Chronography of Denmark
Click Here for map of Danish railway and border changes
See also Finland
See also Norway (Vikings)
See also Sweden
European events of World War Two see France-Germany
Growth of Copenhagen 1850 � 1992,
click for 7� maps here.
14/2/2015, In scenes reminiscent of the Paris Charlie Hebdo shootings (7/1/2015) an Islamist terrorist, Omar el Hussein, 22, shot dead Finn Norgaard,
a 55 year old film director, at a Free Speech meeting at a cafe in central
Copenhagen, at 3.30pm Saturday.� The
Swedish cartoonist Lars Vilks, who portrayed the prophet Mohammed
as a �mad dog� in 2007, was belived to have been the main target; Hussein�s
entry into the cafe was thwarted by a metal detector, prompting him to spray
some 200 bullets from the entrance. Hussein then went to the Krystalgade synagogue
and opened fire, killing the doorman Dan Uzan, 37, and wounding two police
officers, at a Bat-Mitzvah, at 1am Sunday. Danish police identified the gunman
and traced his address to an apartment in the Norrebro district; by then he was
on his way to the synagogue. At 5am the next morning, 15 February, armed police
at his apartment. Hussein had just been released from prison in
Denmark two weeks earlier after serving a term for aggravated assault.
28/9/2000, In a referendum, Denmark
voted against adopting the Euro.
gains in general elections. The Rasmussen-led coalition remained in power.
1993, Poul Schluter
was replaced by Poul
Nyrup Rasmussen as leader of the Social Democrat coalition.
18/5/1993. The Danes
voted yes to the Maastricht Treaty.
2/6/1992, Denmark, in
a referendum, rejected the Maastricht Treaty.
granted Greenland home rule.
voted in a referendum to join the Common Market.
14/1/1972, In Denmark, Margrethe II (31) became Queen, succeeding her
Frederick IX, who died aged 72.
1/5/1968. Legoland Family
Park, the Danish toy maker�s answer to
Disneyland, opened at Billund in Denmark.
25/4/1964, The head of the Little Mermaid statue in
Copenhagen Harbour was hacked off and stolen. The statue was in honour of the
children�s� author, Hans Christian Anderson.
1960, Denmark joined the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
5/6/1953, The Danish Parliament, or
Riksdagen, was reformed. The upper chamber, or Landstinget, was abolished. The
lower chamber, or Folketinget, now became the entire Parliament.
30/3/1953, Denmark adopted a new Constitution. The Upper
House was abolished, and the voting age reduced to 23.
28/10/1950, General elction in Denmark. After the resignation of Hans Hedtoft,
leader of the Liberal Agrarian Party, Erik Eriksen formed a coalition with the
20/4/1947, Christian X, King
of Denmark, died aged 76. He was succeeded by his son Frederick IX, aged 48.
For more events of World War Two in Europe
29/8/1943, The Nazis
occupying Denmark dismissed the Danish Government, following extensive strike
action and acts of sabotage against the Germans. In response the Danes formed
the Frihedsrad (Free Council) in
order to coordinate and escalate resistance activity. It commanded a Danish
Resistance Army of some 43,000 men; several of its members held government
positions in the post-war Danish Government from 1945.
16/4/1940, Margrethe, Queen of Denmark, was born.
24/4/1929, Denmark elected a socialist government.
11/4/1924, In Danish elections, Social Democrats formed a
Government after winning 55 seats to the Liberals 44, Radicals with 20, and
Conservatives with 28.
10/7/1920, After a referendum amongst the inhabitants,
northern Schleswig was returned to Denmark
10/2/1920, A plebiscite in northern Schleswig favoured
integration with Denmark.
14/12/1916, A referendum in Denmark agreed by 64.3% for to 35.7% against to agree to
the sale of the Danish West Indies to the US, for the sum of US$ 25 million.
These islands became the US Virgin Islands; they were of strategic importance
to the US now that the Panama Canal had opened. The islands were formally
handed over on 1/4/1917, just before the US
declared war on Germany.
14/6/1912, King Frederick
VIII of Denmark died after a 6-year reign, aged 69. He was succeeded
by his son, 41-year old Christian X, who reigned until 1947.
Modernisation of Denmark 1866-1907
Denmark made the use of the metric system of weights and measures compulsory,
for official use by 1910 and for the general public by 1912.
9/4/1891, Denmark established a system of old age
pensions, for those aged over 60.
1888, The new harbour at Esjberg was completed (work began
1886). From just 13 inhabitants in 1868, the town grew to a population of
13,355 in 1901. The harbour has become the principal port of export for Danish
1866, The Danish Heathland Society was formed; its object was the reclamation
for agriculture of Jutland�s heath and marsh lands. Drainage ditches were dug,
the barren sandy heaths improved with clay, and new towns such as Herning constructed. Rows of trees were
planted to provide shelter from North Sea storms.
29/1/1906, Christian IX
of Denmark died, aged 87. He was succeeded by his son, Frederick VIII, aged 62, who
ruled until 1912.
28/3/1904, The British King and Queen visited Copenhagen.
16/7/1901, A Liberal Government took power in Denmark, ending
a long period of Conservative rule.
27/4/1900, Hannibal Sehested replaced Hugo Egmont
H�rring as Prime Minister of Denmark.
7/4/1891, Ole Kirk Christiansen, Danish toymaker who
invented Lego, was born.
14/8/1888, Carl Hall, Danish statesman, died (born
26/9/1870, King Christian
X of Denmark was born.
Lehmann, Danish statesman, died (born 15/5/1810).
15/2/1864, Adam Moltke, Danish statesman,
died (born 25/8/1785).
Second Schleswig War
the Peace of Vienna, Denmark gave up
Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenberg.�
These provinces came under Austrian and Prussian rule.
1/2/1864, Austrian and
Prussian troops under the command of Friedrich von Wangle invaded Schleswig,
Denmark. Although the British monarch, Queen Victoria, was pro-German, the British Prince Edward,
the future King
Edward VII � who had only months earlier married Alexandra of
Denmark � was shocked; they supported Denmark. The Second Schleswig War began.
This event ensured that under King Edward VII�s reign, British foreign
policy was pro-Danish, anti-German, and
Britain formed a triple entente with France and Russia against Germany.
rejected an ultimatum, from Germany over the Danish province of Schleswig.
24/12/1863. Following the
Danish annexation of the province of Schleswig on 30/3/1863, Saxon and
Hanoverian forces moved into Holstein.
King Frederick VII, Schleswig conflict with Germany from 1848
15/11/1863, Frederick VII, King of Denmark, died.
20/7/1863, Denmark, with
no hope of intervention from England, sued for peace over the German
attack on Schleswig.
21/3/1855, Trade between
the Faroe Islands and the rest of the world was opened to all. Until this date
this trade had been a monopoly, first of a�
merchant house in Copenhagen, then of the Danish Government.
25/7/1850, Battle of Idstedt; Denmark defeated
26/8/1848. Denmark and
Prussia signed a truce at Malmo. Both agreed to evacuate the disputed territory
Schleswig-Holstein troops defeated the Danes at Kolding.
Denmark sent the wooden battleship Christian
VIII into Eckernforde Bay to destroy a German gun battery. However the
ships rudder jammed and she ran aground, caught fire, and then exploded.
Prussia invaded Denmark over the Schleswig-Holstein question.
King Christian VIII
20/1/1848, Christian VIII
of Denmark died aged 50, after a reign of less than 9 years. He was succeeded
by his 39-year-old son, Frederick VII, who ruled until 1863, and fought a war
with Germany over Schleswig-Holstein.
1847, The Carlsberg
brewery business began in Denmark when J C Jacobsen built a new brewery, and
named it after his young son, Carl.
Alexandra, wife of Edward
VII, was born, the eldest daughter of King Christian of Denmark.
15/8/1843, In Copenhagen, the Tivoli Gardens opened. They were laid out on part of the old
3/6/1843, Frederick VIII, King of Denmark, was born.
26/6/1842, Peter Brondsted, Danish archaeologist, died
King Frederick VI
3/12/1839, Frederick VI
of Denmark died, aged 71. He was succeeded by his nephew, Christian VIII, aged 53.
1825, The North Sea broke through to the Lijmfjord in
northern Denmark, making Thisted and Hjorking into an island.
17/5/1814, The independence of Norway (from Denmark)
14/1/1814, Britain made peace with Denmark, restoring all
territories except Heligoland.� The King
of Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden.
25/2/1812, Carl Hall, Danish statesman, was born (died
15/5/1810, Peter Lehmann, Danish statesman, was born
King Christian VII; mentally impaired
13/3/1808, King Christian VII of Norway and Denmark died
(born 1749), after a 32-year reign, having suffered from dementia. He was
succeeded by his 39-year-old son (who had ruled as Regent since 1784) was an ally of Napoleon; he now began a
31-year reign as Frederick VI.
Bernstorff, Danish statesman, died (born in Hanover 28/8/1735).
Triple Alliance (Britain, the Dutch Republic and Prussia; an alliance aimed at
preserving peace within Europe) persuaded Denmark to pull its troops out of
Sweden. Denmark had invaded Sweden September 1788 whilst Sweden was engaged in
an ussuccesful war against Russia, to recover former Danbish territories in
25/8/1785, Adam Moltke,
Danish statesman, was born (died 15/.2/1864).
1784, Denmark abolished serfdom,
17/11/1780, Peter Brondsted,
Danish archaeologist, was born (died 26/6/1842).
Bernstorff, Danish statesman, died (born 13/5/1712).
5/12/1770, In Denmark,
von Struensee, lover of Queen Caroline Matilda, was now effectively
ruler of the country, due to the mental derangement of King Christian VII. He started reforms
including a free press and curbs on the aristocracy.
14/1/1766, King Frederick V of
Denmark died� aged 42 after a 20 year
reign. He was succeeded by his semi-idiot son, aged 16, who married the 16-year-old
daughter of the Prince of Wales, Caroline Matilda. He held nominal office as
King until 1808 as Christian VII.
6/4/1746, Christian VI
of Denmark died aged 47. He was succeeded by his son, 23, Frederick V, who reigned until
28/8/1735, Andreas Bernstorff,
Danish statesman, was born in Hanover (died 21/6/1797).
King Frederick IV
12/10/1730, Frederick IV
of Denmark died, the day after his 59th birthday, at Odense. He had
reigned for 31 years, and lost some territory in Germany He was succeeded by his
31-year old son, Christian VI, who ruled until 1746.
20/10/1728, A major
fire that destroyed a quarter of Copenhagen started. It burned until
Bernstorff, Danish statesman, was born (died 18/2/1772);
10/11/1710, Adam Moltke,
Danish courtier, was born (died 25/9/1792).
defeated a force of 14,000 Danes at the Battle of Helsingborg.
25/8/1699, Christian V,
King of Norway and Denmark, died in a hunting accident (born 15/4/1646). He was
succeeded by his 28-year-old son who ruled until 1730 as King Frederick IV.
Danish Admiral, died (born 8/5/1629).
14/7/1677, At the Battle
of Landskrona, Sweden defeated Denmark.
31/5/1677, Danish ships defeated a Swedish naval force.
1675, Denmark declared war on
12/3/1699, Peder Griffenfeldt, Danish statesman, died
13/10/1673, Kristoffer Gabel, Danish statesman, died (born
9/2/1670, Frederick III,
King of Denmark, died aged 60 (acceded 1648). He was succeeded by his 23-year-old
son who ruled for 29 years as Christian V.
Danish statesman, died (born 28/11/1598).
Frederick III of Denmark promulgated a new Constitution, removing
the priveliges of the nobility and creating an Absolute Monarchy.
of hostilities by Sweden
27/5/1660, The Treaty
of Copenhagen. Denmark recovered some of its losses from the Peace of Roskilde (26/2/1658). Denmark
recovered Trondheim and the island of Bornholm.
29/10/1658, King Charles X of Sweden was forced to abandon
his siege of Copenhagen (see 17/7/1658) when the Dutch fleet came to Denmark�s aid
defeated the Swedish navy.
17/7/1658, Despite the Peace of Roskilde (26/2/1658), and without a declaration of war, Charles X
suddenly began an invasion of Denmark, to try and eliminate an inconvenient
neighbour once and for all. The Swedish army landed at Korsor, Zeeland, and
Copenhagen was poorly defended. However the Danes rallied vigorously against
the Swedish threat and by 1/9/1658 the defenders of Copenhagen numbered 7,000,
up from 2,000 earlier. See 29/10/1658.
of hostilities by Sweden
26/2/1658, The Peace
of Roskilde, The Danes ceded the three provinces of Scania, the southern
tip of Scandinavia, also the island of Bornholm, and Baahus and Trondheim in
Norway, to Sweden. Denmark also promised not to make any anti-Swedish alliances
and to exempt all Swedish vessels from tolls when passing through Danish waters
out of the Baltic.See 27/5/1660.
forces succeeded in crossing the frozen Belt, a move which Denmark had not
anticipated (see 23/4/1657). Danish forces were overwhelmed, and King Frederick III at once sued for peace.
23/4/1657, The Danish Rigsraad approved a Danish
attack on Sweden,
believing the Swedes to be occupied with an invasion of Poland they had begun in 7/1654.
However see 1/1658.
6/7/1648, King Frederick III
of Denmark was officially crowned, only after he had agreed to a diminution of
28/2/1648, Christian IV, King of
Denmark, died. Born 1577, he ruled from 1588.
8/2/1645, By the Peace
of Bromsebro, Sweden acquired Osel and Gotland from Denmark. Denmark also
lost Jemteland and Herjedal in Norway.
1/10/1643, Frederick III,
King of Denmark, married Sophia Amelia of Brunswick.
24/3/1635, Peder Griffenfeldt, Danish statesman, was born
15/7/1631, Jens Juel, Danish statesman, was born.
22/5/1629, By the Treaty
of Lubeck, Christian
V of Denmark renonced his claims to Bishoprics within Germany.
8/5/1629, Neils Juel, Danish Admiral, was born (died
24/8/1626, Battle of
Lutter, Germany. The Danes were routed by the Hapsburgs.
6/1/1617, Kristoffer Gabel, Danish statesman, was born
18/3/1609, Frederick III,
King of Denmark, born.
28/11/1598, Hans Nansen, Danish statesman, was born (died
4/4/1588, Frederick II, King of
Denmark, died, aged 53.
He was succeeded by his 10-year old son, Christian
1585, Kronborg Castle at Elsinore (Helsingor) was completed
Frederick II. It stands on the site of an earlier castle built in
the early 1400s by Eric of Pomerania, to enforce collection of
tolls on foreign ships passing througb the Oresund.
20/7/1572, Frederick II, King of Denmark and Norway, married
his cousin Sophuia
Years War, Denmark vs Sweden
13/12/1570, The Peace of Stettin
ended the war between Sweden and Denmark, recognising
Swedish independence. The Nordic War
had been unpopular in Denmark, with the closure of The Sound (to blockade
Sweden) proving exasperating for the maritime powers.
5/12/1570, Johan Friis, Danish statesman, died (born
30/5/1563, The Nordic Seven
Years War began between Denmark and Sweden.
Years War, Denmark vs Sweden
King Christian III
1/1/1559, Christian III, King of Denmark and Norway, died
aged 55 after a reign of nearly 24 years. He was succeeded by his 24-year-old
son as Frederick II, who reigned for 29 years.
2/9/1537, Protestant �superintendents� were appointed in Denmark to
replace the former Catholic Bishops (see 27/9/1536).
29/7/1536, End of the Count�s
War in Denmark (began 1534). Count� Christopher
of Oldenburg, great nephew of King Christian I, Catholic, contested with Frederick�s
son, Christian III. The poorer people supported the
Catholics. Forces loyal to Protestant Christian
III, backed by the
Holstein Dukes and Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, captured Copenhagen
this day, This ensured the primacy of Lutheranism over Roman Catholicism in
Denmark. The property of the Catholic Bishops was now confiscated by the Danish
1/7/1534, Frederick II, King of
Denmark, was born.
1533, King Frederick I of Denmark died
aged 62 (acceded 1523). He was succeeded as King of Denmark and Norway by his
30-tear-old son, who ruled as King Christian III until
1523, End of the reign of King Christian
II (acceded 1513).
6/6/1523, Gustavus Vasa, aged 27, was elected King of
Sweden, and finally established full independence from Denmark. End of the
Kalmar Union. This was confirmed by the Treaty of Malmo, 1524.
1513, King John I of Denmark (who was
John II of Sweden, 1497-1501), died after a 32-year reign. He
founded the Danish Navy. He was succeeded by his 32-year-old son as King Christian
II of Denmark and Norway, but Sweden refused to accept his rule.
21/5/1481, Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway, died
(born 1426) and was succeeded by his son John (1481-1513).
1448, King Christopher III died
without an heir. Christian I, a distant cousin of Christopher III, was elected
King by the Rigsraad, and became the first Danish monarch of the Royal House of
1439, King Eric VII was deposed, in
favour of his nephew, Christopher of Bavaria.
28/10/1412, Margaret, Queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, died succenly
aged 59, on her ship at Flensbyrg Harbour (acceded as Regent 1375).
20/6/1397. The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Norway, and
Sweden under one monarch. See 1380.
However the Swedes and Norwegians disliked this Union, although the Swedish
aristocracy and clergy were in favour of it. Denmark was seen to be dominant,
although Sweden was the wealthier country. The Norwegians lacked the strength
to resist, but the Swedes continued to agitate for independence from Denmark.
1380, Hakon, King of Norway, died. His surviving wife was Queen Margaret
(born 1353, married 1363, and daughter of Valdemar IV, King of Denmark). Her son Olaf
died in 1387, which meant she became ruler of Denmark also. She defeated Albert,
King of Sweden, thereby gaining that country too. Margaret then instituted the Union of Kalmar, 1397, to permanently
unite these three countries. Margaret died in 1412.
Valdemar IV / King Olaf II
Olaf II died aged 17 after a 12-year reign and was succeeded by his
34-year old mother Margaret who had been Regent. She united
Scandinavia (Kalmar Union).
24/10/1375, End of the reign of King Valdemar IV (acceded
26/6/1340). His death at age 55, after he had recovered most of Schleswig, was
followed by the accession of his 5-year-old grandson who ruled until 1387 as Olaf II,
with his mother Margaret
26/6/1340, Accession of King Valdemar IV of Denmark who
ruled until 1375. The period of anarchy oin Denmark (see 1331) ended with the
murder of Gerhard,
Count of Holstein.
1331, End of the reign of King
Christopher II (acceded 1319). He had abdicated under pressure from Gerhard, Count of
Holstein, who now priceeded to establish German noblemen in all
major Danish fortresses and give major trading concessions to German merchants.
8 years of anarchy followed, see 26/6/1340.
1182, Waldemar the Great of Denmark
died aged 51 after a 25-year reign. He was succeded by his 19-year-old son as King Canute IV.
He reigned until 1202, extending Danish sovereignty over Pomerania and
1169, Absalom (Axel) (1128-1201)
founded the fortress of Havn, now known as Copenhagen. He fought the Wends in
1169, capturing Rugen for Denmark. In 1184 he also captured Mecklenburg and
1047, Magnus I died after 12 years
rule as King of Norway and five years as King of Denmark. He was succeeded I
Norway by Harald
Haadraade, 32, who ruled until 1066 as Harald II. In Denmark he was
succeeded by Sweyn
Estrithson, grandson of Sweyn Forkbeard, who ruled until 1075 as Sweyn II.
1016 � 1035, Under King Canute the
Great, all of Scandinavia and England were united.
951, Earliest record of the
Bishopric of Aarhus (Denmark).
850, Gorm the Elder united Jutland
and the Danish Islands, and became King of Denmark.
Ca. 800, First settlement of the Faeroe Islands, by Grim Kamban. He left Norway to
escape the tyranny of Harold Haarfager. There may have been already
a small colony of Scottish and Irish monks at Sudero, which he dispersed.
768,The major Viking settlement
of Hedeby was founded in Denmark.
517, The first documented
Viking raid on Gaul. The Viking King Hygelac was killed and his
500, Danes from Scania
(southern Sweden) settled in Jutland (Denmark).
8,000 BCE, Start of hunter-gatherer
peoples in Scandinavia, as the climate warmed.
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