School Education and Educators
“The man who does not read has no advantage over the man who cannot read.” Attributed to Mark Twain
“The secret of freedom lies in educating people, whereas the secret of tyranny is in keeping them ignorant”. Maximilien Robespierre
School leaving age
Limits on child employment
Children & punishmnent
Universities and Colleges – see Appendix 1 below
0.0. UK – see below for events relating specifically to other countries.
1/7/2015, Average annual fees for UK boarding schools were £30,369. Fees have outpaced UK inflation every year since 1990, pricing out many middle class UK parents. Overseas pupils now comprise 38% of the total, the largest groups from overseas being Chinese (21%), Hong Kong (17.6%) and Russian (10.3%).
25/1/1996, In the UK, the results of the first National School Tests sat in May 1995 showed that over 50% of 11-year-olds failed to reach expected standards in English and Maths.
22/3/1990. Teacher’s Unions said teachers in Britain were over-burdened with paperwork.
15/8/1987. Caning was officially banned in Britain, except in independent schools.
24/7/1986. MPs in the UK voted to abolish the cane in state schools.
18/9/1979, Corporal punishment was abolished in all inner London schools.
23/10/1978, The UK Government planned to replace GCE O levels and CSEs with a single exam, the GCSE.
26/6/1977. Lady Baden Powell, founder of the Girl Guides movement in 1910, died.
1973, In Britain, the school leaving age was raised from 15 to 16.
1971, Free milk for schoolchildren was abolished.
8/2/1961, The BBC dropped its radio programme Children’s Hour because TV had cut its audiences.
10/12/1959. In Britain, the Crowther report recommended raising the school leaving age to 16. Meanwhile in Portugal schooling was only compulsory up to age 11. Only 7% of older Portuguese children went on to secondary school, and a further 13% to trade schools.
31/1/1956, A A Milne, English author of children’s books,
including Winnie the Pooh, died in
29/4/1951, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Austrian philosopher, died aged 62.
17/2/1944, In the UK, the Education Bill was published, raising the school leaving age to 15. Also, free secondary education was provided for all children up to age 15, divided into grammar schools, technical schools and secondary modern schools, selection for these by an 11-plus examination. Primary education was divided into infant and junior schools. Schools would provide free milk, subsidised meals, and free dental and medical examinations. There was provision for raising the school leaving age to 16; this was implemented in 1973.
12/2/1943, Lord Nuffield set up the Nuffield Foundation with a gift of £10 million.
30/12/1938, The Spens Committee, in a report to the Board of education, advocated raising the school leaving age to 16.
31/7/1936, In Britain, the Education Act raised the school leaving age from 14 to 15. However this provision was not implemented until 1944.
12/2/1932, In Britain, a Bill was introduced in Parliament to ban the whipping of children aged under 14.
21/1/1931, A Bill to raise the UK school leaving age to 15 was defeated in the Commons.
31/7/1929, World Boy
Scouts jamboree opened at
30/3/1925, Rudolf Steiner, Austrian educator who founded the Anthroposophical Society, died aged 64.
13/3/1918, In Britain, it was announced that the minimum school leaving age was to be raised to 14, from 13; this measure was implemented in December 1918 under the Education Act.
2/2/1914, The Cub
Scouts were founded at
12/3/1912, The Girl
Guide movement was founded in
4/4/1911, The Duke of Marlborough and other former pupils at Eton opposed the abolition of birching at the school.
31/5/1910. Lord Baden Powell’s sister, Agnes, announced the formation of the Girl Guides.
8/2/1910. W Boyce founded the Boy Scout movement in
4/9/1909. The first Boy Scout rally took place at Crystal Palace, south London. The Boy Scout movement was begun in 1908 by Baden Powell; he set up a Scout camp for 20 boys on Brownsea Island in 1908. In 1910 the Scout movement spread to the USA, and became so successful that in 1911 Baden-Powell left the army to develop it; the Scout movement received a Royal Charter in 1912.
17/2/1909. A Royal Commission on Britain’s Poor Laws said no more children should live in workhouses. In urban areas, up to a third of older people also died in Poor Law institutions, which included children’s homes, infirmaries and lunatic asylums as well as workhouses.
8/10/1908. The Wind in the Willows, Kenneth Grahame’s children’s book, was published. It was still in print in 2001.
4/3/1908. The whip was banned as a means of corporal punishment in US schools.
26/1/1908, The first
Boy Scout troop was registered, in
16/1/1908. The first issue of Scouting For Boys, Baden-Powell’s fortnightly journal of the scouting movement, was published.
25/7/1907. Sir Robert Baden-Powell’s experimental camp,
to test the feasibility of scouting,
was set up on
15/7/1906, A Commons Commission recommended providing school meals, and a separate Ministry for Wales.
19/9/1905, Doctor Thomas Barnardo, who set up over 112 homes for deprived children from 1867, died aged 60.
9/2/1905, In Britain, the Board of Education called for greater thrift amongst schoolchildren.
1903, The ‘Common Entrance’ examination was established, to regulate the acceptance of boys into ‘publc schools. A Common Entrance exam for girls was set up in 1947.
8/8/1902, The British
23/3/1902, Major reform of schools in England and Wales. County Councils and large urban authorities took over responsibility for education from several thousand school boards and managers of voluntary schools. However non-conformist churches objected to the use of public money to finance Anglican and Catholic schools, which still retained considerable autonomy in their curricula.
25/8/1900. The German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, died after 12 years of insanity, caused by syphilis..
30/12/1899, In Britain the school leaving age was raised from eleven to twelve; in 1893 it had been raised from ten to eleven.
1893, In the UK, the Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act empowered local authorities to provide education for blind and deaf children aged 7 – 16.
8/1891, In Britain, fees for elementary education were abolished.
1884, St Pauls School, London, moved from St Pauls Cathedral to West Kensington.
15/10/1881, Marie Stopes, scientist and education reformer, was born in Edinburgh.
1880, In Britain the Education Act made school attendance compulsory for children aged 5 to 10.
18/5/1872. Bertrand Russell, philosopher, mathematician, nuclear disarmer, and Nobel Prize winner for literature, was born at Ravenscroft, near Trelleck, Monmouthshire, Wales.
31/8/1870, Maria Montessori, who developed the Montessori system for teaching children, died.
9/7/1870. The Elementary Education Act was passed in the UK, giving compulsory free education to every child in England and Wales.
27/10/1854, Sir William Smith, Scottish founder of the Boys Brigade movement in Glasgow in 1883, was born.
6/9/1852. The first free public lending library opened in Manchester.
21/6/1852, Friedrich Froebel, German educationalist who founded the Kindergarten system in 1837 at Blankenberg, died.
4/7/1845. Thomas John Barnardo was born in Dublin. In 1867 he started homes for some of London’s many destitute children. They became known as Dr Barnardo’s Homes although he never qualified as a medical doctor.
14/2/1845, Quintin Hogg, founder of polytechnics, was born.
See also Morals & Punishment for measures to protect children from labour exploitation and educate them
21/12/1844. Changes in the law now meant no-one under 18 years of age could work over 12 hours a day, and it was proposed to limit teenagers to a 10 hour day. Children under 13 were restricted to a 48 hour week and had to attend school for 2 hours a week.
15/10/1844, Friedrich Wilhelm Neitzsche, German philosopher, was born.
10/8/1842. The Mines Act was passed in the UK forbidding women and children to work underground.
1840, In Britain, the Grammar School Act gave powers to the Court of Chancery to amend the statutes of these schools, adapting them to contemporary needs.
7/8/1840. The UK Parliament passed an Act forbidding the employment of children as chimney sweeps. In 1840 only 1 in 5 of London children had any type of schooling, and most of the rest were working up to 80 hours a week. Chimney sweeping was very unhealthy; sometimes the boys got stuck, their knees and elbows got raw and infected and later they got cancer from the soot. Lord Shaftesbury campaigned against Victorian child labour and got the Climbing-Boy Bill passed as law in 1840. It decreed that no apprentice could be under 16. However this was not enforced until the Shaftesbury Act of 1875.
29/8/1833, The Factory Act was passed in the UK. This applied only to the textile industry, but was the forerunner of many working practice reforms. The Act forbade the employment of children under nine, and children under 13 were to have two hours of schooling a day.
1828, The Reverend Thomas Arnold became headmaster at Rugby School. He began a process of reform, introducing prefects, the ideal of ‘Christian Duty’, and a more rigourous intellectual atmosphere. Other public schools soon adopted these principles.
10/10/1818. The first reference to school exam marks was made, by Dr Samuel Butler, the Headmaster of Shrewsbury School.
5/4/1811, Robert Raikes, founder of the Sunday School movement, died.
1/6/1808. The first students were admitted to Ohio University; its charter had been approved on 18/2/1804.
11/1/1807, Ezra Cornell, founder of Cornell University, New York, was born.
16/5/1804, Elizabeth Peabody, kindergarten pioneer, was born.
12/2/1804, Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, died in Konigsberg.
4/2/1802, Mark Hopkins, US philosopher, was born in Stocknbridge, Massachusetts.
19/1/1798, Auguste Comte, French philosopher and founder of modern sociology, was born in Montpellier.
1796, William Pitt, British Prime Minister, proposed extending the system of Industrial Schools for pauper children to all children working in industry, but this was not implemented.
4/12/1795, Birth of Thomas Carlyle, Scottish historian.
16/1/1794, Edward Gibbon, English historian and author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, died.
21/4/1782, Friedrich Froebel, German educational pioneer who established the first Kindegartens, was born in Oberweissbach.
1780, Robert Raikes opened three Sunday Schools in Gloucestershire. Sunday Schools then spread to other counties.
18/1/1779, Peter Mark Roget, author of Roget’s Thesaurus, was born.
30/5/1778. The writer and philosopher Voltaire died aged 84. His real name was Francois Marie Arouet.
15/2/1748, Jeremy Bentham was born. He developed the philosophical doctrine of Utilitarianism.
14/9/1735, Robert Raikes, who founded the Sunday School system in 1780, was born in Gloucester, son of a printer.
22/4/1724, Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, was born in Konigsberg, East Prussia, the son of a saddler.
5/1714, In Britain, under the Schsim Act, no person was allowed to run a school except a member of the Anglican Church.
21/11/1694, Voltaire, French philosopher and writer, was born in Paris as Jean Francois-Marie Arouet.
19/8/1662, Blaise Pascal, French philosopher and mathematician, inventor of the first digital calculator, died in Paris.
15/7/1662, The Royal Society received a royal charter.
1/4/1662, King Charles II of Britain granted Royal Patronage to the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge. The group of scientists and naturalists had been meeting since 1645.
30/6/1660, William Oughtred, English mathematician who invented the slide rule in 1622, died in Albury, Surrey.
29/8/1632, John Locke, philosopher, was born.
4/4/1617, The mathematician John Napier died, at Merchiston Castle, Edinburgh. He was the first to publish logarithm tables, in 1614.
31/3/1596, Rene Descartes, French philosopher, was born.
1/7/1589, Christopher Plantin, printer, died.
5/4/1588, Thomas Hobbes, philosopher, was born.
10/4/1583, Hugo Grotius, (De Groot) jurist, was born.
5/3/1575, William Oughtred, mathematician and inventor of the slide rule, was born at Eton.
12/7/1536, Desiderus Erasmus, Renaissance philosopher, died.
6/2/1515, Death of Aldus Manutius, the first publisher of paperbacks and inventor of italics.
4/4/1508. The first book printed in Scotland.
1509, St Pauls School, London, was founded.
1506, John Colet (1466 – 1519) was made Dean of St Pauls Cathedral, London.
14/11/1477. William Caxton issued the first dated, printed, book from his printing press in Westminster. It was Dictes or Sayengis of The Philosophres.
24/12/1317, Jean de Joinville, Crusader and historian, died.
1274-Aquinas, see Christianity.
11/5/868. The world’s first printed book, the Diamond Sutra, was published in China. It was found in 1900.
529, Emperor Justinian closed down the Greek pagan schools of philosophy.
105 BCE, The mathematician Heron founded a college at Alexandria.
212 BCE, Archimedes died. He was engaged on a mathematical problem and was killed by an invading Roman soldier when he refused to leave until he had solved the problem.
271 BCE, Epicurus (born 340 BCE) died.
287 BCE, Archimedes was born.
307 BCE, The great library of Alexandria was founded by Ptolemy Soter.
322.BCE. Death of Aristotle, born 384 BC, after a stomach illness.
335 BCE, Aristotle returned to Athens and founded the Peripatetic school of philosophy.
336 BCE, Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoics, was born.
349 BCE Plato died.
384 BCE, Aristotle was born.
15/2/399 BCE, Socrates (born ca. 470 BCE) was sentenced to death for impiety and corruption of youths. He was give the option of fleeing into exile but chose to drink hemlock instead and die.
407 – 399 BCE, Plato was the pupil of Socrates.
428 BCE, Plato was born.
582 or 580 BCE, Pythagoras was born.
6/12/1774. Austria introduced the world’s first state education system.
1905, The rigid system of examinations based on knowledge of classic Confucianism, giving access to jobs in the Chinese civil service was replaced by a modernised system based on a wider curriculum, The old system had become increasingly corrupt during the 19th century.
14/5/1968, French workers called a one-day strike to support the students. The French Franc plummeted.
10/5/1968. Student clashes with police continued in
3/5/1968. French police evicted striking students from campus, sparking large street demonstrations.
2/5/1968, Students rioted in Paris.
31/3/1900. France passed a law limiting the working hours of women and children to 11 hours.
1882, In France, State primary education was made free, compulsory and outside of any Church control.
5/9/1857, Auguste Comte, French philosopher and sociologist, founder of Positivism, died.
2/7/1778. Jean Jacques Rousseau, the French political philosopher born in Geneva on 28/6/1712, died insane in Ermenonville.
28/6/1712, Jean Jacques Rousseau, French writer and philosopher, was born in Geneva.
11/1/1650. Death of Rene Descartes (born 31/3/1596), founder of French philosophy.
1717, School attendance in Prussia made compulsory.
13/10/1973, The Polish Sejm (Parliament) passed a Bill adopting a national system of education, 11 years from ages 7 to 18, 3 years primary, 5 years secondary, and 3 years specialised secondary for certain careers.
5/9/1911, The first adult literacy school in the United States began, when Cora Wilson Stewart, school superintendent for Rowan County, Kentucky, began what she called the Moonlight Schools. The night classes at the county's 50 schools took place so long as the Moon was bright enough for students to safely travel. She had expected that 150 might come; however, 1,200 signed up.
20/10/1859, John Dewey, US educator, was born in Burlington, Vermont.