Education and Educators


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The man who does not read has no advantage over the man who cannot read.” Attributed to Mark Twain


“The secret of freedom lies in educating people, whereas the secret of tyranny is in keeping them ignorant”. Maximilien Robespierre


Colour key:



School leaving age

Limits on child employment

Children & punishmnent


Universities and Colleges – see Appendix 1 below


0.0. UK – see below for events relating specifically to other countries.

1/7/2015, Average annual fees for UK boarding schools were £30,369. Fees have outpaced UK inflation every year since 1990, pricing out many middle class UK parents. Overseas pupils now comprise 38% of the total, the largest groups from overseas being Chinese (21%), Hong Kong (17.6%) and Russian (10.3%).

25/1/1996, In the UK, the results of the first National School Tests sat in May 1995 showed that over 50% of 11-year-olds failed to reach expected standards in English and Maths.

22/3/1990. Teacher’s Unions said teachers in Britain were over-burdened with paperwork.

15/8/1987. Caning was officially banned in Britain, except in independent schools.

24/7/1986. MPs in the UK voted to abolish the cane in state schools.

18/9/1979, Corporal punishment was abolished in all inner London schools.

23/10/1978, The UK Government planned to replace GCE O levels and CSEs with a single exam, the GCSE.

26/6/1977. Lady Baden Powell, founder of the Girl Guides movement in 1910, died.

1973, In Britain, the school leaving age was raised from 15 to 16.

1971, Free milk for schoolchildren was abolished.

8/2/1961, The BBC dropped its radio programme Children’s Hour because TV had cut its audiences.

10/12/1959. In Britain, the Crowther report recommended raising the school leaving age to 16. Meanwhile in Portugal schooling was only compulsory up to age 11. Only 7% of older Portuguese children went on to secondary school, and a further 13% to trade schools.

31/1/1956, A A Milne, English author of children’s books, including Winnie the Pooh, died in Hartfield, Sussex.

29/4/1951, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Austrian philosopher, died aged 62.

17/2/1944, In the UK, the Education Bill was published, raising the school leaving age to 15. Also, free secondary education was provided for all children up to age 15, divided into grammar schools, technical schools and secondary modern schools, selection for these by an 11-plus examination. Primary education was divided into infant and junior schools. Schools would provide free milk, subsidised meals, and free dental and medical examinations. There was provision for raising the school leaving age to 16; this was implemented in 1973.

12/2/1943, Lord Nuffield set up the Nuffield Foundation with a gift of £10 million.

30/12/1938, The Spens Committee, in a report to the Board of education, advocated raising the school leaving age to 16.

31/7/1936, In Britain, the Education Act raised the school leaving age from 14 to 15. However this provision was not implemented until 1944.

12/2/1932, In Britain, a Bill was introduced in Parliament to ban the whipping of children aged under 14.

21/1/1931, A Bill to raise the UK school leaving age to 15 was defeated in the Commons.

31/7/1929, World Boy Scouts jamboree opened at Arrowe Park, Merseyside.

30/3/1925, Rudolf Steiner, Austrian educator who founded the Anthroposophical Society, died aged 64.

13/3/1918, In Britain, it was announced that the minimum school leaving age was to be raised to 14, from 13; this measure was implemented in December 1918 under the Education Act.

2/2/1914, The Cub Scouts were founded at Robertsbridge, Sussex.

12/3/1912, The Girl Guide movement was founded in America by Juliette Gordon Low.

4/4/1911, The Duke of Marlborough and other former pupils at Eton opposed the abolition of birching at the school.

31/5/1910. Lord Baden Powell’s sister, Agnes, announced the formation of the Girl Guides.

8/2/1910. W Boyce founded the Boy Scout movement in America.

4/9/1909. The first Boy Scout rally took place at Crystal Palace, south London. The Boy Scout movement was begun in 1908 by Baden Powell; he set up a Scout camp for 20 boys on Brownsea Island in 1908. In 1910 the Scout movement spread to the USA, and became so successful that in 1911 Baden-Powell left the army to develop it; the Scout movement received a Royal Charter in 1912.

17/2/1909. A Royal Commission on Britain’s Poor Laws said no more children should live in workhouses. In urban areas, up to a third of older people also died in Poor Law institutions, which included children’s homes, infirmaries and lunatic asylums as well as workhouses.

8/10/1908. The Wind in the Willows, Kenneth Grahame’s children’s book, was published. It was still in print in 2001.

4/3/1908. The whip was banned as a means of corporal punishment in US schools.

26/1/1908, The first Boy Scout troop was registered, in Glasgow.

16/1/1908. The first issue of Scouting For Boys, Baden-Powell’s fortnightly journal of the scouting movement, was published.

25/7/1907. Sir Robert Baden-Powell’s experimental camp, to test the feasibility of scouting, was set up on Brownsea Island, near Poole; 20 boys attended. The Boy Scout’s association was created on 29/7/1909.  The camp closed for the winter on 9/8/1907.

15/7/1906, A Commons Commission recommended providing school meals, and a separate Ministry for Wales.

19/9/1905, Doctor Thomas Barnardo, who set up over 112 homes for deprived children from 1867, died aged 60.

9/2/1905, In Britain, the Board of Education called for greater thrift amongst schoolchildren.

1903, The ‘Common Entrance’ examination was established, to regulate the acceptance of boys into ‘publc schools. A Common Entrance exam for girls was set up in 1947.

2/5/1903. The US paediatrician, Dr Benjamin Spock, was born in New Haven, Connecticut.

8/8/1902, The British Academy, London, was granted a Royal Charter.

23/3/1902, Major reform of schools in England and Wales. County Councils and large urban authorities took over responsibility for education from several thousand school boards and managers of voluntary schools. However non-conformist churches objected to the use of public money to finance Anglican and Catholic schools, which still retained considerable autonomy in their curricula.

25/8/1900. The German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, died after 12 years of insanity, caused by syphilis..

30/12/1899, In Britain the school leaving age was raised from eleven to twelve; in 1893 it had been raised from ten to eleven.

1893, In the UK, the Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act empowered local authorities to provide education for blind and deaf children aged 7 – 16.

8/1891, In Britain, fees for elementary education were abolished.

1884, St Pauls School, London, moved from St Pauls Cathedral to West Kensington

15/10/1881, Marie Stopes, scientist and education reformer, was born in Edinburgh.

1880, In Britain the Education Act made school attendance compulsory for children aged 5 to 10.

18/5/1872. Bertrand Russell, philosopher, mathematician, nuclear disarmer, and Nobel Prize winner for literature, was born at Ravenscroft, near Trelleck, Monmouthshire, Wales.

31/8/1870, Maria Montessori, who developed the Montessori system for teaching children, died.

9/7/1870. The Elementary Education Act was passed in the UK, giving compulsory free education to every child in England and Wales.

27/10/1854, Sir William Smith, Scottish founder of the Boys Brigade movement in Glasgow in 1883, was born.

6/9/1852. The first free public lending library opened in Manchester.

21/6/1852, Friedrich Froebel, German educationalist who founded the Kindergarten system in 1837 at Blankenberg, died.

4/7/1845. Thomas John Barnardo was born in Dublin. In 1867 he started homes for some of London’s many destitute children. They became known as Dr Barnardo’s Homes although he never qualified as a medical doctor.

14/2/1845, Quintin Hogg, founder of polytechnics, was born.

See also Morals & Punishment for measures to protect children from labour exploitation and educate them

21/12/1844. Changes in the law now meant no-one under 18 years of age could work over 12 hours a day, and it was proposed to limit teenagers to a 10 hour day. Children under 13 were restricted to a 48 hour week and had to attend school for 2 hours a week.

15/10/1844, Friedrich Wilhelm Neitzsche, German philosopher, was born.

10/8/1842. The Mines Act was passed in the UK forbidding women and children to work underground.

1840, In Britain, the Grammar School Act gave powers to the Court of Chancery to amend the statutes of these schools, adapting them to contemporary needs.

7/8/1840. The UK Parliament passed an Act forbidding the employment of children as chimney sweeps. In 1840 only 1 in 5 of London children had any type of schooling, and most of the rest were working up to 80 hours a week. Chimney sweeping was very unhealthy; sometimes the boys got stuck, their knees and elbows got raw and infected and later they got cancer from the soot. Lord Shaftesbury campaigned against Victorian child labour and got the Climbing-Boy Bill passed as law in 1840. It decreed that no apprentice could be under 16. However this was not enforced until the Shaftesbury Act of 1875.

29/8/1833, The Factory Act was passed in the UK. This applied only to the textile industry, but was the forerunner of many working practice reforms. The Act forbade the employment of children under nine, and children under 13 were to have two hours of schooling a day.

1828, The Reverend Thomas Arnold became headmaster at Rugby School. He began a process of reform, introducing prefects, the ideal of ‘Christian Duty’, and a more rigourous intellectual atmosphere. Other public schools soon adopted these principles.

10/10/1818. The first reference to school exam marks was made, by Dr Samuel Butler, the Headmaster of Shrewsbury School.

5/4/1811, Robert Raikes, founder of the Sunday School movement, died.

1/6/1808. The first students were admitted to Ohio University; its charter had been approved on 18/2/1804.

11/1/1807, Ezra Cornell, founder of Cornell University, New York, was born.

16/5/1804, Elizabeth Peabody, kindergarten pioneer, was born.

12/2/1804, Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, died in Konigsberg.

19/1/1798, Auguste Comte, French philosopher and founder of modern sociology, was born in Montpellier.

1796, William Pitt, British Prime Minister, proposed extending the system of Industrial Schools for pauper children to all children working in industry, but this was not implemented.

4/12/1795, Birth of Thomas Carlyle, Scottish historian.

16/1/1794, Edward Gibbon, English historian and author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, died.

21/4/1782, Friedrich Froebel, German educational pioneer who established the first Kindegartens, was born in Oberweissbach.

1780, Robert Raikes opened three Sunday Schools in Gloucestershire. Sunday Schools then spread to other counties.

18/1/1779, Peter Mark Roget, author of Roget’s Thesaurus, was born.

30/5/1778. The writer and philosopher Voltaire died aged 84. His real name was Francois Marie Arouet.

15/2/1748, Jeremy Bentham was born. He developed the philosophical doctrine of Utilitarianism.

14/9/1735, Robert Raikes, who founded the Sunday School system in 1780, was born in Gloucester, son of a printer.

22/4/1724, Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, was born in Konigsberg, East Prussia, the son of a saddler.

5/1714, In Britain, under the Schsim Act, no person was allowed to run a school except a member of the Anglican Church.

21/11/1694, Voltaire, French philosopher and writer, was born in Paris as Jean Francois-Marie Arouet.

19/8/1662, Blaise Pascal, French philosopher and mathematician, inventor of the first digital calculator, died in Paris.

15/7/1662, The Royal Society received a royal charter.

1/4/1662, King Charles II of Britain granted Royal Patronage to the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge. The group of scientists and  naturalists had been meeting since 1645.

30/6/1660, William Oughtred, English mathematician who invented the slide rule in 1622, died in Albury, Surrey.

29/8/1632, John Locke, philosopher, was born.

4/4/1617, The mathematician John Napier died, at Merchiston Castle, Edinburgh.  He was the first to publish logarithm tables, in 1614.

31/3/1596, Rene Descartes, French philosopher, was born.

1/7/1589, Christopher Plantin, printer, died.

5/4/1588, Thomas Hobbes, philosopher, was born.

10/4/1583, Hugo Grotius, (De Groot) jurist, was born.

5/3/1575, William Oughtred, mathematician and inventor of the slide rule, was born at Eton.

12/7/1536, Desiderus Erasmus, Renaissance philosopher, died.

6/2/1515, Death of Aldus Manutius, the first publisher of paperbacks and inventor of italics.

4/4/1508. The first book printed in Scotland.

1506, John Colet (1466 – 1519) was made Dean of St Pauls Cathedral, London.

14/11/1477. William Caxton issued the first dated, printed, book from his printing press in Westminster. It was Dictes or Sayengis of The Philosophres.

24/12/1317, Jean de Joinville, Crusader and historian, died.

1274-Aquinas, see Christianity.

11/5/868. The world’s first printed book, the Diamond Sutra, was published in China. It was found in 1900.

105 BCE, The mathematician Heron founded a college at Alexandria.

212 BCE, Archimedes died.  He was engaged on a mathematical problem and was killed by an invading Roman soldier when he refused to leave until he had solved the problem.

271 BCE, Epicurus (born 340 BCE) died.

287 BCE, Archimedes was born.

307 BCE, The great library of Alexandria was founded by Ptolemy Soter.

322.BCE. Death of Aristotle, born 384 BC, after a stomach illness.

335 BCE, Aristotle returned to Athens and founded the Peripatetic school of philosophy.

336 BCE, Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoics, was born.

349 BCE Plato died.

384 BCE, Aristotle was born.

15/2/399 BCE, Socrates (born ca. 470 BCE) was sentenced to death for impiety and corruption of youths. He was give the option of fleeing into exile but chose to drink hemlock instead and die.

More on Greek history here.

407 – 399 BCE, Plato was the pupil of Socrates.

428 BCE, Plato was born.

582 or 580 BCE, Pythagoras was born.


0.1. Austria

6/12/1774. Austria introduced the world’s first state education system.


0.2. China

1905, The rigid system of examinations based on knowledge of classic Confucianism, giving access to jobs in the Chinese civil service was replaced by a modernised system based on a wider curriculum, The old system had become increasingly corrupt during the 19th century.


0.3 France

14/5/1968, French workers called a one-day strike to support the students. The French Franc plummeted.

10/5/1968. Student clashes with police continued in Paris.

3/5/1968. French police evicted striking students from campus, sparking large street demonstrations.

2/5/1968, Students rioted in Paris.

31/3/1900. France passed a law limiting the working hours of women and children to 11 hours.

1882, In France, State primary education was made free, compulsory and outside of any Church control.

5/9/1857, Auguste Comte, French philosopher and sociologist, founder of Positivism, died.

2/7/1778. Jean Jacques Rousseau, the French political philosopher born in Geneva on 28/6/1712, died insane in Ermenonville.

28/6/1712, Jean Jacques Rousseau, French writer and philosopher, was born in Geneva.

11/1/1650. Death of Rene Descartes (born 31/3/1596), founder of French philosophy.


0.4. Germany

1717, School attendance in Prussia made compulsory.


0.5 Poland

13/10/1973, The Polish Sejm (Parliament) passed a Bill adopting a national system of education, 11 years from ages 7 to 18, 3 years primary, 5 years secondary, and 3 years specialised secondary for certain careers.


0.6 Switzerland

29/9/1908. In Switzerland, the international conference on worker’s rights banned night shifts for children under 14.


0.7 USA

5/9/1911, The first adult literacy school in the United States began, when Cora Wilson Stewart, school superintendent for Rowan County, Kentucky, began what she called the Moonlight Schools. The night classes at the county's 50 schools took place so long as the Moon was bright enough for students to safely travel. She had expected that 150 might come; however, 1,200 signed up.


Appendix 1  – Universities and Colleges

Colour key:


University fees

Expansion of HE


1.1   Europe

1.1.1.       United Kingdom

2012, UK university tuition fees tripled to £9,000 a year. They were introduced in September 1998 at £1,000 a year, rising to £3,000 in 2004.

2011, Almost 50% of UK  school leavers were going on to higher education, compared to just 3.4% in 1950.

25/5/2000. Oxford University was castigated for refusing a place to a Tyneside State School girl who was expecting 5 A grades at a Level. However on 26/5/2000 Oxford University offered a record number of places to State School pupils, as controversy over its entry system continued.

20/5/1991, A UK Government White Paper proposed giving polytechnics the same status as universities, increasing participation in Higher Education.

1990, In Britain, the Education (Student Loans) Act introduced loans to supplement  higher education grants.

1989, In Britain, the Education Minister Baker called for a large increase in numbers of students in higher education.

29/1/1985, Oxford University refused to award Mrs Thatcher an honorary degree because of her policies on education.

23/6/1973, The first graduates from the Open University received their degrees at a ceremony at Alexandra Palace, London.

11/1/1973. The Open University awarded its first degrees. See 23/7/1969.

1971, The numbers in higher education in the UK in 1970/71 stood at 457,000, up from 216,000 in 1962/63.

3/1/1971, The Open University began TV broadcasts. Regular courses commenced from Sunday 10/1/1971.

1970, The City of London Polytechnic was formed, by a merger of the City of London College, the Sir John Cass College and the King Edward VII Nautical College.

1/9/1969, Portsmouth Polytechnic was established, one of the first under the UK’s 1966 White Paper, A Plan for Polytechnics and Other Colleges.

23/7/1969. The Open University was established at Milton Keynes. See 11/1/1973.

1967, The University of Dundee received its Charter.For 70 years before this, it was linked to the University of St Andrews.

1963, In the UK, the Robbins Report called for a huge expansion of higher education; 17 new universities were created.

1962, The University College of North Staffordshire at Keele received its Charter.

1/1/1962. In the UK, the total number of full-time students in the universities and university colleges stood at 93,524, up from 63,063 in 1947-8.

1961, The University of Sussex opened.

18/5/1961, Plans were announced for new UK universities at Canterbury, Colchester, and Coventry.

1957, Leicester University received its Charter.

1955, Exeter University received its Charter.

1954, Hull University received its Charter.

1952, Southampton University received its Charter.

1950, 3.4% of UK school leavers were going to higher education. In 2011 this figure had reached almost 50.0%

10/7/1948, Full university status was granted to University College, Nottingham.

20/5/1946, The British Government announced plans for student grants.

1/1/1936, The number of full-time university students in the UK stood at 40,465, up from 12,778 at 1/1/1909.

26/6/1933, King George laid the foundation stone of the University of London’s new Bloomsbury site.

1926, Reading University received its Charter.

7/10/1920, Oxford University admitted its first 100 women, to study for full degrees.  They had been permitted to sit Oxford examinations before this day.

28/5/1920. The foundation stone of the London School of Economics was laid.

24/5/1909, Bristol University received a Royal Charter.

1905, University College Sheffield achieved full University status.

1904, Leeds University wad formally founded.

6/10/1903, Manchester University formally opened. In 1902 Britain hosted just six Universities, 1) Oxford, 2) Cambridge, 3) Durham, 4) London, 5) Birmingham, and 6) the Federated Victoria University, which had campuses at Leeds, Manchester and Liverpool. In 1903 the Victoria |federation split into its constituent city universities.

17/1/1903, Quintin Hogg, polytechnic founder, died.

1900, Cambridge University now hosted 3,000 students, as against 400 in 1800. In December 2015 the university had 20,015 students.

1899, Ruskin College Oxford,was founded.

1896, The City University was founded, as Northampton Polytechnic, sited on Northampton Square, London EC1`. It became a University in 1966.

1893, The University of Wales was established.

24/10/1883, The University of South Wales and Monmouth opened in Cardiff.

7/5/1883, The Prince of Wales opened the Royal College of Music, Kensington, London.

1881, University College Liverpool was founded.

1876, Bristol University College was founded.

1874, Hertford College, Oxford, founded.

15/10/1872. University College of Wales founded at Aberystwyth.

1871, Newnham College, Cambridge, was founded.

1870, Keble College, Oxford, founded.

1854, The Working Men’s College, London, was founded by F D Maurice.

1851, The University of Manchester was founded.

1850, The School of Mines was established in London, later becoming the College of Science and Technology. Queens University Belfast was founded.

1849, Bedford College, London, was founded.

9/1845, The Royal Agricultural College in Cirencester was established, and granted its Charter by Queen Victoria. It was the first agricultural college in an English-speaking country. It became a university in 2013.

1832, Durham University was founded.

11/2/1826, University College London was founded, as London University.

2/12/1823. Birkbeck College, University of London, was founded.

1822, St David’s College, Lampeter, Wales, was founded.

1819, Oxford University appointed its first Professor of Geology, William Buckland (1784-1856). His pupil, Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875) was Professor of Geology at Kings College London from 1831 to 1833. Christians were alarmed at possible discrepancies between Genesis and the fossil record.

1800, Downing College, Cambridge, founded.

1872, The University College of Wales was founded in Aberystwyth.

10/1/1776, George Birkbeck, Professor of natural philosophy, was born in Settle, North Yorkshire. He gave unpaid lectures to working class men, and founded the London Mechanics Institue, now known as Birkbeck College, in 1824.

1714, Worcester College, Oxford, founded.

1624, Pembroke College, Oxford, founded.

1612, Wadham College, Oxford, founded.

1604, The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge were granted UK Parliamentary representation (withdrawn 1948).

1596, Gresham College, London, founded.

1589, Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, founded.

1584, Emmanuel College, Cambridge, founded.

1583, Edinburgh University was founded.

1571, Jesus College Oxford was founded by Hugh Price.

1555, St John’s College, Oxford, founded.

1554, Trinity College Oxford founded.

1564, Christ Church College, Oxford, founded.

1546, Trinity College, Cambridge, founded.

1540, King Henry VIII of England founded Regius Professorships in Greek, Hebrew, Divinity, Civil Law and Physics at Oxford and Cambridge Universities.

1519, Magdalene College, Cambridge, founded.

1516, Corpus Christi College, Oxford, founded.

1511, St Johns College, Cambridge, founded.

1509, Brasenose College, Oxford, was founded.

1505, Christ’s College Cambridge was founded by Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby.

1497, Lincoln College, Oxford, founded.

1496, Jesus College, Cambridge, founded.

1495, Aberdeen University was founded.

1473, St Catherines College, Cambridge, was founded.

12/6/1458. Magdalen College, Oxford, was founded.

7/1/1451, Glasgow University was founded.

1448, Queens College, Cambridge, was founded.

1441, Kings College Cambridge was founded.

1437, All Souls College, Oxford, was founded.

1427, Lincoln College, Oxford, was founded.

1411, St Andrews University was founded. This was the first university in Scotland.

1379, William of Wykeham founded New College, Oxford.

10/2/1355, The St Scholastica Day riot in Oxford. Opposing members of ‘town’ and ‘gown’ fought for three days.

1352, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, founded.

1350, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, was founded.

1348, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, was founded.

1347, Pembroke College, Cambridge, was founded.

1340, Queen’s College Oxford founded.

1326, Oriel College, Oxford, and Clare College, Cambridge, were founded.

1314, Exeter College, Oxford, founded.

1264, Merton College, Oxford, founded.

1263, Balliol College, Oxford, founded.

1260, A university was established at Northampton, but it was shut down soon afterwards.

1257, St Peters College, Cambridge, was founded.

1249, University College Oxford founded.

20/6/1214, The University of Oxford received its charter (founded 1167).

1200, Cambridge University founded.

1.1.2.       Ireland

1592, Dublin University was founded. However an older establishment was founded in 1320, connected with St Patrick’s Cathedral.

1.1.3.       Norway

1811, The University of Christiania, Oslo, opened.

1.1.4.       Sweden

1668, The University of Lund was founded.

27/2/1477, The Swedish University of Uppsala was founded, becoming the first university in Sweden and all of Scandinavia.

1.1.5.       Denmark

1479, Copenhagen University was founded by King Christian I.

1.1.6.       Netherlands

26/3/1636, The University of Utrecht was founded.

1614, The University of Groningen, Netherlands, founded.

1582, Utrecht University founded.

1575, University of Leyden founded by William of Orange.

1.1.7.       Belgium

1425, Louvain University was founded.

1.1.8.       Germany

1)      1826, Munich University founded.

2)      16/8/1809. The University of Berlin was founded.

3)      1665, University of Kiel founded.

4)      1567, University of Helmstedt, Brunswick, was founded.

5)      1558, University of Jena founded.

6)      1527, The first Protestant University was founded, at Marburg by Philip the Magnanimous.

7)      1506, University of Frankfurt am Oder founded (transferred to Breslau, 1811).

8)      1477, Tubingen University was founded.

9)      1472, Ingoldstadt University was founded.

10)  17/10/1456, The University of Greifswald was established.

11)  1455, Frieburg University was founded.

12)  1410, Rostock University was founded.

13)  1409, Leipzig University was founded by German refugees from Prague.

14)  1388, Cologne University was founded.

15)  18/10/1386, The University of Heidelberg was founded.

16)  1379, Erfurt University was founded (closed 1816).

1.1.9.       Poland

1576, University of Warsaw founded. Suppressed in 1832, it was reopened in 1864.

5/11/1370. King Casimir III of Poland died in a hunting accident, aged 60, after a 30 year reign. He founded the University of Cracow, in 1364, and codified the law and administration.

1.1.10.    Switzerland

1832, University of Zurich founded.

1559, University of Geneva founded.

4/4/1460, The University of Basle opened.

1.1.11.    Austria

1622, Benedicine University of Salzburg founded. Closed, 1810.

1586, Graz University founded.

1365, Vienna University founded.

1.1.12.    France

1)      10/5/1806. The University of France was founded.

2)      1621, University of Strasbourg founded.

3)      1552, Douay University founded by King Philip II.

4)      1464, The University of Bourges founded.

5)      1461, The University of Nantes founded.

6)      1459, The University of Valence founded.

7)      1450, The University of Besancon founded.

8)      1441, The University of Bordeaux founded.

9)      1437, The University of Caen founded.

10)  1431, The Universitiy of Poitiers founded.

11)  1426, Louvain University founded.

12)  1409, The University of Aix founded.

13)  1365, The University of Orange opened.

14)  1349, The University of Perpignan founded.

15)  1339, Grenoble University founded.

16)  1332, The University of Cahors opened.

17)  1307, Orleans University founded.

18)  1289, Montpellier University founded.

19)  1265, The University of Avignon opened.

20)  1256, Sorbonne College, Paris, opened. It had been founded by Robert of Sorbon in 1253.

21)  1235, The University of Orleans founded.

22)  1229, Toulouse University founded.

23)  1150, The University of Paris founded.

1.1.13.    Portugal

1/3/1290, The University of Coimbra was founded in Lisbon, Portugal by King Denis of Portugal; it moved to Coimbra in 1308.

1.1.14.    Spain

1)      1531, University of Granada founded.

2)      1504, University of Santiago de Compostela founded by Papal Bull from Pope Julius II.

3)      1500, Valencia University was founded.

4)      1483, The University of Palma was founded.

5)      1482, The University of Avila was founded. It was reduced to a college in 1807.

6)      1474, The University of Saragossa was founded.

7)      3/11/1450, University of Barcelona founded.

8)      1359, The University of Huesca was founded,

9)      1348, The University of Valladolid was founded.

10)  1300, The University of Lerida was founded.

11)  1254, The University of Seville was founded.

12)  1208, The University of Casstile was founded at Palencia. It was moved to Salamanca in 1239.

13)  968, Cordoba University founded.

1.1.15.    Italy

1)      1701, University of Venice founded.

2)      1687, University of Bologna founded.

3)      1677, University of Sassari, Sardinia, founded. It reopened in 1766.

4)      1645, University of Palermo founded.

5)      1623, Genoa University founded.

6)      1611, University of Rome founded.

7)      1601, University of Parma founded.

8)      1548, University of Messina founded.

9)      1447, Palermo University founded.

10)  1444, Catania University, Sicily, was founded.

11)  19/10/1434, University of Catania founded.

12)  1422, Parma University founded.

13)  1412, Turin University founded.

14)  4/3/1391, Ferrara University was founded.

15)  1390, Pavia University founded.

16)  1358, Lucca University was founded.

17)  1349, Florence University was founded.

18)  1329, Pisa University founded.

19)  1320, Perugia University founded.

20)  1248, Piacenza University was founded.

21)  1244, Rome University founded.

22)  1240, Siena University was founded.

23)  1228, Padua University founded.

24)  1224, Naples University founded.

25)  1215, Arezzo University was founded.

26)  1204, Vicenza University was founded.

27)  1188, Reggio University was founded.

28)  1119. Bologna University founded.

29)  850, Salerno University founded.

1.1.16.    Russia/USSR

1918, A second university in Moscow was founded.

1804, The University of Kazan was founded by Alexander I.

12/1/1755. The first Russian university, at Moscow, opened.

1.1.17.    Rest of Europe

1635, Budapest University founded.

1632, The University of Dorpat (now, Tartu), Estonia, was founded by Gustavus Adolphus. It was re-established by Tsar Alexander I in 1802.

1467, The University of Bratislava was founded.

1367, The University of Pecs was founded.

1348, Prague University founded by King Charles IV.

1.2   Asia

1867, The University of Calcutta (now Kolkata) was established.

1961, The University of Jordan, Amman, opened.

1857, Madras University, India, founded.

1595, The University of San Carlos was founded at Cebu City, Philippines.

1.3   Oceania

1853, The University of Melbourne, Australia, was founded.

1850, The University of Sydney, Australia, was founded.

1.4   Africa

1948, University College Ghana opened.

1924, Achimota College, Ghana (then, Gold Coast) was established by Sir Gordon Guggisberg. The aim was to create an educated African elite who could administer the colony. By 1938 the College was offering degree courses.

1829, Cape Town University, South Africa, was founded.

1814, Fourah Bay College, Freetown, Liberia, was founded as a missionary college. In 1827 it became a training college for teachers and missionaries, and was affiliated to the Universityof Durham (UK) in 1876 for degree-awarding purposes. Fourah College educated many of the ruling elite of West Africa, and many leaders of various African nationalist movements were taught there.

972, Cairo University founded.

1.5   North America

1.5.1. Canada

1925, The Memorial University of Newfoundlamd was founded, as Memorial College, in St Johns.

1859, Canada’s first Agricultiural College was founded, St Annes, in Quebec. It is now affiliated with Laval University.

1852, Laval University (Quebec) was founded. It began as a seminary in 1663.

1851, The University of Toronto began offering the country’s first agricultural degrees.

1813, McGill University, Montreal, founded.

1.5.2. USA

1)      1925, Trinity College, North Carolina, changed its name to Duke University, after receiving a US$ 40 million from tobacco magnate James B Duke.

2)      1922, Teaching began at the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines. In 1935 this became the University of Alaska.

3)      1920, Honolulu University was founded.

4)      1889, Catholic University, Washington DC, was founded.

5)      1874, The University of Navada was established at Elko; moved to Reno in 1885.

6)      1869, The University of Nebraska was established, at Lincoln.

7)      1866, The University of New Hampshire at Durham received its Charter, originally as the New Hampshire College of Agriculkture and the Mechanic Arts.

8)      1865, Purdue University, Cornell University, the University of Maine and the University of Kentucky (all in the USA) were founded.

9)      1850, University of Utah founded.

10)  1840, Missouri State University was funded, in Columbia.

11)  1837, Michigan State University was founded at Ann Arbor.

12)  1804, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, received its Charter.

13)  1766, State University, New Jersey, was founded as Queen’s College.

14)  1754, Kings College, New York City, was founded. Originally Kings College, it became Columbia College in 1784, and Columbia University in 1896.

15)  1746, Princeton University, New Jersey, was founded, as the College of New Jersey.

16)  1701, Yale University was founded.

28/10/1638, John Harvard left a bequest of 400 books and £700 to what is now Harvard University.

28/10/1636, Harvard University, the oldest in the USA, was founded at Cambridge, Massachusetts by Puritan emigrants from Britain. The General Council of Massachusetts set up a college with the comparatively modest sum of £400. However on 28/10/1638 Mr John Harvard, assistant pastor of the First Church of Charleston, who died aged 31, left the College a bequest of £780 and 400 books. The aim was establish an educational institution equal to Oxford or Cambridge in England.

26/11/1607. John Harvard, founder of Harvard University, was born in London.

1.6   South America,

1948, The University of the West Indies was established, in Kingston, Jamaica; It is sited on a former sugar plantation.

1920, Rio de Janeiro University was founded.

12/3/1903, The University of Puerto Rico was officially founded.

1859, Valparaiso University, Chile, founded.

1842, The University of Santiago, Chile, was founded. An earlier University of Chile had been founded in 1738 by the King of Spain.

1810, The National University of Nicaragua opened.

1787, The University of Quito, Ecuador, was founded.

1676, The University of San Carlos of Guatemala was established at Guatemala City.

1598, Cuzco University (Peru) was founded.                        

28/10/1538, The first University in the Americas, the Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino, Santo Domingo, was founded.


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