Chronography of Biology

Page last modified 4/9/2022


Home Page


See also Medical

See also Science and Innovation


20/5/2010, Craig Venter announced the creation of the world�s first synthetic organism.

3/2/2005, Ernst Mayr, evolutionary biologist, died (born 5/7/1904)


World�s oldest mother

29/12/2006, Maria del Carmen Bousada Lara, 67, gave birth to twins in a Barcelona hospital, becoming the world�s oldest mother.

7/7/2006, In the Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, UK, 62 year old Dr Patricia Rashbrook became Britain�s oldest mother, giving birth to a 6lb 10 oz son after IVF treatment.

16/1/2005, Adriana Iliescu, aged 66, became the oldest woman in the world to give birth.


25/1/2004, The fossil of the oldest known land creature, a centipede dated at 428 million years old, was found.

20/4/2003, Easter Sunday. Bernard Katz, biophysicist, died.


14/4/2003, The Human Genome Project, to completely map the human genome, was completed.

15/2/2001, An initial version of the Human Genome Sequence was released.������


Mammalian cloning

2013, Scientists cloned a cell from a human baby with a rare genetic disorder. This created a source of embryonic stem cells that could be used in treatment.

11/8/2004, The first licences for the cloning of human embryos were granted in Britain.

28/5/2003, The first horse cloned by Italian scientists, Prometea, was born

14/2/2003, Dolly the Sheep, the first cloned mammal, died.

9/8/2001, US President George W Bush announced there would be Federal funding for limited research into human embryonic stem cells.

9/3/2001, Italian gynaecologist Severino Antinori announced his intention to clone a human. This led to calls for an international ban on such research.

23/7/1998, A team of scientists at the University of Hawaii, led by Ryuzo Yanagimachi, announced they had produced three generations of cloned mice.

12/1/1998, 19 European nations agreed to forbid human cloning after an announcement by Richard Seed that he would use techniques from Dolly the Sheep to clone humans.

24/2/1997. The cloned sheep, Dolly, was presented to the public. She had been cloned from a single cell of her mother at the Royal Institute in Edinburgh. There was moral panic about the possibility of cloning humans, but some saw it as a useful way to create organs for transplant. Lamb 6LL3 was named after Dolly Parton. The animal died prematurely in February 2003.

1987, Two calves, called Fusion and Copy, were successfully cloned from embryonic cells.

1984, An egg cell emptied of its nucleus was fused with a cell from a lamb embryo, resulting in the birth of three live cloned lambs.


30/1/1995, Gerald Durrell, naturalist, died.

7/10/1994, Neils Kaj Jerne, immunologist.

18/3/1988, Percy Thrower, horticulturalist, died.

24/1/1988, Biochemist Charles Glen King, who first isolated vitamin C, died in Westchester, Pennsylvania.

5/1/1987, Genetic fingerprinting was first used to catch a murderer, Colin Pitchfork. Police asked all men in Narborough, Leicestershire, to take DNA tests after two 15 year old girls were killed.

23/10/1986, Edward Adelbert Doisy, biochemist, died.

20/10/1984, Carl Ferdinand Cori, biochemist, died.

18/4/1984, Kenneth S Cole, US biophysicist, died.

22/5/1983, Albert Claude, Belgian biologist, died.

10/3/1983, Ulf von Euler, Swedish biochemist, died.

15/8/1982, Hugo Theorell, Swedish biochemist, died.

22/11/1981, Hans Krebs, British biochemist, died aged 81.

9/3/1980, Max Delbruck, German-US microbiologist, died in Pasadena, California.

6/8/1979, Feodor Lynen, German biochemist, died in Munich.

11/12/1978, Vincent du Vigneaud, US biochemist, dies in Scarsdale, New York, USA.

1977, Genetech began to synthesis medicines by use of recombinant DNA.

20/11/1976, Trofim Denisovich Lysenko, Soviet biologist, died in Kiev, Ukraine.

31/5/1976, J L Monod, French biochemist, died aged 66.

24/4/1976, Henrik Dam, Danish biochemist, died aged 81.

1975, The technique of cellular transfer of nuclear material was used to succesfuly transfer material in mammalian cells.

5/11/1975, Edward Lawrie Tatum, US biochemist, died in New York City, USA.

1973, Stanley Cohen (Stanford University) and Herbert Boyer (University of California) inserted recombinant DNA into a bacteria which then cloned this new DNA. This was the start of genetic engineering.

1972, Paul Berg, st Stanford University, combined the DNA from two different viruses.

1970, At John Hopkins University, Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans discovered restriction enzymes, chemical scissors that snipped RNA molecules.

1/8/1970, Otto Heinrich Warburg, German biochemist, died in Berlin-Dahlem.

5/4/1970, Alfred Henry Sturtevant, US geneticist, died in Pasadena, California.

16/2/1970, Francis Peyton Rous, who discovered that viruses can cause cancer, died in New York City, USA.

1965, RNA synthesis of protein was achieved in a test tube; the code of three bases for each amino acid was discovered.

19/5/1965, The world�s oldest tortoise, Tui Malila, born 1773, died.

4/6/1962, Charles William Beebe, US naturalist, died at Simla Research Station, Trinidad.

9/8/1960, Bernard Ogilvie Dodge, USbotanist, died aged 88.

23/1/1959, Wilhelm Ludwig, zoologist and geneticist, died in Leipzig (born 20/10/1901).

26/10/1957, Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori, Czech-US biochemist, died in St Louis, Missouri.

7/10/1955, Henry Clapp Sherman, US biochemist, died in Rensselaer, New York, USA.

8/1/1955, Sir Arthur Keith, British anthropologist, died.

16/11/1954, Albert Francis Blakeslee, US botanist, died in Northampton, Massachusetts.

25/4/1953, James Watson and Francis Crick described the double-helix structure of DNA in Nature magazine.

1952, A tadpole was cloned using the new technique of transfer of cellular nuclearnaterial to a new cell.

16/5/1947, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, English biochemist, died in Cambridge.

17/4/1946, George Kohler, German biologist, was born (died 1995).

4/12/1945, T H Morgan, US biologist, died aged 79.

1944, O A T Overy of Rockerfeller University, working with the pneumonia bacterium, established that genes were made from DNA.

26/1/1943, Nikolay Ivanovich Vavilov, Russian botanist, died as a result of mistreatment by Soviet prison guards. He had been imprisoned for opposing the views of Trofim Lysenko, who held that acquired traits could be inherited.

22/12/1942, Franz Boas, anthropologist, born 9/7/1858 in Minden, Germany, died in New York.

3/3/1939, Edmund Beecher Wilson, US zoologist, died in New York City.

7/3/1938, David Baltimore, US biologist, was born.

19/7/1936, Herbert Boyer, biotechnologist, was born.

27/2/1936, Death of Ivan Pavlov (born 14/9/1849 in Ryazan, Russia). He is famous for his work on conditioned reflexes in dogs.

20/8/1935, In the US, H McLean announced the isolation of Vitamin E.

15/3/1934, Davidson Black, Canadian anthropologist, died in Beijing, China.

19/5/1933,Edward de Bono, who developed the concept of lateral thinking, was born.

1932, In Germany the biochemist Hans Krebs described the citric acid cycle in cells, where sugars, fats and proteins are converted into carbon dioxide, water and energy.

16/1/1932, Dian Fossey, zoologoist, was born.

23/8/1931, Hamilton Othaniel Smith was born in New York City, USA. In 1970 he discovered the first �restriction enzyme�, one that cuts DNA at a specific base juncture.

20/3/1931, Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov, Russian biologist, died in Alma Ata, USSR.

29/4/1928, Professor Heinz Wolff, bioengineer, was born.

24/1/1928, Desmond Morris, zoologist, was born.

11/8/1926, Sir Aaron Klug, biochemist, was born.

30/6/1926, Paul Berg was born in New York City, USA. In 1974 he recommended a halt to genetic engineering experiments.

11/4/1926, Luther Burbank, botanist, died.

7/4/1925, Charles Yanofsky was born in New York City, USA. In 1967 he helped crack the DNA code for proteins.

7/1/1925, Gerald Durrell, naturalist, was born.

27/6/1923, Beth Chatto, horticulturalist, was born

1921, The first polygraph (lie detector) was built, by John Larson of the Berkely Police Department, California.

15/7/1921, Bruce Merrifield, biochemist, was born (died 14/5/2006)

20/6/1920, Dmitri Iosifovich, Russian botanist, died.

17/6/1920, Francois Jacob was born in Nancy, France. In 1960, along with Jacques Monod (born 9/2/1910, Paris, France), he proved in 1960 that messenger RNA exists.

31/1/1920, Wilhelm Pfeffer, German botanist, died in Kassel, Hesse.

28/8/1919, Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, who invented the EMI scanner and winner of the Nobel prize for psychology in 1979, was born.

8/6/1918, Francis H Crick was born in Northampton, UK. In 1953, along with James Dewey Watson (born Chicago, USA, 6/4/1928) he developed the double-helix model for DNA.

2/10/1917, Rene de Duve, cytologist, was born in Thames Ditton, England. In 1974 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for electron microscopy and cell structure studies.

24/3/1917, John Cowdery Kendrew was born in Oxford, England. In 1960 he determined the molecular structure of myoglobain, similar to haemoglobin.

1915, The enzyme thyroxine was first isolated from thyroid gland tissue.

1913, Richard Willstatter discovered the composition of chlorophyll. In the US, E McCollum isolated vitamin A.

1912, Casimir Funk of the Pasteur Institute, Paris, noticed that people who ate unpolished rice were less susceptible to beri-beri. He found that the substance responsible for preventing beri-beri was an amine, a chemical that contained nitrogen, so he called this a vital amine, or vitamine. It was later known as vitamin B1, or thiamine. He went on to doscover other such �vital amines�, including B3 (niacin). Later it was discovered that niot all such vital amines contained nitrogen, for example vitamin C, so the final �e� was dropped to lessen the link to amines.

19/11/1912, Rumanian-US physiologist George Emil Palade was born in Iasi, Rumania. In 1956 he discovered the that the small bodies within cells now known as ribosomes, are mostly RNA. It was soon afterwards found that this was where the cell manufactures proteins.

24/3/1912, Biochemist Sidney Walter Fox was born in Los Angeles, California.

8/4/1911, Melvin Calvin was born in St Paul, Minnesota, USA. In 1945 he investigated photosynthesis in plants using carbon-14.

6/4/1911, Feodor Lynen, medical researcher, was born in Munich., Germany.

28/3/1911, Herve de Toulgoet, French entomologist, was born (died 14/9/2009)

9/2/1910, J L Monod, French biochemist, was born (died 1976).

18/8/1908, English plant pathologist Frederick Charles Bawden was born in North Tawton.

11/8/1905, Austrian-American biochemist Erwin Chargaff was born in Czernowitz. He demonstrated in the 1940s that for DNA the number of adenine and thymine bases, and the number of cytosine and guanine bases, were equal. This was an important clue to the structure of DNA.

7/11/1903, Konrad Lorenz, Austrian zoologist, was born.

24/3/1903, Adolf Friedrich Butenandt was born in Bremerhaven, Germany. In 1929 he isolated estrone, a female sex hormone.

1902, A salamander became the first vertebrate to be �cloned� using the technique of splitting a two-celled embryo.

18/5/1901, Vincent du Vigneaud, US biochemist, was born.

28/2/1901, Dr Linus Pauling, American biochemist and twice winner of the Nobel Prize, was born in Portland, Oregon.

30/10/1900, Physiologist Ragnar Arthur Granit was born in Helsinki.

25/1/1900, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Russian-American biologist who studied population genetics, was born in Nemtrov, Russia.

21/1/1900, Bernhard Rensch, German biologist, was born in Thale (died 1990)

1899, The �lock and key� mechanism was proposed as to how enzymes work.

3/9/1899, Frank MacFarlane, biologist, was born,

6/3/1899, The painkiller Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) was patented by Felix Hoffman. The active ingredient is derived from willow.

24/11/1898, George James Allman, British biologist, died in Parkstone, Dorset (born 1812).

25/9/1898, Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet, French anthropologist, died at St Germain en Laye.

25/6/1898, German botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn died in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland).

19/4/1898, Biologist Charles Naudin died.

20/7/1897, Tadeusz Reichsteinwas born in Wloclawek, Poland. In 1933 he succeeded in synthesising ascorbic acid (vitamin C).

8/9/1894, Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz died (born 31/8.1821) He researched the relationship between nerve cells and nerve fibres.

5/11/1892, John Haldane, pioneer in genetic research, was born.

16/2/1892, Henry Bates, English naturalist, died 16/2/1892 (born in Leicester 8/;2/1825).

20/1/1890, Boris Mikhailovich Kozo-Polyansky, Russian biologist, was born (died 21/4/1957).

21/10/1889, John Ball, Irish politician and naturalist, died in London (born in Dublin 20/8/1818).

30/7/1889, Miles Berkeley, English botanist, died in Sibbertoft (born in Northamptonshire 1/4/1803).

19/1/1888, Heinrich DeBary, German botanist, died (born 26/1/1831).

25/11/1887, Russian botanist Nikolay Vavilov was born in Moscow.

19/11/1887, James Batcheller Sumner was born in Canton, Massachusetts, USA. In 1926 he crystallised urea, the first enzyme to be crystallised, and established that is was a protein.

19/8/1887, Spencer Baird, US naturalist, died in Massachusetts (born in Reading, Pennsylvania 3/2/1823).

11/5/1887, Jean Baptiste Dieudonne Boussingault died in Paris. In 1840 he proved that plants obtain their nitrogen from nitrates in the soil.

10/8/1886, George Busk, zoologist, died (born 12/8/1807)

1885, Two-celled seas urchins were split into single cells, which developed into the first pair of genetically-identical �cloned� organisms.

19/11/1885, William Benjamin Carpenter, English naturalist, died (born 29/11/1813).

10/9/1884, George Bentham, English botanist, died (born near Portsmouth 22/9/1800).

12/4/1884, Otto Fritz Meyerhof, German biochemist, was born in Hanover. He studied the conversion of glycogen to lactic acid during muscular exertion.

29/7/1882, Andrew Adams, Scottish naturalist and palaeontologist, died (born 21/3/1827).

19/7/1882, Embryologist Francis Balfour died in Switzerland (born in Edinburgh 10/11/1851).


Mendel, Heredity

6/1/1884, Gregor Mendel, Augustine monk and botanist who pioneered the study of genetics, died in Brunn, Austria, aged 62.

1869, Gregor Mendel�s experiments with pea plants helped establish the mechanisms of heredity.

22/7/1822, Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk and botanist who discovered the principles of modern genetics, was born at Heinzendorf near Odrau, in Austrian Silesia.


Charles Darwin

19/4/1882. Charles Darwin, who developed his theory of evolution, died aged 73 near Orpington, Kent. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

24/11/1859, Charles Darwin, born 12/2/1809, published The Origin of the Species.

1/7/1858, Charles Darwin first presented his theory of evolution, to the Linnean Society.

18/6/1858, Charles Darwin received a letter from Alfred Russell Wallace, who had formulated a theory of evolution through survival of the fittest. This was close to Darwin�s ideas in his as yet unpublished Origin of the Species.

1/7/1838, Charles Darwin presented a paper on his evolutionary theory.

2/10/1836, Charles Darwin arrived back in England nearly five years after he left on HMS Beagle.

15/9/1835, Charles Darwin arrived on the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador).

27/12/1831, The Admiralty survey ship The Beagle left Plymouth with Charles Darwin on board on a scientific voyage around the world. This led to Darwin�s controversial book, The Origin of the Species. Darwin was inspired by Professor Henslow (1796-1861), a renowned mineralogist at Cambridge, 13 years older than Darwin, who was elected unopposed to the Chair of Botany at Cambridge when that position fell vacant. Henslow supported �evolutionary� theories, although retaining a strong religious faith.

8/2/1825, Henry Walter Bates was born in Leicester, England. His theory of insect mimicry, developed during an 11-year stay in South America, contributed to the acceptance of Darwin�s Theory of Evolution.

16/2/1822, Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, founder of a new science called eugenics, was born in Birmingham, England. Among his ideas was the systematic creation of a superior race of human beings, an idea later adopted by Hitler.

12/2/1809, Charles Darwin was born.His father, Robert Darwin, was a doctor and financier, and his mother, Susannah Darwin, was the daughter of pottery magnate Josiah Wedgewood.


11/1/1882, Theodore Schwann, German physiologist, was born in Cologne.

19/12/1880, Francis Buckland, zoologist, died (born 17/12/1826)

28/11/1876, Karl Baer, embryologist, died in Dorpat (born 29/2/1719 in Piep, Estonia)

27/6/1876, Christian Ehrenberg, German naturalist, was born (died 27/6/1876).

21/2/1875, Jean Calment was born, going on to live for 122 years 164 days, the longest confirmed human lifespan.

4/7/1873, Johann Kaup, German naturalist, died (born 10/4/1803)

19/2/1873, John Reed Swanton, anthropologist and ethnologist, was born.

15/2/1873, Hans von Euler Chelpin, Swedish, was born in Augsburg, Germany. In 1929 he, along with Sir Arthur Harden, were awarded the Nobel Prize for their research into sugar fermentation.

31/5/1870, Jean Claparede, Swiss naturalist, died (born 24/4/1832).

20/3/1886, Thomas Cobbold, helminthologist, died (born 1828).

13/12/1868, Carl Martius, German botanist, died (born 17/4/1794).

25/6/1866, Thomas Hunt Morgan was born in Lexington, Kentucky. In 1907 he began his work with fruit flies, drosophila melanogaster, to establish the laws of heredity.

9/11/1864, Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky was born in Gdov. In 1892 he proved the existence of viruses.

24/11/1863, Edwin Conklin, US biologist, was born in Ohio (died 20/11/1952).

1862, Haemoglobin was first crystallised.

9/7/1858, Framz Boaz, anthropologist, was born,

10/6/1858, Robert Brown, botanist, died (born 21/12/1773).

4/5/1858, Aime Bonpland, botanist, died (born in La Rochelle 22/8/1773).

1856, Claude Bernard discovered that the liver stores glucose as glycogen, to be converted back to glucose when the body needs energy.

3/11/1854, Jokichi Takamine was born in Takaoka, Japan. In 1901 he artificially synthesised adrenaline.

29/6/1853, Adrien de Jussieu, natiuralist, died (born 23/12/1797).

15/10/1852, Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, founder of the gymnastic movement (Turnverein) in Germany, died at Freyburg aged 74.

10/11/1851, Embryologist Francis Balfour was born in Edinburgh (died in Switzerland 19/7/1882).

27/1/1851, John James Audubon, US naturalist, died in New York.

4/2/1847, Rene Dutrochet, physiologist, died (born 14/11/1776)

23/12/1846, Jean Boiry, French naturalist, died.

9/9/1842, Elliott Coues, naturalist, was born (died 25/12/1899).

9/9/1841, Augustin Candolle, Swiss botanist (born 4/2/1778) died.

22/1/1840, Anthropologist Johann Blumenbach died in Gottingen, Saxony, Germany.

1837, The significance of chlorophyll to plant photosynthesis was realised by the French scientist Rene Joachim Henri Dutrochet, 61.

1/2/1837, Edward Donovan, English naturalist, died (born 1768).

17/9/1836, Antoine de Jussieu, naturalist, died (born 12/4/1748).

1833, Anselme Payen discovered the first enzyme, diastase. It speeds the conversion of starch to sugar.

1833, In Britain the passing of the Anatomy Act meant cadavers for dissection could be legally obtained and stored, and no longer need to be stolen.

16/11/1833, Rene Desfontaines, French botanist, died (born 14/2/1750).

19/12/1832, Sir John Kirk, British naturalist, was born,

13/5/1832, Georges Cuvier, French naturalist, died (born 23/8/1769).

24/4/1832, Jean Claparede, Swiss naturalist, was born (died 31/5/1870).

26/1/1831, Heinrich DeBary, German botanist, was born (died 19/1/1888).

18/12/1829, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Lamarck, French scientist, died aged 75. He believed that extra usage ofsome feature of an animal strengthened it, and this enhancement could be passed down the generations.

10/7/1828, Louis Bosc, French naturalist, died in Paris (born in Paris 29/1/1759).

24/1/1828, German botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn was born in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland). In 1850 he showed that plant and animal cytoplasm were essentially the same.

21/3/1827, Andrew Adams, Scottish naturalist and palaeontologist, was born (died 29/7/1882).

17/12/1826, Francis Buckland, zoologist, was born (died19/12/1880).

4/5/1825, Thomas Huxley, English biologist, was born (died 29/6/1895).

1824, English physician Peter Mark Roger discovered that the human eye can retain an image for a fraction of a second after it has seen it. This became the basis for converting a rapid series of still images into an apparently animated film which the brain sees as continuous motion.

3/2/1823, Spencer Baird, US naturalist, was born in Reading, Pennsylvania (died in Massachusetts 19/8/1887).

31/8/1821, Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz was born in Potsdam, Prussia. He researched the relationship between nerve cells and nerve fibres.

29/8/1821, Anthropologist Louis Laurent Mortillet was born in Meylan, Isere, France. He subdivided the Palaeolithic (older Stone Age) into separate periods, based on the tools in use at the time.

19/6/1820, Sir Joseph Banks, English botanist who accompanied Cook on his voyage round the world in The Endeavour, died aged 77.

1819, Naturalist Henri Braconnot, born in Commercy, France, on 29/5/1781, obtained glucose from sawdust, linen and bark. This proved that plant materials such as cellulose were made up from this sugar.

13.8/1819, Erik Acharius, Swedish botanist (born 28/4/1753) died 13/8/1819 in Wadstena.

7/11/1818, Emil Dobois-Reymond, physiologist, was born (died 26/11/1896).

20/8/1818, John Ball, Irish politician and naturalist, was born in Dublin (died in London 21/10/1889).

1817, Chlorophyll was discovered by Pierre Pelletier (born in Paris 22/3/178, and Joseph Benaime Caventou (born St Omer, 30/6/1795).

6/7/1817, Rudolf Albert von Kolliker was born in Zurich, Switzerland. In 1844 he showed that the egg is a cell and all cells in the organism originate by divisions from the egg cell.

30/6/1817,Sir Joseph Hooker, English botanist, was born.

19/12/1815, Benjamin Barton, US naturalist, died in Philadelphia (born 1766).

5/3/1815, Friedrich Mesmer, German doctor who developed the theory of animal magnetism, or mesmerism, for curing diseases, died aged 80.

29/10/1813, William Benjamin Carpenter, English naturalist, was born (died 19/11/1885).

12/7/1813, Claude Bernard, French physiologist, was born near Villefranche (died in Paris 10/2/1878).

18/11/1810, Botanist Asa Gray was born in Sauquoit, New York, USA.

8/7/1810, Gabriel Gustav Valentin, Swiss-German physiologist, was born in Breslau (Wroclaw, now Poland). Along with Jan Purkinje, he discovered, in 1834, the role of the cilia in moving the ovum along the oviduct.

12/8/1807, George Busk, zoologist, was born (died 10/8/1886).

17/1/1807, Pierre Broussonet, French naturalist, died (born 28/2/1761).

3/8/1806, Michel Adanson, French naturalist, died in Paris (born 7/4/1727 in Aix en Provence).

23/6/1806, Mathurin Brisson, French zoologist, died (born 30/4/1723).

1/4/1803, Miles Berkeley, English botanist, was born in Northamptonshire (died in Sibbertoft 30/7/1889).

1804, The Royal Horticultural Society was founded in London, UK.

10/4/1803, Easter Sunday; Johann Kaup, German naturalist, was born (died 4/7/1873)

10/8/1802, Franz Aepinus, German natural philosopher, died 10/8/1802 in Dorpat (born 13/12/1724 in Rostock).

22/7/1802, Marie Bichat, French anatomist, died (born in Jura 14/11/1771).

2/2/1802, Jean Baptiste Dieudonne Boussingault was born in Paris. In 1840 he proved that plants obtain their nitrogen from nitrates in the soil.

14/7/1801, German physiologist Johannes Peter Muller was born in Koblenz. He researched the action of the nerves.

14/1/1801, Adolphe Brongniart, French botanist, was born (died 18/2/1876).

22/9/1800, George Bentham, English botanist, was born near Portsmouth (died 10/9/1884).

14/3/1800, Daines Barrington, English naturalist (born 1727) died.

6/8/1799, Mark Bloch, German naturalist, died

4/12/1798. Luigi Galvani, Italian scientist who researched animal electricity, died.

23/12/1797, Adrien de Jussieu, natiuralist, was born (died 29/6/1853).

27/4/1797, Jean Audouin, naturalist, was born in Paris (died in Paris 9/11/1841).

19/4/1795, Christian Ehrenberg, German naturalist, was born (died 27/6/1876).

24/7/1794, Russian zoologist Christian Pander was born in Riga. He studied the development of the chick embryo.

17/4/1794, Carl Martius, German botanist, was born (died 13/12/1868).

22/2/1794, German physiologist Kaspar Wolff died in St Petersburg, Russia.

20/5/1793, Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist, died near Geneva (born in Geneva 13/3/1720).

2/2/1793, William Aiton, Scottish botanist, born 1731, died.

28/2/1792, Russian biologist Karl Ernst von Baer was born in Peip, Estonia, In 1827 he reported his discovery that humans and other mammals developed from internal eggs.

4/9/1789, Charles Gaudichaud, French botanist, was born (died 16/1/1854).

15/4/1788, George Buffon, French naturalist, died (born 7/9/1707).

22/3/1788, Pierre Pelletier was born in Paris. In 1817 he jointly discovered chlorophyll with Joseph Bienaime Caventou (born 30/6/1795 in Saint Omer, France).

8/7/1784, Torbern Bergman, Swedish naturalist, died in Medevi (born in Katrineberg 20/3/1735).

13/8/1782, Henri Duhamel, French botanist, died (born 1700).

5/5/1780, John James Audubon, US naturalist, was born (died 27/1/1851).

1779, Lazzaro Spallanzani studied animal reproduction, proving that for fertilisation to take place the sperm must make physical contact with the egg,

1779, Jan Ingenhousz, in Experiments on vegetables, concluded that sunlight is essential for production of oxygen by leaves. He discovered two separate respiratory cycles in plants; in the day, carbon disoxide is absorbed and oxygen released; at night the process reverses. The exact nature of the gases involved was clear with Lavoisier�s discoveries.

11/4/1779, Joseph de Jussieu, naturalist, died (born 3/9/1704)).

4/2/1778, Augustin Candolle, Swiss botanist (died 9/9/1841) was born.

10/1/1778, Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish botanist who devised the modern system of naming and classifying plants, died in Uppsala.

12/9/1777, Henri Blainville, French naturalist, was born near Dieppe (died in Paris 1/5/1850).

14/11/1776, Rene Dutrochet, physiologist, was born (died 4/2/1847).

21/12/1773, Robert Brown, botanist, was born (died 10/6/1858).

22/8/1773, Aime Bonpland, botanist, was born in La Rochelle (died 4/5/1858).

14/11/1771, Marie Bichat, French anatomist, was born in Jura (died 22/7/1802).

17/8/1771, The Birmingham scientist Joseph Priestley discovered that oxygen is released from growing plants.

14/9/1769, Birth of Baron von Humboldt, German scientist who explored Central and South America, and founded the science of ecology.

23/8/1769, Georges Cuvier, French naturalist, was born (died 13/5/1832).

29/1/1768, John Martyn, English botanist, died (born 12/9/1699).

1761, The first vetinary school opened, in Lyons, France.

28/2/1761, Pierre Broussonet, French naturalist, was born (died 17/1/1807).

29/1/1759, Louis Bosc, French naturalist, was born in Paris (died in Paris 10/7/1828).

1/1/1758, The formal starting date for standardised species names across the animal kingdom, based on Carl Linnaeus� work, Systema Naturae.

10/10/1757, Erik Acharius, Swedish botanist (died 13/8/1819 in Wadstena) was born.

1/5/1753, Carl Linnaeus� Species Plantarum was published. This is regarded as the formal starting date of plant taxonomy.

11/5/1752, Johann Blumenbach, German physiologist, was born in Gotha (died in Gottingen 22/1/1840).

2/7/1750, Francois Huber, naturalist, was born (died 1831).

14/2/1750, Rene Desfontaines, French botanist, was born (died 16/11/1833).

12/4/1748, Antoine de Jussieu, naturalist, was born (died 17/9/1836).

2/4/1747, Johann Dillen, English botanist, died (born 1684).

1/8/1744, The Chevalier de Lamarck, naturalist, was born.

13/2/1743, Sir Joseph Banks, naturalist, was born in Argyle Street, London (died in Isleworth, 19/6/1820),

9/9/1737, Luigi Galvani, Italian scientist and anatomist, was born in Bologna.

1736, Linnaeus classified the plant species.

27/9/1735, Peter Artedi, Swedish naturalist, died in Amsterdam (born 22/2/1705 in Angermania, Sweden).

20/3/1735, Torbern Bergman, Swedish naturalist, was born in Katrineberg (died in Medevi 8/7/1784).

23/5/1734, Franz Anton Mesmer, Austrian doctor and founder of Mesmerism, was born near Constance. He was the son of a gamekeeper.

7/4/1727, Michel Adanson, French naturalist, was born in Aix en Provence (died 3/8/1806 in Paris).

12/10/1725, Etienne Louis Geoffroy, entomologist, was born.

13/12/1724, Franz Aepinus, German natural philosopher, was born in Rostock (died 10/8/1802 in Dorpat).

26/8/1723, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek, naturalist, died.

30/4/1723, Mathurin Brisson, French zoologist, was born (died 23/6/1806).

11/9/1721, Rudolf Camerarius, botanist, died (born 12/2/1665).

13/3/1720, Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist, was born in Geneva (died near Geneva 20/5/1793).

29/5/1716, Louis Daubenton, French naturalist, was born (died 1/1/1800).

3/4/1715, William Watson, physician, died.

7/9/1707, George Buffon, French naturalist, was born (died 15/4/1788).

23/5/1707, Carl Linnaeus, Swedish botanist who established principles for classifying living organisms, was born as Carl Linne, the son of the parish clergyman of Rashult.

22/2/1705, Peter Artedi, Swedish naturalist, was born in Angermania, Sweden (died 17/9/1735 in Amsterdam).

3/9/1704, Joseph de Jussieu, naturalist, was born (died 11/4/1779).

12/9/1699, John Martyn, English botanist, was born (died 29/1/1768).

3/4/1693, George Edwards, British naturalist, was born (died 23/7/1773).

17/9/1683, The Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek wrote to the Royal Society to report his discovery of bacteria. See also Medical.

12/2/1665, Rudolf Camerarius, botanist, was born (died 11/9/1721).

1648, Jan Baptista von Hellmont proved by experimentation that the increase in weight of a growing willow tree did not come from the soil in which it was planted. This result was published after his death in Ortus Medicinae (�On the development of medicine�).

22/11/1635, Naturalist Francis Willoughby was born in Middleton, England. His systematic work on birds and fish helped pave the way for Linnaeus� classification.

4/4/1609, Charles de l�Ecluse, botanist, died.

10/5/1605, Ulissi Aldrovandi, Italian naturalist, died in Bologna (born 11/9/1522 in Bologna).

11/10/1598, Joachim Camerarius, botanist, died (born 6/11/1534).

6/11/1534, Joachim Camerarius, botanist, was born (died 11/10/1598).

11/9/1522, Ulissi Aldrovandi, Italian naturalist, was born in Bologna (died 10/5/1605 in Bologna).

345 BCE, Aristotle produced the first animal classification system, dividing some 500 known species into 8 classes.


Back to top