Cultural events; TV, radio, films, telecommunications
Page last modified 7/4/2019
For Internet events see computers
None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
‘He who prides himself on giving what he thinks the public wants is often creating a fictitious demand for lower standards which he himself will then satisfy' Sir John Reith, first Director General of the BBC, 1924
Films – see appendix 1a below
Film production – see appendix 1b below
Radio, Telegraph, Telephone Communications - see appendix 2a below
TV and radio broadcasting – see appendix 2b below
TV Shows – see appendix 3 below
Actors, film directors and film stars – see appendix 3.5 below
Radio shows – see appendix 4 below
Theatres, concerts, operas – see appendix 5 below
Art Galleries = see Appendix 6 below
14/2/1989. The first of 24 satellites for the Global Positioning System were placed in orbit.
3/2/1989, British Telecom banned ‘chatlines’, because some people got addicted to them and ran up huge bills which they couldn’t pay. One 12-year-old ran up a bill of £6,000. The Internet had yet to arrive.
21/11/1980. A Bill was presented in the UK Parliament separating the UK post from the telephone services.
1/10/1969, Austria issued the world’s first official post card.
14/11/1952, Charts for pop singles were published in Britain for the first time, in New Musical Express.
23/5/1925, British publishing magnate Sir Edward Hulton died after falling off his penny-farthing bicycle.
Appendix 1a - Films
2/10/1990. Ghost was one of the films on release.
13/8/1990. Die Hard II was one of the film on release.
2/12/1984, Films on included Ghostbusters and Gremlins.
8/6/1977. Films on release included Blazing Saddles.
30/3/1975. Films on release included Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
29/11/1974. In the cinema the new sensurround film Earthquake made its debut.
12/4/1974. Films on release included Last Tango in Paris and The Exorcist.
4/1/1974. The James Bond film Live and let Die was released in South Africa.
16/10/1972. Films included Steven Spielberg’s Duel.
22/2/1969. Films on release included 2001: A Space Odyssey.
7/10/1968. Films on release included 2001: A Space Odyssey.
6/5/30/10/1967. Captain Scarlet merchandise hit the shops.
1968, The films 2001: A Space Odyssey and Planet of the Apes were showing.
16/12/1968, World premier of the film Chitty Chitty Bang Bang.
15/6/1967. Films included The Further Perils of Laurel and Hardy.
27/1/1963. Films on release included Cape Fear.
22/9/1964, The James Bond film Goldfinger premiered in Leicester Square, London.
18/11/1962. The first James Bond film, Dr No, was released.
11/11/1959, The film Ben Hur premiered in London.
4/3/1950, Walt Disney’s Cinderella was released.
9/1/1951, The first film to receive the new X rating opened in London. Entitled Life Begins Tomorrow, it received the rating for a scene dealing with artificial insemination.
13/8/1942, The Walt Disney film Bambi premiered at Radio City Music Hall, New York.
31/10/1941, The Walt Disney film Dumbo was released today.
13/11/1940, The Walt Disney film Fantasia had its first showing.
19/11/1928, Mickey Mouse made his first appearance in the Walt Disney film Steamboat Willie.
16/8/1925, Charlie Chaplin’s film Gold Rush was premiered in America.
1/11/1925, The Buster Keaton film Go West opened.
23/9/1912. Mack Sonnett released the first Keystone Cops film.
Appendix 1b – Film Productiom
8/4/1985, Rupert Murdoch bought Twentieth Century Fox.
1959, BAFTA, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, was flrmed from an amalgamation of the British Film Academy (founded 1948) and the Guild of Television Producers (founded 1954). It gives annual awards for merit in the TV and film industry,
22/1/1959, Two thirds of British homes now had a television. The Rank Organisation, on 17/9/1959, said cinema attendance in Britain fell from 1.396 million in 1950 to 1.101 million in 1956 and was still in decline.
9/4/1951, The first trials pf Pay-per-View TV in Chicago, Illinois. Viewers paid US$3 to download three films.
20/9/1946. The first Cannes Film Festival opened.
30/9/1936, Pinewood Film Studios opened.
1933, The British Film Institute (BFI) was founded to promote the cinema sa a means of entertainment and instruction. The BFI includes the National Film Archive (founded 1935) and the National Film Theatre (founded 1951).
18/2/1929, The First Academy Awards, known as Oscars from 1931, were announced.
6/10/1927. The first full length talking picture, The Jazz Singer, opened in New York. The soundtrack was almost entirely music. The biggest problem with sound movies was synchronising speech with mouth movements.
26/3/1927. The Gaumont British Film Corporation was founded.
16/4/1924. The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film corporation was formed by merger.
1912, The British Board of Film Censors was founded. It was renamed in 1985 as the British Board of Film Classification.
24/2/1909. Colour films were shown to the public for the first time, in Brighton.
1907, Britain’s first film-only picture theatre, the Balham Palace, opened in SW London.
5/12/1901. Walt Disney was born.
3/10/1896, Queen Victoria became the first British monarch to be captured on moving film, at Balmoral.
23/12/1888. The film magnate J Arthur Rank was born. Born in Hull, England, he was born into a Yorkshire flour milling family. He entered the film business in his mid 30s, seeing it as a way to propagate his Methodist faith. He failed to secure distribution for a religious film called The Turn of the Tide and so began his own production, distribution, and exhibition of films in 1933. By the 1940s the Rank Organisation owned half the film studios in Britain and over 1,000 cinemas, including the well-known Odeon chain. However Rank failed to establish Britain as a rival to Hollywood. The Rank Organisation survives but with films as a secondary interest behind hotels, real estate, ballrooms, bingo, and, most profitable of all, copying machines.
Appendix 2a -Telegraph, Radio and Telephone Communications
14/2/1989. Skyphone, the world’s first satellite telephone service, was launched on a British Airways flight from London to New York.
1/1/1985, The first mobile phone call was made, by Ernie Wise to Vodafone.
1962, The concept of music playing whilst a telephone call was on hold was born. Alfred Levy, factory owner, allegedly came up with the idea when a loose wire on his company’s phone system touched a girder which acted as an aerial and picked up music from a nearby radio station. Callers to Mr Levy heard music, not silence, whilst on hold. The advantage of music was that a caller on hold knew they had not been cut off, the line was still open.
12/8/1960. The first US communications satellite, Echo 1, was launched.
1/1/1934. Britain now had over 2 million telephone subscribers, with 275,000 more joining every year.
1/5/1933, The Britain to India telephone service began.
30/4/1930. A telephone link opened between Britain and Australia.
2/12/1929. Britain got its first 22 public phone boxes.
1/1/1929. In the UK, there were now 3.6 telephones per 100 people.
11/5/1925. Direct telephone communication between London and Rome began for the first time.
7/1/1924. Direct communication by transatlantic cable and land wire was opened by the Western Union Telegraph Company between London and Chicago.
20/3/1919. Wireless telephone communication established between Ireland and Canada.
22/1/1918, Radio-telegraphic communication was inaugurated between the USA and Italy.
23/1/1908, A 7,000 mile telegraph line from Britain to India began operations.
1901, In the previous 12 months, 84,000,000 telegrams had been sent in the UK, compared to 9,000,000 in 1870/1.
18/3/1891, The London-Paris telephone link opened. The first call was between the Prince of Wales and President Carnot. The link opened to the public on 1/4/1891.
14/3/1891. The submarine Monarch laid the first telephone cable across the English Channel.
23/11/1872. Australia was connected by undersea cable to the rest of the world. The cable ran from Darwin in the north to Java, and also into southern Australia.
3/6/1871. London gained direct communication with Shanghai via an undersea cable laid via San Francisco.
1868, The UK Parliament passed a Bill enabling the Post Office to take over the competing private companies running electric telegraphs along the new rail routes. Electric telegraph links had been installed along the railway between Eustgon and Camden Town in 1837, and along the Great Western line between Paddington and Hanwell, and by the 1850s three large telegraph companies wree competing along the nations railway routes, Parliament considered this competitoion wasteful, and effectively created the first nationalised company.
27/7/1866. The first successful transatlantic cable was laid by the Great Eastern, which arrived this day at Hearts Content, Newfoundland. Attempts had been made to do this since 1856.
5/8/1858, The first transatlantic cable was completed, by Sir Charles Tilston Bright (1832 – 1888), and opened by Queen Victoria and President Buchanan. See 7/9/1866.
13/11/1851. A telegraphic service between London and Paris was started.
28/8/1850. The Channel telegraph was laid between Dover and Cap Gris Nez.
Appendix 2b – TV and radio broadcasting
Start of TV broadcasting. TV broadcasting started, unsuprisingly, in the most technologically-advanced countries; the USA in 1928, Germany and the UK in 1929, France in 1931 Likewise, the last nations to acquire the square-eyed box were some of the least technologically-developed; Fiji in 1991, Botswana in 1992, Eritrea in 1993, The Gambia in 1995, and Malawi in 1996. At that point, only Bhutan remained as the last TV-free bastion; it too fell in 1999. TV therefore conquered the world in about one human lifespan, 1928 to 1999. Note that this map is based on the year mass TV broadcasting began in any one country, and reception may not have reached the entire territory until later.
For technical innovations in broadcasting see science and technology
31/1/2016, Terry Wogan, radio and TV presenter, died aged 77. He was born on 3/8/1938 in Ireland and became a British citizen in 2005.
2/6/1999, After decades of resisting external technological influences such as television, the King of Bhutan allowed TV broadcasts in the Kingdom for the first time, to coincide with his silver jubilee.
26/4/1999, BBC TV presenter Jill Dando was shot dead on the doorstep of her Fulham house in London.
4/1997, In the UK, the Broadcasting Standards Commission was set up. Replacing the earlier Broadcasting Complaints Commission and the Broadcasting Standards Coincil, it monitors TV morals and aims for fair repreepresentationndividuals and situations.
30/3/1997, In Britain, Channel Five was launched.
5/2/1989, Rupert Murdoch launched Sky TV.
11/12/1988. An Ariane rocket carrying an Astra 1A satellite to bring 16 TV channels to Britain was launched from French Guyana.
1983, By the time a child in the US reached 18, it was estimated they had watched over 17,000 hours of TV, equivalent to 710 continuous days and nights of TV. In that time they had seen 360,000 adverts and witnessed 15,000 murders.
23/11/1982, In the USA, TV commercials were deregulated, removing restrictions on length and content.
1/11/1982. Channel 4 began transmitting. It aimed to cater to minority audiences.
2/11/1981, CB or Citizen’s Band Radio became legal in Britain.
20/3/1980. The pirate radio station Radio Caroline, on the ship Mi Amigo, ran aground and sank after 16 years of broadcasting.
28/2/1980, The BBC announced that as an economy measure it would scrap five of its orchestras.
1/3/1975, Colour TV broadcasting began in Australia.
21/10/1974, Liverpool City radio went on air.
9/10/1973, Capital Radio (London) began broadcasting.
8/10/1973. Britain’s first legal commercial radio station, LBC (London Broadcasting Company) Radio in London, began transmission.
19/12/1971, Intelsat IV (F3) was launched; it entered commercial service over the Atlantic Ocean on February 18, 1972.
16/6/1971, The BBC’s first chief, Lord Reith, died.
18/2/1971. Rupert Murdoch took control of London Weekend Television.
15/11/1969. The first colour TV advert went on British television – for Birds Eye peas.
2/9/1969. ITV began broadcasting in colour.
19/9/1968, The TV Times, a weekly magazine for British independent TV, was first published.
8/11/1967. The first local radio station in the UK, Radio Leicester, went on the air. It was opened by the Postmaster-General, Edward Short.
30/9/1967. BBC Radio was reorganised. BBC Radio 1, 2, 3, and 4 began broadcasting, with Tony Blackburn introducing The Breakfast Show. His first record was Flowers In The Rain by The Move.
15/8/1967. The Marine Broadcasting Act came into force in the UK, outlawing pop pirate radio stations.
1/7/1967. BBC 2 began colour broadcasting in Britain. Wimbledon was covered in colour for the first time.
2/5/1965. The British satellite, Early Bird, began transmitting TV programmes to 300 million viewers in 24 countries.
1964, The Tokyo Olympics became the first major sprting event to be broadcast globally via satellite. By 1969 the entire Earth was covered by satellite TV transmissions.
23/11/1964, The first British commercial radio station, Radio Manx, began broadcasting.
21/4/1964. BBC2 began transmission.
28/3/1964. Radio Caroline, Britain’s first private radio broadcasting station, began broadcasting from The Channel outside British waters.
13/11/1962.. Kenneth Adam, Director of BBC TV, announced that a second channel would be launched in 1964. The new channel would show very little repeated programmes and not have much American material.
10/7/1962. Telstar I, the world’s first television telecommunications satellite, was launched in America. The following day it transmitted a special television inaugural programme to mark the first communications satellite.
1960, European TV broadcasters agreed on a common standard of 625-line pictures. A few countries differed; the UK used the post-war 425-line system, and France had already gone for a 819 line standard. Japan followed the US 525-line standard.
11/7/1960. The communications satellite TELSTAR became operational. Britain could now receive US television shows,
31/10/1959, The first television broadcasts in Africa began, from Ibadan, Nigeria.
28/10.1959, South Africa rejected the introduction of television.
26/12/1959. Bulgarian National Television was founded. Colour broadcasting began in 1970.
1957,The BBC ended the so-called ‘toddlers truce’; a period between 6pm and 7pm when no programmes were nroadcast. This was supposed to help mothers get young children to bed, who believed that the night’s entertainment was over. Programmes ended at 11pm for the night.
9/1/1957. TV detector vans were first used by the UK Post Office to track down licence dodgers.
11/12/1956, In Britain, the start of TV broadcasting was moved forward from 7pm to 6pm.
3/11/1956, The Elmley Moor ITV transmitter in Yorkshire was switched on.
10/10/1955, Experimental colour TV broadcasts were made from by the BBC from Alexandra Palace, London.
20/9/1955. The Radio Times was first published.
4/8/1954, The Independent Television Authority was set up.
31/7/1954, The Independent Television Act was passed, allowing for independent TV franchises in the UK.
5/7/1954, The BBC began daily news broadcasts
6/6/1954. The Eurovision television link-up was inaugurated.
25/3/1954, UK Parliament approved the idea of independent TV broadcasting.
11/1/1954, George Cowling from the Met office became the first weatherman to be seen on TV. Previous forecasts had been sound only.
13/11/1953, In Britain, plans for a new commercial TV channel to rival the BBC were announced.
22/10/1953, TV broadcasting began in The Philippines.
1/5/1953, The BBC began broadcasts from Northern Ireland, from a transmitter near Belfast.
31/12/1951, Television came to north-west England with the opening of a transmitter near Manchester. Scotland would get TV in 1953. TV was only available in the London area until a Midlands transmitter opened in 1950. Now television threatened the popularity of radio and cinema.
12/2/1950, The European Broadcasting Union was formed.
27/8/1950, The BBC transmitted its first pictures from abroad, a two-hour programme from Calais..
3/11/1949, The BBC bought the Rank Studios in Shepherds Bush for programme making.
29/7/1949, The BBC issued its first televised weather forecast.
29/9/1946, BBC Radio’s Third Programme, later to become Radio Three, began broadcasting.
7/6/1946, In Britain the BBC resumed TV broadcasts this day; the initial audience was fewer than 12,000 people.
29/7/1945, The BBC Light Programme began broadcasting.
12/10/1944. Angela Rippon, British TV presenter, was born in Plymouth.
8/3/1943, Michael Grade, BBC chief, was born.
5/1/1942, Jan Leeming, BBC presenter, was born.
1/7/1941. The first TV commercial was shown; on WNBT in New York, USA. It was for the Bulova clock and Watch company.
22/6/1940. Esther Rantzen, TV presenter, was born in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire.
30/4/1939, The World Fair in New York opened. It was opened by President Franklin D Roosevelt, who became the first US President to appear on TV, as NBC began their TV news service this day.
7/4/1939. David Frost, TV presenter, was born in Tenterden, Kent.
29/3/1938, The BBC began foreign language broadcasts in German.
3/1/1938. The BBC began its first foreign language service, in Arabic.
2/11/1936. The first daily high definition TV broadcasts in Britain were transmitted from the BBC’s aerial at Alexandra Palace, London. Only around 280 homes had TV sets, which were on sale at the Olympia Exhibition for £110.
11/6/1936. Leslie Mitchell became the BBC’s first television announcer.
24/1/1935. Bamber Gasgoigne, UK TV presenter, was born in London.
19/12/1932, The British Broadcasting Corporation inaugurated its Empire shortwave broadcasting service to the entire British Empire, based from its Daventry transmitters, see 25/12/1932.
22/8/1932, The first regular BBC broadcast began, from Alexandra Palace, Wood Green, north London. Programmes were broadcast on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Fridays for just 30 minutes, from 11.00pm to 11.30pm. The same masts were used for radio broadcasts so TV broadcasts could not begin until radio had finished.
15/3/1932, The BBC made its first broadcast from its new HQ at Portland Place, near Oxford Circus.
12/11/1931. The Abbey Road BBC recording studios were opened by Sir Edward Elgar, who conducted his Pomp and Circumstance marches with the London Symphony Orchestra.
29/12/1930. Radio Luxembourg began broadcasting.
11/4/1930. The Daily Express became the first paper to publish TV programmes.
30/9/1929, The first experimental TV broadcast was made by the BBC.
14/8/1928. The world’s first scheduled television programmes were broadcast by WRNY in New York.
3/7/1928. The first TV sets went on sale in the USA, at $75 each. John Logie Baird made the first colour TV transmission, from the Baird Studios, London.
1/1/1927. The British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, came into being. It had formerly been the British Broadcasting Company.
16/10/1925, Britain began regular broadcasts to Continental Europe, on a weekly basis.
5/2/1924. The BBC ‘pips’ or time signals, were heard for the first time. They were set by a clock at Greenwich.
31/12/1923. The chimes of Big Ben were broadcast by the BBC for the first time.
23/12/1923, The BBC began regular radio broadcasts for entertainment, as opposed to information.
25/11/1923. The first transatlantic wireless broadcast from the UK to the USA was made.
28/9/1923. The Radio Times was first published.
27/7/1923,The BBC radio transmission station at Daventry opened.
14/11/1922. The British Broadcasting Corporation began daily news broadcasts from 2LO in The Strand, London. This had formerly been Marconi’s London broadcasting station. At 6pm the news was read by Arthur Burrows, once at normal speed and once at slow speed. See 14/2/1922, 18/10/1922 and 26/3/1923.
18/10/1922. The BBC, the British Broadcasting Company, was officially formed, at Marconi House, The Strand, London (2LO). See 14/11/1922.
2/11/1920, The first regular radio programme began, KDKA, in Pittsburgh.
23/2/1920, The first regular broadcasting service in Britain began, from Chelmsford.
25/5/1913, The broadcaster Richard Dimbleby was born.
29/3/1903, A regular news service began between New York and London began, using Marconi’s wireless.
13/8/1888. Birth of television pioneer John Logie Baird in Helensburgh, Firth of Clyde, Scotland.
Appendix 3 – TV Shows
30/7/2006, Top of the Pops was broadcast for the last time.
2003, The BBC series Tomorrow’s World was axed (first broadcast 1965).
2000, The TV show Big Brother was first broadcast.
8/8/1999, ‘Who Wants to be a Millionaire’ was first screened; contestants could win up to US$1,000,000.
14/5/1998, The US sitcom Seinfeld was first broadcast.
12/6/1989. Live TV broadcasts from the House of Commons began, after MPs voted 293 to 69 in favour. Live radio broadcasts began on 9/6/1975.
1988, The soap series Neighbours began on BBC TV
4/4/1988. The Midlands-based TV soap opera ‘Crossroads’ ended on episode 4,510. The first episode was broadcast in November 1964.
18/3/1985. Australian Seven Network TV launched a new soap, Neighbours.
19/2/1985, The BBC began broadcasting Eastenders. 13 million people watched the first episode, in which the pensioner Reg Cox died in his Albert Square home.
1984, The TV series Threads began, about the probable effects of a nuclear explosion over the city of Sheffield.
16/9/1984, Miami Vice was first broadcast on NBC TV.
17/1/1983. The start of Breakfast TV on BBC with Frank Bough and Selina Scott.
1/11/1982. The TV show Countdown was launched.
27/9/1979. BBC’s Question Time was broadcast for the first time, with Robin Day in the chair. He stayed with the show for 10 years.
18/2/1979, The BBC screened the first episode of The Antiques Roadshow, hosted by Bruce Parker, Arthur Negus and Angela Rippon.
1978, The 667th and final episode of Z Cars was broadcast on BBC.
2/4/1978, The first episode of Dallas was broadcast in the USA.
8/2/1978, BBC showed the first episode of the school drama Grange Hill.
28/3/1977, British Breakfast TV began as an experiment on Yorkshire TV, hosted by Bob Warman.
27/11/1975. Devolution was discussed on the TV programme Newsday. TV programmes ceased at 12.25 am with What did you learn at School Today? on ITV.
19/9/1975. The first episode of Fawlty Towers was broadcast by the BBC.
1974, New TV series included Porridge and Rising Damp.
5/12/1974, The last episode of Monty Python’s Flying Circus was broadcast by the BBC.
29/11/1974. Ironside was on TV.
30/9/1974. The TV show Some mothers do ‘ave ‘em was showing.
21/6/1974. TV showed The Wombles.
19/6/1974. The Pink Panther Show entertained the young on TV, whilst later on, grown ups had The Two Ronnies. The Best of Les Dawson provided relief after seven hours of World Cup Grandstand.
4/1/1974. On TV, whilst Holiday ’74 compared the rival delights of Blackpool and Benidorm, Dad’s Army also entertained viewers.
4/9/1973. BBC2 was still broadcasting for less than 7 hours a day, including the antique –lover’s show Collector’s World. ITV began at 11.15 am with Galloping Gourmet. Other programmes of the day included A TUC Special, Crossroads, and the sitcom Up The Workers. Emmerdale Farm was also on, and schedules closed at 12.15 am after The Evangelists.
1972, The TV series Colditz was first broadcast.
27/11/1972, In the first episode of the fourth season of Sesame Street, the character of "The Count" (officially Count von Count) was introduced. True to his name, the friendly children's show puppet vampire (performed by Jerry Nelson) helped children count.
16/10/1972. BBC1’s daytime TV included Pebble Mill At One and The Magic Roundabout as well as Blue Peter. Soaps included Crossroads, filmed in a Birmingham warehouse. Z Cars and Mastermind were also on the TV schedules. ITV was offering Opportunity Knocks and Coronation Street.
11/9/1972. The BBC quiz Mastermind was first broadcast.
1971, New TV series included The Onedin Line, The Old Grey Whistle Test, The Two Ronnies, and Upstairs Downstairs.
15/11/1971. TV viewers were entertained by Steptoe and Son.
18/10/1971. TV shows Blue Peter and The Magic Roundabout entertained the children.
19/6/1971. Opportunity Knocks was the UK’s most popular TV programme.
19/8/1970. Coronation Street showed its 1,000th episode.
2/7/1970. The BBC ran a late night programme called Decimal shops: preparing for decimal money.
5/10/1969, Monty Python was first screened.
22/2/1969. On TV a wheelchair bound detective called Ironside battled San Francisco’s crooks.
5/2/1969. On BBC1 All Gas and Gaiters was a comedy about a young Church of England priest, Derek Nimmo.
4/12/1968. On TV Bill and Ben the Flowerpot Men still entertained children 16 years after their initial appearance. The weak willed pair still lived in fear of the gardener and were mercilessly bullied by Weed.
12/11/1968. On TV Z Cars patrolled Merseyside whilst Trumpton kept watch at the Fire Station.
8/1968, The TV series Dad’s Army was first broadcast.
17/5/1968. TV viewers could watch The Saint, Danger Man, or The Avengers.
11/1/1968. Children were entertained on TV by The Magic Roundabout and Blue Peter.
23/11/1967. TV shows included a debate on The Roman Catholic Church has no place in the 20th Century and The Man from UNCLE.
30/10/1967. TV showed Bewitched, Dr Finlays Casebook, The Saint, and Z Cars.
15/10/1967. TV viewers saw Steptoe and Son, whilst Patrick McGoohan was unable to accept his lot in North Wales as The Prisoner. Ironside the wheelchair bound detective propelled himself around the streets of San Francisco.
3/7/1967, In Britain, ITV launched News at Ten.
29/6/1967. The Magic Roundabout continued on TV, as did The Man from UNCLE as he battled with the evil THRUSH organisation.
25/6/1967, The first worldwide TV show was broadcast; via satellite link it reached 26 countries. The programme, Our World, had an estimated audience of 400 million. It concluded with a live Beatles performance of All You Need is Love.
15/6/1967. The Guardian TV critic complained that ‘with the basically green and white Wimbledon being followed by Late Night Line Up with everyone wearing basically black and white’ people paying nearly £2 a week to rent the colour sets should be getting ‘the occasional dazzle’. Whickers World and Till Death do us Part formed part of the TV schedules.
14/6/1967. On TV, ‘Games without Frontiers’ was on. It’s a Knockout and The Likely Lads was also on.
23/9/1966. On TV Emergency Ward Ten was on as Patrick Mc Goohan’s Danger Man was about to give way to The Prisoner.
8/9/1966. Star Trek was first broadcast.
16/7/1966. Doctor Who continued to entertain on TV, and scare kids into hiding behind the sofa so the Daleks wouldn’t get them.
6/6/1966, On British TV the first episode of Til Death Us Do Part was showing, with Warren Mitchell as Alf Garnett.
21/4/1966, The opening of the UK Parliament was televised for the first time.
19/2/1966. TV shows included Bewitched and Dixon of Dock Green. Thunderbirds was on at 6pm, and The Morecambe and Wise Show at 9.20 pm.
1965, The BBC series Tomorrow’s World was first broadcast (axed 2003).
28/12/1965. On TV, Phil Silvers starred in Sergeant Bilko.
30/9/1965, The first episode of Thunderbirds was broadcast in the UK.
30/7/1965, Coronation Street was the top TV show
2/11/1964. First showing of the TV serial Crossroads.
6/10/1964, The first episode of Stingray aired in UK TV. The puppet caste included Captain Troy, Tempest, Phones, and the green-haired Marina, aboard their atomic-powered submarine.
22/8/1964, BBC2 first broadcast Match of the Day; Arsenal played Liverpool at their Anfield ground, watched by a TV audience of 20,000 in black and white. Over 40,000 actually attended the ground. In 2014 BBC1’s Match of the Day had a TV audience of 3.6 million. In 1964 each of the Football League Clubs made £136 from the TV programme; in 2014 each Club made £3 million from the show.
21/4/1964. BBC2 began transmission. The first programme was Play School.
17/1/1964, The top UK TV programme was Steptoe and Son.
1/1/1964. The first Top of the Pops was broadcast, with Jimmy Savile as its presenter.
1963, Granada TV hroadcast the first World in Action current affairs programme.
23/11/1963. The BBC screened the first episode of Dr Who. The doctor was played by William Hartnell.
22/1/1963. TV showed The Flintstones at the prime slot of 7pm. TV closed down around midnight.
4/10/1962, The TV Series, The Saint, starring Roger Moore as Simon Templar, first broadcast this day.
21/9/1962, The British TV quiz programme University Challenge conducted by Bamber Gascoigne was first transmitted.
9/9/1962. TV showed another episode of Steptoe and Son, and The Morecambe and Wise Show.
11/5/1962. TV showed Emergency Ward Ten.
21/1/1962 On TV, new, were Steptoe and Son and Z Cars.
1961, New TV shows included The Morecambe and Wise Show and Songs of Praise.
7/1/1961, The first episode of The Avengers was broadcast.
9/12/1960. Coronation Street first televised. The series was expected to last just 13 weeks.
11/9/1960, The first episode of Danger Man, starring Patrick McGoohan, was broadcast on UK TV.
10/9/1960, The first English Football league match to be televised was broadcast today. Blackpool played Bolton Wanderers.
1959, The Twilight Zone was first broadcast in the US, in a Cold War world of spies and innovative secret military technology.
1959, New TV shows in the UK included Juke Box Jury and Whicker’s World, presented by Alan Whicker.
1958, New TV shows in the UK included The Black and Whute Minstrels
28/10/1958. In Britain, the State Opening of Parliament was televised for the first time.
27/10/1958. The first edition of the BBC programme Blue Peter was broadcast.
11/10/1958. The BBC sports programme Grandstand was first transmitted. It was the idea of Paul Fox.
1957, New TV series this year included Emergency Ward Ten, a soap opera set in a hospital, and The Sky at Night, presented by Patrick Moore.
25/12/1957. The Queen made her first Christmas Day broadcast on British TV.
3/3/1957, The UK competed in the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time. The British entry, All, sung by Hull-born Patricia Bredin, came seventh out of ten in Frankfurt Am Main, Germnay.
22/10/1957. The children’s TV show, Captain Pugwash, was first broadcast.
5/11/1956. The weekly British TV programme What the Papers Say was first transmitted.
24/5/1956 The first Eurovision song contest was held. Europe was just recovering from the Second World War but the Cold War was in full swing. There was a need to unite the countries of western Europe. An Italian radio manager had an idea for a European music festival similar to the popular Italian San Remo Festival. The first Eurovision song contest was held in Switzerland with seven countries participating, each with two songs/performances. These were West Germany, France, Italy, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Belgium, the same countries that took the initiative to form the European Union. Switzerland won the first contest with the song ‘Refrain’. Since then 37 different countries have participated, 800 different singers have performed 900 new songs, and the show attracted 100 million viewers in 2002.
28/1/1956, Elvis Presley made his first appearance on TV, on The Dorsey Brothers Stage Show. He sang Shake Rattle and Roll.
17/2/1956, The first episode of The Adventures of Robin Hood was broadcast, with Richard Greene playing the hero. The famous signature tune entered the top 20, and the series ran to 143 episodes.
22/9/1955. With the start of commercial television in Britain came the first TV advertisement. It was for Gibbs SR toothpaste. Programmes from the two commercial programme makers, Associated Rediffusion and the Associated Broadcasting Company, included the annual Guildhall banquet, Britain’s first-ever cash prize quiz show, a variety show and a boxing match from Shoreditch. Popular ITV shows included Sunday Night at the London Palladium and Coronation Street. By ITV’s annual advertising revenue increased from an initial £2 million in 1956 to £100 million in 1960. The BBC competed by having Grace Archer, a leading character in their radio drama The Archers, killed off in a fire.
7/7/1955, Dixon of Dock Green began on BBC TV with Jack Warner as George Dixon. It was to run for 21 years and 367 episodes.
1953, On British TV, The Quatermass Experiment was broadcast. The vareity programme, The Good Old Days, began; it lasted until 1983.
11/11/1953. The BBC programme Panorama was first transmitted, headed by Patrick Murphy.
8/12/1952, Queen Elizabeth II gave permission for next year’s Coronation (1/6/1953) to be televised.
1/1/1952, In Britain, the single TV channel, BBC, broadcast for just a few hours a day. Programmes ran from 3pm to 6pm, including Children’s Hour. There was then a 2-hour break, the so-called Toddler Truce, to enable mothers to get their small children to bed. Programmes then ran for 2 hours or so from 8pm. News coverage was patchy and sports coverage and light entertainment virtually absent.
15/10/1951, Britain’s first party political broadcast on the BBC, by Lord Samuel for the Liberal Party.
1950, The BBC began a current affairs discussion programme, In The News, with Robert Boothby, W J Brown, Michael Foot and A J P Taylor. The programme ran until 1956.
29/9/1950, The first ever episode of Come Dancing aired on TV.
11/7/1950. The BBC transmitted its first children’s programme, Watch with Mother, featuring Andy Pandy. The programme ran until 1980.
11/7/1949. The first film made specifically for television, ‘A Dinner date With Death’ was shot at Marylebone Studios between 11 and 14 July 1949.
26/4/1947. The English FA Cup Final, between Charlton Athletic and Burnley, televised in its entirety for the first time.
20/10/1946. Muffin the Mule, a wooden puppet, first appeared on BBC TV.
30/4/1938, In Britain, the FA Cup Final was televised for the first time.
25/11/1937, The first British quiz programme, an inter-regional spelling competition, was broadcast.
21/6/1937, Lawn tennis at Wimbledon was televised for the first time.
21/1/1937, Marcel Boulestin appeared on TV on Cook’s Night Out, demonstrating how to cook an omelette; he thereby became the first TV chef.
21/11/1936. The first gardening programme was broadcast by the BBC. It was called “In your garden with Mr Middleton”.
15/5/1935, The world’s first TV quiz programme was broadcast, in Canada.
3/6/1931, In Britain the Derby horserace was televised for the first time. Only a limited number of wealthy people had TV sets, and a few other enthusiasts had built their own receivers in garden sheds.
11/9/1928, In New York the world’s first television drama was broadcast. It was a 40 minute two-character play called The Queen’s Messenger.
Appendix 3.5 – Actors, film directors and film stars
23/3/2011, Elizabeth Taylor, UK born Hollywood actress, died aged 79 (born 1932).
4/10/2010, Death of Norman Wisdom, British comedian, aged 95.
22/1/2008, Australian actor Heath Ledger died aged 28.
23/5/2000. Sir John Gielgud, British actor, died at the age of 96.
8/5/1999, British film star Dirk Bogarde died, aged 78.
2/3/1993, Paul Zimmerman, US screenwriter, died (born 3/7/1938).
16/1/1993, Florence Desmond, English actress, died (born 31/5/1905).
2/1/1993, Alden Richards, TV actor, was born.
10/12/1992, Melissa Roxburgh, Canadian actress, was born.
5/12/1992, Hilary Tindall, English actress (born 14/8/1938) died.
3/10/1992, Matthew Little, actor, was born.
6/5/1992. Marlene Dietrich, German actress, died in Paris aged 90. She was born on 27/12/1901 in Berlin, and left Germany for the USA in 1930. Her role in the film The Blue Angel brought her to fame. She became a US citizen in 1937, rejecting attempts by Hitler to bring her talents back to Germany. She played a major role in entertaining the wartime Allied troops. In 1960, on only her second post-war visit to Germany, she encountered hostility from pro-Nazi sympathisers. She subsequently remained hostile to the ideas of returning to Germany again, until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and chose the city as her final resting place.
8/12/1992, Yui Yokoyama, Japanese actress, was born.
23/4/1992, Satyajit Ray, Indian filmmaker, died (born 2/5/1921).
20/4/1992, The comedian Benny Hill died.
15/3/1992, Jack Washburn, actor, died aged 62.
18/5/1991, Muriel Box, British writer, film director and feminist, died aged 85.
17/5/1991, Daniel Curtis Lee, American actor, was born.
1/9/1990, Aisling Loftus, English actress, was born.
25/8/1990, Aras Lynemli, Turkish actor, was born.
29/3/1990, Tai Hara, Australian TV actor, was born.
26/3/1990, Yuya Yagira, Japanese actor, was born.
16/12/1989, Lee van Cleef, movie star, died.
6/10/1989, Sophia Thomalla, German television actress, was born.
23/9/1989, Mara Scherzinger, German actress, was born.
6/3/1989, Harry Andrews, actor, died aged 77.
3/12/1988, Michela Quattrociocche, Italian film actress, was born.
27/4/1988, David Scarboro, British actor, died (born 1968)
13/4/1988, Allison Williams, US actress, was born.
13/3/1988, Olive Carey, US actress, died aged 92.
24/9/1987, Grey Damon, US TV actor, was born.
15/5/1987, Rita Hayworth, US actress, died of Alzheimer’s Disease.
10/4/1987, Shay Mitchell, Canadian actress, was born.
12/2/1987, Lang Jefferies, Canadian actor, died aged 55.
5/3/1986, Andrew Jenks, US filmmaker, was born.
26/12/1985, Harold P Warren, US film director, died (born 1928).
10/10/1985, Orson Welles, US actor, died aged 70.
30/3/1985, Harold Peary, actor, died of a heart attack aged 76.
21/10/1984, Francois Truffaut, French film director, died aged 52.
5/8/1984, Richard Burton, Welsh actor, died aged 58.
30/6/1984, Lillian Hellman, US screenwriter, died aged 77.
28/5/1984, Eric Morecambe, comedian on the Morecambe and Wise Show, died in Cheltenham.
29/7/1983, Luis Brunel, Spanish film maker, died aged 83.
5/11/1982, Jacques Tati, French film-maker, died aged 74.
10/6/1982, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, German film-maker, died aged 36.
5/6/1982, Scott Speer, US film-maker, was born.
2/6/1982, Jewel Staite, Canadian actress, was born.
31/5/1982, Jonathan Tucker, US film director, was born.
18/2/1982, Tina Carver, actress, died aged 58.
7/11/1980, Steve McQueen, Hollywood actor who performed many of his own stunts, died of cancer.
25/10/1980, Mehcad Brooks, US actor, was born.
24/7/1980, Peter Sellers, English film actor, died aged 54.
29/4/1980. The British film director Alfred Hitchcock died, aged 80.
11/6/1979. The actor John Wayne died,aged 72.
8/6/1979, British actor Michael Wilding died.
2/8/1976, Fritz Lang, German film director, died aged 85.
17/3/1976, Luchino Visconti, Italian film director, died aged 69.
23/1/1976, Paul Robeson, US actor, died aged 77.
28/7/1974, Nicole Narain, US-Lebanese actress, was born.
21/7/1974, Steve Byrne, US comedian, was born.
16/7/1974, Robinne Lee, US actress, was born.
31/1/1974, Sam Goldwyn, Polish-born US film producer, died aged 91.
29/3/1972, J Arthur Rank, British film entrepreneur, created a peer in 1957, died.
17/11/1971, Gladys Cooper, English actress, died aged 82.
25/2/1971, Sean Astin, US actor, was born in Santa Monica, California.
1/1/1971, Kalabhavan Mani, Indian actor and singer, was born in Chalakudy, Kerala
6/6/1967, Paul Giamatti, US actor, was born.
28/9/1964. Harpo Marx, the silent one who chased girls and played the harp, died aged 75.
9/11/1961, Jill Dando, British journalist and BBC television presenter, was born in Weston-super-Mare (murdered 1999).
5/11/1960, Mack Sennett, Canadian-born US actor and film director, died aged 80.
30/12/1959, Tracey Ullman, actress, was born.
21/1/1959, Cecil B de Mille, Hollywood film producer, died.
7/3/1958, Rick Mayall, actor in The Young Ones, was born.
26/12/1957, Death of French film pioneer Charles Pathe.
21/3/1957, Sabrina Le Beauf, US actress, was born.
14/1/1957, Humphrey Bogart, American film actor and 1951 Oscar winner, died of throat cancer.
30/9/1955, TV actor James Dean was killed when his Porsche careered off the road near Los Angeles.
27/7/1952, Roxanne Hart, US actress, was born.
2/4/1954, Ron Palillo, actor, was born (died 2012).
23/10/1950, Al Jolson, US film actor, died aged 64.
21/10/1949, Jacques Copeau, French actor, died in Beaune.
22/6/1949, Meryl Streep, actress, was born.
14/7/1946, Sue Lawley, TV presenter, was born.
2/2/1946, Farrah Fawcett, US actress, was born.
25/12/1944, Kenny Everett, radio and TV comedian, was born.
26/3/1944, Diana Ross, US actress, was born.
27/5/1943, Cilla Black, singer and presenter of the TV show Blind Date, was born.
17/11/1942, Martin Scorsese, US film director, was born.
5/11/1942, George M Cohan, US actor, died aged 64.
5/9/1942, Werner Herzog, German film director, was born.
19/1/1942. Michael Crawford, British comedy actor, was born in Salisbury, Wiltshire, as Michael Dumble-Smith.
25/5/1940, Joe De Grasse, Canadian film director, died aged 67.
12/12/1939, Hollywood actor Douglas Fairbanks died this day.
27/10/1939, John Cleese, English comedy actor, was born in Weston Super Mare.
7/10/1939, Clive James, TV broadcaster, was born in Sydney.
3/8/1938, Terry Wogan, TV broadcaster, was born in Limerick, Ireland.
8/8/1937, Actor Dustin Hoffman was born.
1/10/1935, Julie Andrews, star in The Sound of Music and Mary Poppins, was born in Walton on Thames.
23/11/1934, Arthur Wing Pinero, English actor, died aged 79.
20/9/1934, Sophia Loren, actress, was born.
28/7/1934, Marie Dressler, US film star, died at santa Barbara, California (born 9/11/1860, Coburg, Ontario, Canada).
3/3/1933, Margaret Fink, Australian film producer, was born.
14/4/1932, Anthony Perkins, the actor who starred in Hitchcock’s film, Pyscho, was born.
18/2/1932, Milos Forman, Czech film director and actor, was born.
5/1/1931, Robert Duvall, US actor, was born.
25/8/1930, Sean Connery, British film actor who played the leading role in seven James Bond movies, was born in Edinburgh as Thomas Connery.
1/6/1930, Birth of TV actor Edward Woodward, best known for The Equaliser.
30/3/1930, Rolf Harris, Australian entertainer and cartoonist, was born.
12/10/1929, Magnus Magnusson, British writer and TV presenter of the quiz show Mastermind, was born in Reykjavik, Iceland.
25/9/1929, Ronnie Barker, English comedy actor, was born in Bedford, UK.
12/11/1928, Grace Kelly, US actress, was born (died 1982)
26/7/1928, Stanley Kubrick, US film director, was born (died 1999)
9/7/1927, John Drew, US actor, died in San Francisco, California (born 13/11/1853 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
7/4/1927, The comedian A Dolan was televised in Whippany, New Jersey, making him the first televised comedian.
31/10/1926, Jimmy Savile, British radio and TV presenter, was born in Leeds, Yorkshire.
16/2/1926, John Schlesinger, English actor, was born (died 2003).
2/12/1925, Julie Harris, actress, was born in Grosse Point, Michigan (died 2013)
11/10/1925, Richard Burton, Welsh actor who was married to Elizabeth Taylor twice, was born this day.
8/9/1925, Peter Sellers, comic TV actor, was born.
2/8/1925, Alan Whicker, widely-travelled TV reporter, was born in Cairo, Egypt.
4/10/1924, Charlton Heston, the film star in Ben Hur, was born.
12/5/1924, Tony Hancock, English comedian, was born (died 1968).
21/4/1924, Eleonora Duse, Italian actress (born Lombardy, Italy, 3/10/1859) died in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
9/12/1923, Meggie Albanesi, British actress, died aged 24.
24/10/1923, Sir Robin Day, TV interviewer, was born this day.
8/6/1921, Sheila Ryan, US actress, was born.
16/4/1921. Peter Ustinov, actor, was born.
28/3/1921. Dirk Bogarde, English film actor, was born in Hampstead, London.
4/2/1920, Norman Wisdom, British comedian, was born as Norman Wisden.
2/1/1919, Carole Landis, US actress, was born.
6/8/1917, Robert Mitchum, Hollywood actor, was born in Connecticut, USA.
20/1/1914, Roy Plomley, who created ‘Desert Island Discs’, was born. He began his career as a copywriter for an advertising agency then became an actor. He then became an announcer for a French commercial radio station. He was awarded the OBE in 1975.
30/11/1913. Charlie Chaplin made his film debut in Mack Sennett’s short film Making a Living.
18/1/1913, Danny Kaye, US actor, was born (died 1987).
3/3/1913, Harold Stone, US actor, was born (died 2005).
9/10/1908, Jacques Tati, French comedian who created Monsieur Hulot’s Holiday, was born.
26/5/1907, John Wayne, actor, was born.
18/9/1905. Greta Garbo, the Swedish shop-girl who became a famous film star, was born.
16/5/1905, Bob Hope, US comedian, was born.
7/7/1904, James Cagney, film director, was born in New York.
1/4/1904, Sid Field, English actor was born (died 1950).
18/1/1904, Cary Grant, American film actor, was born in Bristol, England, as Alexander Archibald Leach.
29/5/1903, Bob Hope, comedian, was born.
27/12/1901. Marlene Dietrich, German actress, was born.
5/7/1899, Jean Cocteau, film director, poet, artist, novelist, was born in Maisons-Lafitte, France.
13/8/1898. Alfred Hitchcock, film director, born in Leytonstone.
4/10/1895, Buster Keaton, silent film comedian who performed his own stunts, was born this day.
1/2/1893, In New Jersey, USA, Thomas Edison opened the world’s first film studio.
16/6/1890. Stan Laurel, of the Laurel and Hardy duo, was born as Arthur Stanley Jefferson in Ulverston, Lancashire (now Cumbria). Oliver Hardy was born in America on 18/1/1892.
23/5/1883, Douglas Fairbanks, US actor, was born in Denver, Colorado (died 12/12/1939 in Santa Monica, California).
29/8/1882, Samuel Goldwyn was born.
Appendix 4 – Radio shows
24/1/1997. The Archers celebrated its 12,000th episode. The Radio 4 series drew an average of 4.5 million listeners each week.
30/5/1985. The death of Roy Plomley, who created the long running radio series Desert Island Discs in 1941.
3/4/1978. Regular BBC radio broadcasts of British Parliamentary proceedings began.
9/6/1975. Live radio broadcasting from the House of Commons began. On 12/6/1989, TV broadcasts from the House of Commons began.
27/7/1967. Robin Scott, the man in charge of the brand new Radio One, announced that should pop music prove to be a passing fad, he would devote the station’s output to ‘sweet music’.
7/6/1950 The BBC radio serial The Archers was first broadcast; it was created by Godfrey Basely.
1/11/1947. Sports Report, the BBC radio Saturday afternoon programme, went on the air.
13/1/1947, In Britain, top radio shows included Woman’s Hour, Dick Barton, and Radio Forfeits.
4/10/1946, From Our Own Correspondent was first broadcast on UK radio.
1/8/1945. Family Favourites record request programme began on the BBC.
3/4/1943, Saturday Night Theatre was first broadcast on UK radio.
29/1/1942, The first broadcast of the BBC radio programme ‘Desert Island Discs’, devised and presented by Roy Plomley. Roy Plomley presented the programme until 11/5/1985; he died 17 days later on 28/5/1965. The first ‘castaway’ was the comedian, Vic Oliver.
1939, The term ‘soap opera’ was coined to describe the radio drama that, from the 1930s, had been sponsored by the washing powder manufacturers; ongoing dramas affecting ordinary families, which proved to be addictive to listeners. The first such radio ‘soap opera’ was Betty and Bob and One Man’s Family, broadcast on NBC in the USA in 1932
1/9/1939. The BBC Home Service, later to become Radio 4, began broadcasting.
7/10/1938, BBC Radio began its first soap opera, the English Family Robinson.
25/10/1936 A radio station in Berlin played the first request programme, called ‘You ask – We play’.
25/12/1932. King George V made the first Christmas Day broadcast to the Empire, see 19/12/1932.
6/11/1929, The Week in Westminster was first broadcast on UK radio.
21/10/1929, The BBC began transmitting regional services.
2/1/1928, Daily Service was first broadcast on radio in the UK.
7/7/1927. Christopher Stone became the first disc jockey on British radio when he presented his record round up from Savoy Hill.
14/5/1927. The BBC broadcast its first cricket commentary, from the Essex vs. New Zealand match at Leyton, east London.
2/4/1927, The Oxford and Cambridge boat race was first broadcast.
22/1/1927. The BBC broadcast its first football match; between Arsenal and Sheffield United. The result was a draw, 1-1.
11/10/1926. Children’s Hour started on BBC Radio.
26/1/1926, The Shipping Forecast was first broadcast on radio.
24/1/1926, The Week’s Good Cause was first broadcast on radio.
4/4/1924, The BBC broadcast its first radio programmes for schools.
16/1/1924, The BBC broadcast the first play written specifically for radio, Danger, by Richard Hughes.
2/5/1923, The BBC radio programme ‘Woman’s Hour’ began.
Appendix 5 – Theatres, concerts, operas
12/6/1997, The new Globe Theatre, London, opened.
12/6/1974. The Redgrave Theatre, Farnham, opened.
9/8/1962, The National Theatre was established in London, with Sir Lawrence Olivier as director.
14/1/1947, The newly-renovated Covent Garden Opera House in London opened, with a performance of Bizet’s Carmen.
23/4/1932, The new Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opened in Stratford on Avon.
6/1/1931, The New Sadlers Wells Theatre in London was opened.
27/4/1928. The Piccadilly Theatre, London, opened.
6/3/1926. Fire destroyed the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford on Avon. Only a blackened shell was left.
29/10/1911. First stone of the Drury Lane Theatre laid.
9/6/1904, First concert by the London Symphony Hall.
15/5/1862, The third Royal Opera House opened at Covent Garden, London.
30/1/1858, The Halle Opera in Manchester, England, gave its first public concert.
5/3/1856, London’s Covent Garden Opera House was destroyed by fire.
27/7/1787, The Theatre Royal, Margate, was founded.
30/5/1766, The oldest theatre still in use in Britain, the ‘Royal;’ in Bristol, was opened.
7/5/1663, The first Drury Lane theatre, London, opened.
13/4/1644. Demolition of the Globe Theatre on the South Bank, London.
29/6/1613. The Globe Theatre in London burnt down after a cannon was fired during a Shakespeare play and set fire to the roof.
Appendix 6 – Art Galleries
12/5/2000, In London, the Tate Modern art gallery opened.
2/2/1977, The Pompidou Centre of art and culture opened in Paris.
21/7/1897. The Tate Gallery in London was officially opened, on the site of Millbank Prison.
9/4/1838. The National Gallery, in Trafalgar Square, London, opened.