Peru: key historical events (and Inca) (Chavin) (Moche)

Page last modified 1/5/2019


11/2000, Fujimori fled to Japan, taking US$ 600 million with him, from where he sent a fax submitting his resignation as President. Japan granted him citizenship, permitting him to evade prosecution in Peru.

9/2000, Fujimori suffered a political setback when his right hand man, Montesinos, was caught on video attempting to bribe an opposition politician. Montesinos sought asylum in Panama but was refused; he returned to Peru and went into hiding, with an estimated US$ 2 billion having been siphoned off the economy by him.

4/2000, Fujimori faced strong opposition for the Presidency from Alejandro Toledo, a US-trained economist. Toledo refused to participate in the run-off elections, believing they woiuld be rigged; Fujimori went ahead with his 3rd 5-year term as President, but faced strong criticism from previous allies such as the USA and the Organisation of American States.

22/4/1997, The siege of the Japanese Embassy in Peru by Tupac Amaru guerrillas was ended violently by government troops. 14 guerrillas and one Japanese citizen were killed; the remaining 71 hostages were rescued. The guerrillas wanted the release of 440 of their comrades.

1996, Fujimori got a compliant Congress to amend the Constitution so he could stand for a third 5-year term as President. Judges who objected were dismissed. Newspapers also had to report favourably on Fujimori or risk being shut down.

12/1996, Tupac Amaru, a Leftist guerrilla group whom Fujimori believed he had defeated, resurfaced and took 400 hostages at a party at hosted by the  Japanese Ambassador. The siege was drawn-out because Japan insisted on aiming for a negotiated settlement.

1994, Fujimori was re-elected as President. However his economic policies, whilst satisfying the IMF, had impoverished many Peruvians; two thirds remained below the poverty line, and real wages had fallen by 10%.

6/1/1993, President Alberto Fujimori restored constitutional government in Peru.

7/10/1992, In Peru, the Sendero Luminoso (‘Shining Path’) Marxist leader and former Philosphy professor Abimael Guzman Reynoso was convicted of treason and sentenced to life in prison. The war on the Shining Path had cost the Peruvian economy some US$22 billion, and 69,000 Peruvians had been killed or had ‘disappeared’; many of these being impoverished Quecha indigenous peoples.

14/2/1991, The Peruvian Cabinet resigned over splits caused by an economic crisis.

28/7/1990, Alberto Fujimori became President of Peru. He inherited an economy where payments on US$ 23 billion foreign debts had not been made for 2 years, the inflation rate was 40% per month, and central government control did not extend to the remote rural areas where guerrillas held sway. He got inflation down within 6 months. In April 1992 he then formed an alliance with the military and suspended the Constitution, assuming Emergency Powers. He was strongly allied to the USA, and his headquarters was known as ‘The Little Pentagon’.

11/6/1990, Right wing politician Mario Vargas Llosa lost the second round of the Peruvian elections.

27/7/1980, President Fernando Belaunde Terry of Peru was inaugurated, ending 12 years of military rule.

10/1968, President Belaunde’s government resigned after his decision to pay Standard Oil compensation for handing their installations over to Peru. Juan Velasco Alvarado seized power in a military coup, and nationalised entire industries, including fishing, mining, power and telecommunications. He also instituted extensive land reform, redistributing some 100,000 square kilometres; about 72% of Peru’s arable land. He held power until 1975; his economic reforms suffered from the oil price rise in 1973/4.

1945, Peru remained a very unequal country, with 80% of the land owned by 1% of the landowners; the wealthiest owned over 4,000 square kilometres each; most lay uncultivated. Occasional revolts by the landless peasants were crushed by the Peruvian Army.

8/8/1912, The Pope issued an encyclical about abuse of the indigenous tribes in the Putumayo region of Peru.

7/1911, The lost city of Machu Picchu, Peru, was rediscovered by Hiram Bingham.

20/1/1911, Ecuador refused to allow the Hague Tribunal to arbitrate in its boundary dispute with Peru.

3/6/1910, Ecuador and Peru withdrew their troops from the border between the two nations as the first step in the mediation of their dispute.

1864, Spain occupied the Peruvian island of Central Chinch, rich in guano, in an attempt to regain Peru.

26/1/1827 Peru ended its union with Chile and declared independence.

10/9/1823. Simon Bolivar became dictator of Peru.

28/7/1821, San Martin and his forces liberated Peru, and proclaimed its independence from Spain.

1543, A South American Indian, Diego Gualpa, discovered a rich seam of silver ore in the mountains of Peru. This gave rise to the silver boom town of Potosi and ultimately had a major impact on world finances. Between 1556 and 1783 the mountain of Cerro Rico, or ‘rich hill’, yielded 45,000 tons of pure silver.

1572, The last Inca resistance under Tupac Amaru ended as their leader was executed.

1539, Although the Inca State had fallen to Spain in 1532, a relict Inca State was recreated by a minor Inca noble, Manco Inca Yupanqi, at the remote settlement of Vilcabamba. From here intermittent warfare was waged on the Spanish.

1539, Pizarro founded the town of Ayacucho, Peru.

18/1/1535, Lima, Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro.

13/5/1532, Francisco Pizarro landed on the northern coast of Peru.

19/1/1530, Francisco Pizarro sailed from Spain, with a commission to conquer Peru. He sailed to Panama, and from there to Peru in 12/1530.

1525, In Peru, Huanaya Capac, 11th Inca King, died at Quito. His empire was divided between his two sons, Huascar and Atahualpa.

1493, Accession of Inca ruler, Huayna Capac. He ruled until 1525.

1476, Inca conquest of the south coast of Peru.

1471, Topa became the 10th Sapa Inca, and began a road building programme to connect all parts of his empire. He ruled until 1493.

1470, The Incas captured the city of Quito from local Amerindian tribes; even then it was a major settlement.

1438, The Inca dynasty that ruled Peru until 1553 was founded by Pachacutec. He ruled until 1471.

1219, Traditional date for the founding of the Inca civilisation in Peru by Manco Capac.

100 AD, The Moche culture began in what is now northern coastal Peru. It lasted until ca. 700.

350 BCE, Emergence of the Nazca Culture in Peru. Huge line drawings were made in the desert, too large to appreciate except from the air.

850 BCE, Peak of Chavin culture in Peru.

800 BCE, The Chavin city of Chavin de Huantar was founded. It was primarily a religious centre.

1200 BCE, Emergence of the Chavin culture in Peru.


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