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2013, Scientists cloned a cell from a human baby with a rare genetic disorder. This created a source of embryonic stem cells that could be used in treatment.

20/5/2010, Craig Venter announced the creation of the world’s first synthetic organism.

11/8/2004, The first licences for the cloning of human embryos were granted in Britain.

28/5/2003, The first horse cloned by Italian scientists, Prometea, was born

14/4/2003, The Human Genome Project, to completely map the human genome, was completed.

15/2/2001, An initial version of the Human Genome Sequence was released.      

23/7/1998, A team of scientists at the University of Hawaii, led by Ryuzo Yanagimachi, announced they had produced three generations of cloned mice.

24/2/1997. The cloned sheep, Dolly, was presented to the public. She had been cloned from a single cell of her mother at the Royal Institute in Edinburgh. There was moral panic about the possibility of cloning humans, but some saw it as a useful way to create organs for transplant. Lamb 6LL3 was named after Dolly Parton. The animal died prematurely in February 2003.

1987, Two calves, called Fusion and Copy, were successfully cloned from embryonic cells.

5/1/1987, Genetic fingerprinting was first used to catch a murderer, Colin Pitchfork. Police asked all men in Narborough, Leicestershire, to take DNA tests after two 15 year old girls were killed.

1984, An egg cell emptied of its nucleus was fused with a cell from a lamb embryo, resulting in the birth of three live cloned lambs.

22/11/1981, Hans Krebs, British biochemist, died aged 81.

1977, Genetech began to synthesis medicines by use of recombinant DNA.

31/5/1976, J L Monod, French biochemist, died aged 66.

24/4/1976, Henrik Dam, Danish biochemist, died aged 81.

1975, The technique of cellular transfer of nuclear material was used to succesfuly transfer material in mammalian cell.

1973, Stanley Cohen (Stanford University) and Herbert Boyer (University of California) inserted recombinant DNA into a bacteria which then cloned this new DNA. This was the start of genetic engineering.

1972, Paul Berg, st Stanford University, combined the DNA from two different viruses.

1970, At John Hopkins University, Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans discovered restriction enzymes, chemical scissors that snipped RNA molecules.

1965, RNA synthesis of protein was achieved in a test tube; the code of three bases for each amino acid was discovered.

25/4/1953, James Watson and Francis Crick described the double-helix structure of DNA in Nature magazine.

1952, A tadpole was cloned using the new technique of transfer of cellular nuclearnaterial to a new cell.

17/4/1946, George Kohler, German biologist, was born (died 1995).

4/12/1945, T H Morgan, US biologist, died aged 79.

1944, O A T Overy of Rockerfeller University, working with the pneumonia bacterium, established that genes were made from DNA.

22/12/1942, Franz Boas, anthropologist, born 9/7/1858 in Minden, Germany, died in New York.

7/3/1938, David Baltimore, US biologist, was born.

19/7/1936, Herbert Boyer, biotechnologist, was born.

27/2/1936, Death of Ivan Pavlov (born 14/9/1849 in Ryazan, Russia). He is famous for his work on conditioned reflexes in dogs.

19/5/1933,  Edward de Bono, who developed the concept of lateral thinking, was born.

1932, In Germany the biochemist Hans Krebs described the citric acid cycle in cells, where sugars, fats and proteins are converted into carbon dioxide, water and energy,

1921, The first polygraph (lie detector) was built, by John Larson of the Berkely Police Department, California.

28/8/1919, Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, who invented the EMI scanner and winner of the Nobel prize for psychology in 1979, was born.

1913, Richard Willstatter discovered the composition of chlorophyll. In the US, E McCollum isolated vitamin A.

9/2/1910, J L Monod, French biochemist, was born (died 1976).

1902, A salamander became the first vertebrate to be ‘cloned’ using the technique of splitting a two-celled embryo.

18/5/1901, Vincent du Vigneaud, US biochemist, was born.

28/2/1901, Dr Linus Pauling, American biochemist and twice winner of the Nobel Prize, was born in Portland, Oregon.

25/1/1900, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Russian-American biologist who studied population genetics, was born in Nemtrov, Russia.

13/11/1893, Adelbert Edward Doisy, US biochemist, was born in Hume, Illinois.

5/11/1892, John Haldane, pioneer in genetic research, was born.

1885, Two-celled seas urchins were split into single cells, which developed into the first pair of genetically-identical ‘cloned’ organisms.

6/1/1884, Gregor Mendel, Augustine monk and botanist who pioneered the study of genetics, died in Brunn, Austria, aged 62.

19/4/1882. Charles Darwin, who developed his theory of evolution, died aged 73 near Orpington, Kent. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

1869, Gregor Mendel’s experiments with pea plants helped establish the mechanisms of heredity.

24/11/1859. Charles Darwin, born 12/2/1809, published The Origin of the Species.

1/7/1858. Charles Darwin first presented his theory of evolution, to the Linnean Society.

18/6/1858, Charles Darwin received a letter from Alfred Russell Wallace, who had formulated a theory of evolution through survival of the fittest. This was close to Darwin’s ideas in his as yet unpublished Origin of the Species.

15/10/1852, Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, founder of the gymnastic movement (Turnverein) in Germany, died at Freyburg aged 74.

22/2/1794, German physiologist Kaspar Wolff died in St Petersburg, Russia.

22/3/1788, Pierre Pelletier was born in Paris. In 1817 he jointly discovered chlorophyll with Joseph Bienaime Caventou (born 30/6/1795 in Saint Omer, France).

1/8/1744, The Chevalier de Lamarck, naturalist, was born.

9/9/1841, Augustin Candolle, Swiss botanist (born 4/2/1778) died.

1/7/1838. Charles Darwin presented a paper on his evolutionary theory.

1837, The significance of chlorophyll to plant photosynthesis was realised by the French scientist Rene Joachim Henri Dutrochet, 61.

27/12/1831. The Admiralty survey ship The Beagle left Plymouth with Charles Darwin on board on a scientific voyage around the world. This led to Darwin’s controversial book, The Origin of the Species. Darwin was inspired by Professor Henslow (1796-1861), a renowned mineralogist at Cambridge, 13 years older than Darwin, who was elected unopposed to the Chair of Botany at Cambridge when that position fell vacant. Henslow supported ‘evolutionary’ theories, although retaining a strong religious faith.

18/12/1829, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Lamarck, French scientist, died aged 75. He believed that extra usage of  some feature of an animal strengthened it, and this enhancement could be passed down the generations.

1824, English physician Peter Mark Roger discovered that the human eye can retain an image for a fraction of a second after it has seen it. This became the basis for converting a rapid series of still images into an apparently animated film which the brain sees as continuous motion.

22/7/1822, Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk and botanist who discovered the principles of modern genetics, was born at Heinzendorf near Odrau, in Austrian Silesia.

16/2/1822. Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, founder of a new science called eugenics, was born in Birmingham, England. Among his ideas was the systematic creation of a superior race of human beings, an idea later adopted by Hitler.

1819, Naturalist Henri Braconnot, born in Commercy, France, on 29/5/1781, obtained glucose from sawdust, linen and bark. This proved that plant materials such as cellulose were made up from this sugar.

1817, Chlorophyll was discovered by Pierre Pelletier (born in Paris 22/3/178, and Joseph Benaime Caventou (born St Omer, 30/6/1795).

5/3/1815, Friedrich Mesmer, German doctor who developed the theory of animal magnetism, or mesmerism, for curing diseases, died aged 80.

12/2/1809, Charles Darwin was born.  His father, Robert Darwin, was a doctor and financier, and his mother, Susannah Darwin, was the daughter of pottery magnate Josiah Wedgewood.

4/12/1798. Luigi Galvani, Italian scientist who researched animal electricity, died.

24/7/1794, Russian zoologist Christian Pander was born in Riga. He studied the development of the chick embryo.

2/2/1793, William Aiton, Scottish botanist, born 1731, died.

1779, Lazzaro Spallanzani studied animal reproduction, proving that for fertiulisation to take place the sperm must make physical contact with the egg,

1779, Jan Ingenhousz, in Experiments on vegetables, concluded that sunlight is essential for production of oxygen by leaves. He discovered two separate respiratory cycles in plants; in the day, carbon disoxide is absorbed and oxygen released; at night the process reverses. The exact nature of the gases involved was clear with Lavoisier’s discoveries.

4/2/1778, Augustin Candolle, Swiss botanist (died 9/9/1841) was born.

10/1/1778, Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish botanist who devised the modern system of naming and classifying plants, died in Uppsala.

17/8/1771. The Birmingham scientist Joseph Priestley discovered that oxygen is released from growing plants.

14/9/1769, Birth of Baron von Humboldt, German scientist who explored Central and South America, and founded the science of ecology.

1761, The first vetinary school opened, in Lyons, France.

9/9/1737, Luigi Galvani, Italian scientist and anatomist, was born in Bologna.

1736, Linnaeus classified the plant species.

23/5/1734, Franz Anton Mesmer, Austrian doctor and founder of Mesmerism, was born near Constance. He was the son of a gamekeeper.

23/5/1707, Carl Linnaeus, Swedish botanist who established principles for classifying living organisms, was born as Carl Linne, the son of the parish clergyman of Rashult.

17/9/1683, The Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek wrote to the Royal Society to report his discovery of bacteria. See also Medical.

1648, Jan Baptista von Hellmont proved by experimentation that the increase in weight of a growing willow tree did not come from the soil in which it was planted. This result was published after his death in Ortus Medicinae (‘On the development of medicine’).

22/11/1635, Naturalist Francis Willoughby was born in Middleton, England. His systematic work on birds and fish helped pave the way for Linnaeus’ classification.

345 BCE, Aristotle produced the first animal classification system, dividing some 500 known species into 8 classes.


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