History of Christianity

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See also History of the Roman Empire

See also Papal Succession

 

“Cherish those who seek the truth but beware of those who find it.” Voltaire

 

 He who begins by loving Christianity better than Truth will proceed by loving his own sect or church better than Christianity, and end by loving himself better than all” Samuel Taylor Coleridge

 

“Fanaticism consists of redoubling your efforts when you have forgotten your aim.” George Santayana

 

Colour key:


People

Abbeys and Cathedrals (foundation)

Church condemnation of socialism

Origins of Church doctrines and practices

Church reform, 16th century

Cistercians

Benedictine

Jesuits

Methodists

Female participation

Gay Participation


 

Bible and Prayerbook Developments – see appendix 1

Conversion and Missionary work – see appendix 2

Jesuits – see appendix 3

Religious buildings – see appendix 4

 

2016, In Britain, acordimng to the Social Attitudes Survey, the number of people with no religion reached 53%, up from 48% in 2015. In 1983 the figure was 31%. The number of non-Christians was 6%, down from 8% in 2015. The 41% of Christians was comprised of 15% Church of England (down from 37% in 1983), 9% Roman Catholic, down from 10% in 1983, their numbers bolstered by immigration, and 17% ‘other Christian’, up from 16% in 1983.

26/1/2015, The Church of England appointed its first woman bishop. The Reverend Libby Lane became suffragan Bishop of Stockport at a ceremony in York Cathedral.

16/9/2010, Pope Benedict XVI commenced the first Papal visit to Britain since King Henry VIII split with Rome.

19/10/2003, Mother Teresa of Calcutta was beatified.

6/8/2003, Gene Robinson became the first openly gay Anglican bishop.

7/7/2003, Canon Jeffrey John, first would-be gay bishop in the Church of England, withdrew his acceptance of the post of the Bishop of Reading, after discussions with church leaders.

14/8/2002, Pope John Paul II drew a crowd of two million at a papal Mass in Krakow, on his 9th visit to his native Poland.

22/11/2001, Pope John Paul II sent the first Papal email from a laptop in his office.

15/6/1994, Israel and The Vatican established full diplomatic relations.

12/3/1994, The Church of England ordained its first women priests. 32 were ordained.

25/4/1993. Pope John Paul II made the first Papal visit to Albania, until then the world’s only officially atheist state.

21/3/1993, Pope John Paul II declared Duns Scotus a saint.

10/2/1993. The Pope, John Paul II, called for an end to the persecution of Christians in Sudan.

11/11/1992. UK General Synod voted for ordination of women.

31/10/1992. The Vatican admitted that Galileo was right when he said the Earth revolved around the Sun.

26/4/1992, Worshippers celebrated Easter at the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow for the first time in 74 years.

6/3/1991. Dr George Carey was elected Archbishop of Canterbury.

24/6/1990, The Anglican Church ordained its first two women deacons, at St Anne’s Cathedral, Belfast. Kathleen Young, a 50-year-old physiotherapist from Carrickfergus, County Antrim, and Irene Templeton, 49, from Belfast, were ordained.

24/10/1989, Fake US TV preacher Jim Bakker was sentenced to 45 years in prison and fined US$ 500,000 for swindling millions of dollars out of his followers.

8/3/1989, The Vatican dismissed Archbishop Paul Marcinkus from his position as chief of the Vatican’s bank. which had made losses of  US$ 88 million.

4/3/1989, Pope John Paul II branded Salman Rushdie’s novel The Satanic Verses blasphemous for suggesting that part of the Koran was inspired by the Devil.

28/2/1989, Hereford Cathedral dropped plans to sell the Mediaeval Mappa Mundi to raise money.

30/10/1988, The head of the Unification Church, Reverend Sun Myung Moon, presided over a mass wedding of 6,516 couples in Korea.

13/10/1988, The Turin Shroud was declared to be a fake; it was dated to between 1260 and 1390.

30/10/1988, The head of the Unification Church, Reverend Sun Myung Moon, presided over a mass wedding of 6,516 couples in Korea.

5/7/1988, The Church of England voted for the ordination of women.

19/9/1987, The Pope concluded his visit to the US.

10/3/1987. The Roman Catholic Church banned contraception by artificial means.

13/4/1986, Pope John Paul II visited a synagogue in Rome, the first time a modern Pope had visited a synagogue.

2/7/1985, The General Synod of the Church of England approved the ordination of women, despite strong opposition within the Church.

3/6/1985. In Italy, compulsory Roman Catholic instruction in schools ended and Catholicism was no longer the state religion.

27/12/1983, Pope John Paul II met his would-be assassin, Mehmet Ali, in a prison cell in Rome after conducting a Christmas service at the prison.  There were growing rumours that the Bulgarian secret services were involved in the assassination attempt.  Ali had been imprisoned for life for the crime.

9/5/1983, Pope John Paul II retracted the ban on Galileo Galilei.

1982, The Roman Catholic Church ceased automatically excommunicating Freemasons.

21/7/1982. The Reverend Moon, of the Unification Church or Moonies, married 4,000 in a mass ceremony in New York.

17/6/1982, The body of Roberto Calvi, a key figure in the Banco Ambrosiano scandal, was found hanging under Blackfriars Bridge, London. Archbishop Marcinkus, President of the Vatican Bank, was also linked to the affair.

29/5/1982. Pope John Paul II visited Canterbury Cathedral with the Archbishop. On 30/5/1982 he visited Coventry Cathedral, and spoke of his hope for an end to war.

28/5/1982, Pope John Paul II landed at Gatwick Airport, becoming the first Pope to visit the United Kingdom for 450 years.

12/5/1982, A Spanish priest, Juan Hernandes, tried to stab Pope John Paul II with a bayonet as he visited the Fatima shrine on a pilgrimage.

5/12/1981. Elizabeth Canham, a British theology teacher, was ordained priest in the USA. She was the first British woman to become a priest.

13/5/1981. Pope John Paul II, seriously injured in the stomach, survived an assassination attempt in St Peter’s Square in Rome, by a Turkish terrorist, Mehmet Ali Agca, in front of 20,000 people. Agca had escaped from Turkey where he was being held for murder; he shot the Pope ‘in protest at American and Russian imperialism’.

25/3/1980, Robert Runcie became the 102nd Archbishop of Canterbury.

29/9/1979, Pope John Paul II arrived in Ireland, the first ever papal visit there.

2/6/1979. Pope John Paul II visited his native Poland. He was the first Pope to visit a Communist country.

25/1/1979, Pope John Paul II visited Latin America.

25/8/1978, The Shroud of Turin went on public display for the first time in 45 years.

6/8/1978, Pope Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini) died, aged 80.

17/6/1977. The feminist claim that God is a woman was supported by no less than the Jesuit journal Civitta Cattolica, published fortnightly in Rome.

15/1/1976. The Roman Catholic Church condemned sex outside marriage and said homosexuality could not be condoned.

1975, The Anglican Church in Canada approved of women being ordained as priests.

14/9/1975, Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton was canonised by Pope Paul VI to become the first American ‘saint’.

24/1/1975, Dr Donald Coggan was enthroned as the 101st Archbishop of Canterbury, succeeding Michael Ramsey.

1974, In the US, Church attendance stood at 40%. Amongst Roman Catholics it was 55%, down from 71% in 1963.

14/5/1974, Dr Donald Coggan was made Archbishop of Canterbury.

16/4/1973. The Church of England said that practising homosexuals would not be accepted for training as priests after a radio statement by the Archbishop of York said that many clergymen were homosexuals.

5/10/1972. The Congregational Church and the Presbyterian Church of England combined to form the United Reformed Church.

1970, Pope Paul IV declared that priestly celibacy was a fundamental principle of the Catholic Church.

27/11/1970. Pope Paul IV was unharmed after a knife-wielding assailant dressed as a priest attempted to attack him at Manila Airport.

22/6/1970, The Methodist Church said it would ordain female ministers.

1969, A Gallup Poll in the US showed that 70% of people felt the influence of religion was declining in the USA.

29/7/1968, The Pope condemned all forms of birth control.

1966, The Vatican rescinded the rule that Catholics could eat no meat, only fish, on Fridays.

23/3/1966. In Rome the first official meeting for 400 years between the heads of the Catholic and Anglican Churches took place, Pope Paul VI met with Dr Michael Ramsey, Archbishop of Canterbury.

1965, The Salvation Army, now 100 years old, had 27,000 members.

4/10/1965, Pope Paul VI visited New York City; the first Papal visit to America.

6/1/1964. Pope Paul VI finished a three-day tour of the Holy Land, the first Pope to visit there since Christianity began. He was also the first Pope to leave Italy for over 150 years. On 5/1/1964 Pope Paul VI met the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople in Jerusalem, the first meeting between the heads of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches for 500 years.

3/1/1962, Pope John XXIII excommunicated Cuban leader Fidel Castro.

27/6/1961, Dr Ramsey was enthroned as the 100th Archbishop of Canterbury in Canterbury Cathedral.

23/5/1957. The Church of England broke with tradition by allowing divorcees to take Communion. The Bible taught that marriage was for life, but Britain’s legal system allowed divorce.

8/12/1956, The Polish government completed a process of reconciliation with the Catholic Church. Cardinal Wyszynski had been released from prison on 26/10/1956, and on this day the Church was now free to make its own ecclesiastical appointments. Religious teaching in schools, and religious posts in hospitals and the army, were restored. Criticism of government policies in church sermons was permitted.

24/2/1954, The American evangelist Billy Graham arrived in London on a three-month ‘crusade’.

10/1953, The first Scientology church was founded in Camden, New Jersey, USA, by L. Ron Hubbard, his wife Mary Sue Hubbard, and John Galusha.

2/1/1952, Pope Pius X declared that television was a threat to family life.

23/8/1948, The World Council of Churches was formed.

1947, In the UK, only 10& of the population regulalrly attended church, two thirds never attended one. However only 5% of the population were committed atheists; 80% of women and 67% of men believed in some kind of deity.

25/1/1944, In Macao the Reverend Florence Tim-Oi Lee became the first woman Anglican Priest

6/11/1942. The Church of England relaxed its rule that women must wear hats in church.

26/9/1942, Wilson Carlile, British clergyman who founded the Church Army in 1882, died aged 95.

31/5/1939, Terry Waite, envoy of the Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.

4/5/1938. The Vatican recognised Franco as leader of Spain.

17/12/1936, Pope Francis I was born.

24/5/1935. Pope Pius IX condemned the German sterilisation of 56,244 ‘inferior’ German citizens.

25/9/1933, 25,000 visited Turin Cathedral to gaze at the Turin Shroud, revealed to the public for the first time in 400 years, which purportedly showed the face of Jesus.

20/9/1933, Annie Besant, co-founder of the Theosophical Society, died.

8/7/1933, The Vatican signed a concordat with Nazi Germany; this did not protect German Catholics from persecution.

20/9/1932, At the Royal Albert Hall, London, UK, the three Methodist Churches – Wesleyan, Primitive and United – agreed to merge.

1931, The International Bible Students Association adopted the name Jehovah’s Witnesses.

2/9/1931, Mussolini made a pact with The Vatican.

31/5/1931. The Pope denounced Mussolini’s Fascists following attacks on priests and church property.

15/5/1931. Pope Pius XI condemned Communism.

25/7/1929. Pope Pius XI became the first Pope for 59 years to leave the Vatican. The creation of the Papal state under the Lateran treaties had clarified the politico-legal position of the Pope, who until then had been a virtual prisoner within the Vatican.

7/6/1929. The Papal State, extinct since 1870, was revived as the Vatican City State in Rome under the Lateran Treaty.

11/2/1929. The 109 acres of the Vatican in Rome were made an independent state under the Lateran Treaty, which was signed by Benito Mussolini and Pietro Gasparri, Pope Pius XI.

21/5/1928. In Italy, Catholics were told to disassociate themselves from Fascism.

10/7/1925, The Scopes trial began in Dayton Tennessee.  Mr Scopes, a science teacher, was accused of teaching evolution and so breaching State laws against teaching ideas contradicting the Bible.  The real issue was the role of the State in determining the religious nature of school education.  The outcome was inconclusive.  Scopes was found guilty on 21/7/1925 but the US$100 penalty was set aside on a technicality.

23/3/1925. US Tennessee law prohibited the teaching of evolution.

18/12/1924, Pope Pius XI denounced the USSR.

4/6/1923, In Spain, the Archbishop of Saragossa was murdered.

2/3/1923, Cardinal Basil Hume, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster from 1976, was born.

18/5/1920. Pope John Paul II was born as Karolum Wojtyla in the market town of Wadowice, near Krakow, Poland. He was the son of a junior officer in the Polish Army.

16/5/1920, Joan of Arc was canonised.

7/11/1918. Billy Graham, US evangelist, was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, the son of a diary farmer.

13/5/1917, At Fatima, a small town in north east Portugal, three shepherd girls aged 10 -  13 saw a vision of a lady outside the town.  The vision reappeared at monthly intervals and on 13/10/1917 declared itself to be ‘Our Lady of the Rosary’

31/10/1916, Charles Taze Russell, who founded the modern-day Jehovah’s Witnesses, died.

1914, Bournemouth finally permitted Sunday trains. Sunday steamers, however, remained forbidden until 1929.

19/8/1912. William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, born on 10/4/1829, died aged 83. He was succeeded as leader of the Salvation Army on 21/8/1912 by Mr Bramwell Booth.

16/5/1912, MPs backed a Bill that would disestablish the Church in Wales, despite opposition by church leaders.

12/11/1911. Rev. Chad Varah, founder of The Samaritans, was born

11/1/1911, The Jehovah’s Witnesses released their film, The Photodrama of Creation, in New York. By the end of 1911 nine million people had seen it, mainly in N America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand.

3/12/1910. Mary Baker Eddy, American founder of the Christian Scientists, died.

3/4/1910, While in Rome, former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt announced that he would not meet with Pope Leo XIII because of the Vatican's request that Roosevelt not meet first with local Methodists. In March, former Vice-President Charles W. Fairbanks declined an audience for the same reason.

18/4/1909, Joan of Arc was beatified by the Roman Catholic Church; she was canonised in 1920.

2/1/1907. Anti-clerical laws in France forbade the crucifix in schools.

2/2/1906. 530 injured in Paris in dispute over Church property.

9/12/1905, In France, the Church and State were legally separated.

1/8/1905, The founder of the Salvation Army, General William Booth, began a 2,000 mile crusade round Britain.

12/10/1904, The Polish Archbishop, Wincenty Popiel, condemned socialism as being subversive of all institutions.

18/3/1903, An anti-clerical French Government dissolved all religious orders.

11/12/1901, The American Federation of Catholic Societies was founded at a meeting in Cincinnati after members amended the initial proposal to exclude women from a federation of all the Roman Catholic societies in the United States.

2/1/1901, The first municipal crematorium was opened in Britain, by the Lord Mayor in Hull.

1899, The International Gideons Association was founded. They are best known for their placing of Bibles in hotel rooms.

26/9/1897, Pope Paul V was born in Concessio, as Giovanni Battista Montini.

15/5/1891, A Papal Encyclical urged employers to fulfil their moral duty to improve conditions for their workers.

21/11/1890, The Lincoln Judgment, concerning the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury, was delivered.

6/10/1890, The Mormons in Utah renounced polygamy.

11/8/1890, Cardinal Newman (born 1801) died in Birmingham, UK. He was appointed as a Cardinal in 1879, and believed in the romantic vision of the Mediaeval Church.

29/10/1886, James Hannington, first Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa, was murdered.

2/6/1883, Rioting at Stromeferry, Scotland, to try to prevent fish being despatched to London as so desecrating the Sabbath.

7/3/1882, The UK Parliament was presented with a Bill to prevent atheists becoming MPs. The Bill failed.

1881, Pubs in Wales were forbidden from opening on Sundays, contributing to the growth in illegal drinking dens.

25/11/1881, Pope John XXIII was born in Sotto il Monte, near Bergamo, Italy, as Angelo Guiseppe Roncali, the son of a peasant.

14/7/1880. Bismarck ended his Kulturkampf, or anti-Catholic policy.

28/12/1878, Pope Leo XIII issued an encyclical, Quod apolostici muneris, condemning the rise of socialism, communism, the nihilists and anarchists.

29/8/1877. The Mormon leader Brigham Young died.

2/3/1876, Pope Pius X was born in Rome, as Eugenio Pacelli.

30/10/1875. In the USA, Mary Baker Eddy published Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, arguing that illness is illusory and laying the basis for Christian Science.

2/10/1871, Mormon leader Brigham Young was arrested for bigamy.

12/7/1871. In New York, 31 civilians and 2 policemen were dead after fighting between Scots/Irish Presbyterians and Irish Catholics.

8/7/1871. Bismarck launched a cultural offensive against the Catholic Church, abolishing the Catholic Department for Spiritual Affairs.

1870, Charles Taze Russell and others formed a Bible Study Group, which later became the Jehovah’s Witnesses.

18/7/1870. Pope Pius IX, 78, obtained a declaration from the Vatican General Council that the papacy was infallible in all its pronouncements, per se and not by virtue of the assent of the Church. Papal nuncios persuaded the bishops to vote 533 to 2 in favour of Papal infallibility.  This move provoked much anti-Church legislation in Germany.

2/10/1870 In a plebiscite, the Papal States voted to unite with Italy. The capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome. This was under the reign of Pope Pius IX.

1869, Pope Pius IX declared that abortion of any kind was an excommincatory sin.

1865, The Seventh Day Adventist Church was founded by Ellen G White (nee Harmon, born 1827) and her husband.

2/7/1865. The Salvation Army was founded, by William Booth, with a revival meeting in Whitechapel, London.

6/11/1861, James A Naismyth, American physical educator and director of the International YMCA in Springfield Massachusetts, inventor of basketball, was born.

9/7/1860, Massacre of Christians in Damascus.

15/6/1858, Christians were massacred in Jeddah.

11/2/1858. At Lourdes, a 14 year old peasant girl, Bernadette Soubirous, claimed to have seen a vision of a lady surrounded by light in a grotto.

31/5/1857, Pope Pius XI was born.

8/12/1854. Pope Pius IX settled an ancient controversy by declaring that Christ’s mother, Mary, was free of all sin the moment she was born.

16/2/1852, Charles Taze Russell, American who organised the start of modern-day Jehovah’s Witnesses, was born in Pittsburgh.

1847, A Papal Bull again reiterated the need for Catholic Priests to be celibate.

3/9/1847, James Hannington, first Bishop of Equatorial Africa, was born.

24/7/1847. A group of Mormons under Brigham Young founded a settlement on the banks of the Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Mormons had been driven by mobs from their former homes in Illinois.

14/1/1847, Wilson Carlile, English clergyman who founded the Church Army, was born in Buxton, Derbyshire.

14/12/1844. China relaxed a ban on the Roman Catholic Church.

8/8/1844. The Mormons chose Brigham Young as leader to replace Joseph Smith, see 27/6/1844.

27/6/1844. Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon Church, died. He was killed, along with his brother Hyrum, by a 200-strong mob in Carthage prison, Illinois,  where they had been held on riot charges. The brothers had destroyed the offices of a rival Mormon newspaper. This followed months of tension between the Mormon settlers, who came to Nauvoo, Illinois, in 1839, and locals who resented Mormon political and economic power. Mormon polygamy was also a contentious issue.

6/6/1844. George Williams founded the YMCA at 72 St Paul’s Churchyard, London.

25/12/1843. The first Christmas card was designed by John Calcott Horsley for Sir Henry Cole. The design was of three generations of a Victorian family sitting round a festive table, toasting an absent guest. Some objected that the illustration encouraged drunkenness. Sir Cole said he was too busy at business to send letters to all his friends as was his custom, so he had 1,000 cards printed up, selling the surplus for 1 shilling each. By 1862 cards featured ‘A Merry Christmas and a Happy new Year’; then holly and robins appeared in the illustrations, and by 1871 a daily newspaper complained that people were trying to outdo each other in how many cards they received, and the consequent delay in other post.  The GPO adopted the slogan ‘Post Early For Christmas’ for the first time in 1880. Christmas crackers appeared in the 1840s. However Christmas trees date back to around 1605 where they were seen in Strasbourg.  In Alsace fir trees, or maien, were set up on May Day as far back as 1521.

10/5/1840. The Mormon leader Joseph Smith moved his followers to Illinois to escape hostility in Missouri.

2/6/1835, Pope Pius X was born.

15/7/1834, The Spanish Inquisition, founded in 1478, was disbanded.

6/4/1831, The Mormon leader, Brigham Young, married his 27th and final wife.

6/4/1830. Joseph Smith, in Fayette, New York State, founded the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints, whose adherents are better known as Mormons.

10/4/1829, William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, was born in Nottingham, the son of a builder.

22/9/1827. Joseph Smith, son of an impoverished New England farmer, announced that he had received golden plates from an angel. From this he translated the Book of Mormon, leading to the founding of the Mormon religion.

25/2/1825, Quote from Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “He who begins by loving Christianity better than Truth will proceed by loving his own sect or church better than Christianity, and end by loving himself better than all

11/10/1821. Sir George Williams, founder of the YMCA in 1844, was born in Dulverton, Somerset.

16/7/1821, Mary Baker Eddy, American religious leader who founded the Christian Scientists, was born in Bow, New Hampshire.

1814, Pope Pius VII returned to Rome, after Napoleon was vanquished, and restored the Inquisition.

2/3/1810, Pope Leo XIII was born, as Gioacchino Vincenzo Pecci, in Carpineto, the son of a Count.

1808, Napoleon abolished the Inquisition in Spain and Italy.

23/12/1805, Joseph Smith, founder of the Church of Latter Day Saints (Mormons), was born in Sharon, Vermont.

2/8/1803, Nicolas Wiseman, first Archbishop of Westminster, was born.

1/6/1801, Brigham Young, American Mormon leader, was born in Whittingham, Vermont.

13/5/1792, Pope Pius IX was born.

2/3/1791. John Wesley, founder of Methodism, died in London aged 87.  He was born on 17/6/1703 at Epworth Rectory.  His brother Charles Wesley, a hymn writer and preacher, was born on 18/12/1707 and died in 1788.

29/3/1788. The evangelist Charles Wesley, younger brother of John Wesley, died. He wrote over 5,000 hymns.

8/9/1784, Ann Lee, religious leader and founder of the US sect of the Shakers, died.

28/2/1784. John Wesley signed the Deed of Declaration of the Wesleyan faith.

1779, The Religious Tract Society was founded in London. Its aim was to distribute religious literature in the British colonies and other lands.

1772, The Inquisition was abolished in France.

18/9/1765, Pope Gregory XVI was born.

20/11/1761, Pope Pius VIII was born.

22/8/1760, Pope Leo XII born.

1744, The first general conference of the Methodists was held.

14/8/1740, Pope Pius X was born

24/5/1738, During a reading of Martin Luther’s preface to the Bible Book of Romans, John Wesley had a religious inspiration that led him to found the Methodist Church.

28/4/1738. Pope Clement XII condemned freemasonry.

27/12/1717, Pope Pius VI was born.

1713, Jansenism, the Christeian sect originally led by Bishop Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres, was finally eradicated by Pope Clement XI. Similar to Calvinism, it had been condemned as heresy by Pope Innocent IV in 1654.

17/6/1703. The founder of Methodism, John Wesley, was born at Epworth, Lincolnshire. He was the 15th child of a rector who fathered 19 children.

1698, In London the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge (SPCK) was formed by Dr Thomas Bray (1656 – 1730).

13/1/1691, George Fox, English religious leader who founded the Society of Friends in 1648 (often known as the Quakers from 1650) died in London.

13/5/1655, Pope Innocent XIII was born.

30/10/1650, ‘Quakers’, the more common name for the Religious Society of Friends, came into being during a court case at which George Fox, the founder, told magistrates to “quake and tremble at the word of the Lord”.

18/11/1626. St Peter’s Church in Rome was consecrated.

13/3/1615, Pope Innocent XII was born.

16/5/1611, Pope Innocent XI was born.

1609, The Catholic League was founded.

29/2/1604, John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

See also Great Britain; religious conflict, 16th and 17th centuries

25/7/1587. The Japanese Emperor Hideyoshi banned Christianity, and ordered the Jesuits to leave within 20 days. The Jesuits were accused of selling the Japanese as slaves.

5/10/1582. Pope Gregory XIII cancelled 10 days from the 5th to the 15th October 1582 to bring back the Spring Equinox to the 21st March and ensure that Easter fell on the proper date. Under the old Julian calendar, established in 46 BC, the calendar gained a whole day every 128 years. The new system cut out three leap years every 400 years to maintain accuracy.

24/2/1582, Pope Gregory XIII announced a change from the Julian calendar to the new Gregorian calendar, entailing a forward move of 11 days, see 5/10/1582.

17/5/1575, Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

6/5/1574, Pope Innocent X was born.

16/2/1568. The death sentence was passed on an entire country when the Spanish Inquisition condemned The Netherlands for heresy. During the first week of the plan to kill 3 million people, 800 were hanged, burnt, or killed by other means.

1564, The term ‘Puritan’ was first used, according to Thomas Fuller. It was a somewhat pejorative term, having a sense of both ‘Protestant-extremist’ (rather like the Cathars) and ‘pedantic’, as in stickler for detail or tradition’. The Puritans were a group of Protestant Christians who felt that the Reformation of the Church had not gone far enough.

13/11/1564, The Tridentine Creed was promulgated.

27/5/1564, John Calvin, French theologian who helped spread the Protestant revolution, died.

26/1/1564, Pope Pius IV confirmed the declarations of the Council of Trent.

1563, The Council of Trent reiterated the celibacy rule for priests.

1/3/1562, Hugenots massacred at Wassy.

18/1/1562, The Council of Trent reconvened, after a suspension of ten years.

20/12/1560, The first assembly of the Church of Scotland.

25/9/1555, The Peace of Augsburg was signed between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic

League, at the city of Augsburg. It cemented the division within Christendom between Catholicism and Protestantism, and allowed German states to choose either Roman Catholicism or Lutheranism as their State Religion.

9/1/1554, Pope Gregory XV born.

27/10/1553, Michael Servetus, theologian, was burnt at the stake.

17/9/1552, Pope Paul V was born.

11/2/1548, English churches were ordered to remove all images of saints, as the Reformation proceeded.

18/2/1546. Martin Luther, Augustinian friar and instigator of the Reformation, died (see 31/10/1517), at his birthplace of Eisleben, Germany, at the age of 63, apparently of overwork.

13/12/1545, The Council of Trent began.

20/4/1545. The Waldensians were massacred in Provence.

1543, The first Protestants burned at the stake by the Spanish Inquisition. The Pope issued a list of books that it was forbidden for Roman Catholics to read.

21/7/1542, Pope Paul III established the Universal Inquisition in order to halt the Reformation by repression.

27/9/1540, The Society of Jesus was founded.

2/6/1537, A Papal Bull issued by Pope Paul III prohibited enslavement of American Indians, contrary to King Charles V’s policies. Paul excommunicated Catholic slave traders.

6/10/1536, William Tyndale, English religious reformer and translator of the Bible, was burned at the stake as a heretic in Vilvarde, Brussels, on the orders of King Henry VIII.

30/4/1536, The Inquisition was implemented in Portugal.

11/2/1535, Pope Gregory XIV was born.

See also Great Britain for religious conflicts during 16th century

15/1/1535, The Act of Supremacy was passed in England. This made King Henry VIII head of the Church.

1534, Pope Paul III acceded, and began the process called the Counter-Reformation.

25/1/1533. King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn were secretly married by the Bishop of Lichfield, and became the future parents of Queen Elizabeth I.. Anne Boleyn was crowned at Westminster on 1/6/1533, shortly after Thomas Cranmer (who was appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury on 30/3/1533) had declared Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon null and void. On 23/5/1533 Henry VIII actually divorced Catherine of Aragon, resulting in a break between England and the Church of Rome.

18/1/1532, English Parliament banned payment by English churches to Rome.

11/10/1531, Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Church reformer, was killed in a fight with soldiers from the Catholic-supporting Forest Cantons at Kappel, near Zurich. Zwingli was Chaplain to the Protestant troops from Zurich.

25/6/1530, The Confession of Augsburg was read to the Diet.

19/4/1529, At the Diet of Speyer, an alliance of German principalities and city states protested against the reinstatement of the Diet of Worms, so beginning the Protestant movement.

17/6/1527, The Protestant Reformation began in Sweden.

1525, The Capuchin order was founded.

19/1/1523, Huldreich Zwingli published his 67 Articles in Zurich. They attacked the authority of the Pope, and the concept of Transubstantiation.

11/10/1521. Pope Leo X (217th Pope) conferred the title of Defender of the Faith on King Henry VIII.  Twelve years later Henry VIII broke with Rome to marry Anne Boleyn.

18/4/1521, Martin Luther ended his defence at the Imperial Diet of Worms with the words “I cannot and will not recant anything.  God help me.  Amen”.

17/4/1521, Martin Luther, 38 years old, was excommunicated at the Diet of Worms.

16/4/1521, Martin Luther arrived at the Diet of Worms.

28/1/1521, The Diet of Worms began.

3/1/1521, Pope Leo X issued a Papal Bull excommunicating Martin Luther, after a deadline by which Luther had been ordered to recant his ‘heretical’ views expired. Martin Luther had condemned the sale of Indulgences (Papal forgiveness for sins) to raise funds for the Papacy.

11/8/1519, Johann Tetzel died in Leipzig Priory, aged 54. He defended the Church practice of selling indulgences (forgiveness), promoted by the Archbishop of Mainz as a  way of raising money for rebuilding St Peters in Rome.

31/10/1517. Martin Luther, born 10/11/1483 in Eisleben, Germany, nailed his 95 Theses to the church  door at Wittenburg, so starting the Reformation. He died on 18/2/1546. These theses condemned the sale of indulgences granting forgiveness of sin. On 15/6/1520 Pope Leo X condemned Luther’s theses as ‘heretical and scandalous’.

16/3/1517, The Fifth Lateran Council ended. The doctrine of ‘Immortality of the Soul’ was made Church dogma.

1515, The Fifth Lateran Council forbade the printing of any books without the permission of the Roman Catholic Church.

16/4/1515, Roman Catholic mass was banned in Zurich as the Lutheran Revolution spread across Europe.

28/3/1515, St Teresa of Avila was born. A Spanish noblewoman, she joined the Carmelite nuns in 1533, and reformed the order.

11/4/1514, Italian architect Donate Bramante died whilst still building St Peters in Rome, which he had begun in 1506.

11/10/1513, The Church reformer Huldrych Zwingli died (born 1/1/1484). He was killed, as Army Chaplain for the forces of Zurich, in battle during the War of Kappel, against the Forest Cantons.

3/5/1512, The Fifth Lateran Council began.

10/7/1509, John Calvin, French priest who spread the Reformation, was born at Noyon, Picardy.

1506, The Vatican City Swiss Guard was formed. Pope Julius II mad a contract with the Swiss Confederacy that no other country could recruit soldiers from Switzerland or emply Swiss mercenaries without Papal permission. The original Guard was 6,000 strong but now has just 100 men.

6/8/1504. Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.  He had a very long nose, and was extremely inquisitive, hence the expression ‘nosey parker’.

See also Great Britain; religious conflict, 16th and 17th centuries

17/1/1504, Pope Pius V was born.

7/1/1502, Pope Gregory XIII born.

31/3/1499, Pope Pius IV was born.

19/12/1498, Andreas Osiander, religious reformer, was born.

16/9/1498, Tomas de Torquemada, Inquisitor-General, died.

24/12/1491, Ignatius Loyola, Spanish priest who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), was born in Azpeitia.

10/9/1487, Pope Julius III was born.

29/1/1487, Richard Foxe became Bishop of Exeter.

5/12/1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued the Papal bull Summis desiderantes affectibus giving the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and witches in Germany, led by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger.

1/1/1484, The Church reformer Huldrych Zwingli was born in Switzerland (died 11/10/1513).

10/11/1483, Martin Luther, German religious reformer, leader of the Protestant Reformation, was born in Eisleben, the son of a miner.

9/8/1483. Pope Sixtus IV (212nd Pope) celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel, which was named after him.

28/7/1480, (1) An Ottoman Army landed near Otranto, Italy.  Pope Sixtus IV called for a crusade to drive them out.

(2) Mohammed II failed in an attempt to take Rhodes from the Knights of Rhodes.

28/6/1476, Pope Paul IV born.

11/12/1475, Pope Leo X was born.

28/2/1468, Pope Paul III was born.

21/9/1452, Girolamo Savonarola, Church reformer, was born.

1447, Pope Nicholas V acceded (died 1455).

15/6/1447, The Inquisition was revived in Spain.

23/2/1447, Pope Eugene IV died.

1434, Insurrection in Rome; Pope Eugene IV was forced to flee to Florence. Florence Cathedral (begun 1420) was completed.

6/7/1439, The Decree of Union (Laetentur Caeli) formally uniting the Latin and Greek churches was issued

29/5/1439, Pope Pius III was born.

1420, Torquemada, the Spanish Grand Inquisitor, was born (died 1498).

6/7/1415.. Jan Hus, preacher and religious reformer, arrested on 28/11/1414, was burnt at the stake in Constance, Germany

18/10/1405, Pope Pius II was born.

27/9/1404, William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, died.

1398, Jan Hus, Church reformer, was lecturing on theology at Prague university.

15/11/1397, Pope Nicholas V was born.

31/12/1384, John Wycliffe, religious reformer (born 1328), died.

20/5/1381. A council was held in Paris to find a way of ending the scandal of two Popes existing at once; After Pope Gregory XI died (1378) two rival Popes had been elected, Pope Urban VI at Rome and Pope Clement VII at Avignon. This Great Schism persisted until 1417.

31/12/1378, Pope Callixtus III was born.

17/1/1377, The Papal See was transferred back to Rome from Avignon.

20/10/1349, Pope Clement VI outlawed the flagellants.

1322, Pope John XXII forbade the use of counterpoint in Church music.

1317, The Papacy outlawed alchemy.

18/3/1314, Jacques de Molay, the 23rd and the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, was burned at the stake.

22/3/1312, The Pope abolished the Order of the Templars.

11/5/1310, In France, 54 members of the Knights Templar were burned at the stake for heresy.

15/8/1309, The city of Rhodes surrendered to the forces of the Knights of St. John, completing their conquest of Rhodes. The knights established their headquarters on the island, and renamed themselves as the Knights of Rhodes.

9/3/1309. Pope Clement V (French) arrived at Avignon to set up court there. Rome was no longer the Papal Seat.

2/11/1308, Castellar, last of the Templar’s strongholds, fell.

10/1/1308, The Templars were suppressed in England.

13/10/1307, The Knights Templars in Paris were arrested.

5/9/1307, Pope Clement V confirmed the Knights Hospitaller possession of Rhodes, although only Feracle had fallen to their attacks.

5/8/1305. Bertrand de Got, Archbishop of Bordeaux, was elected Pope and took the name Clement V.

1302, The Papal Bull, Unam sanctam, reiterated the Pope’s claim to be the supreme authority on earth.

18/5/1291, Al-Ashraf Khalil of Egypt captured Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Christians in Acre, who had broken a truce by massacring all Muslims in the town, scrambled for places on boats to Cyprus. Most Christians in Acre were captured, and sent to the slave market in Damascus.

27/4/1289, Fall of Tripoli: Mamluk Sultan Qalawun captured the County of Tripoli (in present-day Lebanon) after a month-long siege, thus extinguishing the Crusader state.

8/8/1288, Pope Nicholas IV (died 1292) proclaimed a Crusade against Ladislaus IV of Hungary. who had lost credibility by favouring his semi-pagan Cuman subjects and in general refusing to conform to the social standards of western Europe.

25/4/1285, Mamluk Sultan Qalawun began a siege of the Crusader fortress of Margat (in present-day Syria), a major stronghold of the Knights Hospitaller thought to be impregnable; he captured the fortress a month later.

6/1/1285, Archbishop Jakub Swinka ordered all priests subject to his bishopry in Poland to deliver sermons in Polish rather than German, thus further unifying the Catholic Church in Poland and fostering a national identity

7/3/1274. Thomas Aquinas died. He was born into a Lombard-Norman family in 1225. A controversial figure, he became a notable philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church. He died at Fossanuova Abbey in the Roman Campagna whilst on the way to the Council of Lyons.

8/4/1271, Mamluk Sultan Baibars continued his territorial expansion, capturing the strategically important castle Krak des Chevaliers from the Knights Hospitaller in present-day Syria.

18/5/1268, The Principality of Antioch, a crusader state, fell to the Mamluk Sultan Baibars in the Battle of Antioch;

24/3/1267, ‘Saint’ Louis of France called his knights to Paris in preparation for his second Crusade.

25/5/1261. Death of Pope Alexander IV (181st Pope). Rinaldo Conti was elected Pope Alexander IV at Naples, after the death of Pope Innocent IV, (180th Pope) on 12/12/1254. He attempted to unite the Greek and Latin churches, and established the Inquisition in northern France.

1260, The first Flagellants appeared in southern Germany and northern Italy.

1256, The Order of Augustine Hermits was founded.

9/10/1253, Robert Grosseteste, theologian, died.

1252, The Inquisition began to use instruments of torture.

16/3/1244, Following their successful siege of Montségur, French royal forces burned about 210 Cathars.

17/3/1230, (Christian, Germany) The Archbishop of Bremen, Gerhard II, convened a Great Church Gathering at Bremen. There he organised the excommunication of the Stedinger for such crimes as worshipping wax images of the Devil and consulting evil spirits. In reality the Stedinger had been granted permission, in 1106 by an earlier Archbishop of Bremen, to reclaim the marshlands at the estuary of the River Weser for agriculture. The work was hard, digging drainage ditches and building  dikes but the inhabitants of this land, called Stedingen, were at least free from Feudalism. They paid a nominal tax to the Archbishop but owned no feudal duties to any Lord. Over time the feudal Lords of the region and the Archbishops of Bremen came to see the freedom of the Stedinger as a threat. Relations deteriorated as the Counts of Oldenburg built two fortresses in Stedingen, at Lechtenburg and Luneberg, kidnapping local people from the area, and in turn the Stedinger formed local militias for their own protection. Gerhard II went to Rome to secure Pope Gregory II’s agreement for a Crusade against the Stedinger, which began in Spring 1233. By the end of 1234 the Stedinger society had been eradicated, although some families claiming descent from the Stedinger remain today in Germany and the USA.

1229, The Inquisition inToulouse forbade the reading of the Bible by lay people.

12/4/1229, (-261,532) The Treaty of Paris brought the Albigensian Crusade to an end.

12/3/1229. (-261,563) Frederick II of Germany finally arrived in Jerusalem, having been twice excommunicated by the Pope for delaying his Crusade. He had intended to depart in 1215 but was delayed by domestic problems including the Mongol invasion. He reached Acre, with only a small army, but he had been in clandestine negotiations with the Sultan of Egypt, Al-Kamil, who had been shaken by the fifth Crusader’s advance into Egypt. The Sultan was happy to surrender Bethlehem and Nazareth, and a corridor of territory from Jerusalem to the coast as well as much of Jerusalem itself. The Vatican, however, disapproved of Frederick’s negotiating with a non-Christian.

9/7/1228, (-261,809) Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

3/10/1226, Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan Order, died. He was canonised in 1228.

1221, Death of St Dominic (born ca. 1170), founder of the Dominican Order. In England, from their black robes they

were also known as Black Friars. By 1221 there were 60 Dominican Houses.

31/8/1221, Under a peace deal, the Franks left Egypt.

6/11/1219. The Egyptian port of Damietta fell to the Crusaders (Franks) after a siege.

24/5/1218, The Fifth Crusade left Acre for Egypt.

1217, Death of Peter Waldo, or Valdez, born ca. 1140, founder of the Waldensians.

22/12/1216, The Dominican Order of monks was founded.

11/11/1215, Pope Innocent III opened the Fourth Lateran Council in Rome.

24/8/1215, Pope Innocent III declared the Magna Carta (forcibly signed by King John at Runnymede) invalid.

1/7/1215, The number of monks in England had grown considerably, from about 1,000 in 1066, on the eve of the Norman Conquest, to around 13,000 by 1215.

4/3/1215, King John of England made an oath to Pope Innocent III as a crusader to gain his support. John also technically passed authority of his kingdom over to the Pope, thereby making anyone who tried to depose him an enemy of the Pope and liable to excommunication. This move was a precaution by John who was facing rebellion by his barons. This healed the rift between King John and Pope Innocent III, see 15/7/1207.

12/9/1213, Battle of Muret: The Toulousain and Aragonese forces of Raymond VI of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragon were defeated by the Albigensian Crusade under Simon de Montfort.

1209, The Franciscan Order of monks was founded. The Carmelites were founded.

22/7/1209. In the Crusade against the Cathars, Simon de Montfort sacked Beziers. Thousands were killed, including many Catholics.

15/7/1207, King John expelled the monks at Canterbury who were supporters of Stephen Langton. The dispute between John and Pope Innocent led to King John being excommunicated in 1008; an interdict was placed upon England, meaning Church services could not officially be held there. In 1213 Pope Innocent III authorised King Philip II of France to invade England and depose King John. However see 4/3/1215.

17/6/1207, Pope Innocent III consecrated Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury, following the death of the previous incumbent, Hubert Walter, in 2105. However King John of England preferred John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich, to succeed to the post.

13/4/1204, The Crusaders captured Constantinople.  In 1198 the Doge of Venice, Enrico Dandolo, was to have assembled a fleet to take the Crusaders from Venice to Palestine but there was insufficient money to pay for the ships.  So they diverted into Dalmatia and arrived at Constantinople.  The Byzantine Prince Alexius Angelus, son of the deposed King Isaac II, persuaded the Crusaders to help reinstate his father.  On 7/4/1203 the Crusaders stormed Byzantium and  reinstated Isaac II, but the agreed payment of 200,000 marks for this was not paid to the Crusaders; worse, King Isaac II was deposed again.  Hence the Crusaders this day re-attacked Byzantium, sacking and looting it.

1202, The Pope  issued the Decretal Venerabiliem, asserting the superiority of the Papacy over secular Emperors. See 4/3/1075. See also 754.

2/11/1192. Peace was concluded between Richard I (Lionheart) of England and Saladdin of Jerusalem (see 2/12/1187). The Crusades never achieved their objective of liberating the Holy Land from the Muslims but because they caused the death of so many noblemen the system of serfdom and landholding in Europe was gradually dismantled. Feudalism gradually ended over the period from 1300 to the Thirty Years War, 1618-48.

6/9/1191. Richard I defeated the Saracens at the Battle of Arsouf.

4/7/1191. The Crusaders under Richard I captured Acre from Saladdin, during the Third Crusade.

21/1/1189. Henry II of England, with Philip Augustus and Frederick Barbraossa, assembled troops for a third Crusade.

2/12/1187. Jerusalem surrendered to Saladdin (see 2/11/1192). Saladdin was born in 1138, in Tikrit (Saddam Hussein’s native town) of Kurdish parents and  was educated in Syria. In 1164 he accompanies his uncle on a military campaign in Egypt. The aim was to substitute Sunni for Shia Islam there, and also to drive the Crusader Franks out of the Levant. The local Syrian leader died in 1174 and Saladdin defeated his 11 year old successor and seized power. The Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad gave Saladdin power over all the lands from Morocco to Syria; Saladdin later extended his rule into Mesopotamia. Saladdin also subdued the Assassins, a Muslim sect that had twice tried to kill him. He now attacked the Crusaders, and on 1 July 1187 captured Tiberias after a six day siege.

After the capture of Jerusalem by Saladdin, the Franks were almost evicted from the region, holding on only at Antioch, Tripoli, and Tyre. European states set aside their differences in panic and three rulers; Richard I of England, Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, and Philip Augustus of France, set out on a third Crusade. The Crusaders marched on Muslim-held Acre, Saladdin arrived, and there ensued a long battle, control swinging back and forth. After two years, Acre fell to the Crusaders. Peace negotiations began, (see 2/11/1192), the end result being a marriage of his daughter with Saladdin’s brother, Al-Malik, who was knighted by Richard. The peace gave the coast to the Europeans and the interior to the Muslims. In February 1188 Saladdin fell ill with a fever and died 12 days later aged 55.

4/7/1187, The Battle of the Horns of Hattin. Saladin defeated Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem.

1/5/1187, Battle of Cresson: Saladin defeated the Crusaders.

17/9/1176, Emperor Manuel of Byzantium was defeated by the Muslims, in the Crusades.  Without Byzantium the Crusader hold on Palestine was untenable.

5/9/1174, Fire gutted the Choir of Canterbury Cathedral. It was rebuilt using the pointed arch, the first known use of this type of arch in England.

1173, The Waldensian Movement began in Lyons, France.

1170, Dominic de Guzman, founded of the Dominican Order, was born at Calahorra, Spain.

1170, Pope Alexander III established rules for the canonisation of Saints.

29/12/1170. The murder of Thomas Becket, 40th Archbishop of Canterbury, by four knights in his own Cathedral. The knights (Reginald Fitzurse, William de Tracy, Hugh de Merville, and Richard de Breton) believed they were acting on King Henry II’s orders. Becket, far from being the docile cleric Henry believed him to be on appointing him as Archbishop of Canterbury, was a firm upholder of ecclesiastical privileges. Henry, furious at Becket’s excommunication of the six bishops who had assisted the Archbishop of York at the crowning of Henry II’s son in Westminster Abbey, uttered the fatal cry. “Who will rid me of this turbulent priest”. The four knights gave Henry his answer.

2/12/1170, Thomas Beckett returned to Canterbury from his voluntary exile. He had left England on 2/11/1164.

14/6/1170, King Henry II’s son was crowned, not as was custom by the Archbishop of Canterbury but by the Archbishop of York. This was a major snub to Thomas Beckett, and against Papal instructions. Henry then made verbal reconciliation with Beckett, who, impatient to return to England, did so without proper guarantees of safety.

3/6/1162, Thomas Becket was consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury.

1161, Pope Innocent III was born.

1/9/1159. Death of Pope Adrian IV, elected Pope on 4/12/1154. He was formerly Nicholas Breakspear, and was the only English Pope. In 1155 he authorised King Henry II of England to invade Ireland and hold it as a hereditary fief of the Papacy. Breakspear was born at Bedmond Farm in Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, around 1100. His father became a monk of St Albans abbey, presumably after the death of his wife. Nicholas Breakspear also applied to join the Abbey at age 18 but was refused admission because of too little schooling. He went abroad as a wandering scholar and finally became a monk in the Augustinian Abbey of St Rufus in Avignon in 1130. He was elected Abbot in 1137 and came to the notice of the Pope, Eugenius III. The Pope recognised his qualities and made him a bishop and a cardinal; Breakspear was sent on a trip to war-torn Scandinavia where he restored peace. After 4 years Breakspear returned to Rome to find that Eugenius III had died and was succeeded by Anastasius IV, a man of 90. Within the year Anastasius IV was dead and Nicholas Breakspear was unanimously elected Pope, taking the name Adrian IV.

1155, The Carmelite Order was founded.

18/6/1155, Rioting in Rome as English born Pope Adrian crowned Frederick Barbarossa as Holy Roman Emperor; 1,000 died.

2/11/1148, ‘Saint’ Malachy, Church reformer, died.

25/10/1147, Battle of Dorylaeum, the Seljuq Turks defeated German crusaders under Conrad III.

1140, The Trappists were founded.

6/2/1140, Thurstan, Archbishop of York, died.

1139, The Second Lateran Council abolished the practice of Agapetae. This was a practice of monks cohabiting with virgins, both professing celibacy and ‘bonded by spiritual love’. This, and the First Lateran Council (1123) enforced more strongly a rule of celibacy on the clergy as a means of protecting the Chirch’s power and wealth.

25/12/1130. The Norman King Roger II was crowned King of Sicily by the anti-Pope Anacletus II (died 1138), who thereby gained a powerful supporter for his claim on the Papacy against Pope Innocent II (died 1143). Anacletus II in fact had the better claim on the Papacy but lost secular support because he was the son of a wealthy Jew, founder of the Pierleani family.

7/7/1124, Tyre fell to the Crusaders.

18/3/1123, The First Lateran Council began.

23/9/1122. The Diet of Worms. A council is held at the German town of Worms, to settle a dispute between Church and State that went back to 1076, when Pope Gregory VII excommunicated King Henry IV of Germany, seeking to impose papal power over the king. Both Henry IV and his son, the present King Henry V set up anti-Popes and forced the Pope to flee to refuge in a monastery. Pope Calixtus  II and King Henry V agreed at this Diet that the King would not force the election of Bishops but allow their free election by the Church; in return the King will be present at the election of Bishops and have some influence over disputes within the church.

1118, The Templars were founded.

21/12/1118, Thomas Beckett was born in Cheapside, London.

11/12/1118. The Christians captured Saragossa, Spain, from the Muslims.

4/12/1110, First Crusade, the Crusaders conquered Sidon.

18/7/1100, Godfrey de Bouillon, first Crusader king of Jerusalem, died.

15/7/1099. Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders, (see 27/11/1095). 40,000 people, both Jews and Muslims, were slaughtered in two days, an event European scholar-monks acclaimed as ‘the greatest event since the Crucifixition’. On 12/8/1099 the Crusaders defeated Al-Afdal, the Fatimid Vizier of Egypt, at Ascalon. He was bringing an army to recapture Jerusalem, which the Egyptians had earlier lost to the Turks.

7/6/1099, The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem.

3/6/1098, (-) The Crusaders took Antioch.

21/3/1098, Cîteaux Abbey became the origin of the Cistercian Order. The Benedictine Abbott, Robert of Champagne, wished to reform the secularised monastic life. His first attempt at this was in the Forest of Molesme. In 1098 he founded, in the Forest of Citeaux (Cistercium), an Anbbey, at a small hamlet near Dijon, where the rules of St Benedict would be strictly observed. The new Abbey nearly became extinct when in 1113 it was joined by St Benedict with thirty companions. In 1115 St Benedict became the first Abbott of Clairvaux, which henceforth became the centre of the revived Benedictine Movement.

21/10/1097, The Crusaders arrived at Antioch.

24/6/1097, The Crusaders took Nicea.

1095, Pope Urban II preached the First Crusade, at the Council of Clermont. He wanted to recover Jerusalem from the Muslims,

27/11/1095. Pope Urban II called for a Crusade to the Holy Land. He talked of how, due to Turkish misrule, it was no longer safe for Christian pilgrims to visit the holy sites of Jerusalem. The Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum on 30/6 1097, opening the way to Jerusalem. Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders on 15/7/1099.

19/11/1095, The Council of Clermont began. The council was called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

1084, The Carthusian Order was formed.

24/3/1084, Palm Sunday. Henry IV of Germany, having captured Rome, installed Pope Clement III. In turn Clement III crowned Henry IV as Emperor on Easter Sunday 1084.

5/1081, Henry IV of Germany marched south across the Alps to confront Pope Gregory VII; no reconciliation was possible, so Henry decided to occupy Rome.

15/10/1080, Rudolf of Swabia was killed in battle, leaving Henry IV as unchallenged ruler of Germany.

7/3/1080, King Henry IV of Germany was excommunicated a second time by Pope Gregory VII, see 27/1/1080. In response Henry IV summoned an assembly of bishops to Brixen and declared Pope Gregory VII deposed and appointed Wilbert, Archbishop of Ravenna, in his place. However not everyone, even in Germany, accepted the right of Henry IV to judge a Pope ‘appointed by God’.

27/1/1080, King Henry IV of Germany defeated Saxon rebels at Flarchheim. Emboldened by this, he rejected the mediation efforts of Pope Gregory VII to settle the rulership dispute between him and Rudolf of Swabia, see 25/10/1077 and 7/3/1080.

25/1/1077, German King Henry IV, who was losing popular support because of his excommunication by Pope Gregory VII, arrived at Canossa Castle, northern Italy, to do penance in reconciliation. He knelt in the snow in a monk’s hair shirt for three days before the Pope admitted him. “Going to Canossa” became a saying for reluctant penance, especially in Germany. Henry IV had faced a rebellion by Saxons, and had to reach Pope Gregory by a roundabout route via Burgnndy and Provence. Pope Gregory VII wanted, politically, to refuse forgiveness, but as head of the Christian Church he had no choice but to dispense it. The rebels, feeling betrayed by Gregory VII, rejected the kingship of Henry IV anyway and elected Rudolf of Swabia in his place. Germany faced effective civil war. Pope Gregory, to restore his influence over Germany, sent a Papal Legate northwards in 1079 to settle who was the rightful ruler of Germany, decreeing that if either Rudolf or Henry rejected the findings of this legate they would be excommunicated. However see 27/1/1080.

24/1/1076, German King Henry IV called an assembly of German Bishops to Worms to complain about the interference of  Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) in the rulership of Milan. Earlier, a revolutionary faction called the Pataria had usurped Henry IV’s control over Milan, which included the right to appoint the Archbishop of Milan. Milan was very strategically important to Henry IV as it controlled the Alpine passes between Italy and Germany. Pope Gregory VII sided with the rebels against King Henry IV and insisted that he, Gregory, had the right to appoint the Archbishop (see 4/3/1075, Dictatus Papae). The German Bishops signed a letter of protest from Henry IV calling for Hildebrand “that false monk, who had forsaken the cloisters” (see 22/4/1073)  to resign as Pope and that Henry IV did not recognise him as Pope. The message caused an uproar in Rome, in fact the messenger was nearly killed, saved only by the intervention of Hildebrand himself. Two days later Gregory VII (Hildebrand) excommunicated and nominally deposed King Henry IV. See 25/1/1077.

4/3/1075, Hildebrand issued the Dictatus Papae, 27 short propositions setting out the powers of the Roman Catholic Church. These propositions, aimed at curbing the Greek Church and the temporal power of European Kings, included, (I) that the Roman Catholic Church was founded by God alone, i.e. it was more than ‘just’ apostolic (III), only the Pope can dismiss or reinstate Bishops, (XII), the Pope has the authority to depose Emperors,, (XVI), That only the Pope had the authority to call Councils (the Greek Church didn’t), (XIX), The Pope can be judged by no-one except God himself, (XXII), The Roman Church has never erred and is in fact infallible, See 1202.

1074, Married priests were excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII. He also decreed, at the Council of Rome, that all laymen who received Communion from a married priest should be excommunicated. Nevertheless, instances of married Catholic priests still occurred down into the 12th and 13th centuries.

23/8/1059, Pope Nicholas II (1059-61) met with Robert Guiscard, leader of the Normans of southern Italy, at Melfi, and accepted Robert’s vassalship. Robert pledged that if Pope Nicholas died before him, he would assist the Cardinals in the elction of a new Pope. In effect, Robert was pledging to protect the Cardinals from political interference by the Roman nobility. In return Pope Nicholas bestowed upon Robert the title of Duke of Calbria and Apulia. This infuriated the (Byzantine) Roman Emperor, who claimed all of Italy as part of his domain, and insisted that Nicholas could not give away lands he had no title to.

1/10/1049, Pope Leo IX (1048-54), noted for his attempts to eradicate simony, arrived at Reims, France. In March 1049 he had begun a tour of the Christian lands of Europe, to assert his authority over these regions. He left Rome and travelled via Florence, Pavia and Cologne to Reims. Whilst still Bishop of Toul, Pope Leo IX had pledged to be present at the Consecration of the Cathedral of Reims, built to honour St Remigius, who had baptised Clovis and played a large role on converting the Franks to Christianity. In fact due to opposition to Leo’s visit by the King of France, only 20 bishops and 40 abbots attended at Reims, a clear sign of Leo’s limited authority on France. After parading an effigy of the Saint around the town, before setting in in its place in the Cathedral, Leo set it on the high altar as a ‘witness’ and asked all present to declare, individually one by one, that they had not paid money for their office. Many of those present would not make such a statement.

1022, The Synod of Pavia ordered that higher clergy must be celibate.

19/4/1012. St Alpheage, Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered by the Danes. He had been captured by the Danes who sacked Canterbury in 1011 and kept in prison for 7 months, and killed when a ransom was not paid.. Born in 954, St Alphege was elected Abbot at Bath, and in 984 became the Bishop of Winchester. In 1006 he succeeded Aelfric as Archbishop of Canterbury.

21/6/1002, Pope Leo IX was born.

25/12/1000, Stephen I became King of Hungary, which was established as a Christian kingdom.

29/2/992, Saint Oswald, Archbishop of York, died.

13/2/990, Ethelgar, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

2/6/959, Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

910, The Cluniac order was founded.

904, Pope Sergius III acceded (died 911). His mistress, Marioza, became the mother of Pope John XI (931-936), the aunt of Pope John XIII (965-971) and the grandmother of Pope Benedict VI (973-974)

862, St Swithin (Swithun), Bishop of Winchester 852-62, died.

848, Pope Leo IV erected the Leonine Wall around the Vatican, to protect it from attack.

840, Paschasius Radbertus, Abbott of Corbie (France), established the Doctrine of Transubstantiation – that the Communion bread literally becomes the Body of Christ.

19/5/804. Death of Alcuin, a learned churchman of the eight century. He was born at Eboracum (York) in 735 and became head of the Episcopal school of York in 766. Between 781 and 790 Alcuin helped Charlemagne teach church and other knowledge to the Frankish nobility.

25/12/795. Death of Pope Adrian I, Pope from 772 to 795. He halted the trend against the use of images in Church which was taking place in the east of Christendom. In 726 Emperor Leo III of Constantinople had banned the use of religious images in Christendom. This trend was upheld by a meeting of churchmen in Constantinople in 730; all visible symbols of Christ, other than the eucharist, were forbidden and anyone using icons or statues would be accused of idolatry and paganism. Leo felt that what were symbols of the divine have become divinities in themselves, and the seemingly inexorable spread of Islam made Christians wonder about the power of their images. Leo wanted to strengthen Christianity’s appeal against Islam, which forbids any portrayal of the human form. Leo was also concerned about the growing power of the monasteries, which threatened the divide between church and state.

8/1/794, Vikings again raided Lindisfarne.

8/6/793. Vikings raided the monastery at Lindisfarne, killing many of the monks.

787, The Council of Nicea abandoned iconoclasm and ordered resumption of image-worship.

758, Death of Cuthbert, Archbishop of Canterbury from 741. He introduced into England the custom of burying the deasd in the precincts around the church, or church-yard. On the Continent, church-yards began to be used as customary burial places for the dead from the 500s, although a few cases of this occurred from the 300s. Early Christians, from the time when this religion was still under persecution in the Roman Empire, usually met at the tombs of martyrs, since Roman Law strictly protected these memorial grounds from violation. Early churches grew up, therefore, adjacent to these memorial grounds. However the dead would then have been buried in separate areas of ground, away from the church.

754, The start of the Papal States as an independent political entity, when Pepin le Bref presented the Exarchate of Ravenna to Pope Stephen II. Benevento was added in 1053, and in 1102 Matilda of Tuscany left Parma, Modena and Tuscany to the Pope. In 1202 the Papal States were formally constituted an independent monarchy.

726, Pope Gregory II attacked the iconoclasm prevailing in Constantinople, where icons and images had been banned to discourage superstition and miracle-mongering, and the spread of monasticism checked because the tax-exempt monasteries were draining the economy of both money and productive labour. In 730 Byzantine Emperor Leo III was excommunicated by Pope Gregory II for this iconoclasm.

25/5/709. Death of Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne. Born around 640, Aldhelm was educated by an Irish scholar and monk, Meldun (or Maildulf), who had settled in the British stronghold of Bladow, on the site of Malmesbury. Aldhelm succeeded Meldulf as head of the Christian community at Malmesbury when Meldulf retired due to ill health in 675. Under Aldhelm, the community at Malmesbury increased and he founded two other centres of learning at Frome and at Bradford on Avon.

700, Earliest recorded use of Easter Eggs by Christians.

20/3/687, Cuthbert died on Farne Island.

5/5/614. The Persians completed the conquest of Syria by capturing Jerusalem. They seized the ‘true cross’, the most holy relic of Christendom. However on 3/4/628 the Persian ruler Kavadh sued for peace with Byzantium. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, as well as the ‘true cross’. This cross is restored to Jerusalem by Heraclius on 21/3/630.

12/3/604. Pope Gregory the Great (64th Pope) died in Rome. Aged 64, he had been Pope for 14 years. He was the son of a Senator, and wealthy, but at the age of 33 sold off his property and gave the money to the poor. He founded several  monasteries, and entered one himself. Pope Gregory had appointed Bishop Augustine of Hippo to begin the work of introducing Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons. He was succeeded by Pope.

566, The Council of Tours decreed the suspension, for a year, of all secular priests and deacons found to be married. Whilst several of the Apostles themselves had been married, from the 4th century onwards, celibacy same to imposed on Church officials, firstly the higher ones, then gradually spreading down the ranks.

563, St Columba left Ireland and landed on Iona (Hebrides) where he founded a monastery.

563, The Church in Europe forbade the free movement of lepers. A priests had to make any leper in their congregation lie ion a coffin in front of the altar and have some soil thrown on them. Now, legally dead, they were outlaws, obliged to beg for support, to carry a bell to warn of their approach, and a stick to point for items they wanted, to wear gloves and shoes to protect barefooted travellers behind them. All this was unnecessary because in fact leprosy has very low infectivity.

529, The Benedictine Order was formed at Monte Cassino, near Naples, by Benedict of Nursia, aged 49.

7/12/521, St Columba was born at Gartan, Donegal, Ireland.

500, Incense began to be used in Church services.

500, The first plans for the Vatican Palace in Rome were drawn up. St Romanos (Melodos) wrote hymns especially for Christmas, Easter and the Passion.

25/12/496, Clovis I was baptized into the Catholic faith at Rheims, by Saint Remigius. The conversion strengthened the bonds between his Gallo-Roman subjects, led by their Catholic bishops.

3/1/492, Pope Felix III died after a 9-year reign in which he excommunicated Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople, thus dividing the Western Church and Eastern Church (Acacian Schism). He was succeeded by Gelasius I as the 49th pope.

480, Saint Benedict was born, to a wealthy family in Nursia, near Spoleto.

459, Simeon Stylites died, aged 72. He was the first of a number of Christian ascetics who secluded themselves on top of pillars, from which they preached to visiting pilgrims. In the Middle East such ‘stylites’ coild be found down to the 12th century.

8/10/451, The Fourth General Council of the Church opened, at Chalcedon.

25/12/440, The Church officially decreed the birthday of Jesus to be 25 December, the pagan day of celebrating the winter solstice.

28/8/430, St Augustine died in the town of Hippo, then enduring its 3rd month of siege by the Vandals. His writings have had considerable influence on Church doctrine.

431, Council of Ephesus.

30/9/420, Saint Jerome, Church leader, died.

14/9/407, Saint John Chrysostom died.

26/11/399, Pope Siricius died at Rome after a 15-year reign in which he commanded celibacy for priests, asserted papal authority over the entire Western Church, and threatened to impose sanctions who did not follow his dictates.

3/4/397. Death of Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan. Born a Roman citizen around 337-340, Ambrose was appointed as bishop of Milan in 374 when the previous incumbent, Auxentius, died.

3/11/392. Emperor Theodosius passed a decree prohibiting all pagan worship in the Byzantine Empire.

390, First use of ‘Hallelujah’ (meaning ‘praise Jah, or Jehovah’) hymns in the Church.

24/4/387, St Augustine of Hippo was baptised, along with his son, Adeodatus, by Ambrose at Milan.

17/12/384,  Pope Siricius succeeded Damasus I as the 38th Pope. He took the title Pontifex Maximus, after it was relinquished by late emperor Gratian.

2//5/373. Athanasius, the patriarch who fiercely defended the Nicene Creed against Arianism, died at Alexandria, Egypt. He played an important role in the spread of monasticism.

368, Formalised hymn-singing was introduced by Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (died 397).

19/2/356. Constantius II ordered all pagan temples in the Roman Empire to be closed.

13/11/354, Aurelius Augustinus, or St Augustine, was born at Tagaste, a town in Numidia.

25/12/350, The first officially-sanctioned Christmas Day celebrations.

21/10/346. Under heavy imperial pressure, a split between the eastern and western Churches was patched up at Alexandria, Egypt.

340, The first monastery in the true sense was established by Pachominus at Tabennisi, an island in the Nile (see 305). The monks lived under a common roof and by an agreed set of rules.

336, The priest, Arius, was tortured to deasth for his beliefs that Jesus Christ was not equal to God.

325, The official date of Easter was settled at the Council of Nicea. Previously, the Eastern Church had fixed it on the 14th day of the Jewish lunar month of Nisan, that is, the old Jewish Passover date. The Western Church had fixed Easter on the first Sunday after this day of Nisan 14th. At Nicea, the Western date was favoured, and the Eastern date labelled the quartodeciman heresy.

20/5/325. The Emperor Constantine, dressed in purple to mark the sacred nature of his power, opened the Council of Nicea. He has summoned bishops from all over the Empire to settle violent controversies raging within the Church, especially over Arianism. Arius, a priest in Alexandria, argued in 318 that Christ was not equal to God; if Christ was the Son of God, said Arius, he had a beginning so could not be eternal and was inferior to his Father. Constantine was acting as peacemaker and favoured equality of Christ with God. In fact the creed was worded so as to be ambiguous enough for most Arians to accept it. The Council also attempted, unsuccessfully, to impose a celibacy rule on the clergy.

3/12/321. Sunday was made a day of rest throughout the Roman Empire. Under the Edict of Milan, 3/2/313, Christianity was now tolerated in the Empire. Persecution of Christians had begun under Diocletian in 303 and peaked under his successors Galerius and Maximian. Constantine, born in Naissus in what is now Yugoslavia, was son of a Christian mother, Helena. When Constantine (born 274) became Emperor in 306 he followed the cult of Sol Invictis, the Unconquered Sun. However in 312, whilst fighting Maxentius the son of Maximian, he saw a cross of light superimposed on the sun. From then on Constantine identified the sun with the God of the Christians. He ordered his men to fight Maxentius with Christian symbols painted on their shields, and they won a famous victory at the Milvian Bridge just outside Rome, on 28/10/312. Constantine became ruler of the western Roman Empire.

28/10/312, Battle of Milvian Bridge. Maxentius had been declared Emperor in Rome, with the backing of the Senate. However Constantine was marching down from Gaul to claim title as Emperor. Constantine’s army was smaller, and relied on cavalry, performing best on open ground. Maxentius had dismantled the Milvian Bridge over the Tiber to halt Constantine’s advance; Maxentius’ troops had to ford the Tiber to attack Constantine, this move put them in the open, favouring Constantine’s cavalry. Maxentius fought in the name of Mars, the Roman God of War; Constantine saw a flaming cross in the sky and fought in the name of Christianity. Constantine’s cavalry charged, disrupting Maxentius’ ranks; Maxentius was killed and his head paraded through Rome the next day on a spear.

305, St Anthony established the first community of Christian monks at Fayum, Egypt. However this was not a ‘monastery’ in the established sense because the monks lived in separate huts, and lived their own lives, meeting for prayers. See 340.

4/3/303, St Adrian was martyred.

24/2/303, Emperor Diocletian ordered a massive persecution of the Christians.

301, Armenia became the first country to make Christianity its official State religion.

300, The earliest Religious Plays.

14/9/258, Saint Cyprian (born ca. 200) was martyred.

5/2/251, Saint Agatha was martyred

200, The position of the ‘Bishop of Rome’ as supreme Pope, head of the Church, became established. The various Churches across the Roman world were organising themselves into a single ‘Catholic’ (Greek, Kata-Holos, ‘the entire whole’) Church.

See also Roman Empire

177, The elderly Bishop Ponthinus was martyred under the persecution of Christians by Marcus Aurelius.

155, The Bishop of Smyrna, Polycarp, was martyred by the Romans.

64, Persecution of the Christians began.

62, The Apostle James was stoned to death at the orders of High Priest Ananias.

Passover. April 33, Jesus was put to death. This was to become the Church festival of Easter, with chocolate bunnies and Easter Eggs. Not really much to do with Jesus’ death, but everything to do with the old Pagan festival of rebirth, as spring life returned to the land. Even the name ‘Easter’ derives from the old fertility goddess, Astarte, from which we derive fertility-related words like Oestrogen and East, the direction the (lifegiving) sun rises from.

Ca. October 29, Jesus baptised and commenced his ministry

28/12/1 (AD). Herod ordered the slaughter of all the infants in Bethlehem to ensure the death of Jesus Christ, whom he saw as a possible future rival King. Earlier, a mysterious ***star*** had guided the Magi (wise men, or magicians) not directly to Jesus, but first to King Herod, then on to the baby Jesus. Herod ordered these Magi to report back to him as to where Jesus was, so he could kill him; however the Magi returned east by another route. It is this ***star*** that people put on their Xmas trees tiday.

Ca. October 2 BCE, Jesus was born in Bethlehem. The climate in the Judean hills would have been too cold and snowy in late December for ‘shepherds to be out tending their flocks’ as the story goes; the idea of celebrating Jesus’ birthday on 25 December was that it would replace the old pagan festival of Saturnalia, a drinking festival held to celebrate the passing of the shortest day and the return of  Sol Invictis, the ‘unconquered Sun’. Pine trees, as life that had survived over winter, also came to symbolise Xmas (that’s why you’re cleaning pine needles off the carpet on Boxing Day).

See also Judaism

 

Appendix 1Bible and Prayerbook Developments

1990, In the US, the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible was published.

16/3/1970, The New English Bible was released, and quickly sold out.

14/3/1961, The New English Bible was published.

18/6/1960, Jehovah’s Witnesses released the New World Translation of the Bible.

19/3/1928, In Britain, the Revised Book of Common Prayer was published.

6/7/1927, The Church of England approved revisions to the Book of Common Prayer.

8/2/1927. The revised book of common prayer introduced sex equality to the Church of England wedding service.

1925, The London Bible Society distributed worldwide 10,500,000 Bibles, in 566 languages.

10/2/1889, The Church of England approved the use of the revised Bible.

1735, The Bible first translated into Lithuanian.

1671, The first Bible printed in Arabic produced, in Rome.

1666, First Armenian Bible printed.

2/5/1611, In Britain, the Authorised Version of the Bible was published.

1632, The ‘Adulterer’s Bible’ was published; the word ‘not’ in the 7th Commandment had been omitted, so it read ‘Thou shalt commit adultery’. London printers Robert Barker and Martin Lucas were fined £300 for this error.

22/6/1576, Queen Elizabeth’s Prayer Book was issued.

4/12/1563, The Council of Trent was dissolved. It reaffirmed all major Catholic doctrines and declared the Apocrypha to be canonical along with the actual Bible.

1560, The Geneva Bible, published by followers of John Calvin, was the first to have numerical divisions for bith chapters and verses.

1550, King Christian III (1503-1559), King of Denmark and Norway 1534-59, brought out a Danish translation of the German Bible

8/4/1546, At the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic Church declared the Apocrypha to be part of the Bible.

1541, The Gustav Vasa Bible was produced in complete form (New Testament produced in 1526). This weas the first Swedish transpation of the Bible.

9/6/1549. The Church of England adopted the Book of Common Prayer, compiled by Thomas Cranmer.

20/5/1549, From this date, only the new Book of Prayer was allowed to be used in English churches.

6/5/1536, King Henry VIII ordered a copy of the Bible to be placed in every English church.

4/10/1535. The first English Bible was printed, translated and published by Miles Coverdale.

845, The Vivian Bible, an early illustrated manuscript, was produced.

382, Pope Damasus requested Jerome to produce a ‘corrected’ version of the Bible, a number of errors having crept in over the centuries. His version, the Roman Psalter, was completed in 383.

58, Paul wrote the Letter to the Corinthians, now part of the Bible.

 

Appendix 2Conversion and Missionary Work

1878, The Livingstone Central Africa Company was formed to assist the missionary work of Scottish Presbyterians in Nyasaland (Malawi). Founded by the two brothers, Fred and John Moir, it built steamships on Lake Nyasa, but was opposed by local Muslim leaders. The Company was poorly financed; in 1893 it was bought out by Cecil Rhodes, who transformed it into the African Lakes Trading Company. It continued as a largely commercial trading operation until the end of colonial rule in Africa.

1830, Missionary work in Samoas began when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived from the Cook Islands and Tahiti.

31/3/1820, The first Christian missionaries arrived in Hawaii, from New England, USA.

7/2/1816, The Italian missionary, Giovanni Lantrua of Trioria, was executed by the Chinese.

1796, The Scottish Missionary Society was formed. Its first work was in the Tartar areas around the Black Sea and Caspian Sea.

1795, The London Missionary Society was formed by an interdenominational group of Christians; their first work was in Tahiti in March 1797. They subsequently worked across China, south Asia, Africa and the West indies.

1792, The Baptist Missionary Society was formed. It worked across the world, in India, China, and other regions of south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.

1786, The first Wesleyian missionary work began, in the West Indies.

5/11/1758, Hans Egede, the Apostle of Greenland, died. Born in Norway in 1686, he was appointed pastor of Vagen, Norway, in 1707. He desired to convert the descendants of the Norse in Greenland and departed for there in 1721. Finding the Norse to have died out, he set about converting the Inuit. The death of his wife Getrude Rask in 1736 caused him to leave Greenland. In 1740 he became superintendent of the Greenland Mission in Copenhagen.

1715, Christian missionaries were expelled from China.

1705, The first Protestant mission to India. Ziegenbalg estanlished a Danish Lutheran mission at Tranquebar.

1701, In England, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts was formed.

1646, John Eliot began a missionary work amongst the American Indians.

1642, Missionary work amongst the Canadian Indians began from Montreal.

1622, Pope Gregory XV esdtablished the ‘Propaganda’, to assist Roman Catholic missionary work.

1555, The earliest Protestant missionary work began, in Brazil.

3/12/1552. Death of Francis Xavier, Basque Jesuit missionary, called ‘the apostle of the Indies’, who helped Ignatius Loyola found the Jesuits.  He died near Canton, China.

15/8/1549, Francis Xavier entered the Japanese port of Kagoshima to begin a conversion work.

1548, Jesuit missionaries began work in the Congo region.

6/5/1542, Francis Xavier arrived at the Portuguese colony of Goa, India, to begin his work of converting the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity.

7/4/1506, St Francis Xavier, Spanish Jesuit missionary, was born near Sanguesa.

1293, The first Christian missionaries arrived in China.

1000, Christianity reached Iceland and Greenland. By now, Christianity had reached Bulgaria, Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, Saxony, Denmark, Russia, and all of Scandinavia.

23/4/997, St Adalbert, the Apostle of the Prussians, from Prague, was murdered by the Prussians, whom he was trying to convert. He had also preached to the Hungarians and Bohemians, the latter being annoyed by his asceticism.

988, Christianity (Eastern) introduced to Kiev by Vladimir.

966, The conversion of Poland to Christianity began.

942, The conversion of Hungary to Christianity began.

863, Cyril and Methodius, the ‘Apostles of the Slavs’, began conversion work in Moravia, and invented the Cyrillic alphabet for writing the Bible in. they had gone to Moravia at the request of Rotislav, ruler of Moravia, who in 862 asked Byzantine Emperor Michael III to send missionaries.

826, King Harald of Denmark was baptised at Mainz. He returned to Denmark with the missionary monk, Ansgar (801 – 865), who spread Christianity in Scandinavia.

781, Nestorian Christians preached in China, and built monasteries.

5/6/754. The English missionary Boniface (born 673) and 53 companions were murdered in Germany by pagans.

30/9/722. Boniface was ordained as Bishop of Germany by the Pope and returned to Germany to continue his conversion work there.

715, The monk Winfrith, (future St Boniface) began missionary work in Germany. In 725 he felled the famous Donar Oak at Fritzlar, Hesse, which had been a centre of pagan worship.

687, The Isle of Wight became the last area of southern England to convert to Christianity.

686, Sussex, the last pagan kingdom in England, converted to Christianity.

664, Synod of Whitby. The date of Easter, originally coincident with the Jewish Passover Day, had been changed by the Church in Rome in 457 to ensure it always fell upon a Sunday; Easter Sunday was now the Sunday between the 15th and 21st days of the lunar month in the foirst month of thr Jewish lunar year. Easter Sunday was calculated according to the Victorius of Aquitaine. As Britian was by then no longer part of the Roman Empire, this ruling did not affect the Church in Britain, which continued to hold Easter by the old calendar. At the Synod of Whitby, the British clergy agreed to conform to the practice of Rome.

31/8/651, Saint Aidan, missionary and first bishop of Lindisfarne, died.

5/8/642. Death of the Christian King Oswald of Northumbria at the Battle of Maserfield, lost to the invading Kingdom of Mercia, under the pagan King Penda. King Oswald had succeeded to the |Kingdom of Bernicia in 634 and in 635 reunited the whole of Northumbria under his rule Northumbria had previously been converted to Christianity by Paulinus  but had relapsed under the heathen successors to Edwin. Oswald was a Christian and sent for a new Bishop. Paulinus had been a member of the Roman Church but his successor was from the Celtic church, the monastery of Iona, which Oswald had visited during his exile. The first monk sent under Oswald failed to make any headway amongst the ‘uncouth Northumbrians’ but a second, Aidan, was sent as Bishop of Northumbria. Aidan retained his See when the Mercians defeated and slew Oswald, and Aidan died at Bamburgh on 31/8/651.

635, Wessex was converted to Christianity.

12/4/627, Paulinus, last of the missionaries send by Pope Gregory I, built a wooden church in the old Roman legionary headquarters in York and baptised Edwin of Northumbria as the first Christian king in Northern England.

625, The missionary Paulinus arrived in Northumbria.

615, Columban the Younger, missionary to France and Ireland, born 550, died.

25/12/597, At Christmas, Christianity spread rapidly in Kent, Augustine and his fellow-labourers baptised more than 10,000 Anglo-Saxons.

596, Pope Gregory sent St Augustine to conduct missionary work in Britain.

589, The Lombards in Italy, under King Authari and Queen Theodelinda, converted to Catholicism.

587, The Visigoths in Spain converted to Christianity.

563, St Columba established a church on Iona, and began to convert the Picts from there.

550, Wales was converted to Christianity by St David. David (Dewi) was canonised in 1120 to become the patron saint of Wales.

432, St Ninian, the first known missionary to Scotland, born ca.360,died and was buried in the Church at Whithorn.

397, St Ninian established a church at Whithorn in order to evangelise the southern Picts. Son of a British chieftain, St Ninian had made a pilgrimage to Rome and studied for 15 tears to become a bishop.

350, Christianity reached Abyssinia.

300, Christianity reached Armenia.

45, Paul began his extensive missionary journeys.

 

Appendix 3 – The Jesuits

1925, The Jesuits had 18,718 members in 32 countries.

30/3/1880. France expelled the Jesuits from its territory. Jules Ferry, the Minister of public instruction, wished to create a public education system free from Church domination.

30/1/1880, In France, the Jesuits were disbanded.

1879, Anti-Jesuit legislation enacted in France.

1872, Jesuits expelled from Germany.

1848, The Jesuits were suppressed in Italy.

1820, Jesuits expelled from Rome. They were suppressed in Spain, 1820-25, and again from 1835-44 and in 1868.

1817, The Jesuits were severely restricted in Russia, and expelled from there in 1820.

1815, The Jesuits were re-established in Naples, Sardinia and Spain.

7/8/1814, Pope Pius VII re-established the Jesuits’ ancient college, the Collegio Romano, in Rome.

1804, The Jesuits were reconstituted in Sicily.

1801, Pope Pius VII permitted the reconstitution of the Jesuits in Lithuania.

1799, The Duke of Parma allowed the reorganisation of the Jesuits; the Pope allowed this but did not approve.

21/7/1773, Pope Clement XIV dissolved the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). This was the result of pressure from Spain and France, where the Jesuits had been found too unbending and zealous. They were also seen as a symbol of Papal interference in national secular affairs.

1768, The Jesuits were expelled from Parma and Paraguay.
1767, The Jesuits were expelled from Spain, Parma, and the Two Sicilies.

26/11/1764, The Jesuits were suppressed in France.

3/9/1759, Jesuits expelled from Portugal and Brazil by royal decree. Some refused to leave and were violently deported tp the military, onto ships bound for the Papal States.

11/7/1742, A Papal Bull condemned Jesuit tolerance of Confucianism in China.

1685, French Jesuits established the first Jesuit mission in Brazil.

1632, The Jesuits were expelled from Ethiopia after a popular uprising against them.

1556, Jesuit Order established in Prague.

31/7/1556, Ignatius Loyola, Spanish soldier and priest, and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), died.

1552, The Jesuits founded the Collegium Germanicum, Rome.

1551, The Jesuits founded the Collegio Romano in Rome, as the Papal University.

21/11/1551, Papal Legate Francis Xavier and fellow Jesuits returned from a two-year missionary trip to Japan. The Mikado was at first unimpressed with Xavier’s humble dress, but when he returned in more suitable attire, with gifts, he was even granted a disused Buddhist monastery for his work. Xavire left behind a community of 2,000 Christians, and was impressed with Japanese society.

21/7/1550, The Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, was approved by Pope Julius III.

1534, The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) was founded by Ignatius Loyola. They became the main counter-Reformation movement in the Catholic Church.

 

Appendix 4  - Religious Institutions and Buildings The growth of monasticism in the early Church was a lay reaction to the perceived departure from original Christian ideals that the Church had undergone in the first few centuries after Christ’s death. However monasticism itself soon became subservient to the Catholic Church.

4.1. Europe

4.1.1 United Kingdom

1/3/1986, Ely Cathedral became the first cathedral in Britain to levy an admission charge.

1895, Construction of the Catholic Cathedral at Westminister began.

14/5/1967. Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King was consecrated.

28/12/1966, Westminster Abbey celebrated its 900th anniversary.

30/5/1962, Coventry’s new Cathedral was inaugurated. The original mediaeval building had been destroyed by German bombers in November 1940.

25/5/1962. Coventry’s new cathedral, designed by Sir Basil Spence, was consecrated.

17/5/1961. Guildford Cathedral was consecrated.

19/7/1924. Liverpool Cathedral was consecrated, although it was not yet finished. Construction had begun in 1904.

28/6/1910. Westminster Cathedral, Catholic, was consecrated.

17/7/1904. The foundation stone of the Anglican Liverpool Cathedral was laid by King Edward VII.

29/6/1895, The foundation stone of Westminster Cathedral, London, was laid.

20/5/1840. York Minster was badly damaged by fire.

5/12/1697. The first Sunday service was held in Sir Christopher Wren’s new St Paul’s Cathedral (consecrated 2/12/1697), London; the foundation stone had been laid on 22/6/1675.

23/3/1540. The Crown seized Waltham Abbey. It was the last of the great monasteries to be seized by Henry VIII, bringing to an end a four-year campaign that had seen some 550 church properties, with their gold and jewels, pass to the King. The total income from these properties was around £132,000 a year and Henry VIII gave some of this to his supporters.

30/11/1538, In England, Byland Abbey was dissolved.

21/1/1535, Henry VIII appointed Cromwell as vice-regent in spiritual or vicar-general. Cromwell now set about assessing the value of England’s monasteries.

See also Great Britain for religious conflicts during 16th century

1)      1460, Winchester Cathedral was completed.

2)      1405, Construction work on Bath Abbey began (completed 1499).

3)      1378, St Machar Cathedral, Aberdeen, founded.

4)      13/2/1322, The central tower of Ely Cathedral in England fell.

5)      1307, The towers of Lincoln Cathedral were completed.

6)      1293, An order of St Clare nuns was established in London, the ‘Sorores Minores’. Set up by Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, this gave its name to The Minories today.

7)      19/6/1285. Westminster Abbey completed.

8)      1258, Richmond Friary, Yorkshire (Franciscan), was founded.

9)      20/9/1258. Salisbury Cathedral was consecrated. Construction had begun on 28/4/1220 when the foundation stone was laid..

10)  1238, Inchmahome Priory (Augustinian), Perthshire, was founded.

11)  6/10/1238, Peterborough Cathedral was consecrated.

12)  1232, The Augustinian Priory of Selthorne, Hampshire, was founded.

13)  1204, Beaulieu Abbey (Cistercian), Hampshire, was founded by King John.

14)  1204, Medmenham Abbey, (Cistercian),  Buckinghamshire was founded.

15)  1022, Gloucester Abbey (Benedictine) was founded. Earlier, a nunnery (681) and a monastery (821) had been established in the city.

16)  19/6/1224, The foundation stone of Elgin Cathedral was laid.

17)  1197, Construction work began on Glasgow Cathedral. This replaced an earlier church built in 1136 by Bishop John Achaius, which had burnt down.

18)  1196, Tor Abbey, Torquay, was founded.

19)  1182, Bicester Priory (Augustinian) was founded by Gilbert de Basset.

20)  1181, The first Carthusian Monastery in Engtland was founded, at Witham.

21)  1180, The Cathedralof St Davids, Pembrokeshire, was founded.

22)  1178, Lesnes Abbey, Bexley, London, was founded by Richard de Lucy. See London, 1936.

23)  1177, The Augustinian Waltham Abbey was founded.

24)  1170, Newstead Abbey (north of Nottingham) was founded by the Augustinians.

25)  1158, Construction of Oxford Cathedral began.

26)  1161, Dudley Priory (Cluniac) was founded.

27)  1152, Kirkstall Abbey, near Leeds, was founded; originally founded at Barnoldswick in 1147, moved to Kirkstall 5 years later.

28)  1150, The Augustinian priory at Christchurch (Bournemouth) was founded,

29)  1147, Faversham Abbey (Cluniac) founded.

30)  1145, Woburn Abbey (Cistercian) was founded.

31)  1144, St Andrews Priory (Augustinian) was founded.

32)  1142, CoggeshallAbbey (Cistercian) was founded.

33)  1137, St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall, Orkneys, was founded.

34)  1136, The Cistercian Abbey of Melrose was founded by King David I of Scotland.

35)  1134, The Cistercian Abbey of Stratford (east London) was founded.

36)  1132. Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire, was founded.

37)  9/5/1131, Tintern Abbey was founded.

38)  1130, Neath Abbey, south Wales, was founded by the Cistercians.

39)  1128, Holyrood Abbey was founded by King David I of Scotland.

40)  1128, Waverley Abbey, near Farnham, was founded; the first Cistercian Abbey in England.

41)  1127, Furness Abbey, originally Benedictine was founded. It became a very wealthy Cistercian house.

42)  1121, Reading Abbey (Benedictine) was established by King Henry I.

43)  1119, Guisborough Priory was founded by Robert de Brus. At the time of the reformation this was one of the wealthiest monastic institutions in England.

44)  1112, Exeter Cathedral was founded.

45)  1106, The Augustinian Priory of St Mary was founded at Southwark (London).

46)  1108, Chichester Cathedral was founded. Built in wood, it burned down in 1114 and was rebuilt in stone in the 1100s. It fell down in 1861 and was again rebuilt, 1865-66.

47)  1104, The Cluniac Priory at Thetford was founded by Bigod.

48)  1103, The Augustinian Priory at Worksop was founded.

49)  1093, Hugh le Gros founded the Benedictine monastery of Chester.

50)  11/8/1093, Construction of Durham Cathedral in England began. It was completed in 1133.

51)  6/5/1092, Lincoln Cathedral was consecrated (begun 1075).

52)  1083, Ely Cathedral was founded.

53)  1079, Work began on Hereford Cathedral.

54)  1077, St Albans Abbey rebuilt (see 793). The first Cluniac monastery in England built, at Lewes.

55)  1070, Work began on York Cathedral.

56)  1069, Selby Abbey (Benedictine) was founded.

57)  28/12/1065, Westminster Abbey was consecrated.

58)  974, A Benedictine monastery was founded at Eynesbury, near St Neots.

59)  970, Ely Abbey refounded (first founded 670), by the Benedictines.

See also Great Britain

60)  966, Worcester Cathedral was founded by St Oswald.

61)  961, Tavistock Abbey (Benedictine) was founded by Ordgar, Eoldorman of Devon.

62)  938, Aethelstan founded Milton Abbey, Dorset.

63)  932, Aethelstan founded Exeter Monastery (Benedictine).

64)  888, Athelney Abbey (Benedictine), Somerset, was founded by King Alfred.

65)  793, St Albans Abbey (Benedictine) was founded by Offa, King of Mercia. This Abbey was rebuilt in 1077.

66)  715, Tewkesbury monastery was founded.

67)  709, Evesham Benedictine Abbey was founded.

68)  705, Wells Cathedral founded. Pope John VII (died 707).

69)  685, Winchester Cathedral founded.

70)  682, Jarrow monastery was founded by Benedict Biscop.

71)  681, Gloucester Abbey founded.

72)  678, Ripon Abbey founded by St Wilfrid. Pope Donus died, succeeded by Pope Agatho (died 681).

73)  674, Monkwearmouth Abbey (Sunderland) was founded by Benedict Biscop.

74)  674, Hexham Monastery was founded by St Wilfrid.

75)  673, Ely Abbey founded by St Etheldreda (but burnt by the Danes in 870, refounded 970). Malmesbury Abbey founded.

76)  670, Barking Abbey, east London, founded.

77)  666, Chertsey Monsatery was founded; refounded by Edgar as a Benedictine monastery in 964.

78)  660, Ripley Monastery, Yorkshire, was founded.

79)  657. Whitby Abbey founded by Abbess Hilda.

80)  658, Leominster Convent was founded by Merewald, King of Mercia.

81)  655, The Benedictine monastery at Peterborough was founded by the Mercian, Thane Saxulf.

82)  650, Dereham Abbey, Norfolk, was founded by St Withberga.

83)  635, Lindisfarne Abbey, Holy Island, was founded by Oswald, King of Northumbria.

84)  627, The first York Minster, made of wood, was replaced by a stone strcture by King Edwin of Northumbria.

85)  603, The first Church of St Pauls, London, was built. St Andrews Church, Rochester, was built.

86)  601, The first York Minster was built. Made of wood, it was replaced bya stone edifice in 627.

87)  597, St Augustine founded a Benedictine monastery in Canterbury.

88)  558, The Abbey of Bangor, Wales, was founded by St Comgall.

89)  525, Bangor Cathedral was founded.

4.1.2. Ireland

1142, Mellifont Abbey, Drogheda, was founded; the first Cistercians establishment in Ireland.

4.1.3. Sweden

1289, Uppsala Cathedral, Sweden, was founded.

1264, The oldest church in Stockholm was founded, and dedicated to St Nicholas.

4.1.4. Belgium

1500, Antwerp Cathedral was completed (begun 1352).

651, The Benedictine Monastery at Stavelot, Belgium, was founded.

4.1.5 Germany

1)      14/8/1880. Cologne Cathedral was completed; it was begun in 1248 (or 1270/5)..

2)      1628, Salzburg Cathedral was completed (begun 1614).

3)      1488, Munich Cathedral founded.

4)      1275, Essen Benedictine monastery was founded.

5)      1137, Mainz Cathedral was completed.

6)      1059, Bonn Cathedral begun.

7)      980, Building of Mainz Cathedral began.

8)      904, Tbe Benedictine Monastery of Luneberg was founded.

9)      873, Essen Benedictine nunnery was founded.

10)  853, Essen Minster founded.

11)  802, The monastery at Munster was founded. St Ludger was the first Bishop (died 809).

12)  796, Aachen Cathedral wasd founded by Charlemagne.

13)  792, Construction of Fulda Cathedral, Germany,began.

14)  764, Benedictine monastery at Ottobeuren, Bavaria, founded.

15)  763, Benedictine monastery at Lorsch, Hesse, founded.

16)  736, The Benedictine Abbey of Hersfeld, Hesse, was founded.

4.1.6. Austria

1614, Salzburg Cathedral was founded.

698, The Monastery of St Peters, Salzburg, Austria, was founded.

4.1.7. Switzerland

1220, Geneva Cathedral was completed after 60 years of construction.

740, St Leodegar monastery, Switzerland, founded.

714, Benedictine Abbey of Reichenau, Lake Contsance, founded.

4.1.8 France

18/10/1937, Rheims Cathedral was re-consecrated.

1)      1334, Construction of the Palace of the Popes, Avignon, began (completed 1362).

2)      1212, Construction work began on Rheims Cathedral (completed 1311).

3)      1163, Construction began on Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris (completed 1235).

4)      1155, Senlis Cathedral was founded.

5)      21/3/1098, Cîteaux Abbey was founded; the origin of the Cistercian Order. See 21/3/1098 in main section above.

6)      1096, Toulon Cathedral was founded.

7)      1084, The first Carthusian monastery was founded by St Bruno  at Chartreuse, in the mountains near Grenoble.

8)      1015, Building of Strasbourg Cathedral began.

9)      910, Benedictine Abbey of Cluny founded.

10)  660, The Abbey of |Notre Dame at Soissons, 110 km NE of Paris, was founded.

11)  625, Abbey of St Denis founded.

12)  600, Building work commenced on Arles Cathedral,

13)  511, The Convent of St Cesaire, Arles, France, was founded.

14)  430, St Claud Monastery, Jura, was founded.

4.1.9, Portugal

1)      1147, Lisbon Cathedral built

4.1.10 Spain

1)      1401, The Cathedral of Seville was founded (completed 1519). It stands on the site of a mosque.

2)      1350, The Cathedrals of Palma (Majorca),was completed.

3)      1324, Burgos Cathedral was consecrated.

4)      1227, Construction work on Toledo Cathedral began.

5)      781, Oviedo Cathedral was first founded (rebuilt 1388-1528).

4.1.11. Italy

1)      1450, The Vatican Library was founded.

2)      1386, Milan Cathedral was begun.

3)      1296, Construction of Florence Cathedral began.

4)      1253, The Franciscan Monastery of Assisi was completed.

5)      1187, Verona Cathedral was completed after 48 years of construction.

6)      1184, Modena Cathedral was consecrated after 85 years of construction.

7)      1157, Aderno Monastery, Sicily, was founded.

8)      8/10/1094, St Marks Basilica in Venice was consecrated.

9)      8/10/1085, The Cathedral of St Marks in Venice was consecrated.

10)  828, St Marks, Venice, founded.

11)  614, Columban founded the Monastery of Bobbio, northern Italy.

12)  13/5/609, The Pantheon in Rome was consecrated as "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda") by Pope Boniface IV.

13)  529, The Monastery of Monte Casino was founded by St Benedict, founder of the Benedictine Order.

14)  378, Ravenna Cathedral was begun by St Ursus.

15)  330, The first Basilica of St Peter was erected in Rome.It was demolsiehd in 1506 to make way for the present structure.

4.1.12, Greece

963, The first monastery at Mount Athos was established.

4.1.13. Cyprus

327, The Monastery of Stavrovouni, Cyprus, was built by order of St Helena, mother of Constantine the Great.

4.1.14. Russia/USSR

1561, St Basils Cathedral, Moscow, was completed after 27 years under construction.

1393, Konevetz Monastery, Lake Ladoga, was founded.

960, Valaam Monastery, Lake Ladoga, was founded.

4.2 Asia

1877, Saigon Cathedral was built.

1654, Manila Cathedral, Philippines, was begun (completed 1672).

590, St Elijahs, the oldest monastery in Iraq, was founded, on a hiil above Mosul. It was destroyed by ISIS in 2015,

27/12/537. Emperor Justinian of Constantinople opened the Church of St Sophia, five years after building started. It was hailed as the finest church in Christendom. It replaced an original church to St Sophia built by Constantine in 330 but burnt down in the rebellion of 532. However this church collapsed  on 7/5/558, severely weakened by an earthquake in December 557. A third St Sophia was built, and completed on 24/12/562. The dome was designed by the mathematician Anthemius of Tralles, who is also said to have invented a device that used steam power to produce artificial earthquakes.

15/2/342, The original Hagia Sophia was dedicated in Constantinople

17/12/335. The Emperor Constantine’s construction, the Holy Sepulchre, in Jerusalem, opened. ‘Christ’s tomb on Golgotha was discovered in 328 and Constantine ordered the building of this place of worship here.

325, Erection of the first Church of the Nativity, in Bethlehem.

4.3. Africa

1817, The Anglican Cathedral of St George, Freetown, Liberia, was founded.

527, The Monastery of St Catherine, Sinai, was founded by Empoeror Justinian.

4.4. North America

1650, The French Cathedral, Quebec, was dedicated.

4.5. South America

1724, Havana Cathedral, Cuba, was founded.

1573, Construction of Mexico City Cathedral began (completed 1813).

1563, Bogota Cathedral, Colombia, was founded.

 

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