Chronography of Denmark

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Demography of Denmark


See also Finland

See also Norway (Vikings)

See also Sweden


For main European events of World War Two see France-Germany


Growth of Copenhagen 1850 � 1992, click for 7maps here.

14 February 2015, In scenes reminiscent of the Paris Charlie Hebdo shootings (7 January 2015) an Islamist terrorist, Omar el Hussein, 22, shot dead Finn Norgaard, a 55 year old film director, at a Free Speech meeting at a cafe in central Copenhagen, at 3.30pm Saturday.The Swedish cartoonist Lars Vilks, who portrayed the prophet Mohammed as a �mad dog� in 2007, was belived to have been the main target; Hussein�s entry into the cafe was thwarted by a metal detector, prompting him to spray some 200 bullets from the entrance. Hussein then went to the Krystalgade synagogue and opened fire, killing the doorman Dan Uzan, 37, and wounding two police officers, at a Bat-Mitzvah, at 1am Sunday. Danish police identified the gunman and traced his address to an apartment in the Norrebro district; by then he was on his way to the synagogue. At 5am the next morning, 15 February, armed police shot Hussein at his apartment. Hussein had just been released from prison in Denmark two weeks earlier after serving a term for aggravated assault.

28 September 2000, In a referendum, Denmark voted against adopting the Euro.

1994, Left-wing gains in general elections. The Rasmussen-led coalition remained in power.

1993, Poul Schluter was replaced by Poul Nyrup Rasmussen as leader of the Social Democrat coalition.

18 May 1993. The Danes voted yes to the Maastricht Treaty.

2 June 1992, Denmark, in a referendum, rejected the Maastricht Treaty.

1 May 1979, Denmark granted Greenland home rule.

2 October 1972. Denmark voted in a referendum to join the Common Market.

14 January 1972, In Denmark, Margrethe II (31) became Queen, succeeding her father King Frederick IX, who died aged 72.

1 May 1968. Legoland Family Park, the Danish toy maker�s answer to Disneyland, opened at Billund in Denmark.

25 April 1964, The head of the Little Mermaid statue in Copenhagen Harbour was hacked off and stolen. The statue was in honour of the children�s� author, Hans Christian Anderson.

1960, Denmark joined the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).

5 June 1953, The Danish Parliament, or Riksdagen, was reformed. The upper chamber, or Landstinget, was abolished. The lower chamber, or Folketinget, now became the entire Parliament.

30 March 1953, Denmark adopted a new Constitution. The Upper House was abolished, and the voting age reduced to 23.

28 October 1950, General elction in Denmark. After the resignation of Hans Hedtoft, leader of the Liberal Agrarian Party, Erik Eriksen formed a coalition with the Conservatives.

20 April 1947, Christian X, King of Denmark, died aged 76. He was succeeded by his son Frederick IX, aged 48.

16 March 1946, The USSR promised it would return the Baltic island of Bornholm to Denmark as soon as Denmark was ready to take it over.

For more events of World War Two in Europe click here

29 August 1943, The Nazis occupying Denmark dismissed the Danish Government, following extensive strike action and acts of sabotage against the Germans. In response the Danes formed the Frihedsrad (Free Council) in order to coordinate and escalate resistance activity. It commanded a Danish Resistance Army of some 43,000 men; several of its members held government positions in the post-war Danish Government from 1945.

16 April 1940, Margrethe, Queen of Denmark, was born.

25 April 1929, The cabinet of Danish PM Thomas Madsen-Mygdal resigned after defeat in the Folketing elections.

24 April 1929, Denmark elected a socialist government.

11 April 1924, In Danish elections, Social Democrats formed a Government after winning 55 seats to the Liberals 44, Radicals with 20, and Conservatives with 28.

10 July 1920, After a referendum amongst the inhabitants, northern Schleswig was returned to Denmark from Germany.

10 February 1920, A plebiscite in northern Schleswig favoured integration with Denmark.

14 December 1916, A referendum in Denmark agreed by 64.3% for to 35.7% against to agree to the sale of the Danish West Indies to the US, for the sum of US$ 25 million. These islands became the US Virgin Islands; they were of strategic importance to the US now that the Panama Canal had opened. The islands were formally handed over on 1 April 1917, just before the US declared war on Germany.

14 June 1912, King Frederick VIII of Denmark died after a 6-year reign, aged 69. He was succeeded by his son, 41-year old Christian X, who reigned until 1947.


Modernisation of Denmark 1866-1907

4 May 1907, Denmark made the use of the metric system of weights and measures compulsory, for official use by 1910 and for the general public by 1912.

9 April 1891, Denmark established a system of old age pensions, for those aged over 60.

1888, The new harbour at Esjberg was completed (work began 1886). From just 13 inhabitants in 1868, the town grew to a population of 13,355 in 1901. The harbour has become the principal port of export for Danish agricultural produce.

1866, The Danish Heathland Society was formed; its object was the reclamation for agriculture of Jutland�s heath and marsh lands. Drainage ditches were dug, the barren sandy heaths improved with clay, and new towns such as Herning constructed. Rows of trees were planted to provide shelter from North Sea storms.


29 January 1906, Christian IX of Denmark died, aged 87. He was succeeded by his son, Frederick VIII, aged 62, who ruled until 1912.

28 March 1904, The British King and Queen visited Copenhagen.

16 July 1901, A Liberal Government took power in Denmark, ending a long period of Conservative rule.

27 April 1900, Hannibal Sehested replaced Hugo Egmont H�rring as Prime Minister of Denmark.

7 April 1891, Ole Kirk Christiansen, Danish toymaker who invented Lego, was born.

14 August 1888, Carl Hall, Danish statesman, died (born 25 February 1812).

26 September 1870, King Christian X of Denmark was born.

13 September 1870, Peter Lehmann, Danish statesman, died (born 15 May 1810).

15 February 1864, Adam Moltke, Danish statesman, died (born 25 August 1785).


Second Schleswig War

30 October 1864. By the Peace of Vienna, Denmark gave up Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenberg.These provinces came under Austrian and Prussian rule.

1 February 1864, Austrian and Prussian troops under the command of Friedrich von Wangle invaded Schleswig, Denmark. Although the British monarch, Queen Victoria, was pro-German, the British Prince Edward, the future King Edward VII � who had only months earlier married Alexandra of Denmark � was shocked; they supported Denmark. The Second Schleswig War began. This event ensured that under King Edward VII�s reign, British foreign policy was pro-Danish, anti-German, and Britain formed a triple entente with France and Russia against Germany.

16 January 1864, Denmark rejected an ultimatum, from Germany over the Danish province of Schleswig.

24 December 1863. Following the Danish annexation of the province of Schleswig on 30 March 1863, Saxon and Hanoverian forces moved into Holstein.


King Frederick VII, Schleswig conflict with Germany from 1848

15 November 1863, Frederick VII, King of Denmark, died.

20 July 1863, Denmark, with no hope of intervention from England, sued for peace over the German attack on Schleswig.

21 March 1855, Trade between the Faroe Islands and the rest of the world was opened to all. Until this date this trade had been a monopoly, first of amerchant house in Copenhagen, then of the Danish Government.

25 July 1850, Battle of Idstedt; Denmark defeated Germany.

26 August 1848. Denmark and Prussia signed a truce at Malmo. Both agreed to evacuate the disputed territory of Schleswig-Holstein.

22 April 1849, Schleswig-Holstein troops defeated the Danes at Kolding.

5 April 1849, Denmark sent the wooden battleship Christian VIII into Eckernforde Bay to destroy a German gun battery. However the ships rudder jammed and she ran aground, caught fire, and then exploded.

2 May 1848. Prussia invaded Denmark over the Schleswig-Holstein question.


King Christian VIII

20 January 1848, Christian VIII of Denmark died aged 50, after a reign of less than 9 years. He was succeeded by his 39-year-old son, Frederick VII, who ruled until 1863, and fought a war with Germany over Schleswig-Holstein.

1847, The Carlsberg brewery business began in Denmark when J C Jacobsen built a new brewery, and named it after his young son, Carl.

1 December 1844, Queen Alexandra, wife of Edward VII, was born, the eldest daughter of King Christian of Denmark.

15 August 1843, In Copenhagen, the Tivoli Gardens opened. They were laid out on part of the old defensive works.

3 June 1843, Frederick VIII, King of Denmark, was born.

26 June 1842, Peter Brondsted, Danish archaeologist, died (born 17 November 1780).


King Frederick VI

3 December 1839, Frederick VI of Denmark died, aged 71. He was succeeded by his nephew, Christian VIII, aged 53.

11 October 1827, Christian Reventlow, Danish statesman, died (born 11 March 1748)

1825, The North Sea broke through to the Lijmfjord in northern Denmark, making Thisted and Hjorking into an island.

4 June 1815, Denmark ceded Pomerania and the island of Rugen to P{Russia in return for part of the Duchy of Lauenberg.

17 May 1814, The independence of Norway (from Denmark) was proclaimed.

14 January 1814, Britain made peace with Denmark, restoring all territories except Heligoland.The King of Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden.

25 February 1812, Carl Hall, Danish statesman, was born (died 14 August 1888).

15 May 1810, Peter Lehmann, Danish statesman, was born (died 13 September 1870).


King Christian VII; mentally impaired

13 March 1808, King Christian VII of Norway and Denmark died (born 1749), after a 32-year reign, having suffered from dementia. He was succeeded by his 39-year-old son (who had ruled as Regent since 1784) was an ally of Napoleon; he now began a 31-year reign as Frederick VI.

For Napoleonic Wars, Danish-British conflict, see France.

21 June 1797, Andreas Bernstorff, Danish statesman, died (born in Hanover 28 August 1735).

6 November 1788, The Triple Alliance (Britain, the Dutch Republic and Prussia; an alliance aimed at preserving peace within Europe) persuaded Denmark to pull its troops out of Sweden. Denmark had invaded Sweden September 1788 whilst Sweden was engaged in an ussuccesful war against Russia, to recover former Danbish territories in southern Sweden.

25 August 1785, Adam Moltke, Danish statesman, was born (died 15/.2/1864).

1784, Denmark abolished serfdom,

17 November 1780, Peter Brondsted, Danish archaeologist, was born (died 26 June 1842)

28 April 1772, Johan Frederick Struensee, Danish poilician, was executed for sedition against the monarch (born 1731 in Halle)

18 February 1772, Johann Bernstorff, Danish statesman, died (born 13 May 1712).

5 December 1770, In Denmark, Count Johann von Struensee, lover of Queen Caroline Matilda, was now effectively ruler of the country, due to the mental derangement of King Christian VII. He started reforms including a free press and curbs on the aristocracy.

14 January 1766, King Frederick V of Denmark diedaged 42 after a 20 year reign. He was succeeded by his semi-idiot son, aged 16, who married the 16-year-old daughter of the Prince of Wales, Caroline Matilda. He held nominal office as King until 1808 as Christian VII.


11 March 1748, Christian Reventlow, Danish statesman, was born (died 11 Ocxtober 1827)

6 April 1746, Christian VI of Denmark died aged 47. He was succeeded by his son, 23, Frederick V, who reigned until 1766.

28 August 1735, Andreas Bernstorff, Danish statesman, was born in Hanover (died 21 June 1797)

20 November 1720, Peder Tordenskjold, Danish naval hero, died in a duel (born 28 October 1691 in Trondhjem


King Frederick IV

12 October 1730, Frederick IV of Denmark died, the day after his 59th birthday, at Odense. He had reigned for 31 years, and lost some territory in Germany He was succeeded by his 31-year old son, Christian VI, who ruled until 1746.

20 October 1728, A major fire that destroyed a quarter of Copenhagen started. It burned until 23 October 1728.

13 May 1712, Johann Bernstorff, Danish statesman, was born (died 18 February 1772);

10 November 1710, Adam Moltke, Danish courtier, was born (died 25 September 1792).

28 February 1710, Sweden defeated a force of 14,000 Danes at the Battle of Helsingborg.

18 August 1700, By the Treaty of Travendal, Denmark returned Schleswig to the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, and promised not to undertake any more hostilities against Sweden.

25 August 1699, Christian V, King of Norway and Denmark, died in a hunting accident (born 15 April 1646). He was succeeded by his 28-year-old son who ruled until 1730 as King Frederick IV.


8 April 1697, Neils Juel, Danish Admiral, died (born 8 May 1629)

28 October 1691, Peder Tordenskjold, Danish naval hero, was born in trondhjem (died 20 November 1720 in a duel)

14 July 1677, At the Battle of Landskrona, Sweden defeated Denmark.

31 May 1677, Danish ships defeated a Swedish naval force.

11 June 1676, Battle of Entholm, Northern Wars. The Danish fleet under Admiral van Tromp defeated the Swedes.

1675, Denmark declared war on Sweden.

12 March 1699, Peder Griffenfeldt, Danish statesman, died (born 24 March 1635).

13 October 1673, Kristoffer Gabel, Danish statesman, died (born 6 January 1617).

9 February 1670, Frederick III, King of Denmark, died aged 60 (acceded 1648). He was succeeded by his 23-year-old son who ruled for 29 years as Christian V.

12 November 1667, Hans Nansen, Danish statesman, died (born 28 November 1598).

1660, King Frederick III of Denmark promulgated a new Constitution, removing the priveliges of the nobility and creating an Absolute Monarchy.

23 September 1666, Hanibal Sehested, Danish statesman, died in Paris (born 1609)

26 July 1666, Hans Svane, Danish statesman, died (born in Horsens 27 March 1606)


Resumption of hostilities by Sweden

27 May 1660, The Treaty of Copenhagen. Denmark recovered some of its losses from the Peace of Roskilde (26 February 1658). Denmark recovered Trondheim and the island of Bornholm.

11 February 1659, Furtehr Dutch intervention in support of Denmark against Sweden at Copenhagen.

29 October 1658, King Charles X of Sweden was forced to abandon his siege of Copenhagen (see 17 July 1658) when the Dutch fleet came to Denmark�s aid defeated the Swedish navy.

17 July 1658, Despite the Peace of Roskilde (26 February 1658), and without a declaration of war, Charles X of Sweden suddenly began an invasion of Denmark, to try and eliminate an inconvenient neighbour once and for all. The Swedish army landed at Korsor, Zeeland, and Copenhagen was poorly defended. However the Danes rallied vigorously against the Swedish threat and by 1 September 1658 the defenders of Copenhagen numbered 7,000, up from 2,000 earlier. See 29 October 1658.

Resumption of hostilities by Sweden


Denmark-Sweden War

26 February 1658, The Peace of Roskilde, The Danes ceded the three provinces of Scania, the southern tip of Scandinavia, also the island of Bornholm, and Baahus and Trondheim in Norway, to Sweden. Denmark also promised not to make any anti-Swedish alliances and to exempt all Swedish vessels from tolls when passing through Danish waters out of the Baltic.See 27 May 1660.

4 February 1658, King Charles X of Sweden took advantage of the freezing of the Baltic between Sweden and Denmark to march his army across and attack Copenhagen, an event Denmark was not prepared for. Danish forces were overwhelmed, and King Frederick III at once sued for peace.

24 October 1657, Battle of Frederiksodde. 4,000 Swedish soldier under Count Karl Gustav Wrangel defeated the Danes under Marshal Bilde, who was killed in battle. Sweden now dominated mainland Denmark.

23 April 1657, The Danish Rigsraad approved a Danish attack on Sweden, believing the Swedes to be occupied with an invasion of Poland they had begun in 7/1654. However see 4 February 1658.

Denmark-Sweden War


6 July 1648, King Frederick III of Denmark was officially crowned, only after he had agreed to a diminution of Royal powers.

28 February 1648, Christian IV, King of Denmark, died. Born 1577, he ruled from 1588.

8 February 1645, By the Peace of Bromsebro, Sweden acquired Osel and Gotland from Denmark. Denmark also lost Jemteland and Herjedal in Norway.

13 October 1644, Naval Battle of Fehmarn. In the Fehmarn Strait, Baltic, the Swedish navy under Karl Gustav Wrangel defeated the Danes under Pros Mund. The Danes lost 1200 men to the Swedes 100.

1 October 1643, Frederick III, King of Denmark, married Sophia Amelia of Brunswick.

24 March 1635, Peder Griffenfeldt, Danish statesman, was born (died 12 March 1699).

15 July 1631, Jens Juel, Danish statesman, was born.

7 June 1629, Peace of Lubeck. Denmark withdrew from the war, and gave up the north German Bishoprics, also Holstein, Stormarn and Ditmarschen, and agreed not to interfere in the politics of Lower Saxony.

8 May 1629, Neils Juel, Danish Admiral, was born (died 8 April 1697).

2 September 1628, Battle of Wolgast. Wallenstein heavily defeated Christian of Denmark.

24 August 1626, Battle of Lutter, Germany. Christian of Denmark was heavily defeated by Tilly. Christian lost half his army, and fled. Many Protestant Princes now sued for peace, the fortunes of the Protestants being at a major low.

6 January 1617, Kristoffer Gabel, Danish statesman, was born (died 13 October 1673).

18 March 1609, Frederick III, King of Denmark, born.

27 March 1606, Hans Svane, Danish statesman, was born in Horsens (died 26 July 1668)

28 November 1598, Hans Nansen, Danish statesman, was born (died 12 November 1667).

4 April 1588, Frederick II, King of Denmark, died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 10-year old son, Christian IV(1577-1648).

1585, Kronborg Castle at Elsinore (Helsingor) was completed for King Frederick II. It stands on the site of an earlier castle built in the early 1400s by Eric of Pomerania, to enforce collection of tolls on foreign ships passing througb the Oresund.

11 July 1581, Peder Skram, Danish naval hero, died in Urup.

24 October 1575, Peder Ox, Danish Finance Minister who greatly contributed to the prosperity of his country, died (born 1520).

20 July 1572, Frederick II, King of Denmark and Norway, married his cousin Sophuia of Mecklenburg.


Nordic Seven Years War, Denmark vs Sweden

13 December 1570, The Peace of Stettin ended the war between Sweden and Denmark, recognising Swedish independence. The Nordic War had been unpopular in Denmark, with the closure of The Sound (to blockade Sweden) proving exasperating for the maritime powers.

5 December 1570, Johan Friis, Danish statesman, died (born 1494)

25 June 1565, Herluf Trolle, Danish naval hero, died in Copenhagen, after abjuring medical treatment for injuroes so his crew could be better treated (born 14 January 1516 in Lillo)

30 May 1563, The Nordic Seven Years War began between Denmark and Sweden.

Nordic Seven Years War, Denmark vs Sweden


King Christian III

1 January 1559, Christian III, King of Denmark and Norway, died aged 55 after a reign of nearly 24 years. He was succeeded by his 24-year-old son as Frederick II, who reigned for 29 years.

2 September 1537, Protestant �superintendents� were appointed in Denmark to replace the former Catholic Bishops (see 27 September 1536).

29 July 1536, End of the Count�s War in Denmark (began 1534). CountChristopher of Oldenburg, great nephew of King Christian I, Catholic, contested with Frederick�s son, Christian III. The poorer people supported the Catholics. Forces loyal to Protestant Christian III, backed by the Holstein Dukes and Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, captured Copenhagen this day, This ensured the primacy of Lutheranism over Roman Catholicism in Denmark. The property of the Catholic Bishops was now confiscated by the Danish State.

11 June 1535, A Danish-Swedish army led by King Christian III of Denmark and Norway defeated the army and navy of the Hanseatic port of Lubeck. The era of Hanseatic naval power ended. Christian III was able to conquer the island of Fyn and all of Zeeland except for Copenhagen.

1 July 1534, Frederick II, King of Denmark, was born.

10 April 1533, King Frederick I of Denmark died aged 62 (acceded 1523). Civil war ensured in Denmark, the Counts War, because the Diet refused to acknowledge the succession of his son, Christian, because he was a Lutheran. The Diet supported the accession of Frederick�s younger infant son, Hans. He was succeeded as King of Denmark and Norway by his 30-tear-old son, who ruled as King Christian III until 1559.


King Christian II

1523, End of the reign of King Christian II (acceded 1513).

6 June 1523, Gustavus Vasa, aged 27, was elected King of Sweden, and finally established full independence from Denmark. End of the Kalmar Union. This was confirmed by the Treaty of Malmo, 1524.

20 January 1513, King John I of Denmark (who was also King John II of Sweden, 1497-1501), died after a 32-year reign. He founded the Danish Navy. He was succeeded by his 32-year-old son as King Christian II of Denmark and Norway, but Sweden under Sten Mure the Younger refused to accept his rule.


14 January 1516, Herluf Trolle, Danish naval hero, was born in Lillo (died 25 June 1565 in Copenhagen, after abjuring medical treatment for injuroes so his crew could be better treated)

21 May 1481, Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway, died (born 1426) and was succeeded by his son John (1481-1513).

20 June 1448, The Swedish nobility chose Karl Knuttson as King; however the Danes chose Count Christian of Oldenburg.

1448, King Christopher III died without an heir.

1439, King Eric VII was deposed, in favour of his nephew, Christopher of Bavaria.


Queen Margaret

28 October 1412, Margaret, Queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, died succenly aged 59, on her ship at Flensbyrg Harbour (acceded as Regent 1375).

20 June 1397. The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under one monarch. See 1380. However the Swedes and Norwegians disliked this Union, although the Swedish aristocracy and clergy were in favour of it. Denmark was seen to be dominant, although Sweden was the wealthier country. The Norwegians lacked the strength to resist, but the Swedes continued to agitate for independence from Denmark. See 6 June 1523.

1380, Hakon, King of Norway, died. His surviving wife was Queen Margaret (born 1353, married 1363, and daughter of Valdemar IV, King of Denmark). Her son Olaf died in 1387, which meant she became ruler of Denmark also. She defeated Albert, King of Sweden, thereby gaining that country too. Margaret then instituted the Union of Kalmar, 1397, to permanently unite these three countries. Margaret died in 1412.


King Valdemar IV / King Olaf II

1387, King Olaf II died aged 17 after a 12-year reign and was succeeded by his 34-year old mother Margaret who had been Regent. She united Scandinavia (Kalmar Union).

24 October 1375, End of the reign of King Valdemar IV (acceded 26 June 1340). His death at age 55, after he had recovered most of Schleswig, was followed by the accession of his 5-year-old grandson who ruled until 1387 as Olaf II, with his mother Margaret as Regent.

26 June 1340, Accession of King Valdemar IV of Denmark who ruled until 1375. The period of anarchy oin Denmark (see 1331) ended with the murder of Gerhard, Count of Holstein.


1331, End of the reign of King Christopher II (acceded 1319). He had abdicated under pressure from Gerhard, Count of Holstein, who now priceeded to establish German noblemen in all major Danish fortresses and give major trading concessions to German merchants. 8 years of anarchy followed, see 26 June 1340.

28 March 1241, King Waldemar II of Denmark died, shortly after completing his reform of the Danish legal code (Jydske Lov)

12 November 1202, Waldemar II, second son of Waldemar I and brother of Canute IV, became King of Denmark.

1182, Waldemar the Great of Denmark died aged 51 after a 25-year reign. He was succeded by his 19-year-old son as King Canute IV. He reigned until 1202, extending Danish sovereignty over Pomerania and Holstein.

9 August 1157. Compact of Roskilde. Waldemar became King of Denmark.

1169, Absalom (Axel) (1128-1201) founded the fortress of Havn, now known as Copenhagen. He fought the Wends in 1169, capturing Rugen for Denmark. In 1184 he also captured Mecklenburg and Pomerania.

28 April 1074, Svein Estridsson, King of Denmark, died. He was succeeded by his son, Harald III.

1047, Magnus I died after 12 years rule as King of Norway and five years as King of Denmark. He was succeeded I Norway by Harald Haadraade, 32, who ruled until 1066 as Harald II. In Denmark he was succeeded by Sweyn Estrithson, grandson of Sweyn Forkbeard, who ruled until 1075 as Sweyn II.

10161035, Under King Canute the Great, all of Scandinavia and England were united.

951, Earliest record of the Bishopric of Aarhus (Denmark).

850, Gorm the Elder united Jutland and the Danish Islands, and became King of Denmark.

Ca. 800, First settlement of the Faeroe Islands, by Grim Kamban. He left Norway to escape the tyranny of Harold Haarfager. There may have been already a small colony of Scottish and Irish monks at Sudero, which he dispersed.

768,The major Viking settlement of Hedeby was founded in Denmark.

517, The first documented Viking raid on Gaul. The Viking King Hygelac was killed and his fleet defeated.

500, Danes from Scania (southern Sweden) settled in Jutland (Denmark).

8,000 BCE, Start of hunter-gatherer peoples in Scandinavia, as the climate warmed.


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