truce.

16/6/2014, Russia cut gas supplies to the Ukraine.

14/6/2014, Pro Russian rebels shot down a Ukrainian warplane.

6/6/2014, Putin and Poroshenko called for an end to violence in the Ukraine.

4/6/2014, US President Obama condemned Russian ‘aggression’ in Ukraine.

25/5/2014, Petro Poroshenko was elected Ukrainian President.

11/5/2014, The Ukrainian regions of Donetsk and Luhansk declared independence after referendums.

2/5/2014, Pro-Ukrainian and pro-Russian factions clashed in Odessa; 42 people died.

15/4/2014, Kiev began ‘anti-terrorist’ operations in eastern Ukraine.

7/4/2014, Pro Russian gunmen seized government buildings in eastern Ukraine.

18/3/2014, Russian President Putin signed a Bill to absorb the Crimea into Russia.

16/3/2014, Russia organised a widely-discredited referendum in the Crimea which proiduced an alleged 97% vote in favour of the region leaving the Ukraine and (re)joining Russia.

1/3/2014, The Russian Parliament approved Vladimir Putin’s request to deploy the Russian military in the Crimea.

28/2/2014, Pro-Russian gunmen seized government buildings in Simferopol, capital of the Crimea. The Crimea was originally part of Russia until transferred to Ukraine in 1954, and in 2014 still had a large Russian population.

27/2/2014, In Russia, Viktor Yanukoyvitch insisted he was still legitimate leader of the Ukraine. The Ukrainian Government had issued a warrant for his arrest on 24/2/2014.

22/2/2014, In the Ukraine, pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukoyvitch fled after snipers killed protestors in central Kiev, and rival Yulia Tymoshenko was freed.

20/2/2014, 88 died in riots in the Ukraine.

18/2/2014, In Ukraine, 26 died and hundreds injured in clashes between pro-government and pro-western factions.

28/1/2014, The Ukrainian Prime Minister, Mykola Azarov, resigned as anti-protest laws were repealed by the government.

25/1/2014, Violent protests in Ukraine continued between pro-EU and pro-Moscow factions.

22/1/2014, Police in Kiev, Ukraine, shot dead two anti-government protestors.

21/11/2013, The Ukrainian Government moved closer to Russia, sparking popular protests.

24/1/2011, Islamist terrorists from the north Caucasus blew themselves up in the International Arrivals Hall of Domodedovo Airport, Moscow, killing dozens of people.

9/6/2010, Ethnic conflict in Kyrgyzstan between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks.

1/4/2010, Major rioting in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, caused President Bakiyev to flee.

7/1/2009, In a dispute over energy prices, Russia shut off all gas supplies to Europe.

5/11/2008, On Russian television, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev spoke against NATO missile defences in Poland and the Czech Republic.  Medvedev threatened to put Russian missiles in the enclave of Kaliningrad and install radio scramblers to foil NATO’s missile defence system.

2/9/2008, EU leaders began a mediation initiative with Russia over Georgia.

29/8/2008, Georgia cut all diplomatic relations with Russia and increased links to the USA.

25/8/2008, Both Russian Houses of parliament voted to recognise as independent states the breakaway regions of Georgia; South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

27/8/2008, David Milliband, from the UK, visited Kiev to reinforce the Ukrainian ambitions to align itself with the West.

15/8/2008, The Russian military expressed anger at a US-Polish agreement to set up missile defences on Polish territory.  The US said it was against rogue states like Iran. The Russians said it was against them and one general said it made Poland a target for a nuclear strike.

9/8/2008, Russian ships sailed from Ukrainian ports to mount a blockade of the Georgian coast.

8/8/2008, Russian forces backed South Ossetian fighters who were seeking secession from Georgia. 130,000 Georgians fled South Ossetia.

7/8/2008, Intense fighting erupted between Georgia and Russia.  Russia backed the territory of South Ossetia, a Muslim area that had broken away from Georgia after Georgia declared independence as the USSR broke up.  The USA backed Georgia.

2/3/2008, Dmitry Medvedev was elected President of Russia.

21/12/2006, Saparmurat Niyazov, President of Turkmenistan, died.

24/11/2006, Mr Litvinenko's family released a statement, accusing Russian President Vladimir Putin of involvement in his death.

23/11/2006, Russian dissident and former KGB bodyguard Alexander Litvinenko died a slow and painful death in a London hospital after drinking tea laced with Polonium 210. He fell out with Vladimir Putin in the late 1990s when they worked together in the Russian security forces. Britain suspected former KGB agent Andrei Luovoi of administering  the poison and demanded his extradition form Russia. The denial of this extradition led to the expulsion of four Russian diplomats from Britain.

21/11/2006, The Kremlin dismissed as 'sheer nonsense' claims that the Russian government was involved in the poisoning of Litvinenko.

17/11/2006, Litvinenko’s condition deteriorated and he was transferred to University College Hospital in central London.

1/11/2006, Mr Litvinenko met Andrei Lugovoi and Dmitry Kovtun at the Millennium hotel in London's Mayfair. Mr Litvinenko was admitted to a hospital in north London several hours later, complaining of feeling sick.

7/10/2006, Journalist Anna Politkovskaya was shot dead in her Moscow apartment on October 7. Mr Litvinenko began to investigate her murder.

3/9/2004, The Beslan siege ended violently. Terrorists fired rocket propelled grenades at the Russians and Russian Special Forces (Spetznaz) moved in. The school was blown up by the terrorists.

2/9/2004, Negotiations between the Russian authorities and the terrorists at Beslan failed, however use of force to rescue the hostages was ruled out. 26 women and children were released.

1/9/2004, Chechen gunmen seized Middle School No. 1 in the town of Beslan, in Ossetia, near Chechnya, holding more than 1,000 teachers parents and pupils hostage, on the first day of the new school year. Explosives had previously been hidden under the floorboards during renovation work carried on during the summer holidays. Russian troops stormed the school, and there was a shootout and a deadly fire, as mines were set off.  330 people, half of them children, died in the chaos.

9/5/2004, Akhmad Kadyrov, President of Chechnya, was killed by a landmine placed under a VIP stage during a WW2 memorial parade in Grozny.

14/3/2004, Presidential elections in Russia.  Vladimir Putin easily won a second term.

5/6/2003, A female suicide bomber killed 16 Russian soldiers at Mozdok, a staging post for troops in Chechnya.

23/10/2002. Fifty Chechen armed gunmen and women took over a theatre in Moscow, demanding that Moscow withdraw its forces from Chechnya. The audience of 850 was held as hostage. On 26/10/2002 Russian special forces pumped noxious gas into the theatre then stormed it. Most of the terrorists were killed whilst unconscious from the gas. However, whereas the Chechens had only shot two hostages, some 130 of them were killed by the gas, and a similar number required hospital treatment. Criticism of the operation was deflected by Putin, who asked how Russia could be expected to support the West’s ‘War on Terror’ if they did not back Russia when dealing with Islamic terrorism in its own country.

16/7/2001, China and Russia signed a treaty of friendship.

10/1/2001, Authorities in Moscow banned the Salvation Army, seeing it as a threat to the Russian State.

20/8/2000. The Russian navy said there was almost no hope of finding survivors from the nuclear submarine Kursk. She sank on 12/8/2000, and all 118 crew died. Recovery of the wreck, minus its stern, was on 8/10/2001.

6/2/2000, The city of Grozny, Chechnya, fell to Russian troops.

31/12/1999, Boris Yeltsin resigned as President of Russia and was replaced by Vladimir Putin. Putin, 47, was elected President on 26/3/2000.

26/8/1999, Russia began the Second Chechen War following the invasion of Dagestan.

12/5/1997  The Russian-Chechen peace treaty was signed.

27/5/1996, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met Chechnya rebels for the first time and negotiated a ceasefire.

28/2/1996. Russia became a member of the Council of Europe.

9/1/1996. Chechen insurgents seized 3,000 civilian hostages.

30/6/1995. Military accord to end fighting in Chechnya.

26/3/1996, The International Monetary Fund approved a US$ 10.2 billion loan to Russia for economic reforms.

19/1/1995. Russian troops seized the Presidential palace in Grozny, Chechnya.

11/12/1994, Boris Yeltsin ordered troops into Chechnya.

29/11/1994. Russian aircraft bombed the Chechen capital, Grozny.

22/6/1994. Russia joined NATO’s ‘partnership for peace.

27/5/1994, Alexander Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia.

28/12/1993. The Russian government announced that nearly 50% of the economy had been privatised.

14/12/1993. The Russian elections produced a move to the Right. Around 50% voted for Conservative-Nationalist parties with Vladimir Zhirinovsky (Liberal Democrat) emerging as overall leader. Yeltsin remained President of Russia. The Baltic States feared revenge from Zhirinovsky for their precipitating the collapse of the old USSR.

1/12/1993. Georgian and Abkhaz representatives met in Geneva to sign an accord to end their conflict.

18/11/1993, The Georgian President extended the country’s state of emergency indefinitely.

4/10/1993. Russian rebels surrendered at Moscow ‘White House’. Troops loyal to President Yeltsin opened fire on rebels in the White House who wanted a return to old-style Communism. 146 people died in the  conflict; Yeltsin pardoned the ringleaders.

28/9/1993. Abkhaz rebels took the Georgian Black Sea port and resort city of Sukhumi. Georgian President Eduard Sheverdnadze accused Moscow of helping the rebels.

21/9/1993, In Russia, President Yeltsin suspended the Constitution and scrapped Parliament.

14/8/1993. Armenia launched a big offensive inside Azerbaijan near the Iranian border. Azerbaijan was also contending with another separatist movement, also near the Iranian border, at Lenkoran.

13/7/1993. (1) Rolls Royce opened its first showroom in Russia.

(2) Tajik rebels, helped by Afghani guerrillas from across the border in Afghanistan, attacked Russian troops in Tajikistan who were there to prop up the local government clinging to power against Muslim fundamentalists.

6/7/1993. Georgia steeped up resistance to Abkhazian rebels, who were seeking their own Muslim state, around the Black Sea resort of Sukhumi.

4/4/1993. Armenian forces now occupied a tenth of Azerbaijan. Armenia laid claim to the enclave of Nagorny-Karabakh and was occupying territory separating the enclave from Armenia.

3/1/1993. President Bush of the USA and Yeltsin of the USSR signed the START II (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks) Treaty.

30/12/1992. All Soviet troops have left Mongolia.

18/8/1992. After five days of fighting, Georgian forces took control of the separatist Abkhazian capital, Sukhumi.

21/4/1992, Vladimir Romanov, the Pretender to the Russian throne, died aged 74.

31/1/1992. Boris Yeltsin, leader of Russia, made a speech at the UN calling for America and Russia to develop a joint ‘star wars’ shield against missiles from rogue nations.

25/12/1991, Above the Kremlin, Moscow, the old Soviet flag was lowered and the new Russian flag was raised.

20/12/1991, President Boris Yeltsin said he wanted Russia to join NATO.

16/12/1991. Kazakhstan became independent from the former USSR.

12/12/1991, The Russian Parliament voted to replace the USSR with a looser confederation to be known as the CIS or Confederation of Independent States.

8/12/1991. The leaders of the republics of Russia, Byelorussia (Belarus), and Ukraine formed a commonwealth of independent states (CIS), after the dissolution of the USSR, see 5/9/1991.

1/12/1991. The Ukraine voted in a referendum to leave the USSR.

6/9/1991, Leningrad reverted to the name St Petersburg.

5/9/1991. The USSR ceased to exist as the Congress of People’s Deputies voted to give the republics their independence.

21/8/1991. The Soviet hardline coup collapsed and Gorbachev was restored as President. On 25/8/1991 Gorbachev resigned as leader of the Communist party, and the Party prepared to dissolve, ending 70 years of Communist supremacy.

20/8/1991, Estonia voted for independence,

19/8/1991. Soviet hardliners toppled President Gorbachev.

28/6/1991 The Warsaw Pact was disbanded.

23/6/1991,  The International Monetary Fund agreed to offer associate membership to Russia.

13/6/1991. First free Presidential election in the USSR.  Boris Yeltsin was elected President.

12/6/1991, The citizens of Leningrad voted 55% to 43% to return to the name St Petersburg.

3/6/1991. Soviet troops sealed off the centre of Vilnius, Lithuania.

20/5/1991, The USSR passed a law allowing people to leave the country free of all restrictions.

9/4/1991. Georgia voted to secede from the USSR.

17/3/1991, Russia held an election to decide whether to remain as the USSR or break up into Republics.

3/3/1991. Estonia and Latvia voted to secede from the USSR.

25/2/1991. Warsaw Pact military alliance dissolved.

19/2/1991, In the USSR, Boris Yeltsin, Russian President, called on Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet President, to resign. Yeltsin accused Gorbachev of dictatorship.

11/2/1991,The Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sent a letter to all Warsaw Pact government leaders proposing the disbandment of the military pact on 1/4/1991. The Pact was formed one week after a re0armed West Germany joined NATO in 1955.

10/2/1991. In a poll in Lithuania, in which 85% of the electorate voted, 90% were in favour of independence from Moscow. Only 6% voted against independence. The Soviet president, Mikhail Gorbachev, declared the poll illegal.

24/1/1991. Soviet troops opened fire on traffic outside Vilnius, 1 person was killed.

20/1/1991.  A crowd of over 100,000 protested in Moscow against military violence in the Baltic Republics.

13/1/1991. (+16,686) Soviet troops fired on crowds in Vilnius, capital of Lithuania; 13 died. The EC threatened to halt aid to Russia unless troops withdrew. Estonia and Latvia also made moves for independence. On 20/1/1991 Soviet ‘Black Beret’ elite troops stormed Riga, killing 4 and injuring 9. Lithuania had lost its independence to Russia in 1939 under a pact between Hitler and Stalin.

2/1/1991, Soviet troops seized the Communist Party headquarters in Vilnius, Lithuania, sparking massive protests.

12/12/1990, US President George Bush agreed to send US$ 1,000 million food aid to the Soviet Union.

21/11/1990. A declaration of the end of the Cold War was signed in Paris.

23/8/1990, Armenia declared independence from the USSR.

27/7/1990 Belarus declared its ‘sovereignty’, a step towards independence from the USSR.

14/7/1990. Boris Yeltsin left the Communist Party.

29/6/1990. Lithuania announced it would suspend its declaration of independence for 100 days.

12/6/1990, Russia emerged as an independent state, from the former USSR.

3/6/1990. Kirgizstan suffered violence between ethnic Kirgiz (50% of the population) and ethnic Uzbeks (30%). The trouble began when 10,000 Uzbeks protested at plans by 1,500 Kirgiz to seize farmland near the city of Osh to build houses.

8/5/1990, Estonia affirmed its independence, reviving its 1938 Constitution.

4/5/1990. The Latvian Parliament voted for independence from the USSR.

20/4/1990, President Mikhail Gorbachev cut of 85% of Lithuania’s gas supplies, in retaliation for Lithuania declaring independence. The European Union hesitated to help Lithuania, fearing to destabilise Gorbachev.

12/4/1990. The Soviet Union finally admitted it had massacred up to 15,000 Polish officers at Katyn in 1940. See 26/4/1943.

13/3/1990. The Soviet Congress voted to abolish the political monopoly of the Communist Party.

11/3/1990. Lithuania declared itself independent from the USSR. On 16/3/1990 President Gorbachev issued an ulltimatum to rescind this declaration.

28/2/1990. The USSR passed a bill allowing individuals to privately own land for the first time since the 1920s.

7/2/1990. The Soviet Communist Party voted to end its monopoly of power.

27/1/1990. The city of Tirasopol in the Moldavian SSR briefly declared independence.

19/1/1990. Soviet troops fired on an Azerbaijani crowd, killing many people. Thousands of Armenians fled Azerbaijan.

13/1/1990,(1) The break up of the USSR began as the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania prepared for secession. In Lithuania, 200,000 demonstrated for independence.

(2) President Gorbachev told Lithuania that all Soviet republics will get the right to secede.

(3) 24 people died in riots in Baku, Azerbaijan.

4/1/1990. Soviet President Gorbachev told Lithuania’s Communists that they were free to leave the Soviet Communist Party.

19/12/1989. Lithuania called for independence from the USSR.

18/12/1989, The EEC signed a 10-year trade pact with the USSR.

14/12/1989, Soviet physicist and dissident Andrei Sakharov died.

10/12/1989, In Mongolia, Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj announced the establishment of a democratic movement within the country.

3/12/1989. The East German leader Egon Krenz and the politbureau resigned. A USSR-USA summit was held in Malta. The Cold war was declared over at 12.55pm that day.

1/12/1989. The Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and Pope John Paul II met in Rome, ending 70 years of hostility between the Roman Catholic Church and the Soviet Union.

4/11/1989, See 7/10/1989. Pro-democracy rallies sparked by Gorbachev’s visit to East Germany resulted a a million-strong protest in East Germany.

7/10/1989. On a visit to East Germany, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev urged the East German government to introduce reforms. See 4/11/1989.

31/8/1989. The Soviet Republic of Moldavia’s Parliament voted to make Moldavian, not Russian, the official language.

23/8/1989, 2 million Estonians, Latvians, and Lithuanians formed an uninterrupted 600 kilometre human chain to demand independence from Moscow. Hungary removed all border restrictions with Austria.

17/7/1989. Soviet miners went on strike.

15/7/1989, Georgians and Abkhazians clashed in the Abkhazia region of Georgia; 11 were killed and 127 injured.

13/6/1989, Mikhail Gorbachev and Chancellor Kohl agreed that East and West Germany should be reunited.

3/6/1989. Liquid gas stored beside a railway in Chelyabinsk, USSR, exploded, killing 800.

2/5/1989, The Iron Curtain began to break down. Hungary dismantled 150 miles of barbed wire fence, opening its border to Western Europe.

9/4/1989, Red Army soldiers massacred Georgian demonstrators in Tbilisi’s main square, killing 20 people. Poison gas was allegedly used.

8/4/1989, 40 soviet submariners died when a nuclear powered Mike c;las submarine caught fire, and refused assistance from Western merchant ships.

7/4/1989. President Gorbachev of the USSR visited Britain, and invited Queen Elizabeth II to visit Moscow.

26/3/1989. The first free elections were held in the USSR. Pro-reform candidates won many seats.

7/12/1988. Gorbachev cut the Red Army by 10%.

16/11/1988, The Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR declared that Estonia is ‘sovereign’, adopting their own constitution, but stopped short of declaring independence.

26/10/1988, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev promised to free all political prisoners by the end of the year.

3/8/1988, Matthias Rust was freed from prison in Russia.  He had served 14 months of a 4-year sentence for flying a plane from Germany to land in Red Square, Moscow.

11/5/1988. Soviet spy Kim Philby died in Moscow aged 76.

29/4/1988. McDonalds announced plans for 20 restaurants in Moscow to sell the ‘Bolshoi Mac’.

2/3/1988. The Soviet Army was sent to Azerbaijan to quell unrest there. Tension between Azerbaijan and Armenia grew. Azerbaijan rejected a call for the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh to be returned to Armenian control; Karabakh had been part of Azerbaijan since 1921, although mainly populated by Armenians. Armenia invaded and occupied large parts of Azerbaijan lying between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh.

See Iran & Afghanistan for Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and subsequent withdrawal under Gorbachev

8/12/1987. Gorbachev and Reagan signed an arms reduction treaty, to eliminate medium range nuclear missiles from Europe.

12/11/1987, President Gorbachev sacked Boris Yeltsin as head of the Communist Party after Yeltsin criticised him for the slow pace of perestroika (reconstruction).

4/9/1987, Matthias Rust was sentenced to four  years in a Soviet labour camp, however he was released on 3/8/1988. See 28/5/1987.

28/5/1987, A 19-year-old West German, Mathias Rust, evaded Soviet air defences and landed a light plane in Red Square, Moscow, from Helsinki, Finland. He was immediately detained, and released on 3/8/1988.

14/4/1987, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev out-manoeuvred the White House by proposing sweeping arms cuts, beyond those envisaged by US President Reagan.

11/10/1986, Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev met in Reykjavik to discuss intermediate arms limitations. The talks ended in failure.

25/2/1986. President Gorbachev of the USSR first used the term ‘Perestroika’ (restructuring) in a speech to the 27th Congress of the Communist Party.

11/2/1986, As Gorbachev continued to liberalise the USSR, political prisoners including Anatoly Scharansky and Yuri Orlov were released and allowed to leave the country.

21/11/1985, Presidents Reagan and Gorbachev ended their meeting with an agreement to reduce their nuclear arsenals by a mutual 50%.

19/11/1985. Reagan and Gorbachev met in Geneva, the first such meeting for 6 years.

8/11/1986, Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet politician, died.

11/3/1985. In the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev (54 years old) succeeded Konstantin Chernenko, who died on 10/3/1985. See 13/2/1984.

10/3/1985, Death of Konstantin Chernenko, General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party since 1984.

7/3/1984, Donald Maclean, British Foreign Office official and Soviet secret agent who fled to the USSR in 1951, died aged 70.

13/2/1984. Konstantin Chernenko became the leader of the USSR. See 11/3/1985. Yuri Andropov had died on 7/2/1984. Andropov came to power in 16/6/1983.

9/2/1984, Yuri Andropov, Soviet leader, died after only 15 months in office. He was succeeded by Konstantin Chernenko.

26/9/1983, The Soviet Union’s early warning system appeared to show missiles had been fired from the USA. However the officer in charge, Stanislav Petrov, chose to delay any response. In fact satellites had spotted reflections of sunlight from the ground.

16/6/1983. Andropov was elected Soviet leader of the USSR. However he died on 7/2/1984.

26/3/1983, Anthony Blunt, the Queen’s former art adviser, and Soviet spy, died.

2/2/1983. The US and USSR began START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks) in Geneva.

10/11/1982, (1) Leonid Illyich Brezhnev, Soviet leader for 18 years, died of a heart attack aged 75. He was succeeded by Yuri Andropov.

(2) Geoffrey Prime was jailed for 15 years for spying.

30/11/1981. The US and USSR began arms talks in Geneva.

18/12/1980, Death of Soviet statesman Alexei Kosygin, Prime Minister of the USSR 1964-80.

23/10/1980, The Soviet leader, Alexei Kosygin, resigned due to illness.

13/6/1980, Car manufacturing workers in the USSR went on strike.

18/6/1979. US President Carter and USSR President Brezhnev signed the SALT 2 (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) in Vienna.

21/5/1979, Elton John became the first Western rock star to perform in the Soviet Union.

1/6/1978. Bugging devices were found at the US embassy in Moscow.

6/9/1976, Soviet air force pilot Viktor Belenko landed his MiG-25 jet fighter at Hakodate in Hokkaido and requested political asylum in the USA.

27/7/1976, The Soviet chess champion Korchnoi defected to the West.

21/1/1976. The Financial Times and New York Times went on sale in the USSR.

9/9/1975. The Czech tennis player Martina Navratilova defected to the West.

24/2/1975, Nikolai Bulganin, Soviet Prime Minister from 1955 to 1958, died.

13/2/1974. Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian author and winner of the Nobel Prize in 1970, was expelled from the USSR. This was a result of the publication of his work, The Gulag Archipelago, a study of the Stalinist prison camp system. Solzhenitsyn himself had spent time in these camps between 1945 and 1953.

29/5/1972. Brezhnev and Nixon signed SALT-2 (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty).

8/10/1971, The USSR expelled 5 Britons and refused another 13 entry in rataliation for the expulsions of 24/9/1971.

24/9/1971, Britain expelled 90 Soviet diplomats after a KGB defector, Oleg Lyalin, passed information to British Intelligence. See 8/10/1971. The UK had also granted asylum to the Soviet defector and space expert Anatol Fedoseyev in June 1971.

11/9/1971, Nikita Kruschev, President of the USSR from 1958 to 1964, died aged 77 near Moscow.

17/12/1970. The Soviet paper Pravda attacked writer Solzhenitsyn as ‘hostile’.

9/10/1970, The winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature, dissident Soviet writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn, declined to attend the ceremony in Stockholm in December for ‘personal reasons’. It was unclear whether the Soviet authorities had prevented him from leaving, or had threatened nit to readmit him if he went.

11/6/1970, Alexander Kerensky, Russian political leader overthrown by the Bolsheviks in 1917, died in New York City aged 89.

2/3/1969. Soviet and Chinese troops clashed on their border.

21/12/1967, Mikheil Saakashvili, President of Georgia, was born.

9/3/1967, Svetlana Alliluyeva, daughter of Joseph Stalin, defected to the West, requesting political asylum at the US Embassy in India..

15/10/1964. Nikita Khrushchev was replaced, in the USSR, as First Secretary of the Communist Party by Leonid Brezhnev and as Prime Minister by Alexei Kosygin.

22/4/1964, British businesswoman Greville Wynne who had been imprisoned in the USSR for a year on spying charges was exchanged for the Soviet agent Gordon Lonsdale.

3/2/1964. China challenged the USSR for leadership of the Communist world.

31/8/1963, The ‘hot line’, linking the Kremlin and the White House, went into operation.

30/8/1963, Guy Burgess, Cambridge spy who worked for the Soviet Union, died.

30/7/1963. The ‘third man’, Kim Philby, turned up in Moscow after escaping arrest in Britain for spying. He had defected to Russia on 23/1/1963.

1/7/1963, Kim Philby, British spy, was revealed as the ‘third man’.

20/6/1963. The White House and the Kremlin agreed to set up a ‘hot line’.

13/4/1963, Gary Kasparov, Russian world chess champion, was born.

23/1/1963, Kim Philby was officially reported as ‘missing’ after failing to meet his wife at a dinner party in Beirut. Formerly a high-ranking British intelligence officer, he had been accused of spying for the USSR in 1955 but had been exonerated by Prime Minister Harold MacMillan. Philby’s accomplices Guy Burgess and Donald McClean had fled to Moscow in 1951; MacMillan insisted there was no ‘third man’.

See South America for Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

1/6/1962, The Soviet Union raised the price of consumer goods by more than 25 percent in order to cover higher operating expenses for the U.S.S.R.'s collective farm program. Butter was up 25%, and pork and beef by 30%. In protest, workers walked off of the job at the Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Factory and the strike soon turned into an uprising.

10/2/1962. The USA exchanged a Soviet spy for the captured pilot Gary Powers. The exchange took place in the middle of a bridge linking the American and Soviet sectors of Berlin.

10/11/1961. The USSR renamed Stalingrad as Volgograd.

1/11/1961, In the Soviet Union, a ‘de-Stalinisation’ programme resulted in Stalin’s body being removed from the Red Square mausoleum where it had lain next to Lenin since his death in 1953. Even Stalingrad,  with its great significance regarding World War Two, was renamed Volgograd.

31/8/1961, After failure of the Geneva Conference, the USSR announced it would resume nuclear weapons testing.

16/6/1961. Rudolf Nureyev defected from the Soviet Union whilst in Paris, travelling with the Leningrad Kirov Ballet.

7/11/1960, Missiles first appeared on the Red Square military parade.

1/5/1960. A US spy plane, the U-2, piloted by Gary Powers, was hit by an SA2 missile and shot down over the USSR near Sverdlovsk. On 8/7/1960 Gary Powers was indicted as a spy; he was sentenced to 10 years in prison, but was released after 18 months in exchange for Soviet agent Rudolf Abel.

31/5/1958, The Kremlin and Washington agreed to hold talks on a ban on atmospheric atom bomb tests.

7/1/1957. President Khrushchev of the USSR welcomed China’s Prime Minister Chou En Lai. Behind the scenes, however, there was rivalry between the two countries. The USSR supported Manchurian and Vietnamese Communists, and there were differences on how Communism should be enforced. However Chou En Lai supported the USSR’s crackdown in 1956 in Hungary.

14/5/1956, A British diver disappeared whilst bugging the underside of Soviet President Kruschev’s warship in Portsmouth.

18/4/1956, The Soviet leader Nikita Kruschev, along with Nikolai Bulganin, visited the UK.

18/3/1956, At the 20th Party Congress, Khrushchev denounced Stalin’s crimes.

22/11/1955, A Tupolev Tu-16 dropped the first Soviet nuclear bomb, RDS-37, in Siberia.

18/9/1955, Four years after they fled to Russia, the British Government officially confirmed that Donald McLean and Guy Burgess were Soviet spies.

14/5/1955. Eastern bloc countries signed the Warsaw Pact.

15/4/1954, Ulo Altermann, Estonian soldier and forest brother, died (b. 1923).

31/3/1954. The USSR offered to join NATO.

20/3/1954. In the USSR, Khrushchev became First Secretary of the Communist Party.

19/2/1954, Russia transferred Crimea to Ukraine, to mark the 300th anniversary of the Russo-Ukrainian Union.

16/9/1953, The wife of former British Foreign Office official and Soviet spy Donald McLean disappeared, two years after her husband fled to Russia with Guy Burgess.

14/3/1953, Nikita Kruschev became First Secretary of the Communist Party in the USSR, replacing Georgi Malenkov.

5/3/1953. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin died aged 74 of a brain haemorrhage at his dacha.. He was born in 1879 in Georgia, the son of a shoemaker. In the months before his death Stalin became paranoid, and in January 1953 the discovery of a ‘Doctor’s Plot’, involving 9 Jewish physicians. Stalin died before the trial of these 9 doctors could be staged, but it was believed they were to be the scapegoats to precipitate a major purge of the Soviet Communist Party. Later in 1953 Pravda announced the doctors were innocent and their confessions had been obtained under torture.

7/10/1952, Vladimir Putin, who was elected Russian president in 1999, was born.

25/5/1951. British diplomats Burgess (1910 – 1963) and MacLean (1913 – 1983) were first reported missing. They had defected to Moscow. They had been recruited by the Soviets whilst working at MI5 during the 1930s. Burgess did not like life in Moscow and died in 1963 of alcohol poisoning and kidney failure.

8/3/1950. The USSR claimed to have the atom bomb.

12/1/1950. The death penalty was re-introduced in the USSR.

29/8/1949, The Soviet Union successfully tested its first nuclear device, in what is now Kazakhstan.

25/11/1947. The USSR demanded war reparations from Germany.

15/3/1946. The USSR began its 4th 5-Year Plan.

5/3/1946. Winston Churchill referred to an “Iron Curtain” descending across Europe, in a speech at Fulton, USA. The first public acknowledgement that the Cold War had begun. See 12/3/1947.

26/4/1943. The mass grave of 4,000 Polish officers was found in the Katyn forest. Germany accused Russia of the murder. The Soviet Union finally admitted carrying out the 1940 massacre, of up to 15,000 Polish officers, on 12/4/1990.

8/1/1943, German forces began to retreat from the Stalingrad area, leaving some of their compatriots under siege in Stalingrad itself.

31/1/1943. The German 6tb Army under Field Marshal Paulus surrendered at Stalingrad after five months of fighting. The last Germans fighting in Stalingrad surrendered on 2/2/1943.  Hitler had refused to countenance an attempted German breakout from Stalingrad and insisted his troops hold on, despite, from December 1942, increasing shortages of food, ammunition, and medical supplies.  The Luftwaffe tried to drop supplies by air to the besieged city but often failed in this task. The Stalingrad Campaign cost the lives of 479,000 men from November 1942; German deaths amounted to 147,000, with a further 91,000 troops captured (many to be worked to death as Stalinpferde, Stalin horses, in Soviet labour camps).

28/6/1942. The Germans launched Operation Blue, an offensive to capture the Russian Caucasus oilfields and secure the Volga River. The Soviets responded by concentrating resistance at Stalingrad, threatening the northern flank of this Operation. On 23/7/1942 Hitler ordered General Paulus to capture Stalingrad at all costs. Meanwhile Stalin could not let go the city that bore his name.

See France-Germany (from 1/1/1870) for more events of World War in Europe

22/6/1941. (1) Germany invaded Russia. Hitler expected the war in Russia to be over by Christmas 1941, saying “We only have to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down”. Hitler calculated that Stalin’s purges of the officer class had badly weakened the Red Army.

The invasion plan, called Operation Barbarossa had been announced by Hitler to his generals on 30/3/1941 in a speech to 200 senior army officers. At 3.am on 22 June the greatest offensive in history was launched. Three million men poured across a front nearly a thousand miles long. Hitler had said that the Communists must be not only beaten but annihilated, or ‘in 30 years we shall have to fight them again’. By the end of World War Two, four million Russians had died in battle and a further 3.5 million had been taken captive. 97% of these died in captivity; Hitler had decided that the Geneva Convention did not apply to them, or to millions more captured later. 17,000 Russian villages were wiped off the map by the Germans.

Stalin had not believed Germany would attack, despite troop movements on the frontier in the weeks before the invasion.

The German invasion was to have begun on 15/5/1941, but the need to intervene in the Balkans against Greece and Yugoslavia delayed the Russian invasion by seven (crucial) weeks.  The original plan was for German forces to have reached a line from Archangel to the Volga by autumn 1941.  Russian resistance was greater than Hitler anticipated, and Hitler’s orders to try and capture Moscow whilst Leningrad was already besieged, whilst simultaneously taking tanks from the Moscow front to the southern front gave a respite to the defence of Moscow.

The Germans correctly estimated Russian military strength in the west at 150 divisions but thought the Soviets had just 50 further divisions in reserve; in fact the Red Army summoned up over 200 reserve divisions. Unexpected July rains turned unsurfaced Russian roads into mud whilst the scorched earth policy meant roads, bridges, railways and factories were destroyed before the Germans advanced. The Russians also destroyed the railway rolling stock and because the Russian gauge was different from the German one, the Nazis could not use the Russian rail network.

(2) Romania joined in with Germany in attacking Russia. Rumania was led by Ion Antonescu (born 2/6/1882 in Transylvania). Antonescu was pro-Nazi, and during a period of serious internal disorder in Rumania, King Carol of Rumania was compelled to offer Antonescu the Premiership on 5/9/1940. Antonescu then demanded the abdication of Carol. In 1944 Russia counterattacked into Rumania and King Michael I, who had succeeded Carol, arrested Antonescu. Antonescu was convicted of war crimes on 17/5/1946 and executed near the Rumanian fort of Jilava on 1/6/1946.

See China-Japan-Korea for events of World War Two in Pacific

13/4/1941. Stalin signed a neutrality pact with Japan; Russia was concerned that Japanese conquests in Manchuria had brought Japanese forces up to Russian territory.

18/12/1940, Hitler signed the directive for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of Soviet Russia.

20/8/1940. Leon Trotsky was assassinated in Coyoacan, Mexico, where the exiled Bolshevik leader had fled to. He was struck several blows on the head with an ice pick by Ramon Mercader del Rio, one of Stalin’s agents. Aged 61, he had been outmanoeuvred for power by Stalin in 1923.

3/8/1940, Latvia officially joined the Soviet Union.

21/7/1940. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, occupied by the USSR since June 1940, voted to become part of the USSR.

14/7/1940. The Soviet Union annexed Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia.

27/6/1940. The USSR invaded Bessarabia.

26/6/1940. The USSR demanded that Romania cede Bessarabia, and also northern Bukovina as ‘compensation for Romanian misrule in Bessarabia’. The Romanian government had to submit and on 28/6/1940 Russian troops marched into these areas. In July 1941 Romania entered the war as Germany’s ally and recaptured Bessarabia. The Russians re-occupied Bessarabia during 1944 and in February 1947 Romania again had to cede Bessarabia and northern Bukovina..

See France-Germany (from 1/1/1870) for main European events of World War Two

17/6/1940, The Soviet Union occupied Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia.

16/6/1940. The Soviet army invaded the Baltic Republics, starting with Lithuania, on the pretext that these countries were planning to attack the USSR. 200 Soviet tanks crossed the Lithuanian border and seized the capital, Kaunas.

See also Scandinavia for Russia-Finland conflict 1939-40

23/12/1939. Stalin sacked General Meretzkof, as Finnish successes against Russia continued.

14/12/1939. The USSR was expelled from the League of Nations, for its aggression against Finland.

11/10/1939. The USSR signed a pact ceding the former Polish city of Vilna to Lithuania.

30/9/1939. Germany and the USSR signed a pact agreeing on the partition of Poland.

22/9/1939, Russian forces took Lvov, Poland.

21/9/1939, Germany and Russia declared that Poland no longer existed.

17/9/1939. Soviet troops invaded Poland. The German army reached Brest Litovsk in Poland. De Valera said Ireland would remain neutral in the War. Australia and New Zealand took sides with Britain straightaway. The Canadian debated the issue for three days then voted to join the War with one vote against. In South Africa the prime Minister General Hertzog wanted to stay out of the war; he was forced to resign and replaced by General Smuts who immediately took Britain’s side.

23/8/1939. Hitler and the USSR concluded a 20 year non-aggression pact, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. This left Hitler free to invade Poland.  Hitler believed the German-Soviet pact would lead France and Britain to withdraw their guarantees of assistance to Poland.  When instead Britain reaffirmed its support for Poland on 25/8/1939, Hitler postponed the attack on Poland, originally scheduled for the night of 25-26/8/1939.   Diplomatic moves with Britain failed to dislodge UK support for Poland, and Hitler invaded on 1/9/1939.

4/5/1939, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov succeeded Litvinov as Soviet Foreign Minister.

15/3/1938, Stalin’s purges reached a crescendo with the execution of 18 senior statesmen, many of them friends of Lenin. Amongst those confessing, at Lubyanka Prison, to improbable plots to overthrow the Soviet State was Nikolai Bukharin.

21/10/1937. Stalin killed a further 62 in his purges.

28/6/1937, In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin had 36 ‘confessed’ German spies shot.

12/6/1937. Stalin’s purge extended to the Red Army; 12 top generals were executed.

25/8/1936, Stalin executed 16 senior Communists.

2/5/1935. France and the USSR signed a mutual defence pact in case of attack.  See 7/3/1936.

9/3/1935. In the USSR, Nikita Krushchev was elected chief of the Communist Party.

18/9/1934. The USSR joined the League of Nations in an anti-Nazi move.

1/8/1934, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, President of Kyrgyzstan, was born.

16/11/1933, The USA established diplomatic relations with the USSR for the first time since the Russian Revolution.

18/4/1933, Russia staged a show-trial of three Britons accused of espionage.

29/11/1932. The USSR and France signed a non-aggression pact.

25/7/1932. The USSR, Poland, and Japan signed a non-aggression pact.

19/6/1931. The second Five Year Plan was announced in the USSR.

1/6/1931. The USA was to help build 90 steel plants in the USSR.

2/3/1931. Birth of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. He was born in Stavropol, in the north Caucasus.

1/2/1931, Boris Yeltsin, Russian leader, was born.

4/8/1930. Soviet troops killed 200 striking workers in Odessa – city of irony, see 1905.

26/6/1930, Stalin was ‘purging undesirables’ from the Soviet Union administration.

25/4/1930, In the USSR, the Gulag Agency was created to run the penal camps.

24/2/1930. Reports out of the USSR claimed that 40 kulaks a day were being murdered by Stalin’s agents.

7/1/1930, The Soviet government ordered all agricultural land to be collectivised.

30/11/1929, Soviet planes bombed the Manchurian town of Pokutu.

1/10/1929, Britain resumed diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia.

24/9/1929. Workers in the USSR were given 2 days off a week.

29/7/1929, Britain’s Foreign Secretary, Arthur Henderson, had talks with his Soviet counterpart about restoring Anglo-Soviet diplomatic relations.

1//7/1929. Britain refused Leon Trotsky asylum.

11/4/1929. Germany refused asylum to Leon Trotsky.

21/2/1929. France refused asylum to Leon Trotsky, Stalin’s most feared opponent, now exiled from the USSR.

31/1/1929. Leon Trotsky was expelled from Russia by Stalin. He found asylum in Mexico.

1/10/1928. Stalin’s first Five Year Plan began. The idea was for rapid industrialisation of the USSR, especially in coal, iron, oil, steel, and machine building. Output of consumer goods was also to rise sharply. Agriculture was to be collectivised, which meant disempowering the wealthy rural peasantry, or Kulaks (‘fists’ in Russian). On 5/1/1930 Stalin sent thousands of government agents to the Russian countryside to persuade the Kulaks to join the new collectives. Under Stalin’s scheme, every poor farmer who turned his land over to the collective would be allowed to own a house, stable, garden, and one car, and to keep the income from any sales of garden vegetables.

25/1/1928, Edvard Shevardnadze, Soviet Foreign Minister under Gorbachev, was born.

10/1/1928. Stalin purged his opponents. Many were arrested by his security police, the OGPU, and sent to exile in Siberia.  Trotsky was exiled from the USSR.

15/11/1927, Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party, USSR.

14/11/1927, The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party voted to expel both Trotsky and Zinoviev from membership, along with 81 of their associates. The resolution became effective on December 2, when the Fifteenth Congress of the CPSU purged 93 other Party members associated with the "Trotsky-Zinoviev faction".

9/11/1927, Rebellion in the Lithuanian city of Tauragé by citizens dissatisfied with President Antanas Smetona, 209 people were convicted of charges arising from the insurrection, and eleven were executed.

29/10/1927, Russian archaeologist Peter Kozlof discovered the tomb of Genghis Khan.

24/5/1927. Britain severed relations with the USSR amid allegations of subversion and espionage throughout the British Empire. On 9/6/1927 the USSR executed 20 people accused of being British spies.

23/10/1926, In Russia, Leon Trotsky and Zinoviev were ousted from the Politburo.

24/4/1926. Germany signed a friendship treaty with the USSR.

2/6/1926, Jonas Staugaitis was elected head of the Seimas in Lithuania.

12/10/1925, Germany and the USSR signed a commercial treaty.

1/12/1924, Communists staged a failed coup attempt in Estonia.

26/11/1924. The Communist party of the USSR denounced Trotsky.

28/10/1924. France recognised the USSR.

2/10/1924, Trotsky took command of the Red Army in Georgia.

7/2/1924, Italy recognised the USSR.

1/2/1924. Britain’s Labour Government recognised the USSR.

26/1/1924. Petrograd was renamed Leningrad.

21/1/1924, Vladimir Illitch Lenin died, aged 53. The middle-class lawyer who made a revolution on behalf of the workers died of a series of debilitating strokes. A power struggle then ensued between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin, who won.

9/3/1923. Vladimir Illitch Lenin retired from the Bolshevik leadership of the USSR because of a second stroke.

30/12/1922. Soviet Russia was officially renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or USSR.

17/11/1922, Siberia voted for union with the USSR.

25/10/1922, The last Japanese troops left Vladivostok.  With all anti-Bolshevik forces gone, Soviet rule was established there.

25/5/1922, Lenin was disabled my a major stroke.

16/4/1922. Germany restored relations with the USSR, signing the Second Treaty of Rapallo. Secretly, the USSR agreed to let Germany build and test weapons in Soviet territory that were forbidden within Germany under the Treaty of Versailles.

3/4/1922, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party.

1921, Gosplan, the State Planning Commission of the USSR, was established. Charged with State and Regional planning, and turning plans inti reality, it proved to be a liability as its excess bureaucracy was a brake on economic growth.

18/10/1921. Russia granted independence to the Crimea.

4/10/1921. League of Nations rejected Russian entry.

4/8/1921, Lenin asked the world for help in overcoming the famine in Russia.

10/7/1921. Mongolia declared its independence as a People’s Republic, becoming the world’s second Communist state after Russia.

27/5/1921. Anti-Bolshevik forces took Vladivistok.

21/5/1921, Andrei Sakharov, Russian physicist and human rights campaigner, was born.

25/2/1921, The Red Army entered Tbilisi, Georgia.

5/2/1921. Anti-Soviet sailors mutinied at Kronstadt naval base, outside Petrograd. The rebellion was crushed by Red Army troops on 17/3/1921.

22/12/1920, The Soviet Congress adopted an ambitious plan for the electrification of Russia.

19/11/1920, 100,000 White Russian refugees from the Crimea arrived in Constantinople.

16/11/1920. The Bolsheviks defeated the White Russians in the Crimea, so ending the Russian Civil War. The white Russian General, Baron Wrangel, fled with his men to Turkey.

14/11/1920, Sebastopol was captured by the Red Army.

1/11/1920, White Russian forces under Baron Wrangel were pushed southwards into the Crimea by the Communists.

11/8/1920, A Latvian-Soviet peace treaty gave Latvia independence from Soviet Russia.

27/7/1920, The Red Army took Pinsk.

19/5/1920. The Red Army invaded northern Iran.

7/5/1920. Polish and Ukrainian troops seized Kiev from the Red Army. Poland wanted to bring the Ukraine under its influence, to weaken Russia.

27/4/1920, Soviet Russian troops invaded Azerbaijan, ending its independence (see 28/5/1918).  On 28/5/1920 the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan was declared.

28/3/1920, Novorossiysk, on the Black Sea, was taken by the Red Army.

20/2/1920. The Red Army captured Archangel.

8/2/1920. The Bolsheviks captured Odessa.

7/2/1920. The Bolsheviks executed the White Russian, Commander Koltchak.

2/2/1920. Estonia proclaimed its independence from Russia.

9/1/1920. Bolshevik troops defeated White Russians under Admiral Koltchak.

15/11/1919. The Red Army captured Omsk.

12/10/1919. British troops pulled out of Murmansk, Russia.

2/9/1919, White Russian forces under Denikin captured Kiev, and came within 250 miles of Moscow, with backing from the UK.  However a Red Army counter attack in December 1919 forced Denikin out of Kharkov and eventually back to the Caucasus, where he held on until March 1920.  Denikin had a narrow Russophile view, and failed to see the need to link with Ukrainian and Polish anti-Bolshevik forces; he even blockaded Georgia and Azerbaijan, fearing these states would set up independent Republics.

3/6/1919. More British troops arrived at Archangel, Russia.

20/4/1919, A Polish army under Pilsudski took the city of Vilnius, Lithuania, from the Soviets.

8/4/1919. The Red Army invaded the Crimea.

1/4/1919,  British troops supporting White Russian troops defeated a Bolshevik force.

4/3/1919, The Comintern was formed. This was the ‘Communist International’, to spread Communism worldwide.

22/1/1919, The Red Army occupied Kiev, capital of the Ukraine.

11/1/1919. Soviet forces entered Vilnius, Lithiania.

3/1/1919, Part of the Latvian Army defected to the Communists and Communist forces occupied Riga, capital of Latvia.

18/11/1918. Latvia gained independence from Russia, then ruled by Lenin and soon to be known as the USSR.

1/11/1918, In Lvov, the last Austrian Governor, Count Huyn, armed the Ukrainians who proclaimed an independent Republic of West Ukraine, in opposition to the Bolsheviks.

25/7/1919, The Soviet Assistant Foreign Commissar, Leo Karakhan, issued the Karakhan Manifesto. This renounced all former Tsarist rights and privileges in China. Although Russia did not hand over the Chinese eastern Railway (it in fact sold it to the Japanese in 1935), this Manifesto did much to convince the Chi9nese radicals that Soviet Russia  was their only ally.

16/7/1918. The last Tsar, Nicholas II, was murdered by the Bolsheviks along with his entire family, his daughters Olga, Tatiana, Marie, Anastasia, and his son Alexis, and domestic staff, and even his dog, in the cellar of a house in Ekaterinburg. Their bodies were thrown down a disused mineshaft. The Bolshevik government was afraid that anti-Bolshevik White Russians or Czechoslovak troops would liberate the Romanov family and restore them to power.

10/7/1918. A provisional government of Siberia was set up.

26/6/1918. The Bolshevik government in Russia faced enemies on all; sides. In the south, General Anton Denikin had seized large parts of the Caucasus and Ukraine. In the north bands of anti-Bolsheviks roamed at will. Former Czech prisoners of war had organised themselves into the Czech legion and had seized Osmk on the Trans-Siberian railway. Over 100 British marines had landed at Murmansk to keep the Bolsheviks out of that port.

28/5/1918, Azerbaijan officially proclaimed its independence.  Se 27/4/1920.

26/5/1918, The short-lived Transcaucasian Republic broke up.

23/5/1918. Georgia declared independence from Russia.

22/4/1918, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan united to form the short-lived Transcaucasian Republic, see 26/5/1918.

9/4/1918. Latvia declared its independence.

23/3/1918. Lithuania declared its independence.

6/3/1918, In Russia, at the 7th Party Congress in Moscow, the Bolshevik Party was renamed the Communist Party.

5/3/1918. Moscow was declared the new capital of Russia, in place of Petrograd.

3/3/1918. The Bolshevik government in Russia assigned the Treaty of Brest Litovsk with the Germans. Lenin insisted on signing, against the wishes of Trotsky.  Trotsky wanted the Communist Revolution to spread throughout Germany, but Lenin feared the rapid advance of German troops into Russia, approaching Petrograd.

Russia lost heavily in terms of land and industry (Russia lost 56 million inhabitants, 79% of its iron, and 89% of its coal production), but the Bolsheviks needed peace at any cost before their new and shaky administration was overthrown, by Germany or by anti-Bolshevik White Russians and Czechoslovak troops.  Under this Treaty, Finland regained its independence from Russia.  The Baltic Republics were ceded to Germany.  Communists recruited from Finnish labourers joined Red Guards  to try and re-establish Communist control in Finland.  Germany moved in to repulse them.  See 6/4/1918.  Turkey regained territories lost to Russia even in 1877.

24/2/1918. Estonia declared its independence.

16/2/1918, Lithuania declared its independence from Russia.

28/1/1918. Lenin created a Red Army and the Cheka, a security police force.

22/12/1917. The Bolsheviks opened peace talks with Germany and Austria. The Allies accused Russia of betrayal.

6/12/1917. As the Russian Army disintegrated after the October Revolution into bands of raiders, Romania and Russia signed an armistice.

5/12/1917. Russia signed an armistice with Germany, at Brest-Litovsk.

20/11/1917. The Republic of the Ukraine was declared.

19/11/1917. A Revolutionary Council was established in Petrograd, with Leon Trotsky as leader.

16/11/1917. Bolshevik troops took Moscow.

8/11/1917, In Russia, The People's Commissars gave authority to Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin.

7/11/1917 (25/10 in Russia). The Bolshevik Revolution, which led to the world’s first Communist Government under Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov Lenin. Prime Minister Alexander Kerensky’s government was overthrown. See 6/3/1918.

9/10/1917, Stalin joined the Bolshevik Committee.

30/9/1917. The ex-Tsar and family were exiled to Siberia.

15/9/1917. Russia was declared a Republic with a provisional government, by Soviet Party Prime Minister Aleksandr Kerenski.

29/7/1917, Taking advantage of Revolutionary chaos, the Finns declared their independence from Russia.

16/7/1917. The provisional government in Petrograd, Russia, crushed the Bolshevik uprising. The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, fled to Switzerland. However on 7/11/1917 Kerensky, leader of the Russian provisional government, was ousted by Lenin.

29/6/1917. Ukraine declared its independence.

16/6/1917. The first pan-Soviet Congress opened in Petrograd.

18/5/1917. Trotsky returned to Russia from the USA

17/5/2017, Kerensky became head of the Soviet interim government.

17/4/1917. On his return to Russia (from Zurich) with the other Bolshevik leaders, Vladimir Illyich Lenin demanded a transfer of power to workers Soviets.

13/4/1917, Stalin was released from exile in Siberia (imposed 1913).

3/4/1917, Vladimir Illyich Lenin returned to Moscow from exile.

21/3/1917. Ex-Tsar Nicholas II and his family were arrested.

16/3/1917, An interim Soviet Russian government was set up.

15/3/1917. Czar Nicholas II abdicated in Pskov. The 300-year Romanov dynasty ended (see 8/3/1917).

12/3/1917,  Izvestia, the official daily newspaper of the USSR, was founded.

10/3/1917, A Soviet, or council, of workers and soldiers was set up in Russia.

8/3/1917. The Russian ‘February’ (old style calendar) Revolution began at Petrograd. Widespread demonstrations were sparked by food shortages; more ominously for Tsar Nicholas II, soldiers refused to open fire on the crowds. The Russian army had suffered severe casualties against the Germans and was more on the people’s side. Soldiers were defecting and joining the demonstrators. See 15/3/1917

9/1/1917. The Russian Prime Minister, Aklexander Trepov, resigned in the face of strikes, food shortages, and anti-war protests. He was succeeded by Dimitri Golitzin.

31/12/1916, By the end of 1916, Russia had seen some 3,600,000 of its citizens killed or wounded in the Great War, and a further 2,000,000 taken prisoner by the Central Powers.

30/12/1916. In Russia, Gregory Rasputin, the infamous Siberian ‘seer’ and miracle worker, was murdered, aged 44.

22/2/1916. Tsar Nicholas II opened the Duma (Parliament).

For main events of World War One see France-Germany, from 1/1/1870

30/4/1915. Germany invaded the Russian Baltic provinces.

31/8/1914. St Petersburg was renamed Petrograd.

15/6/1914, Yuri Andropov, Russian President, was born in the village of Nagutskyoye, north of the Caucasus Mountains.

5/5/1912. The first issue of Pravda, meaning Truth, appeared in Russia.

17/4/1912, The Lena massacre: Russian soldiers fired into a crowd of gold miners, who had gone on strike in Siberia to demand a reduction in the workday and improved food and sanitation. According to official figures, 270 miners were killed and another 250 wounded, and the dead were buried in a mass grave. This incident was a key landmark in the unrest leading to the 1917 Revolution.

1/1/1912. Harold ‘Kim’ Philby, the British traitor who spied for Soviet intelligence, was born.

24/9/1911, Konstantin Chernenko, Soviet politician, was born.

14/9/1911, Russian Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin was assassinated when a police double agent shot him at the opera in Kiev; he died on 18/9/1911. He had held the post for 6 years; his predecessor managed only one year, in the turmoil of Russian politics. He was ruthless and simply crushed any opposition, which made him unpopular and he fell out with the Tsar, Nicholas, also his Council of Ministers and the Duma (Parliament).

16/4/1911, Guy Burgess, English civil servant who spied for the Russians, was born in Devonport. He died in August 1963 in a Moscow hospital.

9/3/1910, Madame Ekaterina Breshkovskaya, 66, sometimes referred to as the "Grandmother of the Russian Revolution" was convicted on charges of conspiracy and sentenced to exile in Siberia, but her co-defendant Nikolai Tchaikovsky was acquitted.

6/7/1909, Andrei Gromyko, President of the USSR, was born near Minsk, to a peasant family.

19/11/1908, A court in St Petersburg was adjourned when the prosecuting council refused to deal with Russia’s first female barrister.

31/12/1907. 167 Duma (Parliament) deputies jailed for treason in Russia. See 14/10/1907.

14/12/1907, In St Petersburg, 38 soldiers were sentenced to life imprisonment for surrendering to the Japanese at Port Arthur.

14/10/1907. Third parliament (Duma) formed in St Petersburg. See 31/12/1907.

31/8/1907, The UK and Russia agreed an entente, defining spheres of influence in Persia, Tibet, and Afghanistan.  There was an implicit agreement that Britain would not allow Russia to control the Bosporus, and the entente opened up the London money markets to Russia, allowing it to recover from the Japanese defeat of 1904/5.

16/6/1907. The Russian parliament (Duma) was dissolved on grounds of treason.

5/3/1907. Second Parliament (Duma) met in St Petersburg.

19/12/1906. Birth of Leonid Brezhnev.  He was born in Kamenskoye (now Dneiprodzherzhinsk), in the Ukraine.

2/11/1906. The Jewish revolutionary Leon Trotsky was exiled for life to Siberia.

5/10/1906. In Russia, 1,000 prisoners a day were being exiled to Siberia.

21/7/1906. In Russia, the Duma (Parliament) was dissolved and martial law set up.

21/6/1906. The Russian Parliament, the Duma, was exiled. On 23/6/1906 it called on Russians to refuse to pay taxes.

28/5/1906. The Russian government decided to redistribute 25 million acres of land to peasants.

24/5/1906. Czar Nicholas II granted universal suffrage but refused an amnesty for political prisoners as suggested by the Duma.

12/5/1906, The Russian Duma and the Tsar disputed over the release of political prisoners.

10/5/1906. The first Russian Parliament, or Duma, met in St Petersburg.

20/3/1906. Russian army officers were killed by soldiers in a mutiny at Sevastopol, Crimea.

2/3/1906, Tsar Nicholas II ceded some power to the Russian Parliament.

7/12/1905. Russian revolutionaries occupied the fortress at Kiev, Ukraine.

1/12/1905, 20 Russian army officers and 230 guards were arrested at St Petersburg after a plot to kill the Tsar was uncovered.

30/10/1905. Czar Nicholas II of Russia, on advice from Sergei Yulevitch Witte, issued issued a decree to turn his country from an absolute aristocracy into a semi-constitutional monarchy in an attempt to quell growing popular unrest, issuing the October Manifesto. However by the end of 1906 Czar Nicholas, with the opposition divided as to the acceptability of his reforms, was able to resume autocratic rule again.

25/10/1905, The first meeting of the Soviet (Council) of Workers Deputies met in St Petersburg.

21/10/1905, A railway strike began in Russia, which became nation-wide by 25/10/1905. By the end of October this had become a general strike across Russia.

25/8/1905, The mutineers from the battleship Potemkin were sentenced. Eight were condemned to death. Heavy taxation, Russia’s defeat by Japan, and the Czar’s opposition to constitutional government were causing resentment.

24/7/1905, Kaiser William of Germany and Czar Nicholas of Russia signed an alliance at a meeting in Finland.

8/7/1905. The crew of the battleship Potemkin surrendered to the Romanians after a mutiny. Romania refused to extradite them back to Russia because it said the mutiny was a political act. The mutiny began as the battleship was watching the rioters in the city of Odessa. A sailor complained about bad food and was shot. The crew mutinied, on 27/6/1905, and threw the captain and several officers overboard; the remaining 8 officers joined the mutiny. A steamer laden with coal was seized and the coal transferred to the Potemkin.

3/7/1905. Russian troops killed more then 6,000 people in Odessa to restore order after a general strike.

27/6/1905, Mutiny on the Russian battleship Potemkin, see 8/7/1905.

23/6/1905, Tsar Nicholas II broke his promise regarding an elected assembly.

3/6/1905. Cossacks charged at rioting crowds in St Petersburg.

5/9/1905. Hundreds died in clashes between Armenians and Tartars.

30/4/1905, Tsar Nicholas II guaranteed freedom of conscience.

9/3/1905, Russia agreed to pay £65,000 compensation for the Dogger Bank incident of 1904.

3/3/1905, Czar Nicholas II agreed to form a Consultative Assembly.

17/2/1905, Grand Duke Sergei was killed in Moscow by an assassin’s bullet.

25/1/1905, Czar Nicholas II promised reforms.

22/1/1905. Bloody Sunday in St Petersburg when 140,000 striking workers were fired on and 105 killed as they marched on the Winter palace to protest peacefully at Tsar Nicholas II’s regime. The workers movement had begun on 16/1/1905 as a local strike but soon grew to encompass over 100,000 workers. They planned to present to the Tsar a petition calling for universal suffrage, equality for all classes, an 8-hour day, civil liberties and release of political prisoners. The workers were led by priest Georgi Gapon.  Workers in St Petersburg elected a ‘Soviet’ (‘Council’ in Russia), to debate matters such as pay and working conditions. This event sparked the Russian Revolution.

19/1/1905. 75,000 Russian workers went on strike amid growing civil disturbances, and anti-monarchist sentiments, fuelled by defeats by Japan.

16/1/1905, In Russia the Putilov Works was hit by a strike in support of four workers who had been dismissed. See 22/1/1905.

26/12/1904, After months of unrest and riots in Russia, Tsar Nicholas II made decrees to improve the lot of the peasants.

22/10/1904, The ‘Dogger Bank’ incident nearly caused war between Britain and Russia. The Russian Baltic fleet sank two Hull trawlers on the Dogger bank. The Russian Commander, Admiral Rozhdestvensky, later claimed he thought they were Japanese torpedo boats, sent under false flags to attack, but there was widespread disbelief and indignation in Britain. The Russians were fearful of Japanese attack and on edge, guns ready; they suddenly found themselves surrounded by a flotilla of small boats. However when they realised their mistake they did not stop tin help but steamed off into the night. The people of Hull were furious and demanded the British navy chase after the Russians to ‘teach them a lesson’. Only French diplomatic intervention prevented the incident from escalating further. The Russian fleet was on its was to fight the Japanese navy in the Pacific.  Russia expressed regret and provided compensation.

For Russo-Japanese war 1904 see China-Japan-Korea

16/8/1904, Britain protested to Russia about attacks on neutral merchant shipping.

20/2/1904, Alexei Kosygin, Soviet Communist leader and Prime Minister, was born in Leningrad.

17/11/1903. Vladimir Lenin emerged as leader of the Bolsheviks within the Russian Social Democratic party. A walk-out by disgruntled Jewish Social Democrats gave him the slight majority he needed. The opposition Mensheviks (minority) feared Lenin would suppress free debate and institute a one man dictatorship.

3/7/1903, The UK and Japan demanded that Russia withdraw from Manchuria.

22/9/1902. Czar Nicholas II abolished the nominal independence of Finland and appointed a Russian Governor-General.

3/7/1902. After riots in Russia which killed several thousand people, Czar Nicholas II offered to talk to the people.

15/4/1902, In Russia, socialist revolutionaries assassinated the head of the secret police.

8/1/1902, Georgi Malenkov, Soviet politician, was born in Orenburg.

17/3/1901. Anti-Czarist protests by students in St Petersburg were broken up by Cossack troops.

27/2/1901, The Russian Propaganda Minister was assassinated after his repression of student agitators.

23/9/1900, The fifth Congress of the Socialist Second International met in the Salle Wagram in Paris. Of the 1,300 delegates, 1,000 were French; the second biggest contingent, 95, came from Britain. Just 6 were from the Americas and the only Japanese delegate was unable to afford the boat fare. Opinion was divided as to whether the working class should gain power through revolution or through campaigning for universal suffrage.

16/7/1900, Lenin and his wife left Russia to begin a 5-year exile in Switzerland.

29/1/1900, Lenin returned from three year’s exile in Siberia.

1/3/1898, The first Communist Party meeting in Russia; the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party met in Minsk.

13/12/1897, Russia occupied Port Arthur.

5/8/1895. Engels died in London, aged 74. He was an immigrant businessman who, along with Marx, founded the political philosophy called communism. Marx was the better of the two at theory but Engels could communicate these ideas better to the public.

1/11/1894, Alexander III, Tsar of Russia, died.  Nicolas II became Tsar of Russia.

17/4/1894, Nikita Kruschev, Soviet leader, was born in Kalinovka, near Kursk.

10/2/1894, Germany signed a commercial treaty with Russia.

1893, The city of Novosibirsk was founded. In 1891 a survey party located a site for the Transiberian Railway to cross the River Ob. At the site they selected there was just a village called  Krivoshchokovo (‘crooked creek’). Work began on the railway bridge in 1893; by the time the railway through here was complete, the rail workers settlement on the right bank of the Ob had a population of 7,832. By 1925 the town was knwn as Novonikolaevsk and had over 100,000 inhabitants; in that year it changed name to Novosibirsk.

17/8/1892. Russia and France signed a military convention.

9/3/1890, Molotov, Soviet politician, was born in Kukaida under the surname Skriabin.

18/3/1889, Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria, Russian secret police chief from 1938 and one of the most feared men in the USSR until his execution in 1953, was born.

31/1/1884. The Russians seized the town of Merv in Turkmenistan, near a disputed area of Afghan border territory, alarming the British.

4/1/1884. The Fabian Society was founded, to promote socialist ideals.

27/5/1883, Alexander III was crowned as ‘Tsar of all the Russias’.

17/3/1883, Karl Marx was buried in Highgate Cemetery, London.

14/3/1883. Karl Marx, born 5/5/1818, died. He was aged 64, and was buried at Highgate cemetery, London. He had lived in London since his expulsion from Prussia and Paris in 1849. Marx and Engels drew up the Communist Manifesto in January 1848, calling for workers of all lands to unite. He published Volume One of Das Kapital in 1867. He, his wife Jenny, and their children lived in poverty in two rooms in Soho, while Marx studied economic history in the British Museum.

13/3/1881, Alexander II, Tsar of Russia since 1855, aged 62, died from injuries sustained when a bomb was thrown at him near his palace. The bomb was thrown by a group of Nihilists headed by Sophia Perovskaya. He was succeeded by his 36-year old son, Alexander III, who reacted to the assassination with great severity; this included a persecution of Russia’s Jews. Millions of them emigrated from Russia over the next three decades.

2/12/1881, Karl Marx’s wife Jenny died.

24/1/1881, Russia, advancing  from the north, took the Turkmen fortress of Geok Tepe.

17/2/1880, Tsar Alexander II narrowly escaped an assassination attempt by Nihilists as a bomb exploded outside the Winter Palace, St Petersburg.

21/12/1879, Joseph Stalin was born in Gori, Georgia, as Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, son of a shoemaker.

26/10/1879, Leon Trotsky was born in Yanovka, Ukraine, as Lev Davidovich Bronstein.

1878, Russia began the conquest of Armenia.

23/1/1878, In Moscow, a trial of nearly 200 revolutionaries ended in acquittals. However the Russian police arrested most of them afterwards and sent them to Siberia anyway.

18/11/1877. In the Caucasus, Russia captured the fortress of Kars from Ottoman Turkey.

13/11/1877, A demonstration by socialist marchers in Trafalgar Square led to violent clashes with mounted police and guardsmen.

1875, Russia completed its colonisation of Sakhalin. Sakhalin was a Chinese dependencey until ca. 1800. The Japanese occupied southern Sakhalin until 1875, when it was ceded to Russia. In 1905, following the Russo-Japaanese war, southern Sakhalin was returned to Japan. Japan occupied northern Sakhalin in 1920 during the Siberian Intervention but returned that portion of the island in 1925. Southern Sakhalin was taken again by the USSR in August 1945, a few days before Japan’s surrender. See also China-Japan.

13/1/1874, Conscription was introduced in Russia.

1873, Russia forced Bukhara and Tajikistan to submit to being protectorates.

9/6/1872, Peter I, Tsar of Russia, was born.

5/3/1871, Rosa Luxemburg, German Socialist leader and founder of the left-wing Spartacus movement, was born.

22/4/1870, Vladimir Illyich Lenin, Russian Communist leader, was born in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk), as Vladimir Ilyitch Ulyanov, the son of a schools inspector.

8/1/1869, Russian priest Grigory Rasputin was born, to parents Yefim and Anna in Pokrivskoe.

1868, Russia occupied Samarkand (Uzbekistan).

18/5/1868, Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia, was born, the son of Alexander III.

26/7/1867. Russia formed the governor-generalship of Turkestan, having moved into the area to prevent Muslim incursions into their territory.

28/9/1864, Socialist radicals in London formed an International Workingmen’s Association to help unite the world’s workers in revolution. led by Marx and Engels.

3/3/1861. Russian serfs were emancipated by Czar Alexander II as a part of a programme of modernisation.  20 million serfs, about a third of the population, were given the right to own the land they cultivated. But they had to pay for this right, both to the government and the former landowner so many serfs remained un-free.

28/5/1858. Russia acquired from China the territory on the left (north) bank of the middle and upper River Amur, along with the territory on both sides of the lower Amur. This was under the Treaty of Aigun.

2/7/1858. Czar Alexander II of Russia ordered all serfs working on imperial land to be freed.

22/1/1858, Beatrice Webb, founder member of the Fabian Society, was born.

30/3/1856. The Treaty of Paris ended the Crimean War. Russia agreed to demilitarise the Black Sea, demolishing its naval bases at Sevastopol and three other locations. It also renounced its claim to protect the Holy Places in Palestine.  Russia ceded a part of Bessarabia, forcing it back from the Danube River.

1/2/1856, Russia agreed to preliminary peace conditions for ending the Crimean War.

11/9/1855. During the Crimean War, the Russian Black Sea port of Sevastopol fell to Anglo-French forces after an 11 month siege. The Russians demolished the fort as they abandoned it. However the Allies were unable to occupy the port facilities before winter set in and British troops faced a second winter in the Crimea.

28/6/1855, Lord Raglan, British Army officer and commander of the expeditionary force in the Crimea, died.

2/3/1855, Tsar Nicholas I of Russia died during hostilities during the Crimean War.  His successor, Alexander was more disposed to make peace with Britain, but negotiations broke down.

5/11/1854. The combined English and French armies defeated the Russians at the Battle of Inkerman, in the Crimean War. British forces now spent their first winter in the Crimea, poorly supplied. Public opinion in Britain began to turn against the war, outraged by daily reports in The Times from war correspondent W H Russell.

25/10/1854. Battle of Balaclava and the Charge of the Light Brigade, led by Lord Cardigan. The Russians were attacking a combined force of English, French, and Turks, who were themselves besieging Sevastopol. Of the 607 who rode out, only 198 returned. In poor visibility, Lord Raglan noted that the Russians, at the north end of a valley, were attempting to move some guns, and ordered the Light Brigade to capture them; he was unaware of other Russian artillery along the valley. However the British and French won the battle in the end.

17/10/1854. The Allies (French and British) laid siege to the Russians at Sevastopol.

20/9/1854. The Allies, on the banks of the River Alma, gained a major victory over a 40,000 strong Russian force in the Crimean War; 2,000 British casualties.

14/9/1854, Allied French and British troops landed in the Crimea.

8/8/1854, Britain and France put forward the Vienna Four Points they considered essential for a peace settlement with Russia in the Crimean War. These were, firstly guarantees of the independence of Serbia, secondly free passage for vessels along the Danube, thirdly a revision of the Straits Convention, and fourthly that Russia abandoned its claim to a protectorate over the Sultan of Turkey’s Christian subjects. Russia rejected these terms.

27/3/1854. Crimean War began; Britain and France declared war on Russia.  On 12/3/1854 the British and French formally allied with Turkey. See 30/11/1853. The ostensible cause of the Crimean War was a dispute between Russia, France, and Turkey over control of the Christian Holy Places in Turkish-controlled Palestine. The Turks refused Russia’s demands and Russia marched into the Turkish vassal states of Wallachia and Serbia. This threatened Russian occupation of Istanbul and hence Britain’s communications with its Indian Empire, so Britain entered the war against Russia.

24/8/1849, Karl Marx moved from France to England.

4/7/1848, The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels, was published.

21/2/1848, The Communist Manifesto was first published.

8/12/1847. In Britain, an international convention of the Communist League adopted Karl Marx’s principles of the overthrow of the middle classes and the dictatorship of the proletariat.

1/6/1847. The Communist Party, then called the League of the Just, met at a congress in London organised by Joseph Moll. The purpose of the meeting was to secure the co-operation of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in formulating the Party programme. Marx did not attend because of the cost of travel from Brussels. The Party aims were the downfall of the bourgeoisie, the rule of the proletariat, and the establishment of a new society without class or private property. The first Russian Communist meeting was at Minsk on 1 – 3 March 1898, where 9 delegates met. All were subsequently arrested and none played a significant role in later politics.

10/3/1845, Alexander III, Tsar of Russia, was born.

1/2/1845. Karl Marx settled in Brussels after being expelled from France.

28/8/1844, Karl Marx met Friedrich Engels in Paris; their lifelong collaboration began.

19/6/1843, Karl Marx married Jenny von Westphalen, daughter of a Prussian aristocrat.

26/5/1831. The Russians defeated the Poles at the Battle of Ostrolenska.

25/2/1831. The Poles halted the Russian advance at the Battle of Grochow.

22/2/1828. Following the Russian capture of Tehran, Russia and Iran signed the Peace of Turkmanshai, ending their 2 year war. Russia acquired part of Armenia, including Yerevan.

26/12/1825, The Decembrist Army Revolt in Russia was crushed; it had begun on 1/12/1825.

18/12/1825, Tsar Nicholas I became ruler of Russia.

1824, Russia gained control over the fortresses of Abkhazia. However the general population was not subdued until 1864.

4/9/1821. Czar Alexander declared that Russian influence in Alaska extended as far south as Oregon and closed Alaskan waters to foreigners.

27/11/1820, Friedrich Engels, German socialist and associate of Karl Marx, was born in Barmen.

5/5/1818. Karl Heinrich Marx, father of Communism, was born in Trier, Germany, son of a Jewish lawyer.

29/4/1818, Alexander II, Tsar of Russia, was born.

26/11/1812, The Battle of Berezina. The Russians won; French plans to over-winter at Smolensk had been thwarted.

18/11/1812, Russian forces closing in on the retreating French in western Russia won the Battle of Polotsk.

16/11/1812, French troops retreating from Moscow successfully broke through a Russian roadblock at Krasnoi.

3/11/1812, French troops retreating from Moscow successfully broke through a Russian roadblock at Vyazama.

19/10/1812, Napoleon’s forces began their retreat from Moscow.

18/10/1812, Russian forces defeated the French at the Battle of Tarutino, south of Moscow.

14/9/1812. Napoleon entered Moscow, which had been abandoned and burned by the Russians in their scorched earth policy.  This denied Napoleon’s army much-needed winter quarters. Winter was approaching (see 9/11/1812) and Napoleon was forced to retreat. Napoleon failed to persuade Czar Alexander to come to terms, and his army began to leave Moscow to return to France on 19/10/1812.

7/9/1812. Napoleon’s forces marching to Moscow defeated the Russians under Kutzov at the Battle of Borodino, 70 miles west of the city. Each side lost some 40,000 men.

24/6/1812. Napoleon began his conquest of Russia. France and Russia had been allies but relations had deteriorated between them. This day La Grande Armee crossed the River Niemen into Russia. On 28/6/1812 he captured Vilnius, capital of Poland. Napoleon headed the biggest army ever assembled up to that time, 614,000 men of at least 20 different nationalities. Within 6 months, 90% of them would be dead. Napoleon wanted Russia under Tsar Alexander I to join the French blockade of Britain. Napoleon’s army was welcomed as he entered Lithuania and Poland, as liberators from the Russians, who had taken control of these countries in 1795.

For main events of Napoleonic Wars see France-Germany

17/9/1809, In February 1808 Tsar Alexander invaded Finland, then part of Sweden, without a declaration of war.  On this day the Treaty of Fredrikshamn ended the war; Sweden ceded Finland and the Aland Islands to Russia.

21/2/1808. Russia occupied Finland, which was formerly under Swedish domination.

11/3/1801, Paul I, Tsar of Russia, was strangled in a scuffle with his officers, who were conspiring to compel him to abdicate.

6/11/1796. Death of Czarina Katherine the Great of Russia. She died at Czarskoye Selo (The Czar’s Village) near St Petersburg, aged 67.  She had been Empress of Russia since 1762. She was succeeded by her 42-year old son, Paul I.

6/7/1796, Nicholas, Tsar of Russia, was born.

28/3/1795, The Duchy of Courland was incorporated into the State of Russia.

9/11/1794, Russian forces entered Warsaw, ending the Polish rebellion.

10/10/1794, The Polish army was heavily defeated by the Russians, and its leader taken prisoner.

25/3/1793. By the Treaty of London, Russia joined the coalition against France.

23/1/1793, Prussia signed a treaty with Russia.  Poland was partitioned, with Prussia obtaining Danzig, Thorn, Posen, and most of Great Poland.  Russia received Minsk, Pinsk, and the frontier on the Zbrucz.  Austria received promises of help in re-conquering Belgium, as well as some Polish territories.

18/5/1792. Russian troops invaded Poland.

8/1/1792. The Ottoman Turks bowed to the inevitable and accepted Catherine the Great’s Russian sovereignty over Georgia. Britain feared further Russian expansion in the Black Sea as this could threaten British Mediterranean interests.

30/9/1788, Lord Raglan, the Field Marshall responsible for the Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava, was born at Badminton, Gloucestershire.

1785, Katherine II of Russia introduced the Charter of the Nobility. It was a device to enrich the Russian nobles, at the exoense of the peasants, so as to ensure their continued loyalty to her. Under this Charter, the Russian nbles were freed from tax and military service oblicagions, and had no duties except to keep the serfs subdued. The civil condition of the peasants worsened, and many were now virtual slaves to their noble, forced both to slave for him and fight in the Russian Army when required. This Charter made inevitable the future Communist Revolution in Russia.

1783, Russia conquered the Crimea.

3/5/1783. Katherine II of Russia, who was thought of as an enlightened monarch by Europeans, officially introduced serfdom in the Ukraine.

23/12/1777. Tsar Alexander I, who defeated Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812, was born.

5/7/1764, Ivan II, Tsar of Russia, was murdered.

17/7/1762, Peter III, Tsar of Russia, was murdered. He was about to divorce his wife of 17 years, Catherine; she struck first, with the help of her lover Orlov, by rallying the support of the army and church, and had herself proclaimed Empress.

22/5/1762, Peace was formally agreed between Russia and Prussia (Treaty of Hamburg). Russian forces began to return home.

1/10/1754, Paul I, Tsar of Russia, was born.

19/12/1741, Vitus Bering, Danish born explorer of Russia, who gave his name to the Bering Strait and Bering Sea, died of scurvy on Bering Island after being shipwrecked. On earlier expeditions he had mapped the Bering Strait and much of the coast of Siberia.

30/1/1730, Peter II, Tsar of Russia, died.

2/5/1729, Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia, was born in Stettin, Germany. She became ruler of Russia in 1762 in a coup in which her husband Peter III was assassinated.

14/8/1728, Danish explorer Vitus Bering discovered that the Bering Strait was the easternmost limit of Siberia.

21/2/1728, Peter III, Tsar of Russia and grandson of Peter the Great, was born in Kiel.

16/5/1727, Katherine I of Russia died aged 44. She was succeeded by her son Peter.

8/2/1725. Katherine I became Empress of Russia on the death of her husband Peter the Great.

28/1/1725. Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia from 1682, died in St Petersburg. Aged 53, he had established Russia as a major European power.

30/8/1721, Conclusion of the Peace of Nystad. Peter the Great obtained Swedish lands including Estonia, and an outlet to the Baltic and the West.

4/8/1717. A treaty of friendship was signed between France and Russia.

18/10/1715, Peter II, Tsar of Russia, was born.

6/8/1714, Naval Battle of Gangut, in the Baltic; Russia beat Sweden.

8/7/1709, The Battle of Poltava (in modern day eastern Ukraine). Peter the Great of Russia destroyed the Swedish army. Hanover and Denmark joined with Russia in attacking the Swedish Empire.

9/10/1708, Battle of Lesnaya; Russia beat Sweden.

4/7/1708, Battle of Holovsin; Sweden beat Russia.

2/7/1708, Battle of Kliszow; Sweden beat Russia.

1706, Russia occupied the Kamchatka Peninsula.

9/8/1704, The Russians under Tsar Peter I took Narva, (seaport, now in Estonia) by force from Sweden.  Narva remained a Russian port until Estonia  independence in 1918.

27/5/1703. Tsar Peter the Great founded St Petersburg and proclaimed it the new capital of Russia.

13/4/1703, Battle of Pultusk; Sweden beat Russia.

18/7/1702, Battle of Hummelsdorf; Russia beat Sweden.

7/1/1702, Battle of Errestfer; Russia beat Sweden.

20/11/1700, Sweden defeated the Russians at Narva.

20/12/1699, Peter the Great changed New Year’s day in Russia from September 1 to January 1.

5/9/1698, Tsar Peter I of Russia imposed a tax on beards in an effort to move his country from Asiatic to European customs.

18/7/1696, The Fleet of Tsar Peter I of Russia occupied Azov, at the mouth of the River Don.

29/1/1696, Ivan V, Tsar of Russia, died.  Peter the Great became Tsar. He decreed that all Russians should be clean – shaven, or pay a beard tax.

15/4/1684, Katherine I of Russia was born.

27/4/1682, Theodore III, Tsar of Russia, died.

30/5/1672. Peter the Great of Russia was born in Moscow. He was the son of Tsar Alexei.

31/1/1667, After eight years war between Russia and Poland, the Treaty of Andruszow between them divided up Ukraine between them, along the Dneiper River.

18/1/1654. The Ukraine came under Russian domination.

1649, A new code of Russian laws legitimised the serfdom of peasants.

12/7/1645, The Russian Tsar, Michael Romanov, died aged 49. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Alexis Mikhailovich (1629-76).

9/3/1629, Tsar Alexis I of Russia was born (died 1676).

21/2/1613. Michael Romanov was elected Tsar of Russia, founding the House of Romanov, which ruled until the Revolution began on 12/3/1917.

12/3/1610, Swedish troops under Jacob de la Gardie took Moscow.

10/7/1605, Theodore II, Tsar of Russia, was murdered.

1584, The port city of Archangel was founded by Ivan the Terrible. Originally known as New Kholmogory, the city was renamed after an earlier monastery in the neighbourhood.

18/3/1584. Czar Ivan IV, Ivan the Terrible, died aged 54, whilst about to play a game of chess. He may have died of grief for his son, whom he had killed in a mad fit of rage three years previously.

10/8/1582. After 25 years of conflict, Russia made peace with Poland and gave up its claim on the Baltic state of Livonia.

25/7/1570, Ivan the Terrible had many of his advisers and ministers publicly executed in Moscow.

27/2/1558, Russia’s first trade mission to England reached London.

27/2/1557, The first Russian Embassy in London opened.

1556, Ivan the Terrible completed the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan, paving the way for further expansion of Russia eastwards. Russian troops now stood on the shores of the Caspian Sea.

2/10/1552, Ivan the Terrible took the Tartar city of Kazan, using artillery to break down the city walls. The Volga became a Russian river.

20/8/1552, Ivan IV (The Terrible) began an attack on Kazan with an army of 150,000 men, after a faction in Kazan promised him the Khanate.

21/6/1547, Moscow was destroyed by a fire which consumed 25,000 of the city’s wooden houses. 1,700 people died and 80,000 were made homeless.

16/1/1547. Ivan the Terrible, first Russian to assume the title of Tsar, was crowned.

6/7/1535. Sir Thomas Moore was beheaded in London, for refusing to accept Henry VIII as head of the Church of England. Thomas More was born in 1477 in London. He published Utopia in 1515 which described a pagan, communist, city state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. His ideas contrasted with the self-interest and greed for power seen in Europe’s Christian states.

1533, Basil III, Grand Duke of Muscovy, died aged 54 He was succeeded by his 3-year-old son who ruled until 1584 as Ivan IV (the Terrible).

25/8/1530, Ivan the Terrible of Russia was born. As Ivan IV, he killed over 3,000, including the royal heir.

8/9/1514, At the Battle of Orsha, a combined force of Poles and Ukrainians defeated the Russians.

27/10/1505.  Ivan the Great (Ivan III), Czar of Russia, died aged 65. He was succeeded by his 26-year-old son who ruled as Basil III Ivanovitch until 1553.

30/10/1495, An explosion at Vyborg castle deterred Russian forces who were invading Sweden through Karelia.

1471, Yaroslav, some 300 kilometres NE of Moscow, formerly an independent principality, was conquered by the Russians.

1462, Basil II, Grand Duke of Muscovy, died aged 47 after a 27-year reign marked by civil war. He was succeeded by his son, Ivan III,aged 22, who effectively became the first Russian monarch. Ivan III ruled for 23 years and greatly expanded Russian territory.

17/2/1405, Deatb of the Mongol leader Tamerlane (Timur-i-Leng) at Otrar, east pf the Syr Darya River, whilst en-route to conquer China. He became leader in 1369, and went on to conquer Persia, the Caucasus, and the Tartars (in 1390). In 1398 he subdued northern India.

8/9/1380. The Russians under Prince Dmitri Donskoi won a major victory over the Mongols at the Battle of Kulikovo. This prevented the Mongols from reaching Moscow, although they made several further attempts in future years.

12/2/1294. Kublai Khan died, aged 80.

14/11/1263, Alexander Nevsky, Russian leader, died; on his death Russia fragmented.

10/2/1258. The Siege of Baghdad ended with a battle in which Hulagu Khan's Mongol forces overran Baghdad, then the leading centre of Islamic culture and learning and capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. They burned the imperial city to the ground, killing as many as 1,000,000 citizens.

26/6/1243. The Mongols routed the Seljuk Turkish army.

5/4/1242. Russian troops defeated the Teutonic Knights at Lake Piepus, thwarting their planned invasion of Russia.

9/4/1241. The Mongols defeated an army of Teutonic Knights.

6/12/1240. The Mongols took Kiev, in the Ukraine.

15/7/1240. Alexander Nevski defeated the Swedish army, led by General Briger Jarl, on the banks of the Neva.

4/3/1238, Mongol invasion of Rus – Battle of the Sit River: The Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan defeated the Rus' under Yuri Vsevolodovich

21/12/1237, Mongols invading Russia sacked Ryazan.

18/8/1227. Genghis Khan, Mongol emperor who conquered more than a million square miles, died after falling from his horse. Ogodei Khan was his chosen successor.

1207, Jochi, eldest son of Genghis Khan, conquered the Buryat people to his north.

8/2/1191, (-) Yaroslav II, Grand Prince of Vladimir, was born.

4/10/1052, Vladimir Yaroslavich, Prince of Novgorod, died.

988, Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev, sent envoys to study the Jewish, Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox and Islamic religions. He spurned Islam because it banned alcohol, but was impressed by the glory of Santa Sophia Cathedral in Coinstantinople. Therefore Greek Orthodox became the basis of the state religion of Russia.

863, The Cyrillic alphabet, used in Russia and Bulgaria, was invented by Cyril (36), a Macedonian missionary and his brother Methodius (35).

862, The city of Novgorod was founded by Prince Rurik. He stablished the Russian Royal Family which ruled until 1598.

69-66 BCE, Armenia was conquered by the Romans under Lucullus. However they left the Armenian King, Tigranes, as ruler.

70 BCE, Under Tigranes, Armenian rule now extended from Mount Ararat to Tyre on the Mediterranean. Tigranes began construction of a new capital city, Tigranocerta, at the headwataers of the River Tigris.

95 BCE, The Armenian King Artavazd died and was succeeded by his son Tigranes. Tigranes began a 40-year reign under which Armenia became the most powerful state in the region.

190 BCE, Armenia regained its independence.

325 BCE, Alexander the Great conquered Armenia.

 

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