Peru: key historical events (and Inca) (Chavin) (Moche)
Page last modified 30/1/2021
17/4/2019, Former President of Peru, Alan Garcia, 69, shot himself dead as police arrived to arrest him on corruption charges, connected with the construction of the Lime metro system. The Brazilian construction company Odebrecht had admitted paying government officials across 12 countries a total of almost US$800 million to obtain contracts. Garcia had been President 1985-90 and 2006-11.
2003, Beatriz Merino was appointed Peru’s first woman Prime Minister.
2001, Presidential elections were won by Alejandro Toledo, of the Peru Possible Party. Toledo was the country’s first Amerindian President.
11/6/1990, Right wing politician Mario Vargas Llosa lost the second round of the Peruvian elections.
6/1988, By this time some 9,000 people had died due to the Senderoso Luminoso insurgency. About half were guerrillas.
1987, Peru went bankrupt; plans to nationalise the plans by President Garcia were blocked by the new Libertad Movement, led by novelist Mario Vargas Llosa.
1985, The APRA scored its first ever electoral victory. Social Democrat Alan Garcia Perez became President, succeeding Belaunde.
1982, The Peruvian Army stepped up an anti-drugs campaign, cracking down on guerrillas; dxeaths and ‘disappearances’ escalated.
1981, Peru fought a border war (until 1990) with Ecuador over the El Oro region, an Amazonian region given to Peru by a 1942 treaty,which Ecuador wanted as it would give it access to the Amazon basin.
17/5/1980, The Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) Maoist rebel group, founded by Abimael Guzman in the 1970s, began an armed uprising in Peru.
27/7/1980, President Fernando Belaunde Terry of Peru was inaugurated, ending 12 years of military rule.
1975, A new right-wing military junta took control of government. Velasco was replaced, in a bloodless coup, by General Morales Bermudez.
1968, A left-wing military junta took over government, and started a programme of widespread nationalisation.
10/1968, President Belaunde’s government resigned after his decision to pay Standard Oil compensation for handing their installations over to Peru. Juan Velasco Alvarado seized power in a military coup, and nationalised entire industries, including fishing, mining, power and telecommunications. He also instituted extensive land reform, redistributing some 100,000 square kilometres; about 72% of Peru’s arable land. He held power until 1975; his economic reforms suffered from the oil price rise in 1973/4.
1963, Fernando Belaunde Terry, a moderate Conservative, was elected President, He began a programme of land reform, redistriubuting land to peassants, but also used the military to suppress a Communist-backed insurgency.
1962, A military coup in Periu, followed by a further such coup in 1963.
1956, Civilian Government returned to Chile.
1948, General Manuel Odria took power, and APRA was banned again.
1945, Peru remained a very unequal country, with 80% of the land owned by 1% of the landowners; the wealthiest owned over 4,000 square kilometres each; most lay uncultivated. Occasional revolts by the landless peasants were crushed by the Peruvian Army.
1939-45, A moderate pro-US government ruled Peru.
1931, APRA was banned, until 1945.
1930, Salcedo was ousted from power, and the APRA came to Peru as its first political Party.
1924, Peruvian Dr Victor Raul founded the nationalist and radical American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) whiulst in exile in Mexico.
21/8/1916, Peru declared neutrality during World War One.
8/8/1912, The Pope issued an encyclical about abuse of the indigenous tribes in the Putumayo region of Peru.
7/1911, The lost city of Machu Picchu, Peru, was rediscovered by Hiram Bingham.
20/1/1911, Ecuador refused to allow the Hague Tribunal to arbitrate in its boundary dispute with Peru.
3/6/1910, Ecuador and Peru withdrew their troops from the border between the two nations as the first step in the mediation of their dispute.
1908, Augusto Leguia y Salcedo became dictator, ruling until 1912, and again from 1919-30.
1872, Manuel Pardo became Peru’s first democratically-elected President.
1866, The Peruvian-Spanish war; Spain tried to regain control of Peru again.
1849, Large inflow of Chinese labourers, mostly to do low-paid jobs such as collecting guano. Inflow lasted until 1872.
1864, Spain occupied the Peruvian island of Central Chinch, rich in guano, in an attempt to regain Peru.
1844, General Ramon Castilla became President, serving until 1851, and again from1855-62. Under his administration, Peru enjoyed stability and economic prosperity. Its guanoi and niyrate deposits were mined for the first time, and transport links improved.
20/11/1841, Peru attempted an invasion of Bolivia but was defeated. The Peruvian President, Augustin Gamarra, was killed this day in the fighting, aged 56. His death started a civil war in Peru that continued until 1845.
26/1/1827 Peru ended its union with Chile and declared independence.
1824, Spain finally lost Peru after the Battles of Junin and Ayacucho, led by Simon Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre.
10/9/1823. Simon Bolivar became dictator of Peru.
28/7/1821, Peru proclaimed its independence from Spain, after the capoital Lima was captured by Argentine liberator Jose de San Martin, who had also liberated Chile from the Spanish.
1780, Tupac Amaru II led an unscusseful revolt against Spanish rule.
1543, A South American Indian, Diego Gualpa, discovered a rich seam of silver ore in the mountains of Peru. This gave rise to the silver boom town of Potosi and ultimately had a major impact on world finances. Between 1556 and 1783 the mountain of Cerro Rico, or ‘rich hill’, yielded 45,000 tons of pure silver.
1572, The last Inca resistance under Tupac Amaru ended as their leader was executed.
1542, The ViceRoiyalty of Peru was established.
1539, Although the Inca State had fallen to Spain in 1532, a relict Inca State was recreated by a minor Inca noble, Manco Inca Yupanqi, at the remote settlement of Vilcabamba. From here intermittent warfare was waged on the Spanish.
1539, Pizarro founded the town of Ayacucho, Peru.
18/1/1535, Lima, Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro.
16/11/1532, Atuahalpa met Pizarro at his mountain fortress of Cajamarca. The Spanish handed Atahualpa a Bible and demanded that he convert to Christianity. Atahualpa refused, and was taken hostage by the Spanish. The Inca offered the Spanish a ‘roomful of gold’ to release Atahualpa; the ransom was paid, but Pizarro did not keep his side of the bargain. Instead he had Atahualpa garrotted in the main square in July 1533.
13/5/1532, Francisco Pizarro landed on the northern coast of Peru.
19/1/1530, Francisco Pizarro sailed from Spain, with a commission to conquer Peru. He sailed to Panama, and from there to Peru in 12/1530.
1528, Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro sailed along the South Amrican coast as far up as the present day frontier between Peru and Ecuador.
1525, In Peru, Huanaya Capac, 11th Inca King, died at Quito. His empire was divided between his two sons, Huascar and Atahualpa.
1493, Accession of Inca ruler, Huayna Capac. He ruled until 1525.
1476, Inca conquest of the south coast of Peru.
1471, Topa became the 10th Sapa Inca, and began a road building programme to connect all parts of his empire. He ruled until 1493.
1470, The Incas captured the city of Quito from local Amerindian tribes; even then it was a major settlement.
1438, The Inca dynasty that ruled Peru until 1553 was founded by Pachacutec. He ruled until 1471.
1300s, The Incas, whio now ruled the Peru area, began to expand into neighbouring areas, reaching what is now central Chile by 1500. The Inca language, Quecha, was imposed on all their subjects.
1219, Traditional date for the founding of the Inca civilisation in Peru by Manco Capac.
100 AD, The Moche culture began in what is now northern coastal Peru. It lasted until ca. 700.
350 BCE, Emergence of the Nazca Culture in Peru. Huge line drawings were made in the desert, too large to appreciate except from the air. They developed large-scale irrigation systems.
850 BCE, Peak of Chavin culture in Peru.
800 BCE, The Chavin city of Chavin de Huantar was founded. It was primarily a religious centre.
1200 BCE, Emergence of the Chavin culture in Peru.