Chronography of TV, radio, films, telecommunications

Page last modified 23/7/2021

 

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Map of start of TV broadcasts by country

 

None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

 

Films � see appendix 1a below

Film production � see appendix 1b below

Radio, Telegraph, Telephone Communications - see appendix 2a below

TV and radio broadcasting � see appendix 2b below

Actors, film directors and film stars � see appendix 3.5 below

Theatres, concerts, operas � see appendix 5 below

Art Galleries = see Appendix 6 below

 

14/2/1989. The first of 24 satellites for the Global Positioning System were placed in orbit.

3/2/1989, British Telecom banned �chatlines�, because some people got addicted to them and ran up huge bills which they couldn�t pay.One 12-year-old ran up a bill of �6,000. The Internet had yet to arrive.

21/11/1980. A Bill was presented in the UK Parliament separating the UK post from the telephone services.

1/10/1969, Austria issued the world�s first official post card.

14/11/1952, Charts for pop singles were published in Britain for the first time, in New Musical Express.

23/5/1925, British publishing magnate Sir Edward Hulton died after falling off his penny-farthing bicycle.

 

Appendix 1a � Films

2/10/1990. Ghost was one of the films on release.

13/8/1990. Die Hard II was one of the film on release.

2/12/1984, Films on included Ghostbusters and Gremlins.

8/6/1977. Films on release included Blazing Saddles.

30/3/1975. Films on release included Monty Python and the Holy Grail.

29/11/1974. In the cinema the new sensurround film Earthquake made its debut.

12/4/1974. Films on release included Last Tango in Paris and The Exorcist.

4/1/1974. The James Bond film Live and let Die was released in South Africa.

16/10/1972. Films included Steven Spielberg�s Duel.

17/12/1971, The James Bond film, Diamonds Are Forever, was released in the US and Denmark

22/2/1969. Films on release included 2001: A Space Odyssey.

7/10/1968. Films on release included 2001: A Space Odyssey.

6/5/30/10/1967. Captain Scarlet merchandise hit the shops.

1968, The films 2001: A Space Odyssey and Planet of the Apes were showing.

16/12/1968, World premier of the film Chitty Chitty Bang Bang.

15/6/1967. Films included The Further Perils of Laurel and Hardy.

27/1/1963. Films on release included Cape Fear.

22/9/1964, The James Bond film Goldfinger premiered in LeicesterSquare, London.

18/11/1962. The first James Bond film, Dr No, was released.

1961, In the USA, Federal Communications Commission ChairmanNewton N Minow, aged 35, said US TV programming was a �vast wasteland�. He stated in a May address to the National Association of Broadcasters,convention at Washington DC, �I invite you to sit down in front of your television set when your staion goes on air, and stay there. You will see a vast wasteland � a procession of game shows,violence, audience participation shows, formula comedies about totally unbeleivable families, blood and thunder, mayhem violencesadism murder, private eyes, more violence, and cartoons, and, endlessly, commercials, many screaming, cajoling, and offending�.

11/11/1959, The film Ben Hur premiered in London.

4/3/1950, Walt Disney�s Cinderella was released.

9/1/1951, The first film to receive the new X rating opened in London. Entitled Life Begins Tomorrow, it received the rating for a scene dealing with artificial insemination.

13/8/1942, The Walt Disney film Bambi premiered at Radio City Music Hall, New York.

31/10/1941, The Walt Disney film Dumbo was released today.

13/11/1940, The Walt Disney film Fantasia had its first showing.

19/11/1928, Mickey Mouse made his first appearance in the Walt Disney film Steamboat Willie.

16/8/1925, Charlie Chaplin�s film Gold Rush was premiered in America.

21/12/1925. Battleship Potemkin, a film by Sergei Eisenstein, opened in the USSR.

1/11/1925, The Buster Keaton film Go West opened.

23/9/1912. Mack Sonnett released the first Keystone Cops film.

 

Appendix 1b � Film Productiom

8/4/1985, Rupert Murdoch bought Twentieth Century Fox.

1959, BAFTA, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, was flrmed from an amalgamation of the British Film Academy (founded 1948) and the Guild of Television Producers (founded 1954). It gives annual awards for merit in the TV and film industry,

1959, The first film made in Smell-o-Vision (The Scent of Mystery) was released. The process did not catch on.

22/1/1959, Two thirds of British homes now had a television. The Rank Organisation, on 17/9/1959, said cinema attendance in Britain fell from 1.396 million in 1950 to 1.101 million in 1956 and was still in decline.

9/4/1951, The first trials of Pay-per-View TV in Chicago, Illinois. Viewers paid US$3 to download three films.

20/9/1946. The first Cannes Film Festival opened.

5/1/1945, Roger Spottiswoode, film director, was born in Ottawa, Canada

30/9/1936, Pinewood Film Studios opened.

1935, The first film made in 3-colour Technicolour, Becky Sharp, was released. In 1932 Technicolour was first utilised for a Walt Disney cartoon film. The process is no longer used.

1933, Joseph Arthur Rank entered the film industry, to promote Methodism.

1933, The British Film Institute (BFI) was founded to promote the cinema sa a means of entertainment and instruction. The BFI includes the National Film Archive (founded 1935) and the National Film Theatre (founded 1951).

1930, The Western Big Trail was filmed in 70 mm film (see 1917). 70mm was sometimes used for big epic films such as Lawrence of Arabia, but 35mm remained the common standard

18/2/1929, The First Academy Awards, known as Oscars from 1931, were announced.

6/10/1927. The first full length talking picture, The Jazz Singer, opened in New York. The soundtrack was almost entirely music. The biggest problem with sound movies was synchronising speech with mouth movements.

26/3/1927. The Gaumont British Film Corporation was founded.

16/4/1924. The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film corporation was formed by merger.

1923, Warner Brothers US film production company was founded.

1922, Technicolour was first used, initially as a 2-colour (red and green) superimposed image system. The system was expensive and gave poor results, but was improved with a 3-colour system from 1932 and then widely adopted.

1917, 35 mm film was adopted as the industry standard by the Society of Motion Picture Engineers of America, see 1889 and 1930.

1912, Paramount Studios was formed, originally as The Famous Players Film Company, by Adolph Zukor (1873-1976). In 1914 it merged with the distribution company Paramount Pictures. In 1966 the company was taken over by Gulf and Western Industries.

1912, The British Board of Film Censors was founded. It was renamed in 1985 as the British Board of Film Classification.

1910, The USA now possessed some 10,000 �nickelodeons� cinenas where admission was one nickel (5 cents). These cinemas recieved 26 million visitors every week. They showed a succession of short silent films, many consisteing of newsreels, with no continuity or order; patrons were expected to come and go at different times. The short films meant plots were very simple, with no time for character development.

24/2/1909. Colour films were shown to the public for the first time, in Brighton.

1907, Britain�s first film-only picture theatre, the Balham Palace, opened in SW London.

1906, The earliest colour film, made in Kinemacolor, was patented.

5/12/1901. Walt Disney was born.

2/6/1899, Lotte Reiniger, film animator, was born.

3/10/1896, Queen Victoria became the first British monarch to be captured on moving film, at Balmoral.

1889, Edison invented 35 mm film, see 1917.

23/12/1888. The film magnate J Arthur Rank was born. Born in Hull, England, he was born into a Yorkshire flour milling family. He entered the film business in his mid 30s, seeing it as a way to propagate his Methodist faith. He failed to secure distribution for a religious film called The Turn of the Tide and so began his own production, distribution, and exhibition of films in 1933. By the 1940s the Rank Organisation owned half the film studios in Britain and over 1,000 cinemas, including the well-known Odeon chain. However Rank failed to establish Britain as a rival to Hollywood. The Rank Organisation survives but with films as a secondary interest behind hotels, real estate, ballrooms, bingo, and, most profitable of all, copying machines.

 

Appendix 2a-Telegraph, Radio and Telephone Communications

14/2/1989. Skyphone, the world�s first satellite telephone service, was launched on a British Airways flight from London to New York.

1/1/1985, The first mobile phone call was made, by Ernie Wise to Vodafone.

1962, The concept of music playing whilst a telephone call was on hold was born. Alfred Levy, factory owner, allegedly came up with the idea when a loose wire on his company�s phone system touched a girder which acted as an aerial and picked up music from a nearby radio station. Callers to Mr Levy heard music, not silence, whilst on hold. The advantage of music was that a caller on hold knew they had not been cut off, the line was still open.

12/8/1960. The first US communications satellite, Echo 1, was launched.

1/1/1934. Britain now had over 2 million telephone subscribers, with 275,000 more joining every year.

1/5/1933, The Britain to India telephone service began.

30/4/1930. A telephone link opened between Britain and Australia.

2/12/1929. Britain got its first 22 public phone boxes.

1/1/1929. In the UK, there were now 3.6 telephones per 100 people.

7/1/1927. The transatlantic telephone service between London and New York began. The charge was �15 for three minutes.

11/5/1925. Direct telephone communication between London and Rome began for the first time.

7/1/1924. Direct communication by transatlantic cable and land wire was opened by the Western Union Telegraph Company between London and Chicago.

20/3/1919. Wireless telephone communication established between Ireland and Canada.

22/1/1918, Radio-telegraphic communication was inaugurated between the USA and Italy.

23/1/1908, A 7,000 mile telegraph line from Britain to India began operations.

1902, The Cape Town to Australia cable, via Mauritius and Rodriguez opened.

1901, In the previous 12 months, 84,000,000 telegrams had been sent in the UK, compared to 9,000,000 in 1870/1.

1893, The Mauritius-Seychelles-Aden-Zanzibar-Europe cable opened.

12/7/1892, Cyrus Field, US capitalist who projected the first transatlantic cable, died (born 30/11/1819).

18/3/1891, The London-Paris telephone link opened.The first call was between the Prince of Wales and President Carnot. The link opened to the public on 1/4/1891.

14/3/1891. The submarine Monarch laid the first telephone cable across the English Channel.

24/2/1887, The telephone link between Paris and Brussels was inaugurated, the first such link between national capitals.

18/2/1876. A direct telegraph link was set up between Britain and New Zealand.

23/11/1872. Australia was connected by undersea cable to the rest of the world. The cable ran from Darwin in the north to Java, and also into southern Australia.

3/6/1871. London gained direct communication with Shanghai via an undersea cable laid via San Francisco.

1868, The UK Parliament passed a Bill enabling the Post Office to take over the competing private companies running electric telegraphs along the new rail routes. Electric telegraph links had been installed along the railway between Eustgon and Camden Town in 1837, and along the Great Western line between Paddington and Hanwell, and by the 1850s three large telegraph companies wree competing along the nations railway routes, Parliament considered this competition wasteful, and effectively created the first nationalised company.

27/7/1866. The first successful transatlantic cable was laid by the Great Eastern, which arrived this day at Hearts Content, Newfoundland. Attempts had been made to do this since 1856.

5/8/1858, The first transatlantic cable was completed, by Sir Charles Tilston Bright (1832 � 1888), and opened by Queen Victoria and President Buchanan. See 7/9/1866. It initially worked but failed in October 1858 due to decay of its electrical insulation. A second cable was succesfuly laid in 7/1866.

7/7/1858, Work began on laying the first transatlantic cable.

13/11/1851. A telegraphic service between London and Paris was started.

28/8/1850. The Channel telegraph was laid between Dover and Cap Gris Nez.

30/11/1819, Cyrus Field, US capitalist who projected the first transatlantic cable, was born (died 12/7/1892).

 

Appendix 2b � TV and radio broadcasting

For technical innovations in broadcasting see science and technology

31/1/2016, Terry Wogan, radio and TV presenter, died aged 77. He was born on 3/8/1938 in Ireland and became a British citizen in 2005.

2/6/1999, After decades of resisting external technological influences such as television, the King of Bhutan allowed TV broadcasts in the Kingdom for the first time, to coincide with his silver jubilee.

26/4/1999, BBC TV presenter Jill Dando was shot dead on the doorstep of her Fulham house in London.

9/11/1997, BBC1 began broadcasting 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Previously TV had closed down at night.

4/1997, In the UK, the Broadcasting Standards Commission was set up. Replacing the earlier Broadcasting Complaints Commission and the Broadcasting Standards Coincil, it monitors TV morals and aims for fair representation of individuals and situations.

30/3/1997, In Britain, Channel Five was launched.

10/1996, Fox News Channel was launched in the USA.

1/9/1993, In the UK, British Sky Broadcasting began transmissions.

1990, The UK�s Independent Television Commission was established by the Broadcasting Act 1990 to licence and regulate independent TV companies,

4/1989, CNBC (Consumer News and Business Channel) was launched in the USA.

5/2/1989, Rupert Murdoch launched Sky TV.

11/12/1988. An Ariane rocket carrying an Astra 1A satellite to bring 16 TV channels to Britain was launched from French Guyana.

1983, By the time a child in the US reached 18, it was estimated they had watched over 17,000 hours of TV, equivalent to 710 continuous days and nights of TV. In that time they had seen 360,000 adverts and witnessed 15,000 murders.

23/11/1982, In the USA, TV commercials were deregulated, removing restrictions on length and content.

1/11/1982. Channel 4 began transmitting. It aimed to cater to minority audiences.

2/11/1981, CB or Citizen�s Band Radio became legal in Britain.

6/1980, CNN (24-hour news) was launched in the USA.

20/3/1980. The pirate radio station Radio Caroline, on the ship Mi Amigo, ran aground and sank after 16 years of broadcasting.

28/2/1980, The BBC announced that as an economy measure it would scrap five of its orchestras.

1/3/1975, Colour TV broadcasting began in Australia.

21/10/1974, Liverpool City radio went on air.

9/10/1973, Capital Radio (London) began broadcasting.

8/10/1973. Britain�s first legal commercial radio station, LBC (London Broadcasting Company) Radio in London, began transmission.

19/12/1971, Intelsat IV (F3) was launched; it entered commercial service over the Atlantic Ocean on February 18, 1972.

16/6/1971, The BBC�s first chief, Lord Reith, died.

18/2/1971. Rupert Murdoch took control of London Weekend Television.

24/2/1970,. National Public Radio was launched in the USA.

15/11/1969. The first colour TV advert went on British television � for Birds Eye peas.

2/9/1969. ITV began broadcasting in colour.

19/9/1968, The TV Times, a weekly magazine for British independent TV, was first published.

1/1/1968, Colour TV began in The Netherlands.

1967, The Mendip TV mast was constructed.

8/11/1967. The first local radio station in the UK, Radio Leicester, went on the air.It was opened by the Postmaster-General, Edward Short.

30/9/1967. BBC Radio was reorganised. BBC Radio 1, 2, 3, and 4 began broadcasting, with Tony Blackburn introducing The Breakfast Show. His first record was Flowers In The Rain by The Move.

15/8/1967. The Marine Broadcasting Act came into force in the UK, outlawing pop pirate radio stations.

1/7/1967. BBC 2 began colour broadcasting in Britain. Wimbledon was covered in colour for the first time.

20/12/1965, The Belmont TV transmitter, Lincolnshire, began operations,

2/5/1965. The British satellite, Early Bird, began transmitting TV programmes to 300 million viewers in 24 countries.

19/4/1965, Westinghouse Broadcasting WINS, New York�s first all-news radio station began broadcasting. It was soon copied by otyer stations across the USA.

1964, The Tokyo Olympics became the first major sprting event to be broadcast globally via satellite. By 1969 the entire Earth was covered by satellite TV transmissions.

23/11/1964, The first British commercial radio station, Radio Manx, began broadcasting.

21/4/1964. BBC2 began transmission.

28/3/1964. Radio Caroline, Britain�s first private radio broadcasting station, began broadcasting from The Channel outside British waters.

13/11/1962.. Kenneth Adam, Director of BBC TV, announced that a second channel would be launched in 1964. The new channel would show very little repeated programmes and not have much American material.

10/7/1962. Telstar I, the world�s first television telecommunications satellite, was launched in America. The following day it transmitted a special television inaugural programme to mark the first communications satellite.

4/11/1961, Italy's second television network Rai 2 began broadcasting, joining the original RAI (Radiotelevisione Italiana) which had begun in 1954.

1960, European TV broadcasters agreed on a common standard of 625-line pictures. A few countries differed; the UK used the post-war 425-line system, and France had already gone for a 819 line standard. Japan followed the US 525-line standard.

11/7/1960. The communications satellite TELSTAR became operational. Britain could now receive US television shows,

1959, Colour TV began in Cuba.

1959, TV broadcasting began in India.

31/10/1959, The first television broadcasts in Africa began, from Ibadan, Nigeria.

28/10.1959, South Africa rejected the introduction of television.

26/12/1959. Bulgarian National Television was founded. Colour broadcasting began in 1970.

1957,The BBC ended the so-called �toddlers truce�; a period between 6pm and 7pm when no programmes were nroadcast. This was supposed to help mothers get young children to bed, who believed that the night�s entertainment was over. Programmes ended at 11pm for the night.

9/1/1957. TV detector vans were first used by the UK Post Office to track down licence dodgers.

1956, Pay-TV was introduced in the USA, where viewers could pay to see extra vchannels; sometimes by inserting coins in a meter box at the side of the TV.

1956, Granada TV began broadcasting in the NW of England.

11/12/1956, In Britain, the start of TV broadcasting was moved forward from 7pm to 6pm.

3/11/1956, The Elmley Moor ITV transmitter in Yorkshire was switched on.

10/10/1955, Experimental colour TV broadcasts were made from by the BBC from Alexandra Palace, London.

20/9/1955. The Radio Times was first published.

4/8/1954, The Independent Television Authority was set up.

31/7/1954, The Independent Television Act was passed, allowing for independent TV franchises in the UK.

5/7/1954, The BBC began daily news broadcasts

6/6/1954. The Eurovision television link-up was inaugurated.

25/3/1954, UK Parliament approved the idea of independent TV broadcasting. The Television Act 1954 was passed.

11/1/1954, George Cowling from the Met office became the first weatherman to be seen on TV. Previous forecasts had been sound only.

13/11/1953, In Britain, plans for a new commercial TV channel to rival the BBC were announced.

22/10/1953, TV broadcasting began in The Philippines.

1/5/1953, The BBC began broadcasts from Northern Ireland, from a transmitter near Belfast. Also this day the Pontop Pyke TV transmitter near Consett, Durham began operations. TV engineers were keen to have programmes in operation for Queen Elizabeth�s coronation on 2/6/1953.

31/12/1951, Television came to north-west England with the opening of a transmitter near Manchester. Scotland would get TV in 1953. TV was only available in the London area until a Midlands transmitter opened in 1950. Now television threatened the popularity of radio and cinema.

12/2/1950, The European Broadcasting Union was formed.

27/8/1950, The BBC transmitted its first pictures from abroad, a two-hour programme from Calais..

3/11/1949, The BBC bought the Rank Studios in Shepherds Bush for programme making.

29/7/1949, The BBC issued its first televised weather forecast.

29/9/1946, BBC Radio�s Third Programme, later to become Radio Three, began broadcasting.

7/6/1946, In Britain the BBC resumed TV broadcasts this day; the initial audience was fewer than 12,000 people.

29/7/1945, The BBC Light Programme began broadcasting.

12/10/1944. Angela Rippon, British TV presenter, was born in Plymouth.

8/3/1943, Michael Grade, BBC chief, was born.

5/1/1942, Jan Leeming, BBC presenter, was born.

1/7/1941. The first TV commercial was shown; on WNBT in New York, USA.It was for the Bulova clock and Watch company.

22/6/1940. Esther Rantzen, TV presenter, was born in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire.

30/4/1939, The World Fair in New York opened. It was opened by President Franklin D Roosevelt, who became the first US President to appear on TV, as NBC began their TV news service this day.

7/4/1939. David Frost, TV presenter, was born in Tenterden, Kent.

29/3/1938, The BBC began foreign language broadcasts in German.

3/1/1938. The BBC began its first foreign language service, in Arabic.

2/11/1936. The first daily high definition TV broadcasts in Britain were transmitted from the BBC�s aerial at Alexandra Palace, London. Only around 280 homes had TV sets, which were on sale at the Olympia Exhibition for �110.

11/6/1936. Leslie Mitchell became the BBC�s first television announcer.

24/1/1935. Bamber Gasgoigne, UK TV presenter, was born in London.

19/12/1932, The British Broadcasting Corporation inaugurated its Empire shortwave broadcasting service to the entire British Empire, based from its Daventry transmitters, see 25/12/1932.

22/8/1932, The first regular BBC broadcast began, from Alexandra Palace, Wood Green, north London. Programmes were broadcast on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Fridays for just 30 minutes, from 11.00pm to 11.30pm. The same masts were used for radio broadcasts so TV broadcasts could not begin until radio had finished.

15/3/1932, The BBC made its first broadcast from its new HQ at Portland Place, near Oxford Circus.

12/11/1931. The Abbey Road BBC recording studios were opened by Sir Edward Elgar, who conducted his Pomp and Circumstance marches with the London Symphony Orchestra.

29/12/1930. Radio Luxembourg began broadcasting.

11/4/1930. The Daily Express became the first paper to publish TV programmes.

30/9/1929, The first experimental TV broadcast was made by the BBC.

14/8/1928. The world�s first scheduled television programmes were broadcast by WRNY in New York.

3/7/1928. The first TV sets went on sale in the USA, at $75 each. John Logie Baird made the first colour TV transmission, from the Baird Studios, London.

1/1/1927. The British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, came into being. It had formerly been the British Broadcasting Company.

16/10/1925, Britain began regular broadcasts to Continental Europe, on a weekly basis.

5/2/1924. The BBC �pips� or time signals, were heard for the first time. They were set by a clock at Greenwich.

31/12/1923. The chimes of Big Ben were broadcast by the BBC for the first time.

23/12/1923, The BBC began regular radio broadcasts for entertainment, as opposed to information.

25/11/1923. The first transatlantic wireless broadcast from the UK to the USA was made.

28/9/1923. The Radio Times was first published.

27/7/1923,The BBC radio transmission station at Daventry opened.

14/11/1922. The British Broadcasting Corporation began daily news broadcasts from 2LO in The Strand, London. This had formerly been Marconi�s London broadcasting station. At 6pm the news was read by Arthur Burrows, once at normal speed and once at slow speed. See 14/2/1922, 18/10/1922 and 26/3/1923.

18/10/1922. The BBC, the British Broadcasting Company, was officially formed, at Marconi House, The Strand, London (2LO). See 14/11/1922.

2/11/1920, The first regular radio programme began, KDKA, in Pittsburgh.

23/2/1920, The first regular broadcasting service in Britain began, from Chelmsford.

25/5/1913, The broadcaster Richard Dimbleby was born.

29/3/1903, A regular news service began between New York and London began, using Marconi�s wireless.

13/8/1888. Birth of television pioneer John Logie Baird in Helensburgh, Firth of Clyde, Scotland.

 

Appendix 3.5 � Actors, film directors and film stars

23/3/2011, Elizabeth Taylor, UK born Hollywood actress, died aged 79 (born 1932).

4/10/2010, Death of Norman Wisdom, British comedian, aged 95.

22/1/2008, Australian actor Heath Ledger died aged 28.

17/1/2007, Protests in the UK and India after, on the Big Brother Reality Show, Jade Goody was allegedly racist to Shilpa Shetty.

23/5/2000. Sir John Gielgud, British actor, died at the age of 96.

8/5/1999, British film star Dirk Bogarde died, aged 78.

25/4/1995, Ginger Rogers, US actress, died.

4/4/1995, Kenny Everett, British TV comedian, died.

26/12/1994, Robert Emhardt, US actor, died aged 80.

20/10/1994, Burt Lancaster, US film actor, died.

31/10/1993, River Phoenix, US actor, died.

2/10/1993, Tara Lynne Barr, US actress, was born.

26/6/1993, Jack Bittner, entertainer, died.

2/3/1993, Paul Zimmerman, US screenwriter, died (born 3/7/1938).

16/1/1993, Florence Desmond, English actress, died (born 31/5/1905).

2/1/1993, Alden Richards, TV actor, was born.

10/12/1992, Melissa Roxburgh, Canadian actress, was born.

5/12/1992, Hilary Tindall, English actress (born 14/8/1938) died.

3/10/1992, Matthew Little, actor, was born.

27/6/1992, Allan Jones, US actor, died aged 84.

6/5/1992. Marlene Dietrich, German actress, died in Paris aged 90. She was born on 27/12/1901 in Berlin, and left Germany for the USA in 1930. Her role in the film The Blue Angel brought her to fame. She became a US citizen in 1937, rejecting attempts by Hitler to bring her talents back to Germany. She played a major role in entertaining the wartime Allied troops. In 1960, on only her second post-war visit to Germany, she encountered hostility from pro-Nazi sympathisers. She subsequently remained hostile to the ideas of returning to Germany again, until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and chose the city as her final resting place.

8/12/1992, Yui Yokoyama, Japanese actress, was born.

25/6/1992, William E Harris, entertainer, died.

21/6/1992, Max Schneider, actor, was born.

24/4/1992, Sean Rademaker, US actor, was born in Washington, DC.

20/4/1992, Comedian Benny Hill died.

20/3/1992, Avonne Taylor, actress, died.

15/3/1992, Jack Washburn, actor, died aged 62.

24/2/1992, Kay Loring, actress, died.

22/10/1991, Peter Willes, British actor, died.

18/5/1991, Muriel Box, British writer, film director and feminist, died aged85.

17/5/1991, Daniel Curtis Lee, American actor, was born.

15/12/1990, Betty Warren actress, died.

4/12/1990, Edward Binns, US actor, died of a heart attack aged 74.

1/9/1990, Aisling Loftus, English actress, was born.

25/8/1990, Aras Lynemli, Turkish actor, was born.

28/6/1990, Estelle Lamont, entertainer, died.

2/6/1990, Rex Carey Harrison, British actor, died aged 82.

29/3/1990, Tai Hara, Australian TV actor, was born.

26/3/1990, Yuya Yagira, Japanese actor, was born.

27/2/1990, Lindsey Morgan, TV actress, was born.

16/12/1989, Lee van Cleef, movie star, died.

6/10/1989, Sophia Thomalla, German television actress, was born.

23/9/1989, Mara Scherzinger, German actress, was born.

6/3/1989, Harry Andrews, actor, died aged 77.

3/12/1988, Michela Quattrociocche, Italian film actress, was born.

27/4/1988, David Scarboro, British actor, died (born 1968)

13/4/1988, Allison Williams, US actress, was born.

16/1/1988, Ballard Berkeley, British actor, died aged 83

27/12/1987, Lily Luahana Cole, English actress, was born.

24/9/1987, Grey Damon, US TV actor, was born.

15/5/1987, Rita Hayworth, US actress, died of Alzheimer�s Disease.

10/4/1987, Shay Mitchell, Canadian actress, was born.

8/3/1987, Milana Vayntrub, TV actress, was born.

12/2/1987, Lang Jefferies, Canadian actor, died aged 55.

5/3/1986, Andrew Jenks, US filmmaker, was born.

26/12/1985, Harold P Warren, US film director, died (born 1928).

16/10/1985, Claude Stroud, actor, died.

10/10/1985, Orson Welles, US actor, died aged 70.

30/3/1985, Harold Peary, actor, died of a heart attack aged 76.

21/10/1984, Francois Truffaut, French film director, died aged 52.

5/8/1984, Richard Burton, Welsh actor, died aged 58.

30/6/1984, Lillian Hellman, US screenwriter, died aged 77.

28/5/1984, Eric Morecambe, comedian on the Morecambe and Wise Show, died in Cheltenham.

2/3/1984, Louis Basile, actor, died aged 48.

27/9/1983, Jose Mar�a de Tavira Bianchi, Mexican actor, was born

3/9/1983, Ellie Lambeti, Greek actress, died (born 1926).

29/7/1983, Luis Brunel, Spanish film maker, died aged 83.

27/7/1983, Blair Redford, US actor, was born.

5/11/1982, Jacques Tati, French film-maker, died aged 74.

29/10/1982, Nicolas Gob, Belgian actor, was born/

15/10/1982, Imran Naqvi, actor, was born.

10/6/1982, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, German film-maker, died aged 36.

5/6/1982, Scott Speer, US film-maker, was born.

2/6/1982, Jewel Staite, Canadian actress, was born.

31/5/1982, Jonathan Tucker, US film director, was born.

18/2/1982, Tina Carver, actress, died aged 58.

13/11/1981, Shawn Yue, Hong Kong actor, was born.

28/3/1981, Julia Stiles, US actress, was born.

7/11/1980, Steve McQueen, Hollywood actor who performed many of his own stunts, died of cancer.

25/10/1980, Mehcad Brooks, US actor, was born.

24/7/1980, Peter Sellers, English film actor, died aged 54.

3/4/1980, Luella Gear, US actress, died aged 82.

29/3/1980, Amy Mathews, Australian actress., was born.

7/1/1980, Zoe Salmon, Northern Irish television presenter, was born.

30/11/1979, Zeppo Marx, the agent of the Marx brothers, died in London.

11/6/1979. The actor John Wayne died,aged 72.

8/6/1979, British actor Michael Wilding died.

2/1/1979, Suranne Jones, British actress, was born.

7/12/1978, Shiri Appleby, US actress, was born.

21/6/1978, Erica Durance, Canadian actress, was born.

15/1/1978, Eddie Cahill, US actor, was born New York City.

31/8/1976, Shar Jackson, actress, was born.

2/8/1976, Fritz Lang, German film director, died aged 85.

17/3/1976, Luchino Visconti, Italian film director, died aged 69.

23/1/1976, Paul Robeson, US actor, died aged 77.

27/4/1975, Nicholas Soussanin, actor, died aged 86.

4/3/1975, Queen Elizabeth II knighted the actor Charlie Chaplin.

28/7/1974, Nicole Narain, US-Lebanese actress, was born.

21/7/1974, Steve Byrne, US comedian, was born.

16/7/1974, Robinne Lee, US actress, was born.

31/1/1974, Sam Goldwyn, Polish-born US film producer, died aged 91.

1/9/1973, Ram Kapoor, Indian actor, was born in New Delhi.

21/4/1973, Mark Dexter: English actor, was born.

30/4/1972, Josephine Grace Johanna Scoglio, actress, died (born 3/3/1934),

11/4/1972, Natacha Regnier, Belgian actress, was born.

3/4/1972, Jennie Garth, actress, was born.

29/3/1972, J Arthur Rank, British film entrepreneur, created a peer in 1957, died.

28/3/1972, Nick Frost, English comedian and actor, was born.

23/3/1972, Judith Godreche, French actress, was born.

5/12/1971, Kali Rocha, US actress, was born.

17/11/1971, Gladys Cooper, English actress, died aged 82.

10/5/1971, Amy Mastura, Malaysian actress, was born.

25/2/1971, Sean Astin, US actor, was born in Santa Monica, California.

11/2/1971, Damian Lewis, British actor, was born.

9/2/1971, Adeline Blondieau, French actress, was born.

6/8/1970, M. Night Shyamalan (Manoj Nelliyattu Shyamalan), Indian-born horror film producer and director; was born in Mahe, Puducherry union territory.

8/10/1968, Emily Procter, actress, was born

26/8/1968, Byron Lawson, Canadian actor, was born.

4/12/1967, Bert Lahr, US stage and film actor, died aged 72.

1/12/1967, Nestor Carbonell, TV actor, was born.

24/11/1967, Salli Richardson, actress, was born.

6/6/1967, Paul Giamatti, US actor, was born.

7/9/1966, Toby Jones, English film actor, was born in Hammersmith, London

3/8/1966, US nightclub comedian Lenny Bruce was found dead at his Hollywood house.

3/4/1966, Miina Tominaga, Japanese actress, was born in Hiroshima, Japan.

7/3/1966, Joy Tanner, US actress, was born.

3/3/1966, Fernando Colunga, actor, was born.

27/2/1966, Donal Logue, Canadian actor, was born

25/2/1966, Alexis Denisof, US actor, was born.

22/2/1966, Rachel Dratch, US actress, was born

21/2/1966, Bronwen Booth, English actress, was born.

7/9/1965, John Polson, actor, was born.

23/2/1965, Stan Laurel, English-born American film comedian along with Oliver Hardy, died aged 74.

13/12/1964, Ernesto Almirante, Italian actor, died aged 87.

5/12/1964, Remy Angenot, Flemish actor, died aged 70

28/9/1964. Harpo Marx, the silent one who chased girls and played the harp, died aged 75.

16/9/1964, Rossy de Palma, Spanish actress, was born.

23/5/1964, Staci Greason, actress, was born in Denver, Colorado.

21/1/1964, Joseph Schildkraut, Austrian-born American stage and film actor, died aged 67.

18/6/1963, Pedro Armendariz, Mexican actor, died aged 51.

6/12/1962, Janine Turner, US actress, was born.

5/8/1962. Marilyn Monroe, US film actress, died in Los Angeles aged 36, of a barbiturates overdose.

9/11/1961, Jill Dando, British journalist and BBC television presenter, was born in Weston-super-Mare (murdered 1999).

5/11/1961, Gina Mastrogiacomo, US actress), was born in Long Island, New York (died 2001)

3/10/1961, Dean Lawrence, English actor, was born.

5/11/1960, Mack Sennett, Canadian-born US actor and film director, died aged 80.

22/5/1960, Mohanlal, Indian actor, was born.

31/3/1960, Anne Howard, US actress, was born in San Diego, California

30/12/1959, Tracey Ullman, actress, was born.

12/11/1959, Vincent Irizarry, US actor, was born.

21/1/1959, Cecil B de Mille, Hollywood film producer, died.

10/10/1958, J Peck, USactor, was born.

6/10/1958, Bernie Mac, actor, was born.

15/9/1958, Wendie Sperber, US comedian and actress, was born.

13/9/1958, Bobby Davro, English comedian and actor, was born.

28/7/1958, Michael Hitchcock, US actor, was born in Defiance, Ohio.

30/5/1958, Annette Bening, actress, was born.

15/4/1958, Estelle Taylor, US actress, died aged 64.

7/3/1958, Rick Mayall, actor in The Young Ones, was born.

10/2/1958, Billy Vine, actor, died.

7/2/1958, Walter Kingsford, British actor, died.

26/12/1957, Death of French film pioneer Charles Pathe.

1/11/1957, Brian Stokes Mitchell, actor, was born

12/9/1957, Rachel Ward, actress, was born in Cornwell, Oxfordshire, England.

7/8/1957, Oliver Hardy, of Laurel and Hardy fame, died of a stroke, aged 65. Laurel was then aged 67.

29/4/1957, Geoffrey Gould, US actor, was born

27/4/1957, Michel Barrette, Canadian actor, was born.

21/3/1957, Sabrina Le Beauf, US actress, was born.

14/1/1957, Humphrey Bogart, American film actor and 1951 Oscar winner, died of throat cancer.

8/1/1957, Amanda Burton, actress, was born

8/11/1956, Richard Curtis, English actor, was born.

7/3/1956, Bryan Cranston, US actor, was born.

29/11/1955, Howie Mandel, comedian, was born in Toronto, Ontario

30/9/1955, TV actor James Dean was killed when his Porsche careered off the road near Los Angeles.

2/4/1954, Ron Palillo, actor, was born (died 2012).

25/11/1953, James Hayden, US actor, was born.

4/10/1953, Tcheky Karyo, Turkish actor, was born.

3/12/1952, Mel Smith, English actor, was born.

30/11/1952, Mandy Patinkin, US actor, was born.

27/7/1952, Roxanne Hart, US actress, was born.

24/10/1951, Todd Crespi, actor, was born in Frankfurt, Germany.

4/4/1951, Al Christie, Canadian film director and producer died (born 1881)

5/3/1951, Giorgos Ninios, Greek actor, was born.

23/10/1950, Al Jolson, US film actor, died aged 64.

5/2/1950, Marie-Pierre Castel, French actress, was born.

21/10/1949, Jacques Copeau, French actor, died in Beaune.

25/9/1949, Anson Williams, USactor, was born in Los Angeles, California.

16/9/1949, Susan Ruttan, US actress, was born in Oregon City, Oregon.

22/6/1949, Meryl Streep, actress, was born.

2/5/1949, Alan Titchmarsh, gardener and TV personality, was born in Ilkley, England

16/3/1949, Leyland Hodgson, British-born US actor, died aged 56.

29/12/1947, Ted Danson, actor, was born in San Diego.

26/8/1947, Anne Archer, actress, was born.

2/1/1947, Larry David, comedy writer, actor and TV producer, was born in Brooklyn, New York

25/12/1946, William Claude Dukenfield (WC Fields), actor, died (born 29/1/1880).

2/2/1946, Farrah Fawcett, US actress, was born.

2/6/1945, Jon Peters, film producer, was born in Van Nuys, Los Angeles, California.

25/12/1944, Kenny Everett, radio and TV comedian, was born.

14/6/1944, Joe Grifasi, US actor, was born.

11//6/1944, Roscoe Orman, US actor, was born.

8/4/1944, Jean Benguigui, French actor, was born.

26/3/1944, Diana Ross, US actress, was born.

27/8/1943, Tuesday Weld, USfilm and TVesday actress, was born.

27/5/1943, Cilla Black, singer and presenter of the TV show Blind Date, was born.

1/2/1943, Tina Sloan, US actress, was born.

29/1/1943, Tony Blackburn, British radio presenter, was born.

6/1/1943, Luciano Virgilio, Italian actor, was born.

30/11/1942, Buck Jones, US actor, died.

24/11/1942, Billy Connolly, Scottish comedian, was born.

18/11/1942, Linda Evans, US actress, was born.

17/11/1942, Martin Scorsese, US film director, was born.

5/11/1942, George M Cohan, US actor, died aged 64.

3/11/1942, Stefanie Powers, US actress, was born.

5/9/1942, Werner Herzog, German film director, was born.

16/8/1942, John Challis, English actor, was born.

19/1/1942. Michael Crawford, British comedy actor, was born in Salisbury, Wiltshire, as Michael Dumble-Smith.

28/7/1941, Colin Higgins, US film director, was born.

8/2/1941, Nick Nolte, US actor, was born in Omaha, Nebraska.

8/12/1940, Jenny Linden, English actress, was born.

16/11/1940, Donna McKechnie, US actress, was born.

25/5/1940, Joe De Grasse, Canadian film director, died aged 67.

12/12/1939, Hollywood actor Douglas Fairbanks died this day.

27/10/1939, John Cleese, English comedy actor, was born in Weston Super Mare.

7/10/1939, Clive James, TV broadcaster, was born in Sydney.

3/10/1939, Fay Templeton, US actress, died aged 73.

26/9/1939, Ricky Tomlinson, actor, was born.

28/4/1939, Judy Carne, actress, was born.

23/4/1939, Lee Majors, actor, was born in Wyandotte, Michigan.

23/10/1938, Derek Jacobi, actor, was born.

20/10/1938, Emidio Greco, Italian director and screenwriter, was born.

3/8/1938, Terry Wogan, TV broadcaster, was born in Limerick, Ireland.

27/2/1938, Pascale Petit, French actress, was born in Paris, France.

11/4/1937, Jill Gascoine, British TV actress, was born in London, England (died 2020)

8/8/1937, Actor Dustin Hoffman was born.

17/3/1936, Patty Maloney, actress, was born in Perkinsville, New York.

1/10/1935, Julie Andrews, star in The Sound of Music and Mary Poppins, was born in Walton on Thames.

20/5/1935, Mickey Rose, US actor, was born (died 2013).

29/12/1934, Ed Flanders, actor, was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota (died 1995)

23/11/1934, Arthur Wing Pinero, English actor, died aged 79.

28/9/1934, Brigitte Bardot, actress, female role model, was born in Paris.

20/9/1934, Sophia Loren, actress, was born.

28/7/1934, Marie Dressler, US film star, died at santa Barbara, California (born 9/11/1860, Coburg, Ontario, Canada).

3/3/1934, Josephine Grace Johanna Scoglio, actress, was born (died 30/4/1972),

9/4/1933, Gian Maria Volont�, Italian actor, was born in Milan, Italy (died 1994)

6/4/1933, Dudley Sutton, British actor, was born.

3/3/1933, Margaret Fink, Australian film producer, was born.

29/12/1932, Inga Swenson, US actress, was born.

18/2/1932, Milos Forman, Czech film director and actor, was born.

31/7/1931, Oleg Popov: Russian clown and actor.

5/1/1931, Robert Duvall, US actor, was born.

25/8/1930, Sean Connery, British film actor who played the leading role in seven James Bond movies, was born in Edinburgh as Thomas Connery.

1/6/1930, Birth of TV actor Edward Woodward, best known for The Equaliser.

30/3/1930, Rolf Harris, Australian entertainer and cartoonist, was born.

7/11/1929, Lila Kaye, actress, was born in Middlesbrough, England (died 2012)

12/10/1929, Magnus Magnusson, British writer and TV presenter of the quiz show Mastermind, was born in Reykjavik, Iceland.

11/10/1929, Graham Roberts, actor, was born.

27/9/1929, Barbara Murray, English actress, was born.

25/9/1929, Ronnie Barker, English comedy actor, was born in Bedford, UK.

4/8/1929, Kishore Kumar, Indian actor, was born.

12/11/1928, Grace Kelly, US actress, was born (died 1982)

26/7/1928, Stanley Kubrick, US film director, was born (died 1999)

9/7/1927, John Drew, US actor, died in San Francisco, California (born 13/11/1853 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)

7/4/1927, The comedian A Dolan was televised in Whippany, New Jersey, making him the first televised comedian.

31/10/1926, Jimmy Savile, British radio and TV presenter, was born in Leeds, Yorkshire.

31/10/1926. The USA magician and escapologist Harry Houdini died, aged 52. He was born as Ehrich Weisz in Hungary and adopted his later name from the conjuror Robert Houdin whose autobiography he read as a young boy. .Determined to match Houdin�s achievements and to haul his family out of poverty, Houdini ran away to New York to begin a life in magic and entertainment which would enthral thousands. He escaped from handcuffs in an underwater nailed packing crate, and later exposed many psychic frauds. Whilst giving a lecture on spiritualism in Montreal, Houdini was asked if he could withstand a blow to the abdomen. Before he had a chance to prepare himself, Houdini was struck three times by a student. Despite this he managed to perform again, but died of peritonitis in a Detroit hospital a few days later.

16/2/1926, John Schlesinger, English actor, was born (died 2003).

2/12/1925, Julie Harris, actress, was born in Grosse Point, Michigan (died 2013)

11/10/1925, Richard Burton, Welsh actor who was married to Elizabeth Taylor twice, was born this day.

8/9/1925, Peter Sellers, comic TV actor, was born.

2/8/1925, Alan Whicker, widely-travelled TV reporter, was born in Cairo, Egypt.

15/7/1925, Harry Dean Stanton, actor, was born.

4/4/1925, Dorothy Alison, actress, was born.

21/1/1925, Benny Hill, English comedian, was born in Southampton.

4/10/1924, Charlton Heston, the film star in Ben Hur, was born.

12/5/1924, Tony Hancock, English comedian, was born (died 1968).

21/4/1924, Eleonora Duse, Italian actress (born Lombardy, Italy, 3/10/1859) died in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

9/12/1923, Meggie Albanesi, British actress, died aged 24.

24/10/1923, Sir Robin Day, TV interviewer, was born this day.

29/4/1923, Irvin Kershner, film director, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (died 2010)

17/10/1922, Pierre Juneau, Canadian film and broadcast executive, was born in Montreal, Quebec (died 2012)

8/6/1921, Sheila Ryan, US actress, was born.

16/4/1921. Peter Ustinov, actor, was born.

28/3/1921. Dirk Bogarde, English film actor, was born in Hampstead, London.

22/3/1921, Nino Manfredi, Italian actor, was born.

17/8/1920, Maureen O'Hara, Irish-born US film actress, was born (died 2015)

30/3/1920, Turhan Bey, actor, was born in Vienna, Austria.

6/3/1920, Lewis Gilbert, British film director, was born in Hackney, London (died 2018)

4/2/1920, Norman Wisdom, British comedian, was born as Norman Wisden.

3/2/1920, Bibi Osterwald, actress, was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.

2/1/1919, Carole Landis, US actress, was born.

22/10/1918, Myrtle Gonzalez, US actress, was born.

6/8/1917, Robert Mitchum, Hollywood actor, was born in Connecticut, USA.

27/10/1916, Bob de Lange, Dutch actor, was born.

20/1/1914, Roy Plomley, who created �Desert Island Discs�, was born. He began his career as a copywriter for an advertising agency then became an actor. He then became an announcer for a French commercial radio station. He was awarded the OBE in 1975.

30/11/1913. Charlie Chaplin made his film debut in Mack Sennett�s short film Making a Living.

18/1/1913, Danny Kaye, US actor, was born (died 1987).

2/11/1911, Kyrle Bellew, English actor, died aged 61.

5/4/1911, Gordon Jones, actor, was born in Alden, Iowa, USA.

18/11/1908, Imogene Coca, American actress, was born (died 2001)

9/10/1908, Jacques Tati, French comedian who created Monsieur Hulot�s Holiday, was born.

14/9/1908, Clayton Moore, actor, was born in Chicago, Illinois.

26/5/1907, John Wayne, actor, was born.

13/10/1905, Sir Henry Irving, the first British actor to receive a knighthood, gave his final performance in Bradford, Yorkshire, before collapsing and dying in the arms of his dresser at the Midland Hotel.

18/9/1905. Greta Garbo, the Swedish shop-girl who became a famous film star, was born.

16/5/1905, Bob Hope, US comedian, was born.

3/4/1905, Joseph Jefferson, US actor, died (born 20/2/1829).

16/3/1905, Elisabeth Flickenschildt, German actress, was born in Hamburg, Germany (died 1977)

1904, The Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts (RADA) was set up to train actors. In 1905 it moved to premises in Gower Street, London.

2/12/1904, Ann Gilbert, US actress, died (born 21/10/1821).

15/11/1904, Tilly Losch, Austrian actress, was born in Vienna, Austria (died 1975)

7/7/1904, James Cagney, film director, was born in New York.

26/5/1904, George Formby, Lancashire comedian who played the ukulele and was famous for his song Cleaning Windows, was born.

3/5/1904, John Breeden, US actor, was born in San Francisco, California (died 1977)

1/4/1904, Sid Field, English actor was born (died 1950).

18/1/1904, Cary Grant, American film actor, was born in Bristol, England, as Alexander Archibald Leach.

29/5/1903, Bob Hope, comedian, was born.

6/5/1902, Max Ophuls, German film director, was born in Saarbrucken (died 1957).

27/12/1901, Marlene Dietrich, German actress, was born.

5/12/1901, Walt Disney was born.

9/2/1901, James Murray, US actor, was born (died 1936).

24/9/1899, John Clarke, US actor, died (born 3/9/1833).

5/7/1899, Jean Cocteau, film director, poet, artist, novelist, was born in Maisons-Lafitte, France.

12/3/1899, Mary Keeley, English actress, died.

31/10/1898, Helena Faucit, English actress, died (born 1817).

13/8/1898, Alfred Hitchcock, film director, born in Leytonstone.

12/1/1896, Tommy Handley, British comedian, was born in Liverpool.

4/10/1895, Buster Keaton, silent film comedian who performed his own stunts, was born this day.

2/10/1893, David James, English actor, died (born 1839).

1/2/1893, In New Jersey, USA, Thomas Edison opened the world�s first film studio.

7/12/1892, Fred Leslie, English actor, died (born 1/4/1855).

18/1/1892, Oliver Hardy, comedian in the Laurel and Hardy duo, was born in Atlanta, Georgia.

20/3/1891, Lawrence Barratt, US actor, died born in Paterson, New Jersey 4/4/1838).

2/10/1890, Julius Groucho Marx was born (died 1977).

16/6/1890, Stan Laurel, of the Laurel and Hardy duo, was born as Arthur Stanley Jefferson in Ulverston, Lancashire (now Cumbria). Oliver Hardy was born in America on 18/1/1892.

17/6/1889, John Gilbert, US actor, died (born 27/2/1810).

16/4/1889, Birth of comedian Sir Charles Chaplin in Kennington, London (died 1977). He was the son of two music hall entertainers.

23/11/1888, Harpo Marx, one of the Marx Brothers comedy team, was born in New York City.

16/8/1887, Augustine Brohan, French actress, died (born 22/1/1807).

23/1/1886, Jean Bressant, French actor, died (born 23/10/1815).

8/11/1885, John McCullough, US actor, died.

15/7/1883, Tom Thumb, the American circus midget who finally attained a height of 40 inches, died.

23/5/1883, Douglas Fairbanks, US actor, was born in Denver, Colorado (died 12/12/1939 in Santa Monica, California).

29/8/1882, Samuel Goldwyn was born.

12/2/1882, Madame Celeste, French actress, died (born 16/8/1815) 12/2/1882).

7/6/1880, John Brougham, British actor, died (born 9/5/1814).

15/8/1880, Adelaide Neilson, British actress, died.

29/1/1880, William Claude Dukenfield (WC Fields), actor, was born (died 25/12/1946).

5/8/1879, Charles Fechter, actor, died (born 23/10/1824)

8/6/1878, Charles Matthews, English actor, died (born 26/12/1803).

26/1/1876, Antoine Frederick-Lemaitre, French actor, died (born 28/7/1800).

1/12/1875, Pauline Dejazet, French actress, died (born 30/8/1798).

22/3/1875, Hezekiah Bateman, US actor, died (born in Baltimore, Maryland 6/12/1812).

30/12/1874, Ludwig Dessoir, German actor, died (born 15/12/1810).

24/8/1874, William Betty, English actor, died (born in Shrewsbury 13/9/1791).

6/4/1874, Harry Houdini, American magician and escapologist, was born in Appleton, Wisconsin, as Ehrich Weiss. He was the son of a rabbi from Budapest.

4/11/1873, Laura Keene, actress, died

27/4/1873, William MacReady, English actor, died (born 3/3/1793).

12/12/1872, Edwin Forrest, US actor, died (born 9/3/1806).

11/11/1872, Maude Adams, US actress, was born (died 17/7/1953).

7/8/1872, Gustav Devreint, German actor, died (born 4/9/1803).

1/2/1872, Bogumil Dawison, German actor, died (born 1818).

10/8/1868, Adah Menken, US actress, died.

24/9/1861, William Farren, English actor, died (born 13/5/1786).

17/1/1861, Marie Gilbert, Irish dancer, died (born 1818).

9/2/1860, William Burton, actor, died (born 1804).

12/11/1859, French acrobat Jules Leotard performed the first circus trapeze act at the Cirque Napoleon, Paris, wearing the famous costume named after him.

28/7/1859, Mary Anderson, US actress, was born in Sacramento, California.

4/11/1858, Francis Benson, English actor, was born in Tunbridge Wells.

25/7/1857, Nathaniel Goodwin, US actor, was born.

24/5/1857, Richard Mansfield, US actor, was born (died 30/8/1907).

1/4/1855, Fred Leslie, English actor, was born (died 7/12/1892).

12/11/1854, Charles Kemble, actor, died

9/12/1847, George Grossmith, English comedian, was born.

20/3/1847, Anne Boutet, French actress, died (born 9/2/1779).

26/10/1845, Edward Harrigan, US actor, was born.

22/10/1845, Sarah Bernhardt, French actress, was born in Paris.

30/4/1845, Henry Crane, US actor, was born.

16/5/1844, Sir John Hare, English actor, born

16/12/1843, William Kendal, English actor, was born.

14/5/1841, Sir Squire Bancroft, actor, was born near London.

28/2/1841, Jean Mounet-Sully, French actor, was born.

23/1/1841, Benoit Coquelin, French actor, was born (died 8/2/1909).

3/10/1838, Otto Devrient, German actor, was born (died 23/6/1894).

4/4/1838, Lawrence Barratt, US actor, was born in Paterson, New Jersey (died 20/3/1891).

4/1/1838, Charles Sherwood Stratton was born. He later became famous as Tom Thumb, a midget exhibited by Phineas Barnum.

31/5/1837, Joseph Grimaldi, famous English clown, died (born 18/12/1779).

13/11/1833, Edwin Booth, US actor, was born in Belair, Maryland (died 7/6/1893).

3/9/1833, John Clarke, US actor, was born (died 24/9/1899).

15/5/1833, Edmund Kean, actor, died (born 17/3/1787)

20/12/1832, Ludwig Devrient, German actor, died (born 15/12/1784).

6/2/1832, Joseph Munden, English actor, died.

26/7/1831, William Florence, US actor, was born (died 14/11/1891).

26/12/1803, Charles Matthews, English actor, was born (died 8/6/1878).

1/11/1827, Friedrich Haase, German actor, was born.

23/10/1824, Charles Fechter, actor, was born (died 5/8/1879).

26/2/1823, John Philip Kemble, actor, died (born 1/2/1757)

1/10/1822, Francois Got, French actor, was born (died 1901).

3/3/1822, Abraham Benard, French actor, died (born 26/10/1750).

21/10/1821, Ann Gilbert, US actress, was born (died 2/12/1904).

7/9/1819, Jeanne Arnould-Plessey, French actress, was born in Metz (died 1897).

23/7/1816, Charlotte Cushman, US actress, was born (died 18/2/1876).

3/7/1816, Dorothea Jordan, Irish actress, died.

25/5/1816, Anne Lange, French actress, died (born 17/9/1772).

23/10/1815, Jean Bressant, French actor, was born (died 23/1/1886).

16/8/1815, Madame Celeste, French actress, was born (died 12/2/1882).

4/3/1815, Frances Abington, English actress (born 1737) died.

9/5/1814, John Brougham, British actor, was born (died 7/6/1880).

6/12/1812, Hezekiah Bateman, US actor, was born in Baltimore, Maryland (died 2/3/1875).

26/9/1811, George Cooke, English actor, died (born 1756).

15/12/1810, Ludwig Dessoir, German actor, was born (died 30/12/1874).

5/7/1810, American showman Phineas T Barnum was born in Bethel, Connecticut.

27/2/1810, John Gilbert, US actor, was born (died 17/6/1889).

22/1/1807, Augustine Brohan, French actress, was born (died 16/8/1887).

9/3/1806, Edwin Forrest, US actor, was born (died 12/12/1872).

4/9/1803, Gustav Devreint, German actor, was born (died 7/8/1872).

23/7/1803, Charles Lewes, English actor, died.

28/7/1800, Antoine Frederick-Lemaitre, French actor, was born (died 26/1/1876).

5/8/1799, Jean Colson, French actor, died (born 16/1/1725).

30/8/1798, Pauline Dejazet, French actress, was born (died 1/12/1875).

15/5/1797, Pierre Lafont, French actor, was born (died 19/4/1873).

5/4/1797, Karl Devrient, German actor, was born (died 4/10/1877).

1/2/1794, Etienne Arnal, actor, was born in Meulan (died 1872).

3/3/1793, William MacReady, English actor, was born (died 27/4/1873).

13/7/1791, William Betty, English actor, was born in Shrewsbury (died 24/8/1874).

31/10/1790, John Edwin, English actor, died (born 10/8/1749).

16/2/1788, George Anne Bellamy, English actress, died.

17/3/1787, Edmund Kean, actor, was born (died 15/5/1833).

13/5/1786, William Farren, English actor, was born (died 24/9/1861).

6/12/1785, Catherine Clive, British actress, died (born 1711).

15/12/1784, Ludwig Devrient, German actor, was born (died 30/12/1832).

18/12/1779, Joseph Grimaldi, English clown who invented the white face make up for clowns, was born.

9/2/1779, Anne Boutet, French actress, was born (died 20/3/1847).

20/1/1779, David Garrick, English actor and theatre manager, died. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

16/6/1778, Konrad Ekhof, German actor, died (born 12/8/1720).

8/2/1778, Henri Louis Cain, French actor, died (born 14/4/1728).

10/1/1777, Spranger Barry, British actor, died in London (born in Dublin 23/11/1719).

27/12/1774, Henry Mossop, Irish actor, died.

7/4/1774, Robert Elliston, English actor, was born (died 1831).

17/9/1772, Anne Lange, French actress, was born (died 25/5/1816).

30/1/1766, Susannah Cibber, actress, died (born 1714).

24/1/1760, Lavinia Fenton, English actress, died (born 1708).

11/12/1757, Colley Cibber, English actor, died (born 6/11/1671).

1/2/1757, John Philip Kemble, actor, was born (died 26/2/1823).

26/10/1750, Abraham Benard, French actor, was born (died 3/3/1822).

10/8/1749, John Edwin, English actor, was born (died 31/10/1790).

15/11/1746, Jean Dugazon, French actor, was born (died 1809).

16/8/1738, Joe Miller, English actor, died.

20/3/1730, Adrienne Lecouvreur, Frenchy actress, died (born 5/4/1692).

22/12/1729, Michel Baron, French actor, died (born in Paris 1635).

14/4/1728, Henri Louis Cain, French actor, was born (died 8/2/1778).

16/1/1725, Jean Colson, French actor, was born(died 5/8/1799),

25/1/1723, La Clairon, French actress, was born (died 1803).

12/8/1720, Konrad Ekhof, German actor, was born (died 16/6/1778).

23/11/1719, Spranger Barry, British actor, was born in Dublin (died in London 10/1/1777).

7/11/1713, Elizabeth Barry, actress, died (born 1658).

2/1/1713, Marie Dumesnil, actress, was born (died 20/2/1803).

15/5/1698, Marie Champmesle, French actress, died (born 1642).

5/4/1692, Adrienne Lecouvreur, Frenchy actress, was born (died 20/3/1730).

6/11/1671, Colley Cibber, English actor, was born (died 11/12/1757).

 

Appendix 5 � Theatres, concerts, operas

12/6/1997, The new Globe Theatre, London, opened.

12/6/1974. The Redgrave Theatre, Farnham, opened.

9/8/1962, The National Theatre was established in London, with Sir Lawrence Olivier as director.

14/1/1947, The newly-renovated Covent Garden Opera House in London opened, with a performance of Bizet�s Carmen.

23/4/1932, The new Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opened in Stratford on Avon.

6/1/1931, The New Sadlers Wells Theatre in London was opened.

27/4/1928. The Piccadilly Theatre, London, opened.

6/3/1926. Fire destroyed the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford on Avon. Only a blackened shell was left.

29/10/1911. First stone of the Drury Lane Theatre laid.

9/6/1904, First concert by the London Symphony Hall.

15/5/1862, The third Royal Opera House opened at Covent Garden, London.

30/1/1858, The Halle Opera in Manchester, England, gave its first public concert.

5/3/1856, London�s Covent Garden Opera House was destroyed by fire.

27/7/1787, The Theatre Royal, Margate, was founded.

30/5/1766, The oldest theatre still in use in Britain, the �Royal;� in Bristol, was opened.

7/5/1663, The first Drury Lane theatre, London, opened.

13/4/1644. Demolition of the Globe Theatre on the South Bank, London.

29/6/1613. The Globe Theatre in London burnt down after a cannon was fired during a Shakespeare play and set fire to the roof.

 

Appendix 6 � Art Galleries

12/5/2000, In London, the Tate Modern art gallery opened.

2/2/1977, The Pompidou Centre of art and culture opened in Paris.

21/7/1897. The Tate Gallery in London was officially opened, on the site of Millbank Prison.

9/4/1838. The National Gallery, in Trafalgar Square, London, opened.

 

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