Morocco; key historical events

Page last modified 20/3/2020

 

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For events in North Africa relating to the Islamic World and Arab Spring see also Islam & Middle East

 

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16/5/2003, In Casablanca, Morocco, 5 simultaneous suicide bombings struck at US and Israeli targets, killing 45.

20/7/1999, The death of King Hassan II of Morocco prompted widespread mourning across the Arab world.

10/1969, Ahmed Laraki became Prime Minister, succeeding Mohamed Benhima.

30/6/1969, Spain returned the enclave of Ifni to Morocco; however the towns of Ceuta and Melilla were retained.

31/8/1961, Last Spanish troops withdrew from Morocco.

26/2/1961, King Hassan II became ruler of Morocco on the death of his father, King Mohammad V.

14/6/1958, France announce it was withdrawing its troops from Morocco.

23/10/1957, Morocco began invading Ifni.

7/4/1956, Spain relinquished its protectorate over Morocco.

2/3/1956, The Treaty of Fez was terminated. France officially recognised the independence of Morocco.

1953, The French forced Sultan Mohammad to abdicate over his support for independence.

30/3/1952, Anti-French riots in Tangier, French Morocco.

20/2/1952. NATO agreed to recruit Morocco.

1927, Sidi Mohammad Yousif became Sultam Mohammad V of Morocco.

23/5/1926, In Morocco, the French seized Rif, and the rebel leader Abd El Krim surrendered.

11/7/1925, France and Spain agreed to coordinate their efforts in the Rif War.

11/4/1925, Abd el-Krim defeated the French army in Morocco.

18/12/1923, The International Zone of Tangier (Morocco) was set up.

21/7/1921, The Spanish army was defeated by Moroccan nationalists at Annual.  The Spanish sustained over 12,000 casualties.  Adb-E-Krim, nationalist leader, was eventually defeated by a Franco-Spanish force in 1926. Abd E Krim was held on the island of Reunion till 1947 but was then given permission to live in France.  However he succeeded in escaping to Egypt where he became an inspiration to Arab nationalism generally.

1/9/1912, French troops quelled an uprising in Morocco.

11/8/1912, In Morocco, Sultan Mulai Hafid abdicated.

30/3/1912. By the Treaty of  Fez, Morocco became a French protectorate. This Treaty was terminated on 2/3/1956.

1/7/1911, Germany sent the gunboat Panther to Agadir, Morocco, to protect German commercial interests there from French expansion in Morocco.  Britain was concerned about Germany’s ambitions in Africa so close to Gibraltar. 

16/6/1911. The French army occupied Fez, in Morocco.

3/12/1910. France occupied the Moroccan port of Agadir.

23/8/1908, The Battle of Marrakesh. Abd-al-Aziz IV, Sultan of Morocco, was defeated by his elder brother, Mulay Hafid, who had been proclaimed Sultan in May.

4/8/1907, The French navy bombarded the Moroccan port of Casablanca, after anti-Western demonstrations there.

7/4/1906. The Conference of Algecieras ended.

16/1/1906. The Algecieras Conference – see 28/8/1904.

31/3/1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany arrived in Tangier, Morocco, to give a speech in favour of Moroccan independence. This was intended to humiliate France, who saw Morocco as their own protectorate, and to test the closeness of the Franco-British entente. Germany intended to subsequently ‘grant France limited control in Morocco’, a move supposed to bring France closer to Germany and away from Britain. However Germany was surprised by the forcefulness with which British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey backed France; Germany was further isolated from France, Britain and hence Russia too. This event paved the way for the Agadir crisis of 1911.

3/10/1904. France and Spain agreed that northern Morocco was recognised as a Spanish zone of influence.

28/8/1904. A treaty was concluded in London whereby France would allow the British freedom of action in Egypt in return for the British allowing the French a free hand in Morocco. For many years the nominally independent Sultanate of Morocco had been losing power as it became increasingly dependent on French, Spanish, and German business and subsidies for financial security. In October 1904 the French also concluded a secret treaty with the Spanish. This disturbed Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany who saw his country being squeezed out of North Africa. Wilhelm II therefore landed at Tangier on 31 March 1905. The sultan sided with the Germans and serious friction with the French resulted. On 161/1906 the Algecieras Conference was held. German claims were backed by Austria whilst French claims were backed by Britain. Germany failed to curb France’s privileged position in Morocco. See 8/4/1904.

3/7/1880, Morocco’s independence was recognised by the European powers and by Russia.

1860, Spain occupied the port of Ifni.

10/9/1844. France and Morocco signed the Treaty of Tangiers, ending their conflict. France withdrew from Morocco.

1/7/1844. A French squadron under the Duke of Joinville bombarded Tangiers.

1497, Melilla became a Spanish colony.

1415, Ceuta became a Portuguese colony.

1147, The Almohads replaced the Almoravids.

1062, The city of Marrakesh was founded by Youssef ben Tachfine, founder of the Almoravid Dynasty in 1053.

711, Invading Arab armies brought Islam to Morocco. They founded the Idrissid Kingdom, which ruled from 744 to 788.

429, Vandal invaders crossed from Spain into Morocco, ending Roman rule there.

See also Roman Empire.

 

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