Cultural events; literature and art

Page last modified 24/1/2021


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Writers and poets – see appendix 5 below


18/6/2020, Dame Vera Lynn, entertainer of the UK forces during World War Two, died (born 20/3/1917).

21/4/2016, The artist Prince, full name Prince Rogers Nelson, born 7/6/1958, died....

1/2/2016, Murray Louis, American dancer and choreographer died (born 1926).

10/1/2016, David Bowie, born in 1947 as David Jones in Brixton, London, died of cancer two days after his 69th birthday.

25/1/2015, The Greek operatic singer Demis Roussos, born 14/6/1946, died. He sold 60 million albums, and was also known for his excess weight, 23 stone at its peak. Because of his weight be began to wear kaftans for his stage performances, reverting to trousers when he began a weight loss programme in 1980.

2/5/2012, In New York, a pastel version of Edward Munch’s The Scream sold for US$ 120 million at auction, a record sum for a work of art.

17/1/2007, Protests in the UK and India after, on the Big Brother Reality Show, Jade Goody was allegedly racist to Shilpa Shetty.

12/9/2003, Johnny Cash, US musician, died (born 1932).

15/5/1998, Frank Sinatra died.

21/10/1997, Elton John’sCandle in the Wind’, a tribute to Diana Princess of Wales, sold 31.8 million copies, the best seller ever.

5/4/1994, US rock star Kurt Cobain, frontman of Nirvana, shot himself aged 27.

20/6/1993, Benjamin Mascolo, singer, was born

8/4/1993, Marian Anderson, US musician, died.

12/8/1992, US composer John Cage died, aged 79.

4/7/1992, Joe Newman, US Jazz trumpeter, died (born 1922).

28/4/1992, French composer Olivier Messiaen died aged 83. Also this day English painter Francis Bacon died in Madrid, aged 82.

27/3/1992, Martin Engelman, Dutch artist, died.

24/3/1992, Jeremy Rosado, US singer, was born.

15/2/1992, US composer William Schuman died, aged 81.

24/3/1991, Madonna was awarded an Oscar in Los Angeles.

14/10/1990, Leonard Bernstein, US composer, died aged 72.

25/6/1990, Peggy Glanville-Hicks, Australian composer, died aged  77

29/9/1989, Georges Ulmer, French composer died (born 1919)

20/9/1989, Musical ‘Miss Saigon’ premiered in London.

23/1/1989. Death of Spanish surrealist painter Salvador Dali. He was aged 78, and had lived as a recluse since his wife, Gala, died in 1982. Art collectors were troubled by revelations that Dali had signed blank canvasses for others  to paint.

6/1/1989, James Durbin, US pop singer, was born.

23/9/1988, Arwel Hughes, Welsh composer, died aged 79.

26/5/1988, Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical Cats opened in Moscow with a British and American cast.

17/4/1988, Louise Nevelson, sculptor born in Kiev, Russia, in 23/9/1900, died in New York.

18/3/1988, Percy Thrower, horticulturalist, died.

17/3/1988, Grimes, Canadian musician, was born.

5/2/1988, 3.8 million plastic noses were sold for the first ever Comic Relief Red Nose Day. £15 million was raised.

11/12/1987, At Christies auction house, London, Charlie Chaplin’s cane and bowler sold for £82,500, and his boots for £38,500.

2/4/1987, Buddy Rich, US jazz musician, died aged 69 (born 1917).

22/2/1987, Andy Warhol, American pop artist famous for his pictures of soup cans, died. He was born on 6/8/1926 to Czechoslovak immigrants in Pittsburgh.

14/2/1987, Bola Sete, guitarist, died aged 63.

31/8/1986. UK sculptor Henry Moore, born 1898, died aged 88.

20/2/1986, Francisco Paolo Mignone, composer, died aged 88.

23/1/1986, Joseph Beuys, German performance artist, died aged 64.

13/4/1985, Oscar Nemon, Croatian sculptor, died aged 79.

28/3/1985, Marc Chagall, French painter (born 7/7/1887 to poor Jewish parents in Vitebsk, Russia), died in St Paul de Vence. He had moved to Berlin in 1922, and then to Paris in 1932. In 1941 he fled to the US to escape the advancing Nazis, returning to France after World War Two ended.

16/4/1984, Count Basie, US jazz pianist, died aged 79.

25/11/1983, Anton Dolin, English ballet dancer, died aged 79.

24/7/1983, Georges Auric, French composer, died aged 84.

30/4/1983, George Balanchine, Russian dance director, died aged 79.

8/3/1983, Sir William Walton, English composer, died on the island of Ischia.

20/12/1982, Artur Rubenstein, Polish-American pianist, died aged 95.

7/11/1982, Salvador Contreras, Mexican composer, died aged 71

6/11/1982, Sowelu, Japanese pop singer, was born in Tokyo, Japan.

6/2/1982, Ben Nicholson, English painter, died aged 87.

11/5/1981, Bob Marley, reggae musician, died of cancer aged 36.

19/2/1981, Frank Merrik, composer, died aged 94.

23/1/1981, Samuel Barber, US composer, died aged 70.

4/1/1981, The Broadway show Frankenstein opened and closed on this night, losing US$ 2 million.

8/12/1980. John Lennon, born 9/10/1940 in Liverpool during an air raid, was shot dead in New York by Mark David Chapman. See 26/5/1969.

21/6/1980, Bert Kaempfert, German orchestra leader and songwriter, died of a stroke aged 56

22/3/1980, Shannon Bex, US singer, was born

17/2/1980, Graham Sutherland, English artist, died aged 76.

18/1/1980, Cecil Beaton, English designer and photographer, died aged 76.

30/12/1979, Richard Rodgers, US composer, died aged 77

30/11/1979, Zeppo Marx, the agent of the Marx brothers, died in London.

15/8/1979, Peter Shukoff, US comedian and musician, was born.

6/5/1979, Bernard Leach, British studio pottery artist, died aged 92.

14/1/1979, John Reuben, American singer, was born in Columbus, Ohio.

9/1/1979, Avery Claflin, composer, died aged 80.

1/3/1978, Charlie Chaplin’s coffin was stolen from a cemetery in Switzerland.

25/12/1977, Charlie Chaplin died in Switzerland, aged 88.

13/9/1977, Leopold Stokowski, organist and conductor, died in Nether Wallop, Hampshire.

6/9/1977, Guido Pannain, composer, died aged 85.

20/8/1977. Julius, or Groucho Marx, US comedian of the famous Marx Brothers, died in Los Angeles.

4/12/1976. Death of the composer Benjamin Britten, aged 63.

23/11/1976, Andre Malreux, French novelist. died aged 75.

18/11/1976, Man Ray, US artist, died aged 86.

11/11/1976, Alexander Calder, US sculptor, died aged 78.

22/10/1976, Edward Burra, English painter, died aged 71.

11/5/1976, Alvar Aalto, Finnish architect, died aged 78.

23/2/1976, The painter L S (Lawrence Stephen) Lowry, noted for his matchstick people, died in Glossop, Derbyshire.

9/8/1975. Death of the Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovitch.

26/5/1975, The stuntman Evel Knievel suffered severe spinal injuries whilst attempting to jump 13 buses in his car.

20/5/1975, Barbara Hepworth, English artist, died aged 72.

27/3/1975, Arthur Bliss, English composer, died aged 83.

4/3/1975, Queen Elizabeth II knighted the actor Charlie Chaplin.

19/2/1975, Italian composer Luigi Dallapiccola died in Florence aged 71.

19/1/1975, Thomas Hart Benton, US painter, died in Kansas City, Missouri..

9/9/1974, Mathias Farm, guitarist was born in Orebro, Sweden.

24/5/1974, Duke Ellington, jazz musician, died of lung cancer aged 75.

6/4/1974, Abba won the Eurovision Song Contest with the song Waterloo.

10/11/1973, Nick Lachey, musician, was born.

22/10/1973, Pablo Casals, Spanish composer, died aged 96.

4/9/1973. The Rolling Stones played in London for the first time in 2 ½ years, and then attended a party at Buckingham Palace which Mick Jagger described as ‘very dull’.

1/9/1973, Ram Kapoor, Indian actor, was born in New Delhi.

6/7/1973, Otto Klemperer, Jewish-German composer, died aged 88.

8/4/1973. The Spanish painter Pablo Picasso died of a heart attack, aged 91. He was famous for his Cubist style.

29/11/1972, Carl W. Stalling, US composer, died aged 81.

10/10/1972, Sir John Betjeman, born 28/8/1906, was appointed Poet Laureate.

8/8/1972, The musical Jesus Christ Superstar premiered at the Palace Theatre, London.

21/4/1972, Severina Vuckovic, Croatian singer, was born.

6/7/1971, Louis Armstrong, US jazz musician, died aged 69.

6/4/1971. Igor Stravinsky, Russian-born composer, died in New York City aged 88.

24/3/1971, Arne Jacobsen, Danish architect, died aged 69.

18/9/1970, Rock musician Jimi Hendrix died of a drugs overdose.

7/5/1970, Carlos Estrada, composer, died aged 60.

25/2/1970, Mark Rothko, painter, aged 66, committed suicide in New York.

25/11/1969, John Lennon returned his MBE to Buckingham Palace, in protest at British involvement in the Biafra civil war in Nigeria.

31/8/1969, Bob Dylan starred in a pop festival on the Isle of Wight, drawing in 150,000 fans.

17/8/1969, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, architect, died.

5/7/1969, Sir Walter Gropius, architect, founder of the Bauhaus school of design, died.

12/6/1969, Alexander Deyneka: Ukrainian artist (born 1899), died.

24/5/1969. The Black and White Minstrel Show at London’s Victoria Palace closed after 4,354 performances over seven years. It was the longest running musical show in Britain.

16/4/1969. Desmond Dekker became the first Jamaican artist to top the UK charts with The Israelites.

15/4/1969, The Woodstock music festival began in Bethel, New York.

2/4/1969, Jim Morrison, of pop group ‘The Doors’ was arrested in the USA.

14/3/1969, Ben Shahn, painter, died in New York aged 70.

7/2/1969, Marvin Gaye’s I Heard It Through The Grapevine was released.

25/6/1968. Comedian Tony Hancock killed himself in a hotel bathroom in Sydney, Australia.

23/2/1968, Tom Jones released his song Delilah.

29/12/1967, Paul Whiteman, US composer, died aged 77.

10/11/1967, The Moody Blue’s single, Nights in White Satin was released.

29/5/1967, Geronimo Baqueiro Foster, composer, died aged 69.

5/4/1967, Mischa Elman, Russian-US violinist, died in New York (born 20/1/1891 in Talnoye, Russia).

11/3/1967, Geraldine Farrar, US opera singer, died in Ridgefield, Connecticut (born in Melrose, Massachusetts, 28/2/1882).


The Beatles 1962-74

24/12/1974. The Beatles’ legal partnership was formally dissolved.

8/5/1970. The Beatles’ final album, Let It Be, was released.

9/4/1970, The Beatles pop group disbanded.

20/3/1969. The Beatle John Lennon married Yoko Ono in Gibraltar.

12/3/1969, Beatle Paul McCartney married Linda Eastman at Marylebone Registry Office, London.

30/1/1969. The Beatles performed together for the last time.

30/8/1968, The single Hey Jude was released by The Beatles.

5/12/1967. The Beatles opened their Apple store on Baker Street.

27/8/1967, Brian Epstein, who managed The Beatles rise to rock stardom, died in a swimming pool accident.

17/2/1967, The Beatles’ hit, Penny Lane/Strawberry Fields Forever single was released.

28/2/1966, The Cavern Club, where The Beatles first played, went into liquidation.

26/10/1965. The Beatles went to Buckingham Palace to be presented with their MBE’s.

12/6/1965. The Beatles were made MBEs in the Queen’s birthday honours.  A number of other holders of the medal returned theirs in disgust.

23/8/1963, The Beatles single She Loves You was released.

3/8/1963. The Beatles played in The Cavern, Liverpool, for the last time.

26/12/1962. The Beatles, an obscure group from Liverpool, just made no.17 in the charts with their single Love Me Do.

9/5/1962, The Beatles signed a recording contract with EMI’s Parlophone label.

21/1/1962 The Beatles and Cliff Richard were making the charts.

1/1/1962. The Beatles had their first audition with a record company in London. Their manager, Brian Epstein, was told, guitar groups are out, this group won’t make it, go back to Liverpool.


The Rolling Stones 1962-69

6/12/1969. A free concert given by the Rolling Stones, at Altamont, California, ended in tragedy when Hell’s Angels stabbed a man to death.

24/5/1968, The Rolling Stones hit, Jumpin’ Jack Flash was released.

1/11/1967, Rolling Stone Magazine started publication, the first Rock’n’roll periodical in the USA.

10/8/1964. An emergency casualty station had to be set up in Brighton to deal with a constant stream of hysterical girls overcome during a performance of the Rolling Stones.

16/7/1964, The Rolling Stones had their first UK No.1 hit  with It’s All Over Now.

3/6/1964, The Rolling Stones began their first US tour.

17/4/1964, The Rolling Stones released their first LP.

21/7/1962. The Rolling Stones made their first appearance at the Marquee Club in London.

26/7/1943, Mick Jagger, English rock singer (The Rolling Stones), was born as Michael Philip Jagger in Dartford


17/6/1966, Jean Arp, painter, died in Basel aged 78.

1/6/1966. Folk music fans at the Albert Hall booed Bob Dylan for performing with an electric guitar.

9/2/1966, Sophie Tucker, last of the ‘red hot mamas’, died.

1/2/1966, The silent film comedian Buster Keaton died.

27/8/1965. The Swiss architect Le Corbusier died.

23/5/1965, David Smith, US sculptor, died aged 59.

2/3/1965, The Sound of Music went on release in the USA. It was an instant hit.

17/5/1964, Bob Dylan made his first major London appearance, at the Royal Albert Hall.

23/4/1964, Gianandrea Noseda, Italian pianist, was born.

15/3/1964, Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton married in Montreal.

1/2/1964. EMI’s managing director announced that The Beatles were making over £500,000 a month.

11/10/1963, Jean Cocteau, French artist (born 1889) died.

22/6/1963, Maria Tanase, Romanian folk singer, died aged 49.

16/4/1963, Jimmy Osmond, US singer, was born.

11/4/1963, Nigel Pulsford, English guitarist, was born.

7/12/1962, Kirsten Flagstad, Norwegian opera singer, died aged 67.

5/8/1962. Marilyn Monroe, US film actress, died in Los Angeles aged 36, of a barbiturates overdose.

13/5/1962, Franz Kline, painter, died in New York, USA, aged 52.

13/12/1961, Grandma Moses, US painter, died aged 101.

9/11/1961, Jill Dando, British journalist and BBC television presenter, was born in Weston-super-Mare (murdered 1999).

2/11/1961, James Thurber, author, died in New York.

11/10/1961, Chico Marx, the piano-playing member of the Marx Brothers comedy team, died.

14/7/1961, Boy George was born.

23/8/1960, Oscar Hammerstein, US theatrical producer, died aged 65.

14/8/1960, Sarah Brightman, English singer, was born in Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire.

30/5/1960, Boris Pasternak, Russian author of Dr Zhivago, Nobel Prize winner in 1958 (which he declined), died near Moscow.

12/4/1960, The musician Ray Charles won Best Male Vocalist Grammy award.

15/2/1960, Mikey Craig, rock bassist, was born.

1959, The Barbie Doll was introduced at the annual Toy Fair in New York.

30/10/1959, Saxophonists Ronnie Scott and Pete King opened Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club in Gerrard Street, Soho, London.

19/8/1959, Sir Jacob Epstein, sculptor, died in London, England (born 10/11/1880 in New York City).

2/6/1959, Lydia Lunch, US singer, was born.

28/5/1959, The Mermaid Theatre opened in the City of London.

30/3/1959, Sabine Meyer, German clarinet player, was born.

18/2/1959, Erich Zeisl, US composer, born 18/5/1905, died.

3/2/1959, Buddy Holly, US musician, was killed in an air crash in Iowa.

21/1/1959, Cecil B de Mille, Hollywood film producer, died.

9/12/1958, Rikk Agnew, US guitarist, was born in Newport Beach, California.

26/8/1958, Ralph Vaughan Williams, English composer, died aged 85.

16/8/1958, Madonna, US singer, was born.

8/8/1958. Columbia Records signed up a 17-year-old singer called Cliff Richard.

25/7/1958, Thurston Moore, US guitarist, was born in Coral Gables, Florida.

7/6/1958, Prince, American singer, was born.

28/3/1958, William Christopher Handy, US composer, died aged 84.

25/3/1958, Tom Brown, US dixieland jazz trombonist, died aged 69.

20/12/1957. At the height of his career, Elvis Presley received his call-up papers.

25/11/1957, Diego Rivera, painter, died in Mexico City aged 70.

2/11/1957, Elvis Presley set a record with 8 simultaneous UK top 30 entries.

24/10/1957, Christian Dior, French fashion designer and creator of ‘New Look’, died.

21/10/1957, Steve Lukather, US singer, was born.

20/9/1957 Jean Sibelius, composer, died.

13/9/1957. The Mousetrap became Britain’s longest running play, reaching its 1,998th performance.

7/8/1957, Oliver Hardy, of Laurel and Hardy fame, died of a stroke, aged 65. Laurel was then aged 67.

19/3/1957, Elvis Presley paid the US$ 1,000 deposit on a mansion called Graceland, being sold by Mrs Ruth Brown-Moore.

16/3/1957, Constantin Brancusi, sculptor, died in Paris.

13/1/1957, Elvis Presley recorded All Shook Up in a Hollywood studio.

17/8/1956, Jackson Pollock, painter, died in a car accident in Long Island, New York, USA, aged 44.

15/4/1956, Emil Nolde, German-Danish painter, died aged 88.

6/4/1956, Paramount Pictures signed Elvis for a three-film, five-year contract worth $450,000.

4/3/1956, Kermit Driscoll, US jazz bassist, was born.

10/2/1956, Elvis Presley walked into a recording studio and made his first record, Heartbreak Hotel.

13/1/1956, Lyonel Feininger, painter died in New York, USA, aged 84.

27/11/1955, Arthur Honegger, Swiss composer, died aged 63.

25/11/1955, Bruno Tonioli, Italian dancer, was born.

5/11/1955, Maurice Utrillo, painter, died in Dax, Landes, aged 71.

29/10/1955, Dmitri Shostakovich's Violin Concerto No. 1, originally completed in 1948, was premiered by the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra.

8/10/1955, Lonnie Pitchford, US blues musician, was born in Lexington, Mississipi (died 1998)

17/8/1955, Fernand Leger, painter, died in Gif sur Yvette, France, aged 74.

13/5/1955, A riot took place at an Elvis Presley concert in Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

4/5/1955, Georges Enescu, Romanian composer and violinist, died in Paris, France (born 19/8/1881 in Liveni, Romania.

16/3/1955, Nicolas de Stael, painter, died in Antibes aged 41.

12/3/1955, Saxophonist Charles Parker died.

3/11/1954, Henri Matisse, painter, died in Nice aged 84.

24/10/1954, Jozef Raz, Slovak musician and singer, was born in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.

5/10/1954, Bob Geldof, rock musician and charity fundraiser, was born in Dublin.

10/9/1954, Painter Andre Derain died in Chambourcy, France, aged 74.

25/8/1954, Elvis Costello, English musician, was born.

19/5/1954, Charles Ives, US composer died (born 1874).

15/2/1954, Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons, was born.

30/11/1953, Francis Picabia, painter, died in Paris aged 74.

9/11/1953. The Welsh poet Dylan Marlais Thomas, born in Swansea on 27/10/1914, died in New York City aged 39 after falling into an alcoholic coma. He had drunk 18 stiff whiskies. His major work, Under Milk Wood, was broadcast on radio in 1954.

15/10/1953 Youth culture was yet to arrive, as was the word ‘teenager’. Top of the pop charts were Mantovani, Doris Day, and Dean Martin.

1/10/1953, John Martin, painter, died in Addison, Maine, USA.

17/7/1953, Maude Adams, US actress (born 11/11/1872) died.

28/3/1953, James Francis Thorpe, athlete, died.

23/3/1953, Raoul Dufy, French painter (born 3/6/1877 in Le Havre, France) died in Forcalquiers, France.

5/3/1953. Sergei Prokofiev, Russian composer, died.

27/8/1952, Harvey Corbett, US architect, died in New York city.

5/3/1952, Vladimir Scherbachov, composer, died aged 63.

21/1/1952, Billy Ocean, musician, was born.

15/9/1951, Jacinto Guerrero, Spanish musician and composer, died aged 56

7/9/1951, Painter John F Sloan died in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA, aged 80.

16/8/1951, Louis Jouvet, French theatre director., died.

28/7/1951, Walt Disney’s cartoon Alice in Wonderland was released.

6/3/1951, Ivor Novello, Welsh composer, died aged 58.

31/1/1951, Phil Collins, rock musician, was born.

10/1/1951, Sinclair Lewis, US novelist, died aged 65.

2/11/1950. George Bernard Shaw, born 26/7/1856 in Dublin, died aged 94, in Ayot St Lawrence, Hertfordshire, UK.  A failed novelist, he was 36 when his first play, Widower’s Houses, was performed.

16/10/1950, The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe, CS Lewis, was first published.

17/6/1950, Phoebe Snow, US musician, was born.

26/2/1950, Sir Harry Lauder, Scottish comedian and singer, died aged 79.

4/2/1950, Philip Ehart, rock drummer, was born.

24/9/1949, Pierre Breville, composer, died aged 88.

7/9/1949, Jose Clemente Orozco, painter, died in Mexico City aged 65.

23/9/1949, Bruce Springsteen, US musician, was born.

22/9/1949, David Coverdale, English rock musician, was born.

8/9/1949, Richard Strauss, composer, died.

3/1/1949, Robert Aitken, US sculptor (born 8/5/1878) died.

31/12/1948, Donna Summer, US singer, was born.

3/7/1948, Painter Arshile Gorky committed suicide in New York, aged 43.

19/5/1948, Maximilian Lenz, Austrian artist, died aged 87.

22/3/1948, Andrew Lloyd Webber, British composer, was born.

1947, The Institute of Contemporary Arts was founded at Dover Street, London UK. It moved to The Mall in 1968.

31/12/1947, Burton Cummings, musician, was born.

24/8/1947, The Edinburgh International Festival of Music and Drama was launched. It was an antidote to the prevailing austerity.

25/3/1947. Elton John, British musician, was born in Pinner, London, as Reginald Kenneth Dwight.

8/1/1947. David Bowie, British musician and rock star, was born in London as David Jones.

9/8/1946, The Arts Council of Great Britain was incorporated.

14/6/1946. Demis Roussos, Greek operatic singer, was born; see 25/1/2015.

30/11/1945, Roger Glove, Welsh bass player songwriter, was born.

23/10/1945, Kim Larsen, rock musician, was born in Copenhagen, Denmark.

26/9/1945. Bela Bartok, composer, died.

21/5/1945, Herbert Adams, US sculptor (born 28/1/1858) died.

10/2/1945, Juan de Hernandez, composer, died aged 63.

10/1/1945, Rod Stewart, British rock singer, was born in London.

13/9/1944. William Heath Robinson, the English artist famous for his drawings of excessively complicated machinery cobbled together, died.

24/6/1944, Rio Gebhardt, German composer, died aged 36

10/4/1944, Danny Woods, US musician, was born in Atlanta, Georgia (died 2018)

1/2/1944. In New York, the Dutch artist Piet Mondrian died, aged 71.

28/1/1944, John Tavener, English composer, was born (died 2013)

24/1/1944, Klaus Nomi, German singer was born (died 1983).

23/1/1944. Death of Norwegian artist Edvard Munch.

1/1/1944, Sir Edwin Lutyens, English architect, designer of The Cenotaph in London and planner of New Delhi, died in London.

30/11/1943, Oscar Harris, Surinamese singer, was born.

9/8/1943, Painter Chaim Soutine died in Paris, aged 49.

28/4/1943, Sergei Rachmaninov, Russian composer, died in Beverley Hills, California.

7/3/1943, Carolyn Carlson, American ballet dancer, was born.

24/11/1942, Billy Connolly, Scottish comedian, was born.

22/9/1942, Ralph Adams Cram, US architect, died

18/6/1942, Paul McCartney of The Beatles pop group was born in Liverpool.

4/3/1942, Yuliya Lazarevna Veysberg, composer, died aged 62.

22/1/1942, Walter Sickert, English painter, died aged 81.

5/11/1941, Art Garfunkel, of Simon and Garfunkel, was born in New York.

25/10/1941, Painter Robert Delaunay died in Montpelier, France, aged 56.

18/6/1941, Delia Smith was born.

15/3/1941, Alexej von Jawlensky, Russian expressionist painter, died aged 77.

11/2/1941, Sergio Mendes, jazz musician, was born in Brazil.

21/1/1941, Placido Domingo, Spanish operatic tenor, was born in Madrid.

20/1/1941, Pierre Lalonde, Canadian singer, was born.

17/11/1940, Eric Gill, English sculptor, died aged 58.

9/10/1940. John Lennon, songwriter and musician in The Beatles pop group, was born in Liverpool.  He was the son of a ship’s steward.

7/7/1940, Ringo Starr, drummer in the Beatles pop group, was born Liverpool as Richard Starkey.

29/6/1940, Paul Klee, artist, died in Switzerland.

30/12/1939, Felix Pappalardi, rock bassist, was born in The Bronx, New York (died 1983)

8/6/1940, Nancy Sinatra, daughter of singer Frank Sinatra, was born.

3/8/1939, Eugust Enna, composer, died aged 80.

13/7/1939. Frank Sinatra made his first record, ‘From the Bottom of my Heart’ with the Harry James band.

21/4/1939, Edna Savage, UK singer, was born (died 31/12/2000).

10/4/1939, Glen Miller recorded Little Brown Jug.

2/4/1939, Marvin Gaye, soul singer, was born.

19/2/1939, Batman was first drawn by Bob Kane for a ‘Detective Comic’ to be issued in May 1939.

20/12/1938, John Harbison, composer, was born in Orange, New Jersey.

2/8/1938, Bjarni Thorsteinsson, Icelandic composer, died aged 76

22/5/1938, Painter William Glackens died in Westport, |Connecticut, aged 68.

29/4/1938, Klaus Voormann, rock bassist, was born in Berlin, Germany

17/3/1938. Russian dancer Rudolf Nureyev born in Irkutsk, Siberia.

16/2/1938, John Corigliano, US composer, was born.

11/7/1937, US composer George Gershwin died, aged 38.

25/5/1937, Painter HO Tanner died in Paris aged 77.

11/5/1937, Viliam Figus, Composer, died aged 62.              

31/1/1937, Philip Glass, US composer, was born.

8/1/1937, Shirley Bassey, British singer and entertainer, was born in Cardiff, Wales.

15/3/1936, Howard Greenfield, songwriter, was born in Brooklyn, New York (died 1986)

18/10/1935, Gaston Lachaise, painter, died in New York aged 53

16/9/1935, Carl Andre, US artist, was born.

7/7/1935, George Keller, Irish-born US architect, died aged 92

13/6/1935, Christo Javachev and his partner Jean Claude, artists, were born.

20/5/1935, Mickey Rose, US actor, was born (died 2013).

8/2/1935, Max Leibermann, painter, died in Berlin aged 87.

1934, The opera house at Glyndebourne, East Sussex, England, was established by John Christie (1882-1962).

24/11/1934, Alfred Schnittke, German composer, was born (died 1998).

13/10/1934, Nana Mouskouri, singer, was born in Chania, Crete, Greece.

28/9/1934, Brigitte Bardot, actress, female role model, was born in Paris.

10/6/1934, British composer Frederick Delius died in France.

25/5/1934. composer Gustav Holst, who wrote The Planets, died aged 59. He was buried in Chichester Cathedral.

24/4/1934, Laurens Hammond filed a patent for an "electrical musical instrument" known today as the Hammond organ.

23/2/1934. Sir Edward Elgar, English composer, (born 2/6/1857), died of pneumonia in Worcester. On 10/11/1910 he conducted the first performance of his violin concerto, played by Fritz Kreisler, at the Queen’s Hall, London Applause was described as worthy of the Battle of Trafalgar.

18/2/1934, Yoko Ono, the widow of Jon Lennon, was born.

23/7/1933. Richard Rogers, architect who designed the Pompidou Centre in Paris and the Lloyds Building in London, was born.

4/5/1933, James Brown, musician, was born.

16/10/1932, Henry Lewis, US musician, was born.

13/9/1932, Bengt Hallberg, Swedish pianist and composer, was born.

29/5/1932, Karl Ridderbusch, German musician, was born.

27/5/1932, Gordon Browne, English artist and children's book illustrator, died aged 74.

6/3/1932, John Philip Sousa, composer, died.

3/10/1931. Death of the Danish composer Carl Nielsen.

29/9/1931, William Orpen, Irish painter, died aged 52.

13/4/1931, Anita Cerquetti, Italian soprano, was born (died 2014).

8/11/1929, The Museum of Modern Art in New York opened.

2/11/1929, The first News Theatre Cinema opened in New York, the Embassy.

12/10/1929, Magnus Magnusson, British writer and TV presenter, was born in Reykjavik, Iceland.

29/9/1929, Lata Mangeshkar, musician, was born.

3/2/1929, Val Doonican, singer, was born.

7/8/1929, James Pilditch, designer, was born.

30/7/1929, Christine McGuire, American singer, was born.

11/12/1928, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian author, was born.

18/11/1928, Otar Gordeli, Georgian composer, was born in Tbilisi (died 1994)

26/8/1928, Actress Barbara Stanwyck and vaudeville comedian Frank Fay were married in St. Louis.

12/8/1928, Leos Janacek, Czech composer, died aged 74.

6/8/1928, Andy Warhol, US artist, was born.

25/4/1928, Cy Twombly, US-Italian painter and sculptor, was born.

1927, The first all-electric jukeboxes were produced in Chicago. Mass production of them began in 1934 and by 1939 there were 350,000 of them in US bars and restaurants.

14/9/1927, US dancer Isadora Duncan, aged 49, was strangled to death when her long scarf became tangled in the rear wheel of a sports car.

13/8/1927, Hermann  Albert, German musicologist, died in Stuttgart (born 25/3/1871, Stuttgart).

19/6/1927, Karel Kupka, Czech composer, was born in Rychvald.

6/12/1926. The impressionist painter Claude Monet died as a recluse in Coventry, aged 86.

31/10/1926. The USA magician and escapologist Harry Houdini died, aged 52. He was born as Ehrich Weisz in Hungary and adopted his later name from the conjuror Robert Houdin whose autobiography he read as a young boy. .Determined to match Houdin’s achievements and to haul his family out of poverty, Houdini ran away to New York to begin a life in magic and entertainment which would enthral thousands. He escaped from handcuffs in an underwater nailed packing crate, and later exposed many psychic frauds. Whilst giving a lecture on spiritualism in Montreal, Houdini was asked if he could withstand a blow to the abdomen. Before he had a chance to prepare himself, Houdini was struck three times by a student. Despite this he managed to perform again, but died of peritonitis in a Detroit hospital a few days later.

10/6/1926, Spanish architect Gaudi y Cornet died. His most famous building is the Sagrada Familia cathedral in Barcelona.

21/12/1925. Battleship Potemkin, a film by Sergei Eisenstein, opened in the USSR.

14/11/1925, The first Surrealist art exhibition opened in Paris.

17/7/1925, Lovis Corinth, German painter, died.

14/4/1925, John Singer Seargant, US painter, died aged 69.

21/1/1925, Benny Hill, English comedian, was born in Southampton.

29/11/1924, The composer Puccini died in Brussels.

11/6/1924, Théodore Dubois, French composer, died aged 86.

14/4/1924, Louis Sullivan, US architect, died in Chicago.

4/3/1924, Happy Birthday to You, a song written by two US teachers, the sisters Patty and Mildred Hill, first appeared in print in a book by Robert H Coleman.

2/2/1924, Elfi von Dassanowsky, singer and pianist, was born in Vienna, Austria (died 2007)

9/12/1923, Meggie Albanesi, British actress, died aged 24.

28/5/1923, Gyorgy Ligeti, Hungarian composer, was born (died 2006).

26/11/1922. Birth of the American cartoonist Charles Schultz. At an arts instruction school in St Paul, Minnesota, Schultz asked fellow student Charlie Brown if he could use his name . He also used Brown’s moon-face looks to create the friendly loser-kid in the comic strip Peanuts, which featured in some 2,600 newspapers in 75 countries, translated into 21 languages. Schultz died in Santa Rosa, California, in 2000.

24/2/1922, Richard Hamilton, English painter, was born (died 2011).

8/1/1922, Jan Nieuwenhuys, Dutch painter, was born.

3/1/1922, Siegmund Nissel, German musician, was born.

16/12/1921, French composer and organist Camille Saint-Saens died aged 86.

9/9/1921, Charlie Chaplin arrived at Waterloo Station, London, on the boat train from Southampton, to a rapturous welcome. He was staying at the Ritz Hotel, socially a million miles from his childhood days in Lambeth.

2/8/1921. Death of the Italian tenor Enrico Caruso, whose funeral in Naples was attended by 50,000 people.

26/5/1921, Hal David, musician, was born.

20/11/1920, Armin Schibler, Swiss composer, was born.

10/10/1920, Thelonious Monk, US jazz musician, was born (died 1982)

8/10/1920, Raymond Reynaud, French painter and sculptor, was born.

27/3/1920, Death of Samuel Colman, US landscape painter (born 4/3/1832).

3/12/1919, Pierre Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter, died near Cannes, aged 78. He was born on 26/2/1841.

18/5/1919, Margot Fonteyne, English ballerina, was born (died 1991).

16/5/1919. Waldzin Valentino Liberace was born in Wisconsin. His father wanted him to be an undertaker.

20/1/1919, Stepan Lucky, composer, was born.

16/10/1918, Felix Arndt, composer, died aged 29.

17/5/1918, Birgit Nilsson, Swedish opera singer, was born (died 1999)

25/4/1918, Ella Fitzgerald, US jazz singer, was born (died 1996).

25/3/1918, Claude Debussy, French composer, died of cancer in London aged 55.

18/11/1917, Pedro Infante, Mexican actor and singer, was born.

17/11/1917, Death of the sculptor Auguste Rodin, aged 77.

21/10/1917, Dizzie Gillespie, US jazz musician, was born (died 1993).

27/9/1917, The painter Edgar Degas died, aged 83 (born 19/7/1834, in Paris).

13/9/1917, Robert Ward, American composer, was born (died 2013)

20/3/1917. Dame Vera Lynn was born.

1/3/1917, Robert Lowell, US poet, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

25/6/1916, Thomas C Eakins, US artist, died (born 25/7/1844).

22/4/1916, Yehudi Menuhin, US violinist, was born.

1/3/1916, Liljevalchs Konsthall art gtallery, designed by Swedish architect Carl Bergsten, was opened in Stockholm.

24/10/1915, Tito Gobbi, Italian baritone singer, was born (died 1984)

5/6/1915, French sculptor and draughtsman Henri Gaudier-Brzeska was killed in action in World War One, aged 23.

3/2/1915, Richard Bales, composer, was born.

28/11/1914, Vincent Fago, American comic book artist, was born.

24/11/1914, Lynne Chadwick, English sculptor, was born.

12/12/1913, Leonardo Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa which had been stolen from the Louvre three years earlier was found in a bedroom of a small hotel in Florence. An Italian, Vicenzo Peruggia, was arrested.

22/11/1913, Benjamin Britten, English composer, was born in Lowestoft, Suffolk.

16/5/1913, Woody Herman, US jazz musician, was born (died 1987).

24/3/1913, The Palace Theater, New York, opened on Broadway, 47th Street.

17/2/1913, New York got its first look at Cubism when the Armory Show opened on Lexington Avenue.

5/9/1912, Composer John Cage was born

27/8/1912, Tarzan of the Apes, by Edgar Rice Burroughs, first went into print as a magazine serial.

14/7/1912, Woody Guthrie, US folk singer, was born in Oklahoma.

1/7/1912, The first Royal Command Performance took place at the Palace Theatre, London, watched by King George V and Queen Mary.

15/3/1912, Francis Gruber, French painter, was born.

22/8/1911, The Mona Lisa was stolen from The Louvre, Paris.

18/5/1911, The composer Gustav Mahler died of heart disease in Austria, aged 51.

26/10/1911, Mahalia Jackson, gospel singer, was born.

29/9/1910, US artist Winslow Homer died at his studio in Maine.

7/9/1910, William Hunt, English artist, died (born 2/4/1827).

23/6/1910, Jean Anouilh, French dramatist, was born (died 1987).

25/3/1910, Magda Olivero, Italian opera soprano, was born in Saluzzo (died 2014)

2/11/1909, William Frith, English painter, died (born 9/1/1819).

6/10/1909, Dudley Buck, US composer, died (born 10/3/1839).

25/4/1909, Jaroslav Doubrava, composer, was born in Chrudim, Czech Republic (died 1960)

26/2/1909, Artist Emmanuel Poire, pseudonym Caran D’Ache (lead pencil), born 1858, died.

21/6/1908, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Russian composer, died at Lyubensk.

9/5/1908, Mary Goldsmith, US ceramicist, was born (died 2007).

21/2/1908, Harriet Hosmer, US sculptor, died (born 9/10/1830).

7/1/1908, Sir Frederick Gibberd, town planner who designed Harlow New Town, was born (died 1984).  He also designed Didcot power station (1968), the Intercontinental Hotel at Hyde Park Corner, London (1975), Liverpool’s Catholic cathedral (1967), and the Regent’s Park Mosque (1977).

21/10/1907, George Bodley, English architect, died in Water Eaton, Oxford (born 1827).

4/9/1907, Edward Greig, Norwegian composer, died in Bergen.

22/1/1907, In London, a strike by music hall artists disrupted theatre performances.

22/10/1906, The painter Paul Cezanne died in Aix en Provence, France (born 19/1/1839).

26/8/1906, Eugen Gura, German singer, died (born 1824).

8/7/1906, Philip Johnson, architect, was born in Cleveland, Ohio.

23/5/1906, The Norwegian poet Henry Ibsen died.

6/4/1906, The Poet Laureate, John Betjeman, was born in London.

9/3/1906, David Smith, sculptor, was born (died 1965).

8/12/1905, Charles Cushing, American composer, was born in Oakland, California (died 1982)

2/12/1905, Osvaldo Pugliese, Argentine composer, was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina (died 1995)

13/10/1905, Sir Henry Irving, the first British actor to receive a knighthood, gave his final performance in Bradford, Yorkshire, before collapsing and dying in the arms of his dresser at the Midland Hotel.

12/9/1905, Boris Arapov, Russian composer, was born in St. Petersburg, Russia (died 1992)

29/4/1905, Rudolf Schwartz, Viennese conductor who survived the Nazi concentration camps to become conductor of the BBC Symphony orchestra, was born.

15/2/1905, Harold Arlen, musician, was born in New York.

2/2/1905, The Russian writer Maxim Gorky was released from prison.

21/1/1905, Christian Dior, French designer, was born in Granville.

13/1/1905, Robert Gifford, US painter, died (born 23/12/1840).

20/11/1904, Alexandra Danilova, Russian ballerina, was born in Petergof, Russia (died 1997)

1/11/1904, George Bernard Shaw’s play John Bull’s Other Island had its premier.

27/7/1904, Anton Dolin, English ballet dancer, was born in Sussex.

5/7/1904, The composer Edward Elgar was knighted.

26/5/1904, George Formby, Lancashire comedian who played the ukulele and was famous for his song Cleaning Windows, was born.

11/5/1904. Spanish painter Salvador Dali was born in Figueras, Upper Catalonia.

1/5/1904. The Czech composer Antonin Dvorak died.

9/1/1904, George Balanchine, ballet choreographer, was born (died 1983).

17/7/1903, James Whistler, painter, died aged 70.

8/5/1903, Death of the French Impressionist painter Eugene Henri Paul Gauguin, on the Marquesas Islands, Polynesia, aged 54. He was born in Paris in 1848 and spent a short time with Vincent Van Gogh. He died of syphilis. Gauguin had given up a successful career on the Paris stock exchange at 35 to pursue painting, at which he was self-taught.

11/2/1902, Arne Jacobsen, Danish architect, was born (died 1971)

7/2/1902, Thomas Cooper, English painter, died (born 26/9/1803).

21/5/1902, Marcel Lajos Breuer, architect, was born (died 1981)

11/4/1902, Fred Gaisberg, of the Gramophone Company, made the first recordings of Caruso.

29/3/1902, Sir William Walton, English composer, was born in Oldham, Lancashire, to musical parents.

6/1/1902, Mark Brunswick, composer, was born.

5/12/1901, Walt Disney was born.

22/10/1901, Frederic Archer, 63, English-born American composer and organist, died aged 63.

9/9/1901, The bespectacled short painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec died in Malrome from a paralytic stroke, aged 36.

16/8/1901, Edmond Audran, French composer, died in Paris (born in Lyons 11/4/1842).

31/7/1901, Jean Dubuffet, French artist, was born in Le Havre, France.

24/6/1901, The first Picasso exhibition opened in Paris.

23/5/1901, Edward Rubbra, composer, was born (died 1986)

12/3/1901, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, opened.

8/3/1901, Peter Benoit, composer, died in Antwerp (born in Flanders 17/8/1834).

1/3/1901, Tommy Jarrell, US fiddler and banjo player who attained nationwide recognition in the 1960s, was born.

20/2/1901, Louis Isadore Kahn, architect, was born (died 1974).

27/1/1901, The Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi died in Milan aged 87. His works included La Traviata and Il Travatore.

16/1/1901, Arnold Bocklin, Swiss painter, died (born in Basel 16/10/1827).

8/11/1900, Georges Lonque, Belgian composer, was born in Ghent, Belgium

22/6/1900, In London, the Wallace Collection was opened to the Public.

21/4/1900, Charles Beecher, US composer, died in Georgetown, Massachusetts (born in Litchfield, Connecticut 7/10/1815).

23/2/1900, William Butterfield, English architect, died (born 1814).

26/1/1900, Karl Ristenpart, conductor of the Chamber Orchestra of the Saar, was born in Kiel (died 1967)

20/1/1900, John Ruskin, writer and art critic, died near Coniston, Lake District, aged 80.

30/10/1899, Sir Arthur Blomfield, English architect, died (born 6/3/1829).

29/9/1899, Billy Butlin, holiday camp owner, was born in South Africa.

13/8/1899, Birth of film director Alfred Hitchcock.  He was born in Leytonstone, London, the son of a greengrocer.

3/6/1899, Johann Strauss the Younger, Austrian composer, violinist, and conductor, who wrote The Blue Danube waltz, died in Vienna.

2/6/1899, Lotte Reiniger, film animator, was born.

16/3/1899, London erotic illustrator Aubrey Beardsley died aged 26.

30/1/1899, Harry Bates, British sculptor, died in London (born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire 26//4/1850).

10/10/1898, Pierre C Puvis de Chavannes, painter, died in Paris aged 73.

17/6/1898, Edward Coley Burne-Jones, painter, died in London aged 64.

3/8/1898, Jean Garnier, French architect, died (born 6/11/1825).

30/7/1898, Henry Moore, British sculptor, was born in Castleford, Yorkshire, the son of a coal miner.

17/6/1898, Sir Edward Burne-Jones, painter, died

18/4/1898, Gustave Moreau, painter, died in Paris aged 72

16/3/1898, Aubrey Beardsley, English artist, died in Mentone (born in Brighton 24/8/1872).

9/1/1898, Gracie Fields, singer and music hall star, was born in Rochdale, Lancashire, as Gracie Stansfield.

6/10/1897, Sir John Gilbert, English painter, died (born 21/7/1817).

20/9/1897, Karel Bendl, Bohemian composer, died in Prague (born in Prague 16/4/1838).

10/5/1897, William Best, English organist, died in Liverpool (born 13/8/1826 in Carlisle).

3/4/1897, Johannes Brahms, German composer, died at his home in Vienna, aged 64.

13//8/1896, John Everett Millais, painter, died in London aged 67.

12/1/1896, Tommy Handley, British comedian, was born in Liverpool.

28/11/1895, Jose Iturbi, Spanish pianist and conductor, was born in Valencia, Spain (died 1980).

25/10/1895, Sir Charles Halle, English pianist and conductor, died (born 11/4/1819).

6/10/1895 Sir Henry Wood’s promenade concerts began at Queen’s Hall, London.

14/8/1895, Thomas Hovenden, US artist, died (born 28/12/1840)

13/7/1895, John Carrodus, violinist, died (born 20/1/1836)

3/5/1896, Alfred Hunt, English painter, died (born 1830).

14/2/1895, Oscar Wilde’s final play, The Importance of Being Earnest, opened in London.

10/1/1895, Benjamin Godard, French composer, died (born 18/8/1849).

8/12/1894, James Thurber, author, was born in Columbus, Ohio.

13/9/1894, French composer Alexis Chabrier died (born 18/1/1841).

3/8/1894, George Innes, US landscape painter, died (born 1/5/1825).

17/6/1894, William Hart, US painter, died.

13/2/1894, Hans Bulow, German pianist, died (born 8/1/1830).

9/2/1894, Adolphe Saxe, the Belgian musical instrument maker who invented the Saxophone, died in Paris.

6/11/1893. Composer Peter Illich Tchaikovsky, born.7/5/1840, died of cholera, after drinking infected water.

9/10/1893, Sir George Elvey, composer, died (born 27/3/1816)

6/10/1893, Ford Brown, English painter, died (born 16/4/1821).

6/4/1893, Vicat Cole, English painter, died (born 17/4/1833).

28/1/1893, Julius Eichberg, German composer, died (born 13/6/1824).

24/10/1892, Robert Franz, German composer, died (born  28/6/1815).

24/9/1892, Patrick Gilmore, US bandmaster, died (born 1829).

18/1/1892, Oliver Hardy, comedian in the Laurel and Hardy duo, was born in Atlanta, Georgia.

16/1/1891, Clement Delibes, French composer, died (born 21/2/1836).

28/12/1891, Alfred Cellier, English composer, died (born 1/12/1844).

8/6/1891, Carlo Curci, Italian theological writer, died (born 1810).

13/2/1891, Grant Wood, US painter, was born in Iowa.

11/1/1891, Baron Georges-Eugene Haussman, architect who designed the broad straight boulevards of Paris, died in poverty.

5/1/1891, Emma Abbot, US opera singer, died in Salt Lake City.

21/12/1890, Niels Gade, Danish composer, died (born 22/2/1817).

12/12/1890, Sir Joseph Boehm, British sculptor, died in South Kensington (born in Vienna 4/7/1834).

8/11/1890, Cesar Franck, French composer, died (born 10/12/1822).

2/10/1890, Julius Groucho Marx was born (died 1977).

29/7/1890, Vincent Van Gogh, born 30/3/1853, died after prolonged insanity. He went to the spot where he had painted Cornfield with flight of birds and shot himself in the chest, on 27/7/1890, dying 2 days later.

24/11/1889, Frederic Clay, English composer, died (born 3/8/1838).

7/7/1889, Giovanni Bottesini, Italian composer, died in Parma (born in Lombardy 24/12/1823).

17/5/1889, William Beverley, English painter, died in Hampstead, London (born in Richmond, Surrey).

15/8/1889, James Albery, English dramatist, died (born 4/5/1838 in London).

16/4/1889, Birth of the comedian Sir Charles Chaplin in Kennington, London (died 1977). He was the son of two music hall entertainers.

31/1/1889, Josef Gung’l, Hungarian composer, died (born 1/12/1810).

23/12/1888, The artist Vincent Van Gogh cut off his left ear lobe.

23/11/1888, Harpo Marx, one of the Marx Brothers comedy team, was born in New York City.

31/7/1888, Frank Holl, English painter, died (born 4/7/1845).

11/5/1888, Irving Berlin, US songwriter, was born as Israel Baline in Tyumen, Russia.

26/3/1888, Francis Bache, composer, died in London (born 14.9/1833 in Birmingham)

22/2/1888, Jean Alard, French violinist, died in Paris (born 8/5/1815 in Bayonne).

1887, L L Zamenhof devised ‘Esperanto’.

18/11/1887, Frank Dobson, English sculptor, was born.

15/11/1887, Georgia O’Keefe, artist, was born in Wisconsin.

1/11/1887, Artist L S (Laurence Stephen) Lowry was born in Rusholme, Manchester.

28/2/1887, Alexander Borodin, Russian composer, died in St Petersburg.

1886, The Glockenspeil was invented by Auguste Mustel,

17/9/1886, Asher Durand, US painter, died (born 21/8/1796).

31/7/1886, Franz Liszt, Hungarian composer, died aged 74, in Bayreuth, Bavaria.

10/7/1886, Henry Brown, US sculptor, died (born 24/2/1814).

27/3/1886, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, architect, was born in Aachen, Germany.

12/2/1886, Randolph Caldecott, English artist, died (born 22/3/1846).

16/6/1885, Wilhelm Camphausen, German painter (born 1818) died.

5/6/1885, Sir Julius Benedict, composer, died in London (born in Stuttgart 27/11/1804).

12/5/1885, Ferdinand Hiller, German composer, died (born 24/10/1811).

31/3/1885, Franz Abt, German composer, (born 22/12/1819 in Eilenburg, Saxony) died in Weisbaden.

10/12/1884, Jules Bastien-Lepage, French painter, died in Paris (born 1/11/1848 in Damvilliers).

27/11/1884, Fanny Essler, Austrian dancer, died (born 23/6/1810).

12/5/1884, Bohemian composer Bedrich Smetana died in an asylum for the insane.

29/4/1884, Sir Michael Costa, British composer, died (born 14/2/1808).

11/12/1883, Richard Doyle, English artist, died (born 1824).

24/11/1883, Albert Bellows, US landscape painter, died in Auburndale, Massachusetts (born in Milford, Massachusetts, 20/11/1829)

15/7/1883, Tom Thumb, the American circus midget who finally attained a height of 40 inches, died.

30/4/1883, Edouard Manet, artist, died.

18/2/1883, Funeral of the composer Wagner held at Bayreuth.

24/1/1883, Friedrich Flotow, German composer, died (born 27/4/1812).

23/1/1883, French artist Gustave Dore (born 6/1/1832 in Strasbourg|) died in Paris.

8/7/1882, Hablot Browne, artist, died (born 11/6/1815).

9/4/1882, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, English painter and poet, died.

25/10/1881, Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter who created Cubism, was born in Malaga, Andalusia.

28/3/1881, Modest Mussorgsky, Russian composer, died of chronic alcoholism aged 42.

25/3/1881, Bela Bartok, Hungarian composer, was born.

10/11/1880, The British sculptor James Epstein was born (of Russian-Polish descent) in New York City.

9/11/1880, Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, British architect, was born.

5/10/1880, Jacques Offenbach, composer, died in Paris.

29/8/1880, Sandford Gifford, US painter, died (born 10/7/1823).

17/8/1880, Ole Bull, Norwegian violinist, died (born 5/2/1810).

10/5/1880, Sir John Goss, English composer, died (born 27/12/1800).

18/12/1879, Paul Klee, artist, was born.

7/7/1879, George Caleb Bingham, painter, died in Kansas City, USA, aged 68.

6/7/1879, Henry Smart, English organist, died (born 26/10/1813).

29/4/1879, Sir Thomas Beecham, English conductor, born.

11/2/1879, Honore Daumier, painter, died in Valmondois aged 70.

8/5/1878, Robert Aitken, US sculptor (died 3/1/1949) was born.

1/2/1878, George Cruikshank, English artist, died (born 27/2/1792).

31/12/1877, Gustave Courbet, French painter, died (born 10/6/1819).

12/11/1877, Henry Gray, US painter, died (born 23/6/1819).

27/7/1877, Ernst von Dohnanyi, Hungarian pianist (died New York, 9/2/1960) was born in Pozsony, Hungary.

4/6/1877, William Frost, English painter, died (born 9/1810).

4/12/1876, Hermann Goetz, German composer, died (born 17/12/1840).

18/11/1876, Narcisse Diaz, French painter, died (born 25.8/1808).

29/8/1876, Felicien David, French composer, died (born 13/4/1810).

27/8/1876, Eugene Fromentin, French painter, died (born 1820).

17/8/1876, Wagner’s opera Gotterdammerung premiered at Bayreuth.

28/6/1876, August Wilhelm Ambros, Austrian musician, died in Vienna (born 1816).

13/3/1876, Joseph von Fuhrich, Austrian painter, died (born 9/2/1800).

19/2/1876, Constantin Brancusi, sculptor, was born in Romania.

22/1/1876, Sir George Harvey, Scottish painter, died (born 2/1806).

12/10/1875, Jean Carpeaux, French sculptor, died (born 11/5/1827).

25/6/1875, Antoine Barye, French sculptor, died (born in Paris 24/9/1796).

3/6/1875, Georges Bizet, French composer of the opera Carmen, died in Bougival near Paris.

7/3/1875, Maurice Ravel, French composer, was born in Ciboure in the Basque Country.

15/2/1875, Sir William Bennett, English composer, died in St Johns Wood, London (born in Sheffield 13/4/1816).

22/1/1875, Ferdinand Hitzig, German religious writer, died (born 23/6/1807).

21/11/1874, Mariano Fortuny, Spanish painter, died (born 11/6/1838).

21/9/1874, Gustav Holst, English composer, who wrote The Planets, was born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, as Gustavus Theodore von Holst, of Swedish origin.

27/8/1874, John Foley, Irish sculptor, died (born 24/5/1818).

5/5/1874, Marc Gleyre, French painter, died (born 2/5/1806).

6/4/1874, Harry Houdini, American magician and escapologist, was born in Appleton, Wisconsin, as Ehrich Weiss. He was the son of a rabbi from Budapest.

1/10/1873, Sir Edwin Landseer, painter, died in London.

26/9/1873, Julius Benedix, German dramatist, died in Leipzig (born in Leipzig 21/1/1811).

1/4/1873, Sergei Rachmaninov, last of the great Russian romantic composers, was born in Oneg, Nijni Novgorod. He later settled in the USA.

25/2/1873, Enrico Caruso, Italian operatic tenor, was born in Naples.

8/1/1873, Harvey Corbett, US architect, was born in San Francisco,

11/11/1872, Maude Adams, US actress, was born (died 17/7/1953).

24/8/1872, Aubrey Beardsley, English artist, was born in Brighton (died in Mentone 16/3/1898).

31/5/1872, Illustrator and cartoonist Heath Robinson was born. He was famous for his drawings of absurdly complicated machinery performing simple tasks.

22/5/1872, In Germany, the foundation stone of the Bayreuth Theatre was laid. It was built specially for the performance of Wagner’s works.

26/3/1871, Francois Fetis, Belgian composer, died (born 25/3/1784)

25/3/1871, American sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, was born near Bear Lake, Idaho.

9/12/1870,  Maximillian Ainmuller, German artist, died (born in Munich, 14/2/1807).

20/10/1870, Michael Balfe, Irish composer, died (born in Dublin 13/5/1808).

8/8/1870, Maximillian Ainmiller, German glass painter (born 14/2/1807) died.

14/5/1870, The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, USA, received iits Charter.

13/4/1870, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA, received its Charter.

10/6/1869, Frederic Hurlstone, English painter, died (born 1800).

29/3/1869, Sir Edward Lutyens, British architect, was born in London.

8/3/1869, The French composer Berlioz died in Paris.

22/12/1868, Solon Borglum, US sculptor, was born in Ogden, Utah.

28/11/1868, Frantisek Drdla, Czech composer, was born

13/11/1868, Giovanni Genelli, German painter, died (born 28/9/1798).

24/71868, George Cattermole, English painter, died (born 1800).

25/5/1868, Rene Weil (Romain Coolus), French dramatist, was born in Rennes.

22/12/1867, Painter Theodore Rousseau died in Barbizon, aged 55.

6/12/1867, Karl Bitter, US sculptor, was born in Vienna.

14/9/1867, Charles Gibson, US artist, was born.

22/5/1867, Edward Baily, British sculptor, died in Holloway (born in Bristol 10/3/1788).

25/3/1867, Jacques Hittorff, French architect, died (born 20/8/1792).

18/4/1867, John Smirke, who designed the façade of the British Museum, died.

31/1/1867, The four great bronze lions at the base of Nelson’s Column were completed by painter Sir Edward Landseer and positioned in Trafalgar Square.

14/1/1867, The painter Jean Auguste Ingres died aged 86 in Paris.

13/11/1866, Rossini, Italian composer, died in Passy, France, aged 76.

26/8/1866, Hermann Goldschmidt, German painter, died (born 17/6/1802).

1/4/1866, Easter Sunday; Chester Harding, US portrait painter, died (born 1/9/1792).

27/1/1866, John Gibson, English sculptor, died (born 1790).

8/12/1865, Jean Sibelius, Finnish composer, was born in Hameenlinna, the son of a surgeon.

1/10/1865, Paul Dukas, French composer, was born in Paris, France (died17/5/1935 in Paris).

29/9/1865, Francois Heim, French painter, died (born 16/12/1787)

2/8/1865, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll (Charles Dodgson) was published.

6/7/1865, Emile Jacques Dalcroze, inventor of eurhythmics dancing, was born.

8/6/1865, Sir Joseph Paxton, ornamental gardener and architect who designed the Crystal Palace for the 1851 Great Exhibition, died.

11/6/1864, Richard Strauss, composer, was born in Munich, Germany

18/5/1864, Milton Aborn, US operatic singer, was born (died 12/11/1933).

2/4/1864, Louis Michel Eilshemius, US painter, was born in New Jersey (died 29/12/1941 in New York City.

14/2/1864, William Dyce, British painter, died (born 1806)

10/2/1864, William Hunt, English painter, died (born 28/3/1790).

13/1/1864, Stephen Foster, musician, died in New York (born 4/7/1926)

12/12/1863, Edward Munch, Norwegian artist who painted The Scream, was born.

10/12/1863, Charles Ingham, US artist, died (born 1769).

7/12/1863, Pietro Mascagni, Italian composer, was born.

4/12/1863, James Harding, English landscape painter, died (born 1798).

26/9/1863, Frederick Faber, British hymn writer, died (born 28/6/1814).

13/8/1863, The painter Eugene Delacroix died in Paris.

10/8/1865, Alexander Glazunov, Russian composer, was born.

31/7/1863, Richard Aldrich, US music critic, was born (died 1937).

12/7/1863, Charles Cottet, French painter, was born at Puy.

24/5/1863, George Barnard, US sculptor, was born in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania.

26/3/1863, Augustus Egg, British painter, died (born 2/5/1816).

16/2/1863, Alvan Fisher, US portrait painter, died (born 9/8/1792).

22/8/1862, Composer Claude Debussy was born in St Germain en Laye, France.

7/7/1862, Friedrich Gauermann, Austrian painter, died (born 20/9/1807)).

24/3/1862, Frank Benson, US painter, was born in Salem, Massachusetts.

29/1/1862, Frederick Delius, English composer, born in Bradford, Yorkshire.

22/11/1861, Cyrus Dallin, US sculptor, was born.

8/8/1861, Cecile Chaminade, French composer, was born.

9/4/1861, Sir Charles Holroyd, British artist, was born.

9/2/1861, Francis Danby, English painter, died (born 16/11/1793).

25/4/1860, Thomas Clarke, US artist, was born.

18/12/1860, Edward MacDowell, US composer, was born in New York City.

7/7/1860, Gustav Mahler, composer, was born in Kalischt, Bohemia.

20/10/1860, Walter Cope, US architect, was born in Pennsylvania.

2/10/1860, Louis Hersent, French painter, died (born 10/3/1777).

7/9/1860, Grandma Moses, US painter, was born in Greenwich, New York State.

23/6/1860, On St John’s Eve, Mussorgsky completed St John’s Night on a Bare Mountain. After his death Rimsky Korsakov edited it and removed St John’s from the title.

12/5/1860, Sir Charles Barry, architect, died in Clapham, London (born in London 23/5/1795).

15/12/1859, Ludwig Zimenof, Polish linguist who created the artificial language Esperanto, was born in Bialystock.

24/11/1859, Charles Darwin, born 12/2/1809, published The Origin of the Species.

12/11/1859, French acrobat Jules Leotard performed the first circus trapeze act at the Cirque Napoleon, Paris, wearing the famous costume named after him.

4/10/1859, Death of German publisher Karl Baedeker, whose travel guides became famous.

7/6/1859, David Cox, English painter, died (born 29/4/1783).

19/5/1859, Dame Nellie Melba, Australian singer, was born.

22/12/1858, Composer Puccini was born in Lucca, Italy.

12/10/1858, Painter Ando Hiroshige died in Edo, Japan, aged 61.

16/4/1858, Johann Cramer, English composer, died (born 24/2/1771).

28/1/1858, Herbert Adams, US sculptor (died 21/5/.1945) was born.

10/10/1857, Thomas Crawford, US sculptor, died (born 22/3/1814).

16/9/1857, The tune Jingle Bells by James Pierpoint was copyrighted under its original title One Horse Open Sleigh. In 1965 it became the first song to be broadcast from space.

15/7/1857, Karl Czerny, Austrian composer, died (born 21/2/1791).

2/6/1857, Sir Edward Elgar, British composer, was born in Broadheath, near Worcester, the son of a music seller and organist.

27/10/1856, Kenyon Cox, US painter, was born in Ohio.

29/7/1856, Robert Schumann, German composer, died in an asylum near Bonn.

3/5/1856, Adolphe Adam, French composer (born 24/7/1803) died.

17/2/1856, John Braham, English vocalist, died.

4/1/1856, Pierre David, sculptor, died (born 12/3/1789)

28/9/1855, George Brush, US painter, was born.

30/4/1855, Sir Henry Bishop, composer, died (born in London 18/11/1786).

19/1/1855, Jean Guerin, French painter, died (born 25/3/1783).

22/12/1854, Benedict Fogelberg, Swedish sculptor, died (born 8/8/1786).

6/11/1854, John Philip Sousa, composer, inventor of the sousaphone (a sort of large tuba), was born.

10/10/1853, Pierre Fontaine, French architect, died (born 20/9/1762).

30/3/1853, Artist Vincemt Van Gogh was born in the Dutch village of Groot-Zundert, the son of a Lutheran pastor.

17/1/1853, Thomas Harrison, US artist, was born.

18/12/1852, Horatio Greenhough, US sculptor, died (born 6/9/1805).

10/12/1852, Henri Gervex, French Painter, was born.

1/11/1852, Dame Emma Albani, Canadian singer (died 3/4/1930) was born.

30/9/1852, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, Irish composer, was born.

20/9/1852, William Finden, English line engraver, died (born 1787).

14/9/1852, Lord Pugin, co-designer of the Houses of Parliament with Sir Charles Barry, died at Ramsgate.

1/4/1852, Edwin Austin Abbey, US painter, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

29/1/1852, Frederic Cowen, English composer, was born.

19/12/1851, The painter Joseph Turner died in his house in Chelsea, London, under the assumed name of Booth.

4/5/1851, Thomas Dewing, US figure painter, was born.

11/3/1851, Verdi’s opera Rigoletto was first performed, in Venice.

1/2/1851, Mary Shelley, author of Frankenstein, died.

19/11/1850, Alfred Lord Tennyson was appointed Poet Laureate, a post he held until his death in 1892.

7/5/1850, Anton Seidl, Hungarian operatic conductor, was born (died 28/3/1898).

26/4/1850, Harry Bates, British sculptor, was born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire (died in London 30/1/1899).

23/4/1850, Sir William Wordsworth, Poet Laureate from 1843, died of pleurisy at Rydal Mount, Grasmere, aged 80.

20/4/1850, Daniel French, US sculptor, was born.

22/2/1850, Sir William Allan, Scottish painter, died.

15/12/1849, Alfred East, English painter, was born.

21/11/1849, Francois Granet, French painter, died (born 17/12/1777).

17/10/1849, Frederic Chopin, born 1/3/1810 near Warsaw, Poland, died aged 39 of tuberculosis in Paris.

25/9/1849, Johann Strauss the Elder died, aged 45, of scarlet fever.

18/8/1849, Benjamin Godard, French composer, was born (died 10/1/1895).

12/6/1849, Angelica Catalani, Italian opera singer, died (born 1780).

8/6/1849, Julien Dillens, Belgian sculptor, was born (died 11/1904).

6/5/1849, Wyatt Eaton, US portrait painter, was born (died 7/6/1896).

11/3/1849, William Etty, British painter, died (born 10/3/1787).

30/1/1849, Peter de Wint, English landscape painter, died (born 21/1/1784).

15/12/1848, Edwin Blashfield, US artist, was born in New York City.

9/10/1848, Frank Duvenek, US portrait painter, was born.

23/6/1848. Adolfe Sax, born on 6/11/1814 in Dinant, Belgium, was awarded a patent for the saxophone.

7/6/1848, Paul Gauguin, French painter, was born in Paris.  He was the son of a journalist.

1/4/1848, Gaetano Donizetti, Italian composer, died (born 1798).

11/2/1848, Thomas Cole, US landscape painter, died (born 1/2/1801).

29/12/1847, William Crotch, English musician, died (born 5/7/1775).

25/12/1847, Frederick Dielmann, US painter, was born.

9/12/1847, George Grossmith, English comedian, was born.

26/11/1847, Harvey Elmes, British architect, died (born 1813).

10/11/1847, Frederick Bridgman, painter, was born.

4/11/1847, The composer Felix Mendelssohn died in Leipzig of a stroke, aged 38.

27/9/1847, Marie Lajeunesse, or Albani, Canadian singer, was born in Chambly, Quebec.

16/9/1847, Shakespeare’s birthplace in Stratford on Avon was purchased by the specially-formed Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. This was one of the first buildings acquired purely for preservation.

22/6/1846, Benjamin Haydon, English painter, died (born 26/1/1786).

30/5/1846, Peter Carl Faberge, Russian jeweller whose fabulous Easter Eggs were popular with the tsars, was born.

16/4/1846, Domenico Dragonetti, musician, died (born 7/4/1763)

22/3/1846, Randolph Caldecott, English artist, was born (died 12/2/1886).

17/1/1846, Henry Inman, US artist, died (born 20/10/1801).

17/3/1847, Jean Gerard, French caricaturist, died (born 13/9/1803)

30/10/1845, Nicolas Charlet, French painter, died (born 20/12/1792)

19/10/1845, Wagner’s opera ‘Tannhauser’ was first performed at Dresden.  Wagner’s music inspired either wonder or loathing, and he was also highly anti-Semitic.

23/9/1845, Jonathan Hartley, US sculptor was born.

15/8/1845, Walter Crane, English painter, was born.

25/5/1845, Thomas Duncan, Scottish portrait painter, died (born 1807).

2/11/1844, Sir Francis Gould, caricaturist, was born.

25/7/1844, Thomas C Eakins, US artist, was born (died 25/6/1916).

16/7/1844, Charles Dickens’ sixth book, The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit, was published in entirety.

13/7/1844, Johann Gansbacher, Austrian composer, died (born 1778).

21/5/1844, Guiseppe Baini, Italian musician, died in Rome (born in Rome 21/10/1775).

3/5/1844, Richard D’Oyly Carte, who produced the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, was born.

15/4/1844, Charles Bulfinch, US architect, died (born 8/8/1763).

18/3/1844, Rimsky Korsakoov, Russian composer, was born in Novgorod.

10/11/1843, John Trumbull, painter, died in New York aged 87.

9/7/1843, Washington Allston, US artist, died in Cambridge, Massachusetts (born 5/11/1779 in Waccamaw, South Carolina).

15/6/1843, Edward Grieg, Norwegian composer, was born in Bergen.  He was of Scottish descent.

30/10/1842, Allan Cunningham, Scottish poet, died (born 7/12/1784).

22/10/1842, Anne Louise Cary, US singer, was born.

24/7/1842, John Cotman, English landscape painter, died (born 16/5/1782).

11/4/1842, Edmond Audran, French composer, was born in Lyons (died in Paris 16/8/1901).

15/3/1842, Maria Cherubini, Italian composer, died (born 14/9/1760).

25/11/1841, Sir Francis Chantrey, English sculptor, died (born 7/4/1782) 25/11/1841).

4/10/1841, John Enneking, US landscape painter, was born.

8/9/1841, Anton Dvorak, Czech composer, was born near Prague.

25/2/1841, Pierre Auguste Renoir, French impressionist painter, was born in Limoges, the son of a tailor.

18/1/1841, French composer Alexis Chabrier was born (died 13/9/1894).

12/1/1841, Edward Henry, US painter, was born.

28/12/1840, Thomas Hovenden, US artist, was born (died 14/8/1895)

23/12/1840, Robert Gifford, US painter, was born (died 13/1/1905).

17/12/1840, Hermann Goetz, German composer, was born (died 4/12/1876).

14/11/1840, Claude Monet, French Impressionist painter, was born in Paris.

12/11/1840, Auguste Rodin, French sculptor, was born in Paris.

7/5/1840, Peter Illyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer, was born in Votkinsk, the son of a government mines inspector.

19/3/1840, Thomas Daniell, English landscape painter, died (born 1749).

30/12/1839, William Hilton, English painter, died (born 3/6/1786).

21/3/1839, Modest Moussorgsky, Russian composer, was born in Karevo (now called Pskov).

16/2/1839, George Bissell, US sculptor, was born in New Preston, Connecticut.

19/1/1839, Paul Cezanne, French artist, was born in Aix en Provence, France.

25/10/1838, Georges Bizet, composer, was born in Bougival, Paris (died 3/6/1875).

12/8/1838, Sir Joseph Barnby, composer, was born in York (died in London 28/1/1896).

3/8/1838, Frederic Clay, English composer, was born (died 24/11/1889).

11/6/1838, Mariano Fortuny, Spanish painter, was born (died 21/11/1874).

4/5/1838, James Albery, English dramatist, was born in London (died 15/8/1889).

4/1/1838, Charles Sherwood Stratton was born. He later became famous as Tom Thumb, a midget exhibited by Phineas Barnum.

12/12/1837, John Green, English historical writer, was born (died 7/3/1883).

24/8/1837, Francois Dubois, French composer, was born.

7/8/1837, Allan Foli, Irish bass singer, was born (died 20/10/1899).

1/8/1837, Walter Geike, Scottish painter, died (born 9/11/1795).

26/6/1837, Ernest Guiraud, French composer, was born (died 6/5/1892).

31/5/1837, Joseph Grimaldi, famous English clown, died (born 18/12/1779).

31/3/1837, The painter John Constable. Died, aged 60.

20/1/1837, Sir Robert Soane, architect, died in London. He designed the Bank of England building on Threadneedle Street.

31/12/1836, Mili Balakirev, Russian composer, was born in Nizni-Novogorod.

26/6/1836, Rouget de Lisle, composer of La Marseillaise in 1792, died.

24/2/1836, US artist Winslow Homer was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

22/2/1836, John Clarke-Whitfeld, English organist and composer, died aged 65.

21/2/1836, Clement Delibes, French composer, was born (died 16/1/1891).

16/2/1836, Benjamin Edward Woolf, Dutch composer, was born.

20/1/1836, John Carrodus, violinist, was born (died 13/7/1895).

14/1/1836, Ignace Fantin-Latour, French artist, was born (died 28/8/1904).

3/10/1835, Charles Saint-Saens, French composer, was born.

24/9/1835, Vincenzo Bellini, operatic composer, died in Puteaux, Paris (born in Catania, Sicily 1/11/1801).

26/6/1835, Baron Antoine Gros, French painter, drowned himself in the River Seine at Meudon, aged 64.

13/5/1835, John Nash, architect of Regents Park and Brighton Pavilion, died on the Isle of Wight. He had been commissioned by King George IV to redevelop parts of London, such as Trafalgar Square and Regent Street.

12/11/1834, Alexander Borodin, Russian composer, was born in St Petersburg.

1/9/1834, Amilcare Ponchielli, Italian musician, was born (died 17/1/1886).

17/8/1834, Peter Benoit, composer, was born in Flanders (died in Antwerp 8/3/1901).

19/7/1834, Edward Degas, painter, was born in Paris.

4/7/1834, Sir Joseph Boehm, British sculptor, was born in Vienna (died in South Kensington 12/12/1890).

14/9/1833, Francis Bache, composer, was born in Birmingham (died 26/3/1888 in London).

28/8/1833, Sir Edward Burne-Jones, English painter, was born.

14/8/1833, Luigi Cagnola, Italian architect, died (born 9/6/1762).

6/7/1833, Pierre Guerin, French painter, died (born 13/5/1774).

20/6/1833, Leon Bonnat, French painter, was born in Bayomnne.

7/5/1833, Johannes Brahms, German composer, was born in Hamburg, the son of a poor orchestral musician.

25/4/1833, Dominique Garat, French writer, died (born 8/9/1749).

17/4/1833, Vicat Cole, English painter, was born (died 6/4/1893).

18/1/1833, Louis Herold, French musician, died (born 28/1/1791).

6/1/1833, Gustav Dore, French artist, was born.

12/12/1832, Mauritz de Haas, US painter, was born (died 23/11/1895).

18/5/1832, Karl Goldmark, Hungarian composer, was born.

4/3/1832, Samuel Colman, US landscape painter, was born.

9/3/1832, Muzio Clementi, Italian composer, died.

23/1/1832, Edouard Manet, French painter, was born in Paris.

6/1/1832, Gustave Dore, French artist, was born.

15/7/1831, Reinhold Begas, German sculptor, was born in Berlin.

5/8/1831, Sebastien Erard, musical instrument maker, died (born 5/4/1752).

28/6/1831, Joseph Joachim, German composer, was born (died 13/8/1907).

10/11/1830, Jacob Epstein, British sculptor, was born.

9/10/1830, Harriet Hosmer, US sculptor, was born (died 21/2/1908).

8/1/1830, Hans Bulow, German pianist, was born (died 13/2/1894).

7/1/1830, Albert Bierstadt, US landscape painter, was born in Solingen, Germany (died in New York City 18/2/1902).

1829, The accordion was invented by Cyril Damian (1772-1837) in Vienna.

20/11/1829, Albert Bellows, US landscape painter, was born in Milford, Massachusetts (died in Auburndale, Massachusetts, 24/11/1883).

18/7/1829, Paul Dubois, French sculptor, was born (died 1905).

6/3/1829, Sir Arthur Blomfield, English architect, was born (died 30/10/1899).

16/2/1829, Francois Gossec, French composer, died (born 1734).

19/11/1828, Franz Schubert, born 31/1/1797, died of typhus, aged 31.

8/11/1828, Thomas Bewick, wood engraver, died (born near Newcastle on Tyne 8/1753).

16/7/1828, Jean Houdon, French sculptor, died (born 18/3/1740).

9/7/1828, Painter Gilbert Stuart died in Boston, USA, aged 52.

16/4/1828, Francisco de Goya, Spanish painter and etcher, died in France aged 82.

20/3/1828, The Norwegian poet Henry Ibsen was born in Skien, Norway.

8/2/1828, Jules Verne, French writer and early author of science fiction, was born in Nantes, Brittany.

16/10/1827, Arnold Bocklin, Swiss painter, was born in Basel (died 16/1/1901).

15/10/1827, Ralph Blakelock, US painter, was born in New York.

22/8/1827, Thomas Rowlandson, painter, died aged 70.

9/8/1827, Marc Desaugiers, French composer, died (born 17/8/1772).

11/5/1827, Jean Carpeaux, French sculptor, was born (died 12/10/1875).

22/4/1827, Thomas Rowlandson, English watercolour painter (born 1756) died in London.

2/4/1827, William Hunt, English artist, was born (died 7/9/1910).

26/3/1827, Composer Ludwig van Beethoven died in Bonn, aged 57. His last words were reputedly “I shall hear in Heaven”. His funeral was on 29/3/1827, in Vienna; thousands attended it.

22/2/1827, Charles Wilson Peale, painter, died aged 85.

4/5/1826, Frederick Church, US landscape painter, was born (died 7/4/1900).

29/12/1825, Jacques David, French painter, died (born 30/4/1748).

30/11/1825, Adolphe Bouguereau, French painter, was born in La Rochelle (died 20/8/1905).

6/11/1825, Jean Garnier, French architect, was born (died 3/8/1898).

25/10/1825, Johann Strauss junior, composer, was born in Vienna, Austria.

1/5/1825, George Innes, US landscape painter, was born (died 3/8/1894).

27/4/1825, Dominique Denon, French artist, died (born 4/1/1747).

16/4/1825, Henry Fuseli, Swiss-German painter, died (born 7/2/1741).

13/4/1825, William Beard, US painter, was born in Painesville, Ohio (died 1900).

14/1/1825, George Dance, painter, died.

9/11/1824, Anne Girodet, French painter, died (born 5/1/1767).

4/9/1824, Anton Bruckner, Austrian composer, was born (died 11/10/1896).

13/6/1824, Julius Eichberg, German composer, was born (died 28/1/1893).

31/3/1824, William Hunt, US painter, was born (died 31/7/1895).

2/3/1824, Bedrich Smetana, Czech composer, was born in Litomysl, Bohemia.

27/1/1824, Josef Israels, Dutch painter, was born.

26/1/1824, Jean Gericault, French painter, died (born 1791).

24/12/1823, Giovanni Bottesini, Italian composer, was born in Lombardy (died in Parma 7/7/1889).

1/12/1823, Ernest Reyer, French composer, was born.

10/7/1823, Sandford Gifford, US painter, was born (died 29/8/1880).

7/5/1823, Despite his deafness, Beethoven conducted the first performance of his Ninth Symphony.

31/3/1823, William Hart, US painter, was born.

1/3/1823, Pierre Garat, French singer, died (born 25/4/1764).

10/12/1822, Cesar Franck, French composer, was born (died 8/11/1890).

13/10/1822, Antonio Canova, Italian sculptor, died (born 1/11/1757).

4/7/1822, Jean Baptiste Guillaume, French sculptor, was born (died 1905).

22/2/1822, Rosa Bonheur, French painter, was born in Bordeaux (died 1899).

1821,The harmonica was invented by the German CFL Buschmann, as an aid to tuning a piano.

1821, The designer, Louis Vuitton, was born in Jura, eastern France, to a farming family. At age 13 he walked to Paris and became apprentice to a master trunk maker.

10/9/1821, Johann Fiorillo, German painter, died (born 13/10/1748)

4/7/1821, Richard Cosway, English miniature painter, died

15/5/1821, John Callcott, English musician (born 20/11/1766) died.

23/4/1821, Pierre Dupont, French song writer, was born (died 24/7/1870).

22/4/1821, Easter Sunday; John Crome, English landscape painter, died (born 21/12/1780).

16/4/1821, Ford Brown, English painter, was born (died 6/10/1893).

16/12/1820, Sir George Scharf, director of the British National Portrait Gallery, was born (died 19/4/1895).

11/3/1820, Benjamin West, painter, died aged 81 in London.

22/12/1819, Franz Abt, German composer, (died 31/3/1885 in Weisbaden) was born in Eilenburg, Saxony.

21/11/1819, James Hook, English painter, was born (died 14/4/1907).

13/9/1819, Clara Schumann, German pianist, was born (died 20/5/1986).

23/6/1819, Henry Gray, US painter, was born (died 12/11/1877).

10/6/1819, Gustave Courbet, French painter, was born (died 31/12/1877).

11/4/1819, Sir Charles Halle, German musician who founded the Halle Orchestra in Manchester, was born.

9/1/1819, William Frith, English painter, was born (died 2/11/1909).

26/9/1818, John Sims Reeves, English vocalist, was born (died 25/10/1900).

25/8/1818, Elizabeth Billington, opera singer, died near Venice.

21/6/1818, Sir Richard Wallace, art collector and philanthropist, was born.

17/6/1818, Charles Gounod, French composer, was born (died 18/10/1893).

24/5/1818, John Foley, Irish sculptor, was born (died 27/8/1874).

21/7/1817, Sir John Gilbert, English painter, was born (died 6/10/1897).

22/2/1817, Niels Gade, Danish composer, was born (died 21/12/1890).

15/2/1817, Charles Daubigny, French landscape painter, was born (died 19/2/1878).

29/1/1817, John Horsley, English painter, was born (died 18/10/1903).

14/10/1816, Daniel Huntingdon, US artist, was born (died 19/4/1906).

2/5/1816, Augustus Egg, British painter, was born (died 26/3/1863).

13/4/1816, Sir William Bennett, English composer, was born in Sheffield (died in St Johns Wood, London, 15/2/1875).

27/3/1816, Sir George Elvey, composer, was born (died 9/10/1893).

7/10/1815, Charles Beecher, US composer, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut (died in Georgetown, Massachusetts, 21/4/1900).

29/9/1815, Andreas Achenbach, German landscape painter, was born (died 31/3/1910).

28/6/1815, Robert Franz, German composer, was born (died 24/10/1892).

11/6/1815, Hablot Browne, artist, was born (died 8/7/1882).

8/6/1814, Frederick Himmel, German composer, died (born 20/11/1765)

8/5/1815, Jean Alard, French violinist, was born in Bayonne (died 22/2/1888 in Paris).

4/3/1815, Frances Abington, English actress (born 1737) died

1814, Dulwich Art Gallery opened; the first public art gallery.

6/11/1814, Adolphe Sax, Belgian musician and instrument-maker who invented the Saxophone and Saxhorn, was born.

28/6/1814, Frederick Faber, British hymn writer, was born (died 26/9/1863).

1/6/1814, Francois Ponsard, French dramatist, was born (died 7/7/1867).

22/3/1814, Thomas Crawford, US sculptor, was born (died 10/10/1857).

24/2/1814, Henry Brown, US sculptor, was born (died 10/7/1886).

10/10/1813, Italian composer Guiseppe Verdi was born in Le Roncole, near Busseto, the son of an innkeeper.

24/9/1813, Andre Gretry, French composer, died (born 8/2/1741).

22/5/1813, Richard Wagner, German operatic composer, was born in Leipzig.

1/5/1813, Jacques Delille, French poet, died (born 22/6/1738).

27/4/1812, Friedrich Flotow, German composer, was born (died 24/1/1883).

11/3/1812, Philip de Loutherberg, English artist, died (born 31/10/1740).

7/2/1812, Author Charles Dickens was born in Landport, Portsmouth, the son of a clerk in the navy pay office.

24/10/1811, Ferdinand Hiller, German composer, was born (died 12/5/1885).

22/10/1811, Franz Liszt, Hungarian composer and pianist, was born in the village of Raiding near Odenburg.

15/10/1811, Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland, English painter, died (born 18/5/1735).

18/7/1811, William Thackeray, poet, was born in Calcutta, India; his father was an official of the East India Company.

13/7/1811, Sir George Gilbert Scott, architect who designed the Albert Memorial and St Pancras Station, was born.

21/1/1811, Julius Benedix, German dramatist, was born in Leipzig (died in Leipzig 26/9/1873).

1/12/1810, Josef Gung’l, Hungarian composer, was born (died 31/1/1889).

8/6/1810, Robert Schumann, German composer, was born.

5/7/1810, American showman Phineas T Barnum was born in Bethel, Connecticut.

23/6/1810, Fanny Essler, Austrian dancer, was born (died 27/11/1884).

13/4/1810, Felicien David, French composer, was born (died 29/8/1876).

1/3/1810, Frederic Chopin, Polish composer and pianist, was born in Zelazowa Wola, near Warsaw, the son of a Frenchman.

5/2/1810, Ole Bull, Norwegian violinist, was born (died 17/8/1880).

12/10/1809, John Hatton, English composer, was born (died 20/9/1886).

31/5/1809, Franz Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer, died in Vienna.

28/3/1809, George Richmond, British artist, was born.

3/2/1809, Felix Mendelssohn, German composer, was born in Hamburg, son of a banker.

22/12/1808, Beethoven’s 5th and 6th symphonies received their premiere in Vienna.

15/5/1808, Michael Balfe, Irish composer, was born in Dublin (died 20/10/1870).

9/3/1808, Guiseppe Bonomi, English architect, died in London (born in Rome 19/1/1739).

14/2/1808, Sir Michael Costa, British composer, was born (died 29/4/1884).

13/10/1807, Hans Gabelentz, German scholarly writer, was born (died 3/9/1874).

20/9/1807, Friedrich Gauermann, Austrian painter, was born (died 7/7/1862).

23/6/1807, Ferdinand Hitzig, German religious writer, was born (died 22/1/1875).

14/2/1807, Maximillian Ainmuller, German artist, was born in Munich (died 9/12/1870).

22/10/1806, Thomas Sheraton, furniture designer and cabinet maker, died.

25/8/1808, Narcisse Diaz, French painter, was born (died 18/11/1876).

2/5/1806, Marc Gleyre, French painter, was born (died 5/5/1874).

22/2/1806, James Barry, English painter, died (born in Cork 11/10/1741).

20/11/1805, Beethoven’s only opera, Fidelio, premiered at the Theater an der Wein, in Vienna.

6/9/1805, Horatio Greenhough, US sculptor, was born (died 18/12/1852).

28/5/1805, Luigi Boccherini, Italian composer, died in Madrid (born 1743).

2/2/1805, Thomas Banks, English sculptor, died in London (born in London 29/12/1735).

27/11/1804, Sir Julius Benedict, composer, was born in Stuttgart (died in London 5/6/1885).

19/11/1804, Pietro Guglielmi, Italian composer, died (born 5/1727).

16/6/1804, Johann Hiller, German composer, died (born 25/12/1725)

4/5/1804, Antonio Cavanilles, painter, died (born 16/1/1745)

14/3/1804, Johann Strauss the Elder, Austrian composer, was born in Vienna, son of an innkeeper.

11/12/1803, Hector Berlioz, French composer, was born in La Cote St Andre, near Grenoble, son of a doctor.

26/9/1803, Thomas Cooper, English painter, was born (died 7/2/1902).

13/9/1803, Jean Gerard, French caricaturist, was born (died 17/3/1847)

24/7/1803, Adolphe Adam, French composer, was born (died 3/5/1856).

2/6/1803, Michael Glinka, Russian composer, was born (died 2/2/1857).

22/10/1802, Samuel Arnold, English composer, died in London (born 10/8/1740 in London).

17/6/1802, Hermann Goldschmidt, German painter, was born (died 26/8/1866).

3/3/1802, Beethoven’s opera “Moonlight Sonata” was published.

7/3/1802, Sculptor and animal painter Sir Edward Landseer was born in London, the son of an engraver. He designed the bronze lions at the base of Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square.

3/11/1801, Karl Baedeker, guide book publisher, was born.

1/11/1801, Vincenzo Bellini, operatic composer, was born in Catania, Sicily (died in Puteaux, Paris, 24/9/1835).

20/10/1801, Henry Inman, US artist, was born (died 17/1/1846).

4/9/1801, Alfred d’Orsay, French artist, was born (died 4/8/1852).

31/8/1801, Sir Joseph Paxton, architect of the Crystal Palace, was born at Milton Bryant near Woburn, Bedfordshire.

16/8/1801, Ralph Earle, US portrait painter, died (born 11/5/1771).

1/2/1801, Thomas Cole, US landscape painter, was born (died 11/2/1848).

11/1/1801, Domenico Cimarosa, Italian composer, died (born 17/12/1749).

9/2/1800, Joseph von Fuhrich, Austrian painter, was born (died 13/3/1876).

4/8/1799, John Bacon, sculptor, died in London (born 24/11/1740 in Southwark),

28/9/1798, Giovanni Genelli, German painter, was born (died 13/11/1868).

26/4/1798, The painter Eugene Delacroix was born near Paris.

17/2/1798, Friedrich Beneke, German writer, was born in Berlin (died 1854).

17/7/1797, Hippolyte Delaroche, French painter, was born (died 4/11/1856).

31/1/1797, Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born near Vienna. He was the son of a schoolteacher.

24/9/1796, Antoine Barye, French sculptor, was born in Paris (died 25/6/1875).

21/8/1796, Asher Durand, US painter, was born (died 17/9/1886).

26/7/1796, Jean Baptiste Corot, French landscape painter, was born (died 22/2/1875).

9/11/1795, Walter Geike, Scottish painter, was born (died 1/8/1837).

23/5/1795, Birth of the architect Sir Charles Barry, who designed the Houses of Parliament in London

3/1/1795, Josiah Wedgwood, English potter and creator of blue jasper ware, died in Staffordshire.

9/2/1794, Jacques Ancelot, French dramatist, was born in Havre (died 1854).

17/11/1793, Sir Charles Eastlake, English painter, was born (died 24/12/1865).

19/7/1793, Thomas Doughty, US painter (died 22/7/1856 in New York city) was born Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

20/12/1792, Nicolas Charlet, French painter, was born (died 30/10/1845).

1/9/1792, Chester Harding, US portrait painter, was born (died 1/4/1866).

9/8/1792, Alvan Fisher, US portrait painter, was born (died 16/2/1863).

29/2/1792, Gioacchino Rossini, Italian composer, was born in Pesano, on the Adriatic coast. He was the son of an itinerant horn player.

27/2/1792, George Cruikshank, English artist, was born (died 1/2/1878).

23/2/1792, Joshua Reynolds, English portrait painter, died in London.

5/12/1791, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, died of typhus in Vienna and was buried in the common ground of St Mark’s churchyard.

21/2/1791, Karl Czerny, Austrian composer, was born (died 15/7/1857).

28/1/1791, Louis Herold, French musician, was born (died 18/1/1833).

22/8/1790, Francois Forster, French engraver, was born (died 27/6/1872).

28/3/1790, William Hunt, English painter, was born (died 10/2/1864).

15/2/1789, Frederic Fesca, German composer, was born (died 1826).

2/8/1788, The painter Thomas Gainsborough, born 14/5/1727, died.

10/7/1788, Mozart completed his Jupiter Symphony. Born on 27/1/1756, Mozart died on 5/12/1791 from typhus and was buried in a pauper’s grave with several other paupers.

10/3/1788, Edward Baily, British sculptor, was born in Bristol (died in Holloway 22/5/1867).

16/12/1787, Francois Heim, French painter, was born (died 29/9/1865)

10/8/1787, Mozart completed his famous Eine Kleine Nachtmusik.

20/6/1787, Karl Abel, German musician (born 1725) died in London.

10/3/1787, William Etty, British painter, was born (died 13/11/1849).

18/11/1786, Sir Henry Bishop, composer, was born in London (died 30/4/1855).

3/6/1786, William Hilton, English painter, was born (died 30/12/1839).

26/1/1786, Benjamin Haydon, English painter, was born (died 22/6/1846).

3/1/1785, Baldassare Galuppi, Italian composer, died (born 18/10/1706).

7/12/1784, Allan Cunningham, Scottish poet, was born (died 30/10/1842).

25/3/1784, Francois Fetis, Belgian composer, was born (died 26/3/1871)

21/1/1784, Peter de Wint, English landscape painter, was born (died 30/1/1849).

23/12/1783, Johann Hasse, German composer, died.

18/12/1783, Johan Bystrom, Swedish sculptor, was born (died 1848).

29/4/1783, David Cox, English painter, was born (died 7/6/1859).

3/4/1783, Washington Irving, author of Rip Van Winkle, was born.

25/3/1783, Jean Guerin, French painter, was born (died 19/1/1855).

6/2/1783. English landscape gardener Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown died. Kew Gardens and Blenheim Palace are examples of his work.

27/10/1782, Birth of Italian composer and violinist Niccolo Paganini, in Genoa.

15/7/1782, Carlo Broschi (Farinelli), Italian singer, died (born 24/1/1705).

16/5/1782,  John Cotman, English landscape painter, was born (died 24/7/1842).

7/4/1782, Sir Francis Chantrey, English sculptor, was born (died 25/11/1841).

14/11/1780, Jacobus Houbraken, Dutch engraver, died (25/12/1698).

29/8/1780, Jean Ingres, French painter, was born (died 17/1/1867).

19/8/1780, Pierre Beranger, French songwriter, was born in Paris (died 16/7/1857).

6/12/1779, Jean Baptiste Chardin, painter, died in Paria aged 80.

18/12/1779, Joseph Grimaldi, English clown who invented the white face make up for clowns, was born.

6/12/1779, Jean Baptiste Chardin, painter, died in Paria aged 80.

5/11/1779, Washington Allston, US artist, was born in Waccamaw, South Carolina. He died 9/7/1843 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

7/2/1779, William Boyce, English composer, died (born in London 7/2/1710).

20/1/1779, David Garrick, English actor and theatre manager, died. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

14/11/1778, Johann Hummel, German composer, was born (died 1837).

3/8/1778, La Scala opera house  in Milan opened, the work of Guiseppe Piermarini.

5/3/1778, Thomas Arne, English composer, died in London.

22/1/1778, Lord Byron, English romantic poet, was born in London.

10/3/1777, Louis Hersent, French painter, was born (died 2/10/1860).

20/11/1776, John Callcott, English  musician, was born (died 15/5/1821).

11/6/1776, John Constable, landscape painter, was born in East Bergholt, Suffolk, the son of a landowner and miller.

16/12/1775, Jane Austen, author, was born at Steventon in Hampshire, the seventh child of eight born to a rector.

21/10/1775, Guiseppe Baini, Italian musician, was born in Rome (died in Rome, 21/5/1844).

5/7/1775, William Crotch, English musician, was born (died 19/12/1847).

23/4/1775, The painter Joseph Mallory William Turner was born at Covent Garden, London. He was the son of a barber.

1/12/1774, Johann Agricola, German musician died in Berlin (born  4/1/1720 in Dobitschen).

15/11/1774, William Horsley, English musician, was born (died 1858).

13/5/1774, Pierre Guerin, French painter, was born (died 6/7/1833).

17/8/1772, Marc Desaugiers, French composer, was born (died 9/4/1827).

24/2/1771, Johann Cramer, English composer, was born (died 16/4/1858).

16/12/1770, Beethoven, German composer, was born in Bonn, the son of an undistinguished tenor.

4/5/1770, Francois Gerard, French painter, was born (died 11/1/1837).

7/4/1770, William Wordsworth, poet, was born, at Cockermouth, Cumberland. He was the son of an attorney.

21/12/1769, John Crome, English landscape painter, was born (died 22/4/1821).

10/12/1768, The Royal Academy of Arts, London, was founded.  Joshua Reynolds was the first President.

20/4/1768, Painter Canaletto died in Venice. Born there in 1697, Canaletto painted many scenes of Venice before moving to England in 1746 to paint the country houses there.

11/4/1767, Jean Isabey, French painter, was born (died 1855).

5/1/1767, Anne Girodet, French painter, was born (died 9/12/1824).

20/11/1766, John Callcott, English musician (died 15/5/1821) was born.

20/11/1765, Frederick Himmel, German composer, was born (died 8/6/1814)

27/10/1764, The painter and engraver William Hogarth died in London, aged 67.  He was buried in Chiswick churchyard. He also pushed for legislation to protect the intellectual property of artists, the so-called ‘Hogarth Act’ of 1753.

9/7/1764, Louis Baltard, French architect, was born in Paris (died in Paris 13/1/1874).

25/11/1763, Jean Drouais, French historical painter, was born (died 15/7/1788).

8/8/1763, Charles Bulfinch, US architect, was born (died 15/4/1844).

7/4/1763, Domenico Dragonetti, musician, was born (died 16/4/1846).

20/9/1762, Pierre Fontaine, French architect, was born (died 10/10/1853).

9/6/1762, Luigi Cagnola, Italian architect, was born (died 14/8/1833).

14/9/1760, Maria Cherubini, Italian composer, was born (died 15/3/1842).

21/4/1760, Britain’s first art exhibition opened. The Annual Exhibition of United Artists was held at the premises of the Society of Arts on The Strand, London.

12/2/1760, Johann Dussek, Bohemian composer, was born (died 20/3/1812).

14/4/1759. George Frederick Handel, German composer, died, aged 74, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. He was born in Halle, Saxony, on 23/2/1685. He settled in England and became court composer to George II.

15/10/1758, Johann Heinrich von Dannecker, German sculptor, was born (died 1841)

6/1/1758,  Charles Ganilh, political writer, was born (died 1836).

1/11/1757, Antonio Canova, Italian sculptor, was born (died 13/10/1822).

23/7/1757. The composer Scarlatti died, aged 71.

27/1/1756, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, was born in Salzburg, the son of a musician.

1/12/1755, Maurice Greene, English composer, died (born 1695).

13/8/1755, Francesco Durante, Italian composer, died (born 15/3/1684).

6/7/1755, John Flaxman, English sculptor, was born (died 7/12/1826).

10/9/1753. Birth of the architect Sir John Soane. He was born at Goring, near Reading, the son of a mason, and in 1788 he became architect and surveyor to the Bank of England. The new exterior he created for the Bank was regarded as his most famous work. In 1806 he became Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy; he was knighted in 1831. His home at 13 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, which he designed, was the setting for his art and antiques collection. He lived there alone after his wife died in 1815; it is now the John Soane Museum. He also designed the Dulwich College Picture Gallery in south London.

5/4/1752, Sebastien Erard, musical instrument maker, was born (died 5/8/1831).

11/5/1751, Ralph Earle, US portrait painter, was born (died 16/8/1801).

28/7/1750. The composer Johann Sebastian Bach died, almost blind, of apoplexy. He was born on 21/3/1685 in Eisenach, Germany. He fathered 20 children, and also composed 300 cantatas, two oratorios, the St John and St Matthew Passions, and Mass in B Minor.

17/12/1749, Domenico Cimarosa, Italian composer, was born (died 11/1/1801).

8/9/1749, Dominique Garat, French writer, was born (died 25/4/1833).

12/3/1749, Allesandro Magnasco, painter, died aged 81 in Genoa.

22/2/1749, Johann Forkel, German musician, was born (died 20/3/1818).

17/1/1749, Vittorio Alfieri, Italian dramatist (died 8/10/1803) was born in Asti, Piedmont.

13/10/1748, Johann Fiorillo, German painter, was born (died 10/9/1821)

30/4/1748, Jacques David, French painter, was born (died 29/12/1825).

30/3/1746, Francisco de Goya, Spanish painter, was born in Fuendetodos, near Saragosa, son of a master gilder.

16/1/1745, Antonio Cavanilles, painter, was born (died 4/5/1804).

10/10/1743, Marie Guimard, French dancer, was born (died1816).

13/4/1742, The performance of Handel’s Messiah in Dublin marked the climax of his popularity.

11/10/1741, James Barry, English painter, was born in Cork (died 22/2/1806).

28/7/1741, Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer, notably of The Four Seasons, died in Vienna.

7/2/1741, Henry Fuseli, Swiss-German painter, was born (died 16/4/1825).

24/11/1740, John Bacon, sculptor, was born in Southwark (died 4/8/1799 in London)

31/10/1740, Philip de Loutherberg, English artist, was born (died 11/3/1812).

10/8/1740, Samuel Arnold, English composer, was born in London (died 22/10/1802 in London).

18/3/1740, Jean Houdon, French sculptor, was born (died 16/7/1828).

2/11/1739, Karl Dittersdorf, Austrian composer, was born (died 1/10/1799).

19/1/1739, Guiseppe Bonomi, English architect, was born in Rome (died in London 9/3/1808).

1738, The musical glasses, (verillon) ancestor of the harmonica, was demonstrated by Eisel.

22//6/1738, Jacques Delille, French poet, was born (died 1/5/1813).

17/1/1738, German architect, Matthaus Poppelman, died aged 74.

18/12/1737, Antonio Stradivari, famous Italian violin maker, died in Cremona, Lombardy.

25/3/1736, Nicholas Hawksmoor, Emglish architect, pupil of Christopher Wren, died (born 1661).

3/2/1736, Johann Albrechtsberger, Austrian musician, was born in Kloster-Neuburg (died 7/3/1809 in Vienna).

29/12/1735, Thomas Banks, English sculptor, was born in London (died in London 2/2/1805).

18/5/1735, Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland, English painter, was born (died 15/10/1811).

7/12/1732, The Covent Garden Theatre, London, opened

31/3/1732, Franz Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer, was born in Rohrau, son of a wheelwright.

26/4/1731, Daniel Defoe, English author who wrote Robinson Crusoe, died.

27/1/1731, Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italian harpsichord maker, who designed the first piano in 1710, died in Florence.

12/7/1730, Josiah Wedgewood, potter, was born at Burslem, Staffordshire.

29/5/1730, William Jackson, English musician, was born (died 5/7/1803).

14/8/1727, William Croft, English composer, died (born 1678).

14/5/1727, Artist Thomas Gainsborough was born in Sudbury, Suffolk. He was the son of a cloth merchant.

26/3/1726, Sir John Vanbrugh, English playwright and architect of Blenheim Palace, Castle Howard, and many other stately homes, died of quinsy.

21/8/1725, Jean Greuze, French painter, was born (died 4/3/1805).

16/7/1723, Joshua Reynolds, English portrait painter, was born at Plympton Earls, Devon.

5/4/1723, Austrian architect JB Fischer von Erlach died aged 66.

25/2/1723, Sir Christopher Wren, architect, born 20/10/1632 in East Knoyle, Wiltshire, died aged 91, in London. His works included St Paul’s Cathedral (see 22/6/1675) and Chelsea Hospital. He was buried in the crypt of St Pauls Cathedral.

18/7/1721, Painter Jean Antoine Watteau died aged 36 of smallpox in Nogent sur Marne.

26/3/1721, Nicolas le Camus, French architect, was born (died 27/7/1789).

10/10/1720, Charles Coysevox, French sculptor, died (born 29/9/1640).

4/1/1720, Johann Agricola, German musician (died 1/12/1774 in Berlin) was born in Dobitschen.

2/3/1717, First ballet performed in England, The Loves of Mars and Venus , at The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London.

19/2/1717, David Garrick, English actor and theatre manager, was born in Hereford, son of an army captain.

2/7/1714, Christoph Gluck, German composer, was born (died 15/11/1787).

8/3/1714, C P E Bach, composer, born.

12/9/1712, Jan van der Heyden, Dutch painter, died (born 1637).

1711, The tuning fork was invented by English instrument maker, John Shore.

15/4/1710, Marie Camargo, French dancer, was born (died 1770).

12/3/1710, Thomas Arne, composer of Rule Britannia, was born in London, the son of an upholsterer.

7/2/1710, William Boyce, English composer, was born in London (died 7/2/1779).

7/12/1709, Meindert Hobbema, painter, died in Amsterdam aged 71,

8/4/1707, Painter Willem van de Velde the Younger died in Greenwich, London, aged 73.

18/10/1706, Baldassare Galuppi, Italian composer, was born (died 3/1/1785).

24/1/1705, Carlo Broschi (Farinelli), Italian singer, was born (died 15/7/1782).

1704, The first piano was constructed by Bartolomeo Cristofori.

14/7/1699, William Bates, English writer, died in Hackney (born in London 11/1625).

25/3/1699, Johann Hasse, German composer, was born (died 23/12/1783).

25/12/1698, Jacobus Houbraken, Dutch engraver, was born (died 14/11/1780).

10/11/1697, Painter William Hogarth was born at Smithfield, London, the son of a teacher.

18/10/1697. Birth of painter Canaletto. He was born in Venice, as Giovanni Antonio Canal, and was trained by his father who was a scene painter. As a youth Canaletto went to Rome to study under the classical painter Pannini. He returned to Venice to become the most famous painter of Venetian views of the 18th century. His patron was Joseph Smith who served as English consul in Venice; as a result Canaletto’s work became popular with English travellers and he cane to England in 1746, staying there for most of the next 10 years. He painted his four views of Warwick castle, the two largest of which are (2001) in the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery.

16/4/1696, Giovanni Batista Tiepolo, Venetian painter, was born.

28/11/1695, Giovanni Colonna, Italian musician, died.

21/11/1695, Henry Purcell, English composer, died in London from tuberculosis.

3/4/1695, Melchior d’Hondecoeterk Dutch painter, died.

25/4/1690, David Teniers the Younger, painter, died aged 79.

22/3/1687, Jean Baptiste, director of the Parisn Opera, died of sepsis after stabbing himself in the foot with his long baton whilst conducting  a Te Deum of thanksgiving for King Louis XIV’s recoverty from illness.

21/3/1685, Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer, was born in Eisenach, Thuringia.

23/2/1685, George Frederick Handel, German composer, was born in Halle, the son of a barber-surgeon.

15/3/1684, Francesco Durante, Italian composer, was born (died 13/8/1755).

15/12/1683, Izaak Walton, author of The Compleat Angler, died at Winchester aged 90.

21/11/1682, Claude Lorrain, painter, died in Rome aged 82.

3/4/1682, Bartolome Murillo, painter, died in Seville aged 64.

14/3/1682, Jacob van Ruysdael, painter, died in Amsterdam, aged 53..

28/11/1680, The Italian sculptor Giovanni Bernini died.

15/6/1679, Guillaume Courtois, French painter, died (born 1628).

4/3/1678. Birth of the Venetian composer and violinist Antonio Lucio Vivaldi.

2/1/1678, The Hamburg Staatsoper (Opera JHouse) opened.

28/3/1677, Wenzel Hoillar, Bohemian etcher, died (born 13/7/1607).

20/5/1676, Jacques Courtois, French painter, died (born 1621),

15/12/1675. Jan Vermeer died aged 43.

22/10/1674, Gerbrand Eeckhout, Dutch painter, died (born 19/8/1621)

12/8/1674, Philippe de Champaigne, Belgian painter, died (born 1602).

15/3/1673, The painter Salvator Rosa died in Rome, aged 57.

5/5/1672, Samuel Cooper, English miniature painter, died (born 1609).

21/1/1672, Painter Adriaen van de Velde died in Amsterdam aged 41.

4/10/1669. The Dutch painter Rembrandt died in solitude and poverty, aged 63, in Amsterdam, having survived both his wife and his mistress. He gradually went bankrupt after his wealthy wife died in 1642, although in his 30s he earned large sums of money from painting portraits of the elite in Amsterdam. He left a legacy of 600 paintings, 1500 drawings and 350 etchings.

9/4/1667, The world’s first art exhibition opened at the Palais Royale in Paris, organised by the Academie de Peinture et de Sculpture. It closed on 23/4/1667.

22/12/1666, Painter Guercino died in Bologna, aged 75.

26/8/1666, Painter Franz Hals died in Haatrlem aged 86.

6/8/1660, Diego Rodriguez Velazquez, painter, died in Madrid.

2/5/1655, Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italian who invented the first piano, was born in Padua.

10/6/1654, Alessandro Algardi, Italian sculptor (born 1602 in Bologna) died in Rome.

21/6/1652. The architect, Inigo Jones, died. He had designed the Queen’s House at Greenwich and the Banqueting Hall at Whitehall. He also laid out Lincoln’s Inn Fields and Covent Garden.

16/4/1646, Birth of Jules Hardouin-Mansart, French court architect to King Louis XIV who designed the Hall of Mirrors and the Orangery at Versailles.

18/8/1642, Reni Guido, Italian painter, died (born 4/11/1575).

9/12/1641, Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish court painter to Charles I from 1632, died in his studio in Blackfriars, London, aged 42, and was buried in Old St Pauls.

15/4/1641, Zampieri Domenichino, Italian painter, died (born 21/10/1581).

29/9/1640, Charles Coysevox, French sculptor, was born (died 10/10/1720).

30/5/1640, Peter Paul Reubens, Flemish Baroque painter, died in Antwerp.

4/8/1639, Juan Alarcon, Spanish dramatist, died in Madrid.

1636,The first known European version of the Cinderella story.The name derives from Gatto Cerentola, or ‘Cinder-Cat’. However the story dates back to ancient Egypt.

1636,The first known written version of the Sleeping Beauty story. However in this Italian version of the story, the heroine was raped by a man who rode off and vanished the next morning,leaving her the mother of twins nine months later.

1634, Villagers at Oberammagau vowed to put on an annual Passion Play if they were spared the Black Death.

23/2/1633, Samuel Pepys, diarist, born in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London. He was the son of a tailor.

31/10/1632, Jan Vermeer, Dutch painter, was born in Delft, the son of an art dealer.

20/10/1632, Christopher Wren, English astronomer and architect, designer of St Paul’s Cathedral, was born in East Knoyle, Wiltshire, the son of a dean.

17/3/1628, Francois Girardon, French sculptor, was born (died 1715).

12/3/1628, John Bull, composer and organist, died.

5/6/1625, Orlando Gibbons, English composer, died (born 1583).

19/8/1621, Gerbrand Eeckhout, Dutch painter, was born (died 22/10/1674)

7/1/1619, Nicholas Hilliard, English painter, died.

1/1/1617, Hendrik Goltzius, Dutch painter, died (born 1558).

8/4/1614. The Greek-born Spanish painter  Domenikos Theotokopoulos, or El Greco died in Toledo.

7/4/1613, Gerhard Douw, Dutch painter, was born (died 1680).

18/7/1610, The Italian painter Caravaggio died, A man with a violent temper, he had killed a man in 1606 and had to flee Rome for Naples, He heard that he was to be pardoned by the Pope and died on his way back to Rome.

19/8/1609, Johannes Fyt, Belgian painter, was born (died 1661).

15/7/1606. Rembrandt, or Harmenszoon Van Rijn, the Dutch painter, was born at Leyden.  He was the son of a prosperous miller.

13/7/1607, Wenzel Hoillar, Bohemian etcher, was born (died 28/3/1677).

6/6/1599, Diego Velasquez, Spanish painter, was born in Seville.

22/3/1599, Sir Anthony van Dyck, Flemish artist and court painter to Charles I of England, was born in Antwerp, son of a cloth manufacturer.

13/1/1596, Jan Goyen, Dutch painter, was born (died 1656).

31/5/1594, Tintoretto, his real name being Jacopo Robusti, one of the great Italian painters, died in Venice, aged 76.

2/2/1594, Composer Palestrina died in Rome (born ca. 1525).

3/9/1592, Robert Greene, dramatist, died.

5/3/1592, Michael Coxcie, Flemish painter, died (born 1499).

21/10/1581, Il Domenichino, Italian painter (died 15/4/1641 in Naples) was born in Bologna, Italy.

21/12/1579, Vicente Joanes, Spanish painter, died (born 1506).

28/6/1577, Peter Van Rubens, Flemish painter, was born in Siegen, Westphalia, the son of a lawyer.

27/8/1576, Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) died, of bubonic plague, in Venice. His age was uncertain, but was believed to be over 90.

4/11/1575, Reni Guido, Italian painter, was born (died 18/8/1642).

15/7/1573, Architect Inigo Jones was born in London.  He was the son of a clothmaker.

7/71573, Giacomo Barocchio, Italian architect, died in Rome (born in Vignola 1/10/1507).

22/12/1572, Francois Clouet, French miniature painter, died.

23/11/1572, Painter Bronzino died in Florence, aged 69.

8/1/1570, Philibert Delorme, French architect, died.

6/4/1528, Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, died in Nuremberg, aged 57.

21/3/1527, Hermann Finck, German composer, was born (died 1558).

27/8/1521, Josquin des Pres, French composer, died.

6/4/1520, The painter Raphael died on his 37th birthday.  He was born in Urbino, Italy, on 6/4/1483.

30/11/1518, Andrea Palladio, Italian architect, was born.

29/9/1518, Tintoretto, Venetian painter, was born as Jabobi Robusti, the son of a dyer.

11/3/1514, Saturday (-157,468) Lazzari Bramante, Italian painter and architect, died.

1513, Macchiavelli wrote ‘The Prince’.

1/11/1512, Michaelangelo unveiled his painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

25/10/1510, Giorgione, painter, died.

17/5/1510, Death of Florentine painter Sandro Botticelli, aged 65, whose work included The Birth of Venus.

1/10/1507, Giacomo Barocchio, Italian architect, was born in Vignola (died in Rome 7/71573).

13/9/1506, Andrea Mantegna, Italian painter, died in Mantua.

8/9/1504, Michelangelo, 29, unveiled his statue of David in Florence. The 13 foot high marble statue had taken him three years to carve.

1499, Oxford University instituted a Degree in Music.

29/8/1499, Alessio Baldovinetti, Florentine painter, died (born 14/10/1427).

11/1/1494, Domenico Ghirlandajo, Florentine painter, died (born 1449).

28/3/1483, Raphael, Italian painter, was born in Urbino as Raffaello Sanzio or Santi.

14/2/1483, Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Florentine painter, was born (died 1560).

6/3/1475, Michelangelo, Italian painter and sculptor, was born in Capresse, Tiuscany, as Michelagniolo di Lodovico Buonarroti.

1472, First printed sheet music, in Bologna, Italy.

21/5/1471, Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, was born in Nuremberg. He was the son of a goldsmith.

8/10/1469, Fra Filippo Lippi, painter, died.

13/12/1466, Donatello, sculptor, died.

26/4/1452, Leonardo Da Vinci, Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, scientist, and inventor, was born into The Renaissance.

16/4/1446, Filippo Brunelleschi, the Florentine architect and sculptor who designed the city’s cathedral, died.

9/6/1441, Dutch painter Jan van Eyck, equerry to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died.

14/10/1427, Alessio Baldovinetti, Florentine painter, was born (died 29/8/1499).

14/2/1404, Leone Alberti, Italian artist, was born (died 1472).

8/1/1337, The painter Giotto died, aged 70.

50 AD, Earliest version of the oboe in use, in Rome.

18,000 BCE, The world’s oldest sculptures, made in Asia, have been dated to this period.

45,000 BCE, The oldest musical instrument in the world, a flute, has been dated to this period.


Appendix 5Writers and poets

3/8/2008, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, writer, died, aged 90.

18/3/2008, Sir Arthur C Clarke, science fiction writer, died aged 90.

6/4/2005, US novelist Saul Bellow died, aged 89.

24/5/2000. The funeral of novelist Dame Barbara Cartland.

30/6/1997, The first book in the award-winning Harry Potter series by J K Rowling was published.

25/11/1993, English author and composer Anthony Burgess died, aged 76.

12/6/1993, Sarah Peralta, US author, died.

21/1/1993, Abe Kobo, Japanese writer, died (born 7/3/1924).

18/1/1993, Eleanor Hibbert, English writer, died (born 1/9/1906).

11/4/1992, Eve Merriam, US poet, died (born 19/7/1916).

6/4/1992, Isaac Asimov, science fiction writer, born 2/1/1920, died.

29/2/1992, Ruth Pitter, English poet (born 7/11/1897) died.

11/12/1991, Artur Lundkvist, Swedish writer (born 3/3/1906) died.

7/12/1990, Reinaldo Arenas, Cuban poet and novelist, died aged 47.

23/11/1990, Roald Dahl, British writer, died (born 13/9/1916)

26/9/1990, Alberto Moravia, Italian fiction writer, died (born 28/11/1907).

15/9/1989, US writer Robert Penn Warren, born 24/4/1905 in Guthrie, Kentucky, died in Stratton, Vermont.

19/4/1989, Daphne du Maurier, writer, died.

11/11/1987, Nico Slothouwer, poet, died aged 30

23/9/1987, The book, Spycatcher, memoirs of former British intelligence officer Peter Wright, was to be published in Australia despite opposition by Britain’s MI5.

20/9/1987, Michael Stewart, US playwright, died aged 63.

11/4/1987, Primo Levi, Italian Jewish writer, died aged 67.

19/12/1984. Ted Hughes was appointed Poet Laureate in succession to Sir John Betjeman.

19/5/1984, Sir John Betjeman, Poet Laureate since 1972, died aged 78.

15/4/1984, Alexander Trocchi, Scottish writer, died aged 58.

15/3/1983, Rebecca West, British author, died aged 90.

24/2/1983, Tennessee Williams, US playwright (born 26/3/1911) died in New York City.

3/11/1982, EH Carr, English historian of Soviet Russia, died aged 90.

12/9/1981, Eugenio Montale, Italian poet, died aged 84.

10/3/1981, Death of Sir Maurice Oldfield, the British intelligence chief thought to be the model for ‘M’ in Ian Fleming’s James Bond novels.

14/5/1979, Jean Rhys, novelist, died aged 88.

14/4/1978, F R Leavis, British literary critic, died aged 82.

11/4/1977, Jacques Prevert, French poet, died aged 77.

29/8/1976, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Bengali poet, died aged 77.

12/1/1976, Dame Agatha Christie, English crime story writer and creator of the Belgian detective character Hercule Poirot, died.  She was born in Torquay on 15/9/1890.

21/11/1975, Gunnar Gunnarsson, Icelandic writer, died aged 86

14/2/1975, PG Wodehouse, author, died.

14/12/1974, Walter Lippmann, US political writer, died aged 85.

29/7/1974, Erich Kastner, German author, died aged 75.

28/9/1973, W H Auden, English-American poet, died aged 66.

2/9/1973, J R R Tolkien, author of The Lord of the Rings, died at Bournemouth.

22/2/1973, Elizabeth Bowen, Irish novelist, died aged 73.

28/9/1970, John Dos Passos, US writer, died in Baltimore, Maryland..

7/7/1970, Sir Allen Lane, publisher and founder of Penguin paperback books in 1936, died.

7/6/1970, E M Forster, novelist, died.

11/3/1969. The author John Wyndham died.

29/12/1968, Austin Farrer, English theological writer, died (born 1904)

20/12/1968. John Steinbeck, American author who wrote The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men, Nobel Prize Winner in 1962, died in New York City.

28/11/1968. Enid Blyton, creator of Noddy and Big Ears, died. She was born on 11/8/1897 in East Dulwich. In the mid 1930s she began writing her stories, which featured Noddy, the Famous Five, and the Secret Seven.

1/6/1968, Helen Keller, US author, died aged 87.

7/10/1967, Norman Angell, English author and politician, died aged 92.

31/8/1967, Ilya Ehrenburg, Soviet author, died aged 75.

9/8/1967, Joe Orton, English author and playwright, died aged 34.

22/7/1967, The US poet Carl Sandburg died in North Carolina.

23/12/1966, Heimito von Doderer, Austrian novelist (born 5/11/1896 in Vienna) died in Vienna.

18/1/1966, Kathleen Norris, US writer, died (born 1880)

16/12/1965, Somerset Maugham, author, died this day.

31/7/1965, J K Rowling, British author of the Harry Potter series, was born.

4/1/1965. The poet and playwright T S Eliot died. He was born on 26/9/1888 in Saint Loius, Missouri. After studying at Harvard University he went to Paris in 1910 to teach French literature and philosophy at the Sorbonne. Later, after the start of World War One, he went to Merton College, Oxford, to read Greek Philosophy. In 1915 he married Vivien Haigh-Wood and in 1919 became a British citizen. His first volume of poetry, Prufrock and other Observations, was published in 1917 followed by Poems in 1919. In 1922 The Waste Land, regarded as his greatest poem, reflected the discontent that followed the trauma of the Great War. In 1948 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.

11/12/1964, Ayelet Waldman, novelist, was born in Jerusalem

9/12/1964, English poet Dame Edith Sitwell died, aged 77.

12/8/1964, Ian Fleming, British author and creator of James Bond, died aged 56.

26/5/1964, Caitlín R. Kiernan, Irish-born US science fiction and fantasy author, was born in Dublin

26/3/1964, You Only Live Twice, Ian Fleming's 12th James Bond novel was released by Jonathan Cape in the UK.

17/9/1963, Rami Saari, Israeli poet, was born.

7/9/1962, Isak Dinesen, Danish writer, died (born 17/4/1885).

7/6/1962, William Faulkner, US writer (born 25/9/1897 in New Albany, Mississippi) died in Oxford, Mississippi.

2/6/1962, Vita Sackville-West, British novelist, died.

27/9/1961, Hilda Doolittle, US poet (born 10/9/1886 in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania), died in Zurich, Switzerland.

2/7/1961, The author Ernest Hemingway, born 21/7/1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, committed suicide.

16/9/1960, Kurt Busiek, US comic book writer, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

8/10/1958, Bret Lott, US author and academic, was born.

11/9/1958, Robert W Service, Scottish-born Canadian poet, died (born 1874).

4/8/1958, Ethel Anderson, Australian poet, died (born 1883)

25/10/1957, Lord Edward Dunsany, writer, died in Dublin, Ireland (born 24/7/1878 in London, England)

24/7/1957, Sacha Guitry, French playwright, died aged 72.

29/5/1957, George Bacovia, Romanian poet, died aged 75.

29/1/1956, H L Mencken, US writer, died aged 75.

12/8/1955, Thomas Mann, German novelist, died aged 80.

2/8/1955, The US poet Wallace Stevens died in Hartford, Connecticut.

24/4/1955, Alfred Polgar, Austrian writer and theatre critic, died aged 79

9/11/1953. The Welsh poet Dylan Marlais Thomas, born in Swansea on 27/10/1914, died in New York City aged 39

26/9/1952, George Santayana, Spanish writer, died aged 88.

2/6/1951, John Erskine, US author, died  in New York (born in New York City, 5/10/1879).

19/2/1951, French writer Andre Gide died.

19/3/1950, Edgar Rice Burroughs, author of the Tarzan books, died aged 75.

24/2/1950, Richard Wayne Bandler, US author, was born.

13/2/1950, Rafael Sabatini, Italian novelist, died aged 74.

11/2/1950, Author Kurt Vonnegut was published for the first time, as his story "Report on the Barnhouse Effect" appeared in Collier's magazine.

21/1/1950. George Orwell died (born 1903). This was the pen name of British author Eric Arthur Blair. His best known works include Animal Farm and 1984.

6/6/1949, George Orwell’s book Nineteen Eighty Four was published. Suffering from tuberculosis, Orwell completed the book between periods of hospitalisation in a remote house in The Hebrides.

6/5/1949, Maurice Maeterlinck, Belgian playwright, died aged 86.

16/9/1948, Julia Donaldson, English children's writer, was born in London, England.

14/9/1948, Marc Reisner, US environmental author, was born.

24/4/1947, Willa Cather, US writer, died aged 73.

6/2/1947, Hans Fallada, German novelist, died in Berlin (born 21/7/1893 in Greifswald, Germany).

31/8/1946, Harley Granville-Barker, English playwright, died aged 69.

13/8/1946. Author H G Wells; born on 21/9/1866, died in London, aged 76.

27/7/1946, The US writer Gertrude Stein (born 3/2/1874 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania), died in Paris, France.

8/6/1946, Gerhart Hauptmann, German novelist, died aged 83.

27/2/1946, Thomas Hauser, author, was born.

25/2/1946, Franz Kroetz, German author, was born.

28/12/1945, Theodore Dreiser, US author (born 27/8/1871 in Terre Haute, Indiana), died in Hollywood, California.

20/7/1945, Paul Valery, French poet, died aged 74.

31/7/1944. The pilot and writer Antoine de Saint-Exupery, author of ‘The Little Prince’, was reported missing.

16/5/1944, George Ade, US author (born 9/2/1866) died.

12/5/1944, Arthur Quiller Couch, Cornish writer, died aged 80.

28/3/1944, Stephen Leacock, Canadian writer, died aged 74.

22/12/1943. The author Beatrix Potter died aged 77.

7/8/1941, Rabindranath Tagore, Indian author and intellectual, died aged 80.

18/3/1941, Wolfgang Bauer, writer, was born.

8/3/1941, Sherwood Anderson, US novelist, died aged 65.

21/12/1940. F Scott Fitzgerald, US author, died.

29/2/1940, EF. Benson, English novelist, died aged 72

11/2/1940, Death of John Buchan, author of The Thirty Nine Steps, also Governor-General of Canada, died and was cremated in Montreal. His ashes were returned to England and buried in Elsfield, Oxfordshire.

25/4/1939, Ted Kooser, US poet, was born.

12/4/1939, Alan Ayckbourn, English playwright, was born.

28/1/1939, W B (William Butler) Yeats, Irish poet, playwright, and Nobel Prize winner in 1923, died in the south of France.

9/10/1938, John Sutherland, English author, was born.

17/7/1938, Anita Brookner, historian, writer, was born.

1/6/1938, Khawar Rizvi, poet, was born in the Punjab, British India.

19/4/1938, Henry Newbolt, English poet, died aged 75.

3/7/1937, Tom Stoppard, Czech-born British playwright, was born.

11/6/1937, Mate Zalka, Hungarian writer, died aged 41.

30/5/1937, Arthur C Jacobs, Scottish poet, was born in Glasgow (died 1994)

9/4/1937, Albert Paine, 75, US author, died.

10/12/1936, Luigi Pirandello, Italian author, died aged 69.

23/8/1936, Juliette Adam, French writer (born 4/120/1836) died.

14/6/1936, G K Chesterton, British poet and novelist, died.

18/1/1936, Rudyard Kipling, English novelist who won the Nobel Prize in 1907, died.

30/7/1935. Penguin paperbacks went on sale in Britain. The first such book on sale was a biography of Shelley.

17/6/1935, G W Russell, Irish writer, died aged 68.

23/5/1935, Laase Stromstedt, Swedish author, was born (died 2009).

9/5/1934, Alan Bennett, British playwright, was born.

4/12/1933, Stefan George, German poet, died aged 65.

31/8/1933, Thursday (-4,268) Theodor Lessing, German Jewish philosophical writer,, died in exile.

21/1/1933, George Augustus Moore, Irish writer, died aged 80.

1/1/1933, Joe Orton, English author, was born (died 1967)

2/10/1932, David St Clair, US writer, was born.

6/7/1932, Kenneth Grahame, author who wrote Wind in the Willows, died (born 8/3/1859).

1/6/1932, Philo Bregstein, Dutch writer, was born.

18/3/1932, John Updike, US author, was born (died 2009)

10/2/1932, Edgar Wallace, English writer, died aged 57.

21/1/1932, Lytton Strachey, founder member of the Bloomsbury Group, an influential writers and intellectual group, died.

31/8/1931, Hall Caine, British novelist, died aged 78.

27/3/1931, Arnold Bennett, English writer, died aged 64.

16/8/1930, Ted Hughes, English poet, was born (died 1998)

7/7/1930, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, British author created the crime detective character Sherlock Holmes, died, aged 71.

13/10/1929, Walasse Ting, Chinese-American poet, was born in Shanghai. He died in 2010.

15/7/1929, Hugo von Hoffmannsthal, Austrian author, died aged 55.

21/11/1928, Hermann Sudermann, German author, died.

23/4/1928, Okke Jager, Dutch theological writer, was born.

10/4/1928, English writer Stanley John Weyman died, aged 72.

12/3/1928, US playwright Edward Albee was born (died 2016).

11/1/1928. Thomas Hardy, English poet and novelist, author of Tess of the D’Ubervilles, died in Dorset aged 87.

14/10/1926. In Britain, A A. Milne published Winnie the Pooh, a children’s book.

3/9/1926, Alison Lurie, US writer, was born.

3/10/1925, Gore Vidal, US writer, was born (died 2012).

15/5/1926, Peter Shaffer, English playwright, was born (died 1926).

14/5/1925, Henry Rider Haggard, English writer, died aged 69.

3/6/1924, German novelist Franz Kafka died in a sanatorium at Kierling, near Vienna, after a seven year battle with tuberculosis.

30/1/1924, Lloyd Alexander, author, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (died 2007)

30/3/1923, Milton Acorn, poet / writer, born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada (died 1986).

9/1/1923. Katherine Mansfield, New Zealand author, died aged 34.

15/11/1922, Marcel Proust, French writer, died aged 51.

22/10/1922, Lyman Abbott, US author, died (born 18/12/1835)

11/6/1921, Michael Meyer, English writer, was born.

15/3/1920, George Louis Beer, US historian, died aged 47.

9/3/1920, Haralamb Lecca, Romanian playwright and poet, died aged 47

2/1/1920. Isaac Asimov was born.

13/9/1919, Mary Midgley, English philosopher and author, was born.

30/4/1919, Oscar Adams, US author, died (born 1855).

27/1/1919, Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (born 21/11/1877) died.

8/1/1919, Peter Altenberg, writer, died aged 59.

11/12/1918, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian novelist, was born in Rostov.

2/11/1918, Frederick Leboyer, author, was born.

27/3/1918, Henry Brooks Adams, historian, novelist and philosopher, died (born 16/2/1838).

8/3/1918, Charles Adams, US poet (born 21/4/1842) died.

16/12/1917, Arthur C Clarke, British science-fiction writer, was born.

13/3/1917, Maria Vlamynck, Flemish author, was born.

22/11/1916, Jack London, author and campaigner for social justice (born 12/1/1876 in San Francisco) died destitute of a drugs overdose.

14/11/1916, H H Munro (Saki) died, aged 45.

13/9/1916,  Roald Dahl, author of children’s books, was born in Llandaff, Glamorganshire.

20/5/1916, Owen Chadwick, British writer, was born

10/7/1915, Saul Bellow, US author, was born in Lachine, Quebec.

23/4/1915, Rupert Brooke, British poet, died at Lemnos.

11/11/1914, Howard Fast, US author, was born in New York City.

27/10/1914, Dylan Marlais Thomas, Welsh poet, was born in Swansea, the son of a schoolmaster.

7/11/1913. Birth of the French novelist and playwright Albert Camus. He was born in Algeria and studied philosophy. He worked as an actor, teacher, and journalist; and was active in the French Resistance in World War II. But he found fame as an existentialist writer; for example his nihilist novel The Outsider, 1942, contained the line “Mother died today. Or perhaps it was yesterday. I don’t know”. He was awarded the Nobel prize for literature I 1957, and died in 1960.

11/8/1913, Angus Wilson, English novelist, was born (died 1991).

29/3/1913, R. S. Thomas, Welsh poet, was born  in Cardiff (died 2000).

14/5/1912, August Strindberg, playwright, died in Stockholm, Sweden..

20/4/1912, Bram Stoker, Dublin-born creator of Dracula in 1897, died aged 65 in London.

26/3/1912, Tennessee Williams, US playwright, was born (died 1983).

2/7/1911, Diego Fabbri, Italian playwright, was born in Forlì.

29/5/1911, W S Gilbert, English poet and dramatist, died aged 75.

26/3/1911, Tennessee Williams, US playwright (born 26/3/1911) died in New York City.

7/11/1910, Leo Tolstoy, author of War and Peace and Anna Karenina, died.

17/10/1910, Julia Howe, US author, died (born 27/5/1819).

2/7/1910, Frederick Furnivall, English writer, died (born 4/2/1825),

5/6/1910, Death of American short-story writer O. Henry (real name William Sydney Porter).

26/4/1910, Bjornstjerne Bjornson, Norwegian writer, died (born 8/12/1832).

12/4/1910, Sir Robert Giffen, Scottish economics writer, died (born 1837)

14/12/1909, Frederick Greenwood, English writer, died (born 4/1830).

18/11/1909, Richard Gilder, US poet, died (born 8/2/1844).

24/6/1909, Sarah Jewett, US novelist, died (born 3/9/1849).

10/6/1909, Edward Hale, US author, died (born 3/4/1822).

26/4/1909, Marcus Dods, Scottish religious writer, died (born 1834).

23/3/1909, John Davidson, British writer, died (born 11/4/1857).

27/11/1908, Jean Gaudry, French geological writer, died (born 16/9/1827).

1/11/1908, Edward Caird, British religious writer, died (born 22/3/1835).

13/10/1908, Daniel Gilman, US educational writer, died (born 6/7/1831)

15/9/1908, John Collins, English literary critic, died (born 26/3/1848).

1/6/1908, Louis Frechette, French Canadian poet, died (born 16/11/1839).

31/5/1908, Sir John Evans, British archaeological writer, died (born 17/11/1823).

28/5/1908, Ian Fleming, creator of James Bond, was born in London.

8/5/1908, Ludovic Halevy, French author, died (born 1/1/1834).

12/3/1908, Edmondo de Amicis, Italian writer, died in Bordighera (b0rn 21/10/1846 in Oneglia).

25/1/1908, Louise de la Ramee, English novelist (pen name Ramee) died aged 67.

14/1/1908, Holger Drachmann, Danish poet, died (born 9/10/1846).

10/12/1907. Rudyard Kipling was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature, the first time it had been awarded to an English writer.

28/11/1907, Alberto Moravia, Italian novelist, was born (died 1990).

15/11/1907, Moncure Conway, author, died in Paris (born 17/3/1832 in Virginia, USA).

12/9/1907, Louis Macneice, Irish poet, was born (died 1963).

7/9/1907, Bogdan Hasdeu, Romanian scholarly writer, died (born 1836).

8/7/1907, Sophus Bugge, Norwegian scholarly writer, died (born 5/1/1833)

11/6/1907, Clovis Hugues, French poet, died (born 3/11/1851).

18/5/1907, John Ingram, Irish scholarly writer, died (born 7/7/1832).

13/5/1907, Daphne du Maurier, English novelist, was born in London.

4/7/1907, Ernst Fischer, German philosophical writer, died (born 23/7/1824).

21/2/1907, W H Auden, English poet, was born.

16/2/1907, Giosue Carducci, Italian poet (born 27/7/1836) died.

26/1/1907, Henry Field, US author, died (born 3/4/1822).

21/1/1907, Toivo Kauppinen, Finnish writer, was born.

12/1/1907, Adolf Hilgenfeld, German religious writer, died (2/6/1823).

9/12/1906, Ferdinand Brunetiere, French writer, died (born 19/7/1849).

6/10/1906, Auguste Himly, French historical writer, died (born 28/3/1823).

13/8/1906, Pearl Craigie, US novelist, died (born 3/11/1867).

28/8/1906, John Betjeman, poet, was born (died 1984).

20/6/1906, Catherine Cookson, British writer, was born.

13/4/1906, Samuel Beckett, Irish playwright, was born.

23/3/1906, Thomas Harris, US poet and preacher, died.

9/2/1906, Paul Laurence Dunbar, poet and novelist (born 27/6/1872 in Dayton, Ohio) died of tuberculosis. Son of a former slave, his poetry did much to describe the everyday lives of Black Americans.

22/1/1906, George Holyoake, English writer, died (born 13/4/1817).

20/12/1905, Wednesday (-14,384) Henry Harland, US author, died (born 3/1861 in St Petersburg).

28/10/1905, Michael Dragomirov, Russian military writer, died (born 8/11/1830).

3/10/1905, Jose Heredia, French poet, died (born 22/11/1842).

6/9/1905, Karl Heigel, German novelist, died (born 25/3/1835).

21/6/1905, Jean Paul-Sartre, French dramatist and novelist, was born in Paris.

23/5/1906, Henrik Ibsen, Norwegian poet, died (born 20/3/1828).

24/3/1905, Jules Verne, French science fiction writer, died in Amiens aged 77.

19/11/1904, Hans von Hopfen, German poet, died (born 3/1/1835).

4/11/1904, Benjamin de Costa, US historical writer, died (born 10/7/1831).

26/9/1904, Lafcadio Hearn, writer on Japan, died (born 27/6/1850).

22/7/1904, Wilson Barrett, playwright, died (born in Essex 18/2/1846).

11/7/1904, Frederic Huntington, US religious writer, died (born 28/5/1819).

2/7/1904, The Russian playwright, Anton Chekhov, born 17/1/1860 in Taganrog, died in Germany whilst being treated for tuberculosis.

24/3/1904, Sir Edwin Arnold, British poet, died (born 10/6/1832).

2/3/1904, Theodor Seuss Geisel, author of children’s books, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts.

28/1/1904, Karl Franzos, German novelist, died (born 25/10/1848).

28/12/1903, George Gissing, English novelist, died (born 22/11/1857).

1/11/1903, Theodor Mommsen, writer, died aged 87.

15/7/1903, Walter Dumeaux Edmonds, US novelist, was born in Booneville, New York.

25/6/1903, Birth of the author George Orwell, in Motihari, Bengal, India.  He was born as Eric Arthur Blair.

4/5/1903, John Hurst, US religious writer, died (born 17/8/1834).

5/3/1903, George Henderson, British military writer, died (born 1854).

22/3/1903, Frederic Farrar, English religious writer, died (born 7/8/1831),

13/3/1903, Nikolaas Beets, Dutch poet, died in Utrecht (born in Haarlem 13/9/1814).

27/2/1903, George Hill, English writer, died (born 7/6/1835).

9/2/1903, Sir Charles Duffy, Irish writer, died (born 12/4/1816).

1902, Beatrix Potter’s first book, The Tale of Peter Rabbit, was published.

17/11/1902, Monday (-15,513) Hugh Hughes, British religious writer, died (born 8/2/1847).

25/10/1902, Frank Norris, US novelist, died.

21/9/1902, Sir Allen Lane, English publisher who founded Penguin books and brought about the paperback revolution, was born.

20/9/1902, Stevie Smith, poet and novelist, was born (died 1971)

11/9/1902, Ernst Dummler, German historical writer, died (born 2/1/1830).

2/9/1902, Edward Egglestone, US author (born 10/12/1837 in Vevay, Indiana) died in Lake George, New York.

18/6/1902, Samuel Butler, English writer, died (born 4/12/1835).

16/5/1902, Carles Fages de Climent, Catalonian writer, poet and journalist, was born in Figueres (died 1968).

10/5/1902, George Grant, scholarly writer, died (born 1835).

5/5/1902, Francis Harte, US author, died (born 25/8/1839).

21/2/1902, Emil Holub, Bohemian writer, died (born 7/10/1847)

10/2/1902, Armand Bernier, Belgian poet, was born.

9/2/1902, Sir George Cox, English religious writer, died (born 10/1/1827).

26/1/1902, Andrew Davidson, Scottish religious writer, died (born 1831).

15/1/1902, Alpheus Hyatt, US science writer, died (born 5/4/1838).

16/12/1901, Johann Duntzer, German writer, died (born 12/7/1813).

11/10/1901, James Greenough, US classical scholarly writer, died (born 4/5/1833).

27/8/1901, Rudolf Haym, German writer, died (born 5/10/1821).

2/8/1901, Hans Forssell, Swedish historical writer, died (born 14/1/1843).

9/7/1901, Barbara Cartland, British writer of romantic novels, was born.

10/6/1901, Robert Buchanan, British novelist, died (born 18/8/1841).

9/6/1901, Sir Walter Besant, English author, died in Hampstead, London (born in Portsmouth 14/8/1836).

24/3/1901, Charlotte M Yonge, novelist, died, aged 78.

7/3/1901, Kate Greenaway, English artist, died (born 17/3/1846)

13/2/1901, Lewis Grassic Gibbon, Scottish novelist, was born (died 1935)

3/2/1901, Rosamund Lehmann, novelist, was born (died 1900).

1/2/1901, Fitzedward Hall, US orientalist writer, died (born 21/3/1825).

28/1/1900, Hans Geinitz, German geological writer, died (born 16/10/1814).

30/11/1900, The Irish writer Oscar Wilde (born Dublin 1854) died in poverty in Paris under the pseudonym Sebastian Medmoth. Wilde’s stage and literary career ended in 1895 when the Marquess of Queensbury, angered by Wilde’s friendship with his son, accused Wilde of sodomy. Wilde sued for libel but lost the case and was at once prosecuted for homosexuality. He served two years in gaol 1895-97 before fleeing to France and poverty.

29/6/1900, Antoine de Saint Exupery, author of The Little Prince, was born.

28/5/1900, Sir George Grove, English writer on music, died (born 13/8/1820).

23/4/1900, Charles Elton, English historical writer, died (born 6/12/1839).

2/4/1900, Roberto Arlt, Argentine writer, was born in Buenos Aires (died 1942)

30/3/1900, Archibald Forbes, British military writer, died (born 17/4/1838).

10/2/1900, William Green, US Hebrew scholarly writer, died (born 27/1/1825).

9/2/1900, Sir William Geddes, Scottish scholarly writer, died (born 1828).

6/2/1900, Sir William Hunter, British writer, died (born 15/7/1840).

23/1/1900, Richard Dixon, English poet, died (born 5/5/1833).

16/11/1899, Julius Busch, German publicist, died (born 13/2/1821)

13/11/1899, Arthur Giry, French historical writer, died (born 29/2/1848).

24/10/1899, Grant Allen, English author, died in Hindhead (born 24/2/1848 in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

13/10/1899, Philip Colomb, English writer, died (born 29/5/1831).

27/8/1899, Emmanuel Hiel, Belgian-Dutch writer, died (born 5/1834).

7/8/1899, Alexander Bruce, Scottish religious writer, died (born 31/3/1831).

21/7/1899, Robert Ingersoll, US author, died (born 11/8/1833).

11/6/1899, William Blaikie, theological writer, died (born in Aberdeen 5/2/1820).

7/6/1899, Augustin Daly, US playwright, died (born 20/7/1838).

1/6/1899, Klaus Groth, German poet, died (born 24/4/1819).

1/3/1899, Andrew Boyd, Scottish author, died in Bournemouth (born 3/11/1825).

17/1/1899, Nevil Shute, English novelist, was born in Ealing, London.

13/12/1898, Paul Hinschius, German legal writer, died (born 25/12/1835).

19/10/1898, Harold Frederic, Anglo-US novelist, died (born 19/8/1856).

20/9/1898, Theodor Fontane, German novelist, died (30/12/1819).

21/7/1898, William Hunter, Scottish legal writer, died (born 8/5/1844).

22/5/1898, Edward Bellamy, US writer died in Chicopee Falls (born in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts 25/3/1850).

1/4/1898, Samuel Davidson, Irish religious writer, died (born 1807).

11/2/1898, Ferdinand Fabre, French novelist, died (born 1830).

14/1/1898, Lewis Carroll, author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, died in Guildford, Surrey.

2/1/1898, Sir Edward Bond, English librarian, died (born in Hanwell 31/12/1815).

17/12/1897, Alphonse Daudet, French novelist, died (born 13/5/1840).

19/11/1897, Henry Calderwood, Scottish philosophical writer, died (born 10/5/1830).

31/10/1897, Samuel Haughton, Irish scientific writer, died (born 21/12/1821).

4/10/1897, Pascual Gayangos, Spanish historical writer, died (born 21/6/1809).

25/8/1897, Emile Gautier, French historical writer, died (born 8/8/1832).

11/8/1897, Enid Blyton, author of children’s books, was born in Dulwich.

26/5/1897, Bram Stoker’s Dracula was first published.

3/5/1897, Edward Goulburn, English religious writer, died (born 11/2/1818).

11/3/1897, Henry Drummond, Scottish scholarly writer, died (born 17/8/1851).

1/2/1897, Constantin Ettingshausen, scientific writer, died (born 16/6/1826).

26/1/1897, Karl Holsten, German religious writer, died (born 31/3/1825).

28/12/1896, Horatio Hale, US ethnological writer, died (born 3/5/1817).

26/11/1896, Mathilde Blind, English author, died (born in Mannheim 21/3/1841).

8/10/1896, George du Maurier, English writer, died (born 1834).

24/9/1896, F Scott Fitzgerald, US author, was born.

11/9/1896, Francis Child, scholarly writer, died (born 1/2/1825).

6/9/1896, Sir Joseph Crowe, art writer, died (born 25/10/1828).

11/7/1896, Ernst Curtius, German historical writer, died (born 2/9/1814).

2/7/1896, Isaac Hall, US orientalist writer, died (born 12/12/1837).

11/6/1896, Sir George Dasent, English writer, died born 22/5/1817).

11/5/1896, Henry Bunner, US writer, died (born 3/8/1855).

10/5/1896, Luigi Cossa, Italian economics writer, died.

29/4/1896, Jean Haureau, French writer, died (born 1812).

28/3/1896, Elizabeth Charles, English author, died (born 2/1/1828).

21/3/1896, George Denison, English religious writer, died (born 11/12/1805).

26/2/1896, Arsene Houssaye, French novelist, died (born 28/3/1815).

29/1/1896, Hugh Childers, British politician, died (born 25/6/1827).

14/1/1896, John Dos Passos, US writer, was born in Chicago, Illinois.

11/1/1896, Joao de Deus, Portuguese poet, died (born 8/3/1830).

27/11/1895, Alexandre Dumas II, novelist, died (born 27/7/1824)

22/11/1895, John de Tabley, English poet, died (born 26/4/1835).

4/11/1895, Eugene Field, US poet, died (born 2/9/1850).

22/10/1895, Ruggero Bonghi, Italian writer, died (born in Naples 20/3/1828).

7/10/1895, William Wetmore Story, US poet, died (born 12/2/1819).

16/8/1895, Mathieu Geffroy, French historical writer, died (born 1820).

29/7/1895, Joseph Derenbourg, Orientalist writer, died (born 1811).

30/4/1895, Gustav Freytag, German novelist, died (born 13/7/1816)

13/3/1895, Robert Dale, English religious writer, died (born 1/12/1829).

2/3/1895, Stuart Blackie, Scottish writer, died in Edinburgh (born in Glasgow 28/7/1809).

23/2/1895, Samuel Horton, US economics writer, died (born 16/1/1844).

11/2/1895, Charles Gayarre, US historical writer, died (born 9/1/1805).

19/1/1895, Moritz Carriere, German historical writer, died (born 5/3/1817)

11/1/1895, Thomas Hake, English poet, died (born 10/3/1809).

29/12/1894, Christina Rossetti, English poet, died (born 5/12/1830).

3/12/1894, Robert Louis Stevenson, who wrote Treasure Island, died.

30/11/1894, William Hall, English legal writer, died (born 22/8/1835).

25/11/1894, Jean Duroy, historical writer, died (born 11/9/1811).

20/10/1894, Jean Challamel, French historical writer, died (born 18/3/1818)

19/10/1894, James Darmesteter, French author, died (born 28/3/1849).

26/7/1894, Aldous Huxley, novelist, was born.

5/6/1894, Edward Capern, English poet, died (born 21/1/1819).

4/6/1894, Wilhelm Freund, German scholarly writer, died (born 27/1/1806).

23/5/1894, Brian Hodgson, British writer on Buddhism, died (born 1/2/1800)

29/4/1894, Augusta Drane, English writer, died (born 29/12/1823).

24/3/1894, Verney Cameron, English explorer of Africa and author (born 1/7/1844) died.

3/2/1894, George Childs, US publisher, died (born 12/5/1829).

8/2/1894, Robert Ballantyne, writer, died in Rome (born in Edinburgh 24/4/1825).

8/1/1894, Peter Forchhammer, German archaeological writer, died (born 23/10/1801).

18/11/1893, Charles Deems, US religious writer, died (born 4/12/1820).

19/8/1893, Julien Havet, French historical writer, died (born 4/4/1853).

12/8/1893, Sir Edward Hamley, British military writer, died (born 27/4/1824).

14/6/1893, Jakob Frohschammer, German scholarly writer, died (born 6/1/1821).

6/6/1893, Karl Hefele, German religious writer, died (born 15/3/1809).

4/4/1893, Alphonse Candolle, botanical writer, died (born 28/10/1806).

23/1/1893, Phillips Brooks, US author, died (born 13/12/1835).

12/12/1892, Sir John Burke, British genealogical writer, author of Burke’s Peerage, died (born 5/1/1814).

30/11/1892, Fenton Hort, English religious writer, died (born 23/4/1828).

2/11/1892, Marie Hervey, French orientalist writer, died (born 1823).

21/10/1892, Anne Edgren-Leffler, Swedish author, died (born 1/10/1849).

12/10/1892, Lothar Bucher, German writer, died (born 25/10/1817)

6/10/1892, Alfred Lord Tennyson, poet laureate from 1850, died at Aldworth, Surrey. He was born on 6/8/1809.

17/9/1892, Rudolf von Jhering, German legal writer, died (born 22/8/1818).

31/8/1892, George Curtis, US writer, died (born 24/2/1824).

30/7/1892, Joseph Hubner, Austrian writer, died (born 26/11/1811).

20/7/1892, Leon Cladel, French novelist, died (born 13/3/1835).

29/6/1892, Jean Courcelle-Seneuil, French economics writer, died (born 22/12/1813).

12/6/1892, Johann Erdmann, German philosophical writer, died (born 13/6/1805).

11/6/1892, William Corey, English scholarly writer, died (born 9/1/1823).

16/3/1892, Edward Freeman, English historical writer, died (born 2/8/1823)

11/4/1892, Karl Caspari, German writer on the Orient, died (born 8/2/1814).

12/3/1892, John Cairns, Scottish religious writer, died (born 23/8/1818).

19/4/1892, Friedrich Bodenstedt, German author, died in Wiesbaden (born in Hanover 22/4/1819).

15/4/1892, Amelia Edwards, English writer on Egyptology, died (born 7/6/1831).

5/2/1892, Emilie Flygare, Swedish novelist, died (born 8/8/1807).

3/1/1892, Author J.R.R.Tolkein, creator of The Lord Of The Rings and The Hobbit, was born in Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, South Africa. He died in Bournemouth in 1973.

24/12/1891, Johannes Janssen, German historical writer, died (born 10/4/1829)

19/11/1891, Gregor Csiky, Hungarian dramatist, died (born 8/12/1842).

26/9/1891, David Davies, Welsh religious writer, died (born 11/5/1826).

1/4/1891, Pauline Craven, French author, died (born 12/4/1808).

26/2/1891, Fortune du Boisgobey, French fiction writer (born in Granville 11/9/1824) died.

9/12/1890, Richard Church, English religious writer, died (born 25/4/1815).

13/11/1890, Henry Dexter US religious writer, died (born 13/8/1821).

28/10/1890, Alexander Ellis, writer, died (born 14/6/1814)

20/10/1890, Sir Richard Burton, writer on the Orient, died (born 19/3/1821).

13/10/1890, William Belknap, US politician, died in Washington DC (born in Newburgh, New York, 22/9/1829).

3/10/1890, Joseph Hergenrother, German religious writer, died (born 15/9/1824)

18/9/1890, Dion Boucicault, Irish playwright, died in New York (born in Dublin 26/12/1822).

15/9/1890, Agatha Christie, crime writer, was born in Torquay, Devon, as Agatha Mary Clarissa.  (died 12/1/1976).

2/8/1890, Louise Ackermann, French poet (born 30/11/1813) died.

27/4/1890, William Blades, English writer, died in Sutton, Surrey (was born in Clapham, London 5/12/1824).

29/3/1890, Armand Pontmartin, French writer (born 16/7/1811) died.

10/2/1890, Boris Pasternak, Russian writer, author of Dr Zhivago, was born in Moscow.

22/1/1890, Francis Bowen, US philosophical writer, died in Boston, Massachusetts (born in Charlestown, Massachusetts 8/9/1811).

14/1/1890, Johann Dollinger, German religious writer, died (born 28/2/1799).

3/1/1890, Karl Hase, German religious writer, died (born 28/8/1800).

22/12/1889, Isaac Hecker, US religious writer, died (born 18/12/1819)

21/12/1889, Eugene Deslongchamps, writer, died

17/12/1889, Wilhelm von Giesebrecht, German historical writer, died (born 5/3/1814)

12/12/1889, Robert Browning, English poet, died.

10/12/1889, Ludwig Anzengruber, Austrian dramatist, died in Vienna (born 29/11/1839 in Vienna)

18/11/1889, William Allingham, Irish poet, died in Hampstead, London (born 19/3/1824 in Ballyshannon, Donegal).

10/11/1889, Edwin Hatch, English religious writer, died (born 14/9/1835).

26/10/1889, Carel Cobet, Dutch scholarly writer, died (born 28/11/1813).

25/10/1889, Guillaume Augier, French dramatist, died in Croissy (born 17/9/1820 in Valence, Drome).

10/10/1889, Adolf von Henselt, German composer, died (12/5/1814).

12/9/1889, Fustel de Coulanges, French historical writer, died (born 18/3/1830).

2/9/1889, Samuel Austin Allibone, US author, died in Lucerne, Switzerland (born 17/4/1816 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania).

31/7/1889, Horatius Bonar, Scottish clerical writer, died (born in Edinburgh 19/12/1808).

25/7/1888, Herman Bonitz, German scholarly writer, died in Berlin (born in Saxony 29/7/1814).

21/7/1889, Michael Baumgarten, German theological writer, died (born in Haseldorf 25/3/1812).

13/7/1889, Robert Hamerling, Austrian poet, died (born 24/3/1830).

16/5/1889, Henry Chandler, scholarly writer, died (born 31/1/1828). 16/5/1889).

23/4/1889, Jules Barbey, French writer, died in Paris (born 2/11/1808).

4/2/1889, Joachim Holtzendorff, German legal writer, died (born 14/10/1829).

21/1/1889, Karl Elze, German literary writer, died (born 22/5/1821).

3/1/1889, James Halliwell-Phillips, English writer on Shakespeare, died (born 21/6/1820).

25/11/1888, Josef Jirecek, Czech scholarly writer, died (born 9/10/1825).

26/9/1888, Poet T S Eliot was born – see 4/1/1965.

23/8/1888, Philip Gosse, English naturalist writer, died (born 6/4/1810).

4/8/1888, John Burgon, English Christian writer, died (born 21/8/1813).

23/7/1888, Johannes Ebrard, German religious writer, died (born 18/1/1818).

8/6/1888, James Clarke, US religious writer, died (born 4/4/1810)).

15/4/1888, Matthew Arnold, British poet, died in Liverpool (born 24/12/1822 in Laleham, Staines).

6/3/1888, Louisa Alcott, US author, died (born 29/11/1832)

10/2/1888, Heinrich Fleischer, German writer on The Orient, died (born 21/2/1801).

30/1/1888, Edward Lear, English author and artist, who wrote the Book of Nonsense, died in San Remo, Italy.

14/1/1888, Stephen Heller, Austrian composer, died (born 15/5/1815)

22/12/1887, Ferdinand Hayden, US geological writer, died (born 7/9/1829).

20/11/1887, Louis Gaillat, Belgian painter, died (born 9/5/1810).

2/11/1887, Alfred Domett, English poet, died (born 20/5/1811).

12/10/1887, Dinah Craik, English novelist, died (born 20/4/1826).

14/8/1887, Richard Jefferies, English naturalist writer, died (born 6/11/1848).

19/7/1887, Lewis Edwards, Welsh religious writer, died (born 27/10/1809).

13/7/1887, Elme Carlo, French scholarly writer, died (born 4/3/1826).

16/6/1887, Roswell Hitchcock, US writer, died (born 15/8/1817).

31/5/1887, Thomas Baynes, English writer, died (born in Wellington, Somerset 24/3/1823).

5/5/1887, James Grant, British novelist, died (born 1/8/1822).

19/2/1887, Edward Dekker, Dutch writer, died (born 2/3/1820).

5/12/1886, Petrus Hofstede, Dutch religious writer, died (born 8/10/1802).

26/9/1886, Clement Ingleby, English writer on Shakespeare, died (born 29/10/1823).

9/8/1886, Sir Samuel Ferguson, Irish poet, died (born 10/3/1810).

21/7/1886, Maximillian Duncker, German historical writer, died (born 15/10/1811).

21/6/1886, Daniel Home, Scottish spiritualist writer, died (born 20/3/1833).

17/5/1886, Thomas Farnborough, English historical writer, died (born 8/2/1815).

15/5/1886, Emily Dickinson, US poet, died in Amherst, Massachusetts.

13/4/1886, Anna Bosboom-Toussaint, Dutch novelist, died in The Hague (born in Alkmaar 16/9/1812)

10/2/1886, Henry Bradshaw, scholarly writer, died (born in London 2/2/1831)

9/1/1886, James Ferguson, Scottish architectural writer, died (born 22/1/1808).

24/12/1885, Louis Gachard, Belgian writer, died (born 12/3/1800).

15/12/1885, John Howson, English religious writer, died (born 5/5/1816)

11/9/1885, DH Lawrence, author of Lady Chatterley’s Lover, was born.

1/9/1885, Emile Egger, Frenchy scholarly writer, died (born 18/7/1813).

12/8/1885, Georg Curtius, German writer, died (born 16/4/1820).

11/8/1885, Richard Houghton, English poet, died (born 19/6/1809).

22/5/1885, Victor Hugo, French poet and novelist, author of Les Miserables, died in Paris aged 83.

13/5/1885, Juliana Ewing, writer of children’s stories, died (born 1841).

30/4/1885, Jens Jacobsen, Danish writer, died (born 7/4/1847).

17/2/1885, John Campbell, Gaelic scholar died (born 29/12/1822)..

19/1/1885, Lady Georgiana Fullerton, English novelist, died (born 23/9/1812).

16/1/1885, Edmond About, French novelist (born 14/2/1828) died.

1/1/1885, Andrew Findlater, Scottish writer, died (born 1810).

30/11/1884, Sir Alexander Grant, British scholarly writer, died (born 13/9/1826).

31/10/1884, Maria Bashkirtseff, Russian writer, died (born in Gavrontsi 23/11/1860).

19/10/1884, Karl Hillebrand, German author, died (born 17/9/1829).

22/8/1884, Henry Bohn, British publisher, died in Twickenham (born in London 4/1/1796).

16/8/1884, Gutierrez Garcia, Spanish dramatist, died (born 5/7/1812).

19/6/1884, Johann Droysen, German historical writer, died (born 6/7/1808).

11/4/1884, John Blunt, English clerical writer, died in London (born 1823).

6/4/1884, Emanuel Geibel, German poet, died (born 17/10/1815).

11/2/1884, Thomas Chenery, scholarly writer, died (born 1826).

2/2/1884, Abraham Hayward, English writer, died (born 22/11/1801).

26/12/1883, Thomas Holloway, English philanthropist, died (born 22/9/1800).

21/9/1883, Conrad Bursian, German scholarly writer, died (born 14/11/1830).

17/9/1883, John Collier, English writer, died (born 11/1/1789).

10/9/1883, Hendrik Conscience, Flemish writer, died (born 3/12/1818).

16/7/1883, Edward Eastwick, British writer on the Orient, died (born 1814).

3/7/1883, Franz Kafka, Czech poet and playwright, was born.

20/6/1883,  Gustave Aimarde, French novelist, died 20/6/1883 in Paris (born 13/9/1818 in Paris).

7/3/1883, John Green, English historical writer, died (born 12/12/1837).

2/2/1883, George Greene, US historical writer, died (born 8/4/1811).

12/10/1882, Arthur Burnell, scholarly writer on ancient Sanskrit, died (born 1840).

5/10/1882, Carl Halm, German scholarly writer, died (born 5/4/1809).

13/8/1882, William Jevons, English economics writer, died (born 1/9/1835).

6/8/1882, Antoine Dareste, French historical writer, died (born 28/10/1820).

1/6/1882, John Drinkwater, poet and dramatist, was born.

29/5/1882, Hermann Hettner, German historical writer, died (born 12/3/1821).

11/5/1882, John Brown, Scottish author, died (born 22/9/1810).

27/4/1882, Ralph Waldo Emerson, US poet and essayist, died aged 78 in Concord.

26/3/1882, Thomas Green, English philosophical writer, died (born 7/4/1836).

24/3/1882, H W Longfellow, real name Henry Wadsworth, American poet, died in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

8/2/1882, Berthold Auerbach, German novelist, died in Cannes (born 28/2/1812 in Nordstetten).

18/1/1882, A A Milne English writer of children’s books and creator of Winnie the Pooh, was born in St John’s Wood, London.

9/1/1882, Richard Dana, US writer, died (born 1/8/1815).

3/1/1882, William Ainsworth, English novelist (born 4/2/1805) died.

24/12/1881, Leonard Bacon, writer, died 24/12/1881 in New Haven, Connecticut (born 19/2/1802 in Detroit, Michigan)

15/11/1881, William Greg, English essayist, died (born 1809),

14/11/1881, Christoph Giebel, German zoological writer, died (born 13/9/1820).

21/10/1881, Johann Bluntschell, Swiss political writer, died in Karlsruhe (born in Zurich 7/3/1808).

12/10/1881, Josiah Holland, US writer, died (born 24/7/1819).

10/8/1881, John Burton, historical writer, died (born 22/8/1809).

2/8/1881, Marcus Clarke, US author, died (born 24/4/1846).

20/7/1881, Theodor Bergk, German scholarly writer, died in Ragatz, Switzerland (born in Leipzig 3/5/1797).

8/7/1881, Henry Coxe, English scholarly writer died (born 20/9/1811).

1/7/1881, Ventura Ruiz Aguilera, Spanish poet, died in Madrid.

26/6/1881, Theodor Benfrey, German writer, died in Gottingen (born neat Gottingen 28/1/1809).

26/5/1881, Jakob Bernays, German writer, died in Bonn (born in Hamburg 11/9/1824).

15/5/1881, Franz Dinglestedt, German poet, died (born 30/6/1814).

3/5/1881, George Banks, British writer, died in London (born in Birmingham 2/3/1821).

24/4/1881, James Fields, US author, died (born 31/12/1817).

5/2/1881, Thomas Carlyle, Scottish essayist, died at 5 Cheyne Row, Chelsea, London.

28/1/1881, Fyodor Dostoyevsky died (born in Moscow, 30/10/1821, son of a surgeon) . His funeral cortege on 31/1/1881 was followed by 30,000 people. He wrote, amongst others, The Idiot, Crime and Punishment, and The Brothers Karamazov.

23/11/1880, Edwin Guest, English historical writer, died (born 1800)

20/10/1880, Lydia Child, US author, died (born 11/2/1802).

2/10/1880, Samuel Cox, US religious and academic, died (born 25/8/1793).

23/9/1880, Geraldine Jewsbury, English writer, died (born 1812).

10/9/1880, Samuel Haldeman, US zoological writer, died (born 12/8/1812).

13/7/1880, Antal Csengery, Hungarian historical writer (born 2/6/1822) died in Budapest.

8/5/1880, Gustave Flaubert, French novelist, died (born 12/12/1821).

22/3/1880, Kenelm Digby, English writer, died (born 1800).

12/2/1880, Karl Holtei, German poet, died (born 24/1/1798).

12/1/1880, Ida Hahn-Hahn, German author, died (born 22/6/1805).

26/12/1879, William Dixon, English author, died (born 30/6/1821).

28/11/1879, Michel Chevalier, French writer in economics, died (born 13/1/1806)

6/11/1878, William Clark, writer on Shakespeare, died (born 3/1821).

31/10/1879, Jacob Abbott, US writer of books for children, died in Farmington, Maine.

2/10/1879, US poet Wallace Stevens was born in Reading, Pennsylvania.

5/9/1879, Gottlieb Harless, German religious writer, died (born 21/11/1806).

3/6/1879, Frances Havergal, English hymn-writer, died (born 14/12/1836).

7/5/1879, Charles de Coster, Belgian writer, died (20/8/1827).

6/4/1879, John Dalgairns, English religious writer, died (born 21/10/1818).

20/3/1879, Johann Huber, writer, died (born 18/8/1830)

2/3/1879, Jules Bastide, French writer, died (born in Paris 2/11/1800).

10/2/1879, Paul Gervais, French palaeontological writer, died (born 26/9/1816).

30/1/1879, Adelardo Lopez de Ayala, Spanish writer, died (born in Guadacanal 1/5/1828).

21/1/1879, George Hillard, US author, died (born 22/9/1808).

9/1/1879, Alessandro Gavazzi, Italian religious writer, died (born 21/3/1809).

1/1/1879, E M Forster, English novelist, was born.

16/12/1878, Karl Gutzkow, German novelist, died (born 17/3/1811).

11/10/1878, Felix Dupanloup, French religious writer, died (born 3/1/1802).

13/8/1878, George Gilfillan, Scottish author, died (born 30/1/1813).

19/7/1878, Charles Hodge, US religious writer, died (born 28/12/1797)

17/7/1878, Aleardo Aleardi, Italian poet, died.

15/6/1878, Sir Thomas Hardy, British historical writer, died (born 22/6/1804).

12/5/1878, Catherine Esther, US writer and educationalist, died in Elmira, New York (born in East Hampton, Long Island 6/9/1800).

4/2/1878, Heinrich Guericke, German religious writer, died (born 25/2/1803).

27/1/1878, Sir Edward Creasey, British historical writer, died (born 1812).

6/1/1878, The US poet Carl Sandburg was born in Galesburg, Illinois.

20/12/1877, Johann Hofmann, German religious writer, died (born 21/12/1810).

21/11/1877, Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (died 27/1/1919) was born.

16/10/1877, Theodore Barriere, playwright, died in Paris (born in Paris 1823)

12/7/1877, Georg Adolf Erman, scientific writer, died (born 12/5/1806).

6/7/1877, Friedrich Hacklander, German novelist, died (born 1/11/1816).

17/6/1877, US writer John Abbott died in Fair Haven, Connecticut.

7/5/1877, Samuel Cousins, English engraver, died (born 9/5/1801).

10/4/1877, Andrew Halliday, British writer, died (born 1830).

7/4/1877, Spanish novelist Cecilia Larrea (Fernan Caballero) died (born 24/12/1796).

13/3/1877, Charles Clarke, British writer, died (born 15/12/1787)

8/3/1877, James Bowerbank, scientific author, died in St Leonards (born in Bishopsgate, London 8/9/1811).

6/3/1877, Joseph Autran, French poet, died in Marseilles (born 20/6/1813 in Marseilles).

2/3/1877, Alfred Gutschmid, German orientalist writer, died (born 1/7/1835).

12/1/1877, Wilhelm Hofmeister, German botanical writer, died (born 18/5/1824).

5/12/1876, David Forbes, British scientific writer, died (born 6/9/1828).

30/11/1876, George Dawson, English religious writer, died (born 24/2/1821).

5/11/1876, Theodor von Heuglin, German travel writer, died (born 20/3/1824).

10/11/1876, Karl Eichwald, German scientific writer, died (born 4/7/1795).

25/9/1876, Adolf Glasbrenner, German satirical writer, was born (died 25/9/1876).

28/7/1876, Mortimer Collins, English writer, died (born 29/6/1827).

25/7/1876, Robert Childers, scholarly writer on the Orient, died (born 1838).

14/7/1876, James Henry, Irish scholarly writer, died (born 13/12/1798).

3/6/1876, John Eadie, Scottish religious writer, died (born 9/5/1810).

29/5/1876, Friedrich Diaz, German scholarly writer, died (born 15/3/1794).

27/5/1876, Joseph Bosworth, English historical writer, died (born 1789).

19/5/1876, Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer, Dutch historical writer, died (born 21/8/1801).

12/5/1876, Henri Esquiros, French writer, died (born 23/5/1812).

25/4/1876, Thomas Aird, Scottish poet, died in Dumfries (born 28/8/1802 in Bowden, Roxburghshire).

17/4/1876, Ian Hay, British author, was born.

19/3/1876, Charles Chesney, British military writer, died (born 29/9/1826)

18/3/1876, Ferdinand Feiligrath, German poet, died (born 17/8/1810).

8/3/1876, Louise Colet, French poet, died (born 15/9/1810).

5/3/1876, Marie Agoult, French author (born 31/12/1805 in Frankfort on Main) died in Paris.

17/2/1876, Horace Bushnell, religious writer, died (born 14/4/1802)

3/2/1876, Gino Capponi, Italian historical writer, died (born 13/2/1792).

16/12/1875, James Hinton, English medical writer, died (born 1822)

9/11/1875, Karl Fraas, German botanical writer, died (born 8/9/1810).

2/11/1875, Horatio Hackett, US Biblical scholarly writer, died (born 27/12/1808).

20/10/1875, Walter Hook, English religious writer, died (born 13/3/1798)

8/10/1875, Alexander Forbes, Scottish religious writer, died (born 6/6/1817).

1/9/1875, Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan, was born in Chicago. He never visited Africa where his stories were set.

19/8/1875, Hermann Ebel, German scholarly writer, died (born 10/5/1820).

17/8/1875, Wilhelm Beek, German scholarly writer, died in Cape Town.

15/8/1875, Robert Hawker, English poet, died (born 3/12/1803).

5/8/1875, William Henwood, English geological writer, died (born 16/1/1805)

4/8/1875, Hans Christian Andersen, the Danish writer famous for his fairy stories, died aged 70.

20/7/1875, Sir Francis Head, English writer, died (born 1/1/1793).

14/5/1875, Gottfried Bernhardy, scholarly writer, died (born in Landsberg 20/3/1800).

4/5/1875, Georg Ewald, German scholarly writer, died (born 16/11/1803).

7/4/1875, Georg Herwegh, German poet, died (born 31/5/1817).

20/11/1874, Tom Hood, English writer, died (born 19/1/1835).

26/10/1874, Carl Cornelius, German poet, died (born 24/12/1824).

23/10/1874, Abraham Geiger, German scholarly writer, died (born 24/5/1810).

3/9/1874, Hans Gabelentz, German scholarly writer, died (born 13/10/1807).

22/8/1874, Sydney Dobell, English poet, died (born 5/4/1824).

7/7/1874, John Jesse, English historical writer, died (born 1815).

19/6/1874, Jules Janin, French writer, died (born 16/2/1804).

7/6/1874, Karl Hagenbach, German Church history writer, died (born 4/3/1801).

29/5/1874, G K Chesterton, English writer, born.

4/4/1874, Charles Beule, French writer, died (born in Saumur 29/6/1826),

5/2/1874, Moritz Haupt, German scholarly writer, died (born 27/2/1808).

24/1/1874, Adam Black, Scottish book publisher, died (born in Edinburgh 20/2/1784).

19/1/1874, August Hoffmann, German writer, died (born 2/4/1798).

16/1/1874, Robert William Service, Canadian poet, was born.

7/1/1874, Henry Bell, Scottish writer, died (born in Glasgow 8/11/1803).

25/12/1873, Heinrich Hotho, German art historian, died (born 1802).

8/11/1873, Manuel Breton de los Herreros, Spanish dramatist, died (born 19/12/1796).

27/10/1873, Ernest-Aime Feydeau, French writer, died (born 16/3/1821).

19/10/1873, Robert Candlish, Scottish religious writer, died (born 23/3/1806).

4/10/1873, Margaret Gatty, English writer, died (born 1809),

28/9/1873, Emile Gaboriau, French novelist, died (born 9/11/1833).

5/8/1873, Edward Cope, English scholarly writer, died (born 28/7/1818).

18/7/1873, Victor Chasles, French writer, died (born 8/11/1798).

13/7/1873, Caroline Clive, English authoress, died (born 1801).

29/6/1873, Michael Dutt, Indian poet, died (born 25/1/1824).

22/5/1873, Alexander Ewing, Scottish religious writer, died (born 25/1/1814).

12/5/1873, Immanuel Deutsch, German religious writer, died (born 28/10/1829).

16/4/1873, Joseph Glatigny, French poet, died (born 21/5/1839).

11/4/1873, Christopher Hansteen, Norwegian scientific writer, died (born 26/9/1784).

24/2/1873, Thomas Guthrie, Scottish social affairs writer, died (born 12/7/1803)

9/2/1873, Julius Furst, German writer on the Orient, died (12/5/1805).

2/2/1873, Gertrudis Gomez, Spanish novelist, died (born 23/3/1814).

10/1/1873, Francesco Dall’Ongaro, Italian writer, died (born 1808).

1872, Through the Looking Glass was published by Lewis Carroll.

23/12/1872, Theophile Gautier, French poet, died (born 31/8/1811).

22/12/1872, George Catlin, US scholarly writer, died (born 1796).

14/11/1872, James Hadley, US scholarly writer, died (born 30/3/1821).

3/11/1872, Vladimir Dahl, Russian author, died (born 1802).

8/9/1872, Paolo Guidici, Italian writer, died in Tonbridge, England (born 1812).

2/9/1872, Nikolai Grundtvig, Danish writer, died (born 8/9/1783).

6/7/1972, Laurent Gaude, French writer, was born.

27/6/1872, Paul Dunbar, US author, was born (died 8/2/1906).

31/5/1872, Friedrich Gerstacker, German novelist, died (born 10/5/1816).

23/5/1872, Sir Henry Bulwer, British author, died (born 13/2/1801).

13/5/1872, Moritz Hartmann, German poet, died (born 15/10/1821).

6/3/1872, Theodor Goldstucker, German writer on Sanskrit, died (born 18/1/1821).

27/2/1872, John Campbell, Scottish religious writer, died (born 1800).

6/2/1872, Auguste Gratry, French author, died (born 10/3/1805).

21/1/1872, Franz Grillparzer, Austrian poet, was born (died 21/1/1872).

9/1/1872, Henry Halleck, US writer, died (born 1815).

16/12/1871, Willibald Alexis, novelist (born 26/9/1798 in Breslau) died in Arnstadt, Thuringia.

10/9/1871, Richard Bentley, book publisher, died (born in London 1794).

31/7/1871, Phoebe Cary, US poet, (born 4/9/1824) died.

3/4/1871, Gustave Flourens, French writer, died (born 4/8/1838).

19/3/1871, Wilhelm Haidinger, German geological writer, died (born 5/2/1795).

17/3/1871, Robert Chambers, Scottish author, died (born 10/7/1802).

12/2/1871, Alice Cary, US poet, died (born 26/4/1820).

2/2/1871, Jozsef Eotvos, Hungarian writer, died (born 13/9/1813).

20/1/1871, Peirre Ponson du Terrail, French romantic writer (born 8/7/1829) died.

22/12/1870, Gustavo Becquer, Spanish writer, died in Madrid (born in Seville 17/2/1836).

18/12/1870, Thomas Doubleday, English author, died (born 2/1790)

5/12/1870, Alexandre Dumas, French novelist, died (born 24/7/1802).

12/11/1870, Bogumil Goltz, German writer, died (born 20/3/1801).

1/11/1870, Stephen Crane, US writer, was born (died 5/6/1900).

27/7/1870, Edward Foss, English legal writer, died (born 16/10/1787).

20/7/1870, Lucien Anatole Prevost-Paradol, French writer, born 8/8/1829, died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

5/7/1870, Gustav Flugel, German writer on the Orient, died (born 18/2/1802).

24/6/1870, Adam Gordon, Australian poet, died (born 1833).

9/6/1870, Charles Dickens, author, born 7/2/1812 at Landport, Portsmouth, died at Godshill, near Rochester, Kent, of a brain haemorrhage the previous evening.

24/4/1870, Louisa Costello, authoress, died (born 1799).

20/3/1870, Thomas Erskine, Scottish religious writer, died (born 13/10/1788).

16/3/1870, Henry Dixon, English sports writer, died (born 16/5/1822).

25/2/1870, Henrik Hertz, Danish poet, died (born 25/8/1798).

21/1/1870, Alexander Hertzen, Russian author, died (born 1812).

18/1/1870, Samuel Bailey, British author (born in Sheffield 1791) died.

29/11/1869, Giulia Grisi, Italian opera singer, died (born 1811).

29/10/1869, Emile Descdhamps, French poet, died (born 20/2/1791).

23/10/1869, John Conington, English classical writer, died (born 10/8/1825).

9/9/1869, Otto Jahn, German historical writer, died (born 16/6/1813).

10/8/1869, Laurence Binyon, English poet, was born in Lancaster.

18/7/1869, Louis Bouilhet, French poet, died in Rouen (born in Cany 27/5/1822).

14/7/1869, Lucie Duff-Gordon, writer, died (born 24/6/1821)

16/7/1869, Karl Graf, German religious writer, died (born 28/2/1815).

3/6/1869, John Broughton, English writer, died (born 27/6/1786).

28/5/1869, Ernst Hengstenberg, German religious writer, died (born 29/10/1802).

15/5/1869, Alexander Dyce, English historical writer, died (born 30/6/1798).

30/1/1869, William Carleton, Irish novelist, died (born 4/3/1794).

20/1/1869, Carl Gottling, German scholarly writer, died (born 19/1/1793).

15/1/1869, Sir Henry Ellis, writer, died (born 29/11/1777)

31/12/1868, James Forbes, Scottish scientific writer, died (born 20/4/1809).

8/12/1868, Norman Douglas, British writer (died in Capri, Italy, 9/2/1952) was born in Deeside, Scotland.

23/11/1868, Friedrich Hermann, German economics writer, died 5/12/1795).

17/10/1868, Bernhard Beskow, Swedish dramatist, died (born 10/4/1796).

4/8/1868, Jacques Boucher, French writer, died in Abbeville (born in Rethel 10/9/1788).

21/7/1868, Heinrich Grafe, educationalist writer, died (born 3/5/1802).

11/5/1868, John Crawfurd, Scottish writer on the Orient, died (born 13/8/1783).

23/4/1868, Renn Hampden, English religious writer, died (born 1793).

23/1/1868, Janos Erdelyi, Hungarian poet, died (born 1814).

10/1/1868, Athanase Coquerel, French religious writer, died (born 17/8/1795).

12/12/1867, Charles Daubeny, scientific writer, died (born 11/2/1795).

2/12/1867, English author Charles Dickens drew large crowds in New York to his readings of his novels there.

19/11/1867, Fitz-Greene Halleck, US poet, died (born 8/7/1790).

14/11/1867, Jacques Brunet, French writer, died (born 2/11/1780).

13/11/1867, Adolphe Didron, French archeological writer, died (born 13/3/1806).

23/10/1867, Franz Bopp, German scholarly writer, died (born in Mainz 14/7/1791).

26/9/1867, Charles Fowler, English architect, died (born 26/9/1867)

31/8/1867, Charles Baudelaire, French poet, died in Paris (born in Paris 9/4/1821).

23/8/1867, Auguste Barthelemy, French poet, died in Marseilles (born 1796).

16/8/1867, Friedrich Haase, German scholarly writer, died (4/1/1808).

4/8/1867, John Galsworthy, English novelist, was born.

21/7/1867, Christian Brandis, German historical writer, died (born 1790)

27/5/1867, Enoch Arnold Bennett, British novelist, was born.

12/5/1867, Friedrich Gerhard, German archaeological writer, died (born 29/11/1795).

12/4/1867, Robert Bell, Irish writer, died (born in Cork 16/1/1800).

13/1/1867, Victor Cousin, French philosophical writer, died (born 28/11/1792).

31/12/1866, August Haxthausen, German economics writer, died (born 3/2/1792).

2/10/1866, Carl Buck, US scholarly writer, was born.

26/9/1866, Francis Hawks, US religious writer, died (born 10/6/1798)

21/9/1866, Author H G Wells was born at Bromley, Kent.  He was the son of a professional cricketer.

15/9/1866, Augustus Gould, US writer on conchology, died (born 23/4/1805).

27/8/1866, Eugene de Bully, French writer, died in Paris (born in Paris 8/11/1806).

6/8/1866, Christian Fahlcrantz, Swedish author, died (born 30/8/1790).

28/7/1866, Beatrix Potter, author and illustrator of children’s books, and creator of Peter Rabbit, was born in South Kensington, London.

24/5/1866, John Etheridge, English religious writer, died (born 24/2/1804).

24/3/1866, Roualeyn Gordon-Cumming, Scottish writer, died (born 15/3/1820).

21/3/1866, Charles Cooper, English writer, died (born 20/3/1808).

1865, Alice in Wonderland was published by Lewis Carroll.

31/12/1865, Fredrika Bremer, novelist, died (born 17/8/1801)

30/12/1865, Rudyard Kipling, story and verse writer, was born in Bombay.

1/12/1865, Abraham Frohlich, Swiss poet, died (born 1/2/1796).

12/11/1865, Elizabeth Gaskell, English novelist, died (born 29/9/1810).

15/10/1865, Andres Bello, poet, died in Santiago, Chile (born in Caracas, Venezuela, 29/11/1781)

8/10/1865, Heinrich Ernst, German composer, died (born 1814).

30/9/1865, Dudley Costello, English novelist, died (born 1803).

14/9/1866, Leon Gozlan, French novelist, died (born 1/9/1806).

27/8/1865, Thomas Haliburton, English writer, died (born 1796).

4/8/1865, William Aytoun, Scottish poet, died in Blackhills near Elgin (born 21/6/1813).

11/7/1865, Richard Hildreth, US writer, died (born 28/6/1807).

13/6/1865, Irish writer William Butler Yeats was born.

29/5/1865, Nicolas Geruzez, French writer, died (born 6/1/1799)

4/5/1865, Henry Christy, English scholarly writer, died (born 26/7/1818).

18/1/1865, Charles Greville, English diarist, died (born 2/4/1794).

15/1/1865, Edward Everett, US writer, died (born 11/4/1794).

3/12/1864, Hermann Heijermans, Dutch writer, was born

31/7/1864, Louis Hachette, French publisher, died (born 5/5/1800).

26/7/1864, Andras Fay, Hungarian poet, died (born 30/5/1786)

9/6/1864, Charles Dickens was involved in a train crash at Staplehurst in Kent. He had to return to the wreckage to salvage the manuscript for a part of the story Our Mutual Friend.

1/6/1864, John Gordon, Scottish painter, died (born 1788).

20/5/1864, John Clare, English poet, died (born 13/7/1793).

26/3/1864, Jan Baake, Dutch writer, died (born 1/9/1787)

27/2/1864, Edward Hitchcock, US geology writer, died (born 24/5/1793).

29/1/1864, Lucy Aikin, historical writer, died in Hampstead, London (born 6/11/1781 in Warrington).

3/1/1864, John Hughes, US religious writer, died (born 24/6/1797).

24/12/1863, William Thackeray, poet, died in London.

13/12/1863, Christian Hebbel, German poet, died (born 18/3/1813).

9/11/1863, Johann Doderlein, German scholarly writer, died (born 19/12/11791).

29/10/1823, Clement Ingleby, English writer on Shakespeare, was born (died 26/9/1886).

22/10/1863, Johann Bohmer, German historical writer, died in Frankfort (born in Frankfort am Main 22/4/1795).

14/9/1863, Joseph Gwilt, British architectural writer, died (born 11/1/1784)

8/8/1863, James Gilbart, English banking writer, died (born 21/3/1794).

5/7/1863, James Hall, US legal writer, died (born 19/8/1793).

18/6/1863, Francois Gaussen, Swiss religious writer, died (born 25/8/1790).

13/5/1863, August Hahn, German religious writer, died (born 27/3/1792).

9/2/1863, Anthony Hope, British novelist, was born.

6/1/1863, Charles Dance, English writer, died (born 1794).

24/12/1862, John Leycester Adolphus, English author, died.

3/12/1862, Charles Grafly, US sculptor, was born.

15/11/1862, Gerhart Hauptmann, German dramatist, was born.

11/11/1862, Jacob Geel, Dutch writer, died (born 12/11/1789).

27/8/1862, Thomas Hogg, English writer, died (born 24/5/1792).

26/8/1862, Alfred Gudeman, US scholarly writer, was born.

23/8/1862, Friedrich Hammer, German poet, died (born 7/6/1810).

6/5/1862, Henry Thoreau, writer, died of tuberculosis.

2/4/1862, Nicholas Butler, US educational writer, was born.

26/2/1862, Cornelius Felton, US scholarly writer, died (born 6/11/1807).

24/2/1862, Bernhard Ingemann, Danish poet, died (born 28/5/1789).

5/2/1862, Ignaz Castelli, Austrian dramatist, died (born 6/3/1781).

11/1/1862, Jean Damiron, French philosophical writer, died (born 1794).

3/12/1861, David Gray, Scottish poet, died (born 29/1/1838).

16/11/1861, Georg Freytag, German scholarly writer, died (born 19/9/1788).

13/11/1861, Arthur Clough, English poet, died (born 1/1/1819).

16/10/1861, John Bury, British historical writer, was born.

6/7/1861, August Gfrorer, German historical writer, died (born 5/3/1803).

23/5/1861, Edward Cardwell, religious writer, died (born 1787).

16/5/1861, John Henslow, English scientific writer, died (born 6/2/1796).

26/4/1861, Jakob Fallmerayer, German historical writer, died (born 10/12/1790).

10/2/1861, John Donaldson, English scholarly writer, died (born 7/6/1811).

22/1/1861, Maurice Hewlitt, English novelist, was born.

12/1/1861, Wenceslaus Hanka, Bohemiam scholarly writer, died (born 10/6/1791).

22/12/1860, Marian Evans, who wrote under the pen name George Eliot, died (born 22/11/1819).

28/11/1860, Christian Bunsen, German scholarly writer, died (born 25/8/1791).

24/11/1860, George Croly, British author, died (born 17/8/1780).

23/11/1860, Maria Bashkirtseff, Russian writer, was born in Gavrontsi (died 31/10/1884).

8/11/1860, Sir Charles Fellows, writer, died (born 8/1799).

24/9/1860, Samuel Crockett, Scottish novelist, was born.

25/8/1860, Johann Heiberg, Danish poet, died (born 1791).

22/8/1860, Aleixandre Decamps, French painter, died (born 3/3/1803).

9/6/1860, George James, English novelist, died (born 9/8/1799).

9/5/1860, James Barrie, British novelist, was born in Kirriemuir.

28/4/1860, Isaak da Costa, Dutch poet, died (born 14/1/1798).

17/3/1860, Anna Jameson, British writer, died (born 17/5/1794).

29/1/1860, Ernst Moritz Arndt, German poet, died in Bonn (born 26/12/1769 in Schoritz, Rugen).

17/1/1860,  Anton Chekhov, Russian author, was born at Taganrog, son of a shopkeeper.

16/12/1859, Wilhelm Grimm, co-author with his brother Jacob of fairy tales, died in Berlin.

8/12/1859, Thomas de Quincy, English author, died (born 15/8/1785).

28/11/1859, Washington Irvine, US writer, died (born 3/4/1783).

1/10/1859, John James, English religious writer, died (born 6/6/1785).

28/8/1859, James Hunt, English writer, died (born 19/10/1784).

14/7/1859, Petrus Borel, French writer, was born in Lyons (died in Algeria 14/7/1859).

2/5/1859, Jerome K Jerome, author, was born at Walsall.

30/4/1859, Sergei Aksakov, Russian writer (born 20/9/1791) died.

27/4/1859, George Doane, US religious writer, died (born 27/5/1799).

20/4/1859, Charles Dickens’ novel A Tale of Two Cities was published.

21/1/1859, Henry Hallam, English historical writer, died (born 21/1/1859).

20/1/1859, Elisabeth Arnim, German authoress, died in Berlin (born 4/4/1785 in Frankfort am Main).

25/11/1858, Alfred Capus, French author, was born.

6/11/1658, Pierre du Ryer, French dramatist, died (born 1606).

13/10/1858, John Brown, Scottish religious writer, died (born 12/7/1784).

17/5/1858, Ebenezer Henderson, Scottish religious writer, died (born 17/11/1784).

3/5/1858, Julien Brizeux, poet, died (born 12/9/1803).

24/4/1858, William Gregory, chemistry writer, died (born 25/12/1803).

7/4/1858, Davis Dewey, US economics writer, was born.

6/4/1858, Charles Bennett, US scholarly writer, was born in Providence, Rhode Island.

16/2/1858, Georg Creuzer, German historical writer, died (born 10/3/1771).

19/1/1858, Eugene Brieux, French dramatist, was born.

26/11/1857, Joseph Eichendorff, German poet, died (born 10/3/1788).

22/11/1857, George Gissing, English novelist, was born (died 28/12/1903).

19/11/1857, Albert Harkness, US scholarly writer, was born.

2/11/1857, Paul Hervieu, French novelist, was born,

8/9/1857, Jean Boissonade, French scholarly writer, died (born in Paris 12/8/1774).

27/8/1857, Rufus Griswold, US writer, died (born 15/2/1815).

10/8/1857, John Croker, British author, died (born 20/12/1780).

29/7/1857, Thomas Dick, Scottish writer on astronomy, died (born 24/11/1774).

9/7/1857, Robert Blum, US artist, was born in Cincinnatti, Ohio, (died in New York City 8/6/1903).

8/6/1857, Douglas Jerrold, English writer, died (born 3/1/1803).

11/4/1857, John Davidson, British writer, was born (died 23/3/1909).

16/3/1857, Charles Firth, British historical writer, was born.

2/2/1857, Charles Davis, US landscape painter, was born.

23/11/1856, Joseph Hammer-Purgstall, German orientalist writer, died (born 9/6/1774).

4/11/1856, Ernest Crosby, US writer, was born (died 1907).

23/9/1856, William Archer, English writer, was born in Perth.

20/9/1856, John Brown, Scottish writer, died (born 23/2/1817).

8/8/1856, Thomas Guthrie, English novelist, was born.

2/7/1856, Thomasine Gyllembourg, Danish writer, died (born 9/11/1773).

22/6/1856, Henry Haggard, English novelist was born.

11/6/1856, Friedrich Hagen, German scholarly writer, died (born 19/2/1780).

25/4/1856, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, or Lewis Carroll, met the young Alice Liddell, who was the inspiration for his Alice books.

23/4/1856, Arthur Hadley, US economics writer, was born.

27/2/1856, Agnes Duclaux, English poet, was born.

22/1/1856, Walter Gay, US artist, was born.

31/12/1855, Karl Hermann, German scholarly writer, died (born 4/8/1804).

26/12/1855, August Follen, German poet, died (born 21/1/1794).

15/12/1855, Maurice Bouchor, French poet, was born in Paris.

13/9/1855, Johann Engelhardt, German religious writer, died (born 12/11/1791).

3/8/1855, Henry Bunner, US writer, was born (died 11/5/1896).

21/7/1855, Daniel Atterbom, Swedish poet, died.

2/6/1855, Thomas Gaisford, English scholarly writer, died (born 22/12/1779).

24/6/1855, Johann Flugel, German writer, died (born 22/11/1788).

31/3/1855, Charlotte Bronte, oldest of the three literary sisters, died during pregnancy.

1/2/1855, Claus Harms, German religious writer, died (born 25/5/1778).

23/1/1855, Julius Hare, English religious writer, died (born 13/9/1795).

14/12/1854, Leonard Faucher, French political writer, died (born 8/9/1803).

9/12/1854, Joao Garrett, Portuguese poet, died (born 1799).

3/12/1854, Johann Eckermann, German poet, died (born 21/9/1792).

18/11/1854, Edward Forbes, British scientific writer, died (12/2/1815).

22/10/1854, Albrecht Bitzius, Swiss novelist, died (born in Morat 4/10/1797).

7/8/1854, Charles Dickens’ tenth book, Hard Times, was published in entirety.

2/8/1854, Francis Crawford, US author, was born (died 9/4/1909).

8/7/1854, Johann Gieseler, German church history writer, died (born 3/3/1792).

4/7/1854, Karl Eichhorn, German legal writer, died (born 20/11/1781).

1/7/1854, Albert Hart, US historical writer, was born.

19/4/1854, Robert Jameson, Scottish geological writer, died (born 11/7/1774).

26/12/1853, Rene Bazin, French novelist, was born in Angers.

27/12/1853, William Jay, religious writer, died (born 6/5/1769).

15/12/1853, Georg Grotefrend, German writer, died (born 9/6/1775).

10/12/1853, Tommaso Grossi, Lombard poet and novelist, died (born 20/7/1791).

5/11/1853, Janos Garay, Hungarian poet, died (born 10/10/1812).

6/10/1853, Simon Greanleaf, US legal writer, died (born 5/12/1783).

12/9/1853, Charles Dickens’ ninth book, Bleak House, was published in entirety.

3/6/1853, Cesare Balbo, Italian writer, died (born 1/11/1789 in Turin)

14/5/1853, Thomas Caine, British novelist, was born.

7/5/1853, Matthias Castren, Finnish scholarly writer, died (born 2/12/1813).

6/5/1853, Cortes Donoso, Spanish author, died (born 6/5/1809).

20/4/1852, Bela Edwards, US writer, died (born 4.7.1802).

6/3/1853, Albert Cook, US scholarly writer, was born.

5/3/1852, Marie Gay, French author, died (born 1/7/1776).

24/10/1852, Henry Clinton, English scholarly writer, died (born 14/1/1781).

2/9/1852, Paul Bourget, French novelist, was born in Amiens.

7/6/1852, Hosea Ballou, US writer, died in Boston (born in Richmond, New Hampshire, 30/4/1771).

28/5/1852, Eugene Burnouf, French writer on the Orient, died (born 8/4/1801).

6/3/1852, Joseph Deniker, French scientific writer, was born.

21/2/1852, Nikolia Gogol, Russian story writer and novelist, died in Moscow.

3/11/1851, Clovis Hugues, French poet, was born (died 11/6/1907).

10/10/1851, Melvil Dewey, US librarian, was born.

14/9/1851, James Cooper, US novelist, died (born 15/9/1789).

12/9/1851, Francis Clark, religious writer, was born.

11/9/1851, Sylvester Graham, US writer on dietetics, died (born 1794).

17/8/1851, Henry Drummond, Scottish scholarly writer, was born (died 11/3/1897).

7/8/1851, Johann Gruber, German writer, died (born 29/11/1774).

2/7/1851, Gyorgy Fejer, Hungarian author, died (born 23/4/1766).

7/5/1851, Adolf Harnack, German religious writer, was born.

28/3/1851, Gabor Dobrentei, Hungarian writer, died (born 1786).

27/3/1851, Karl Dindorf, German scholarly writer, died (2/1/1802).

14/3/1851, Ferdinand Hand, German scholarly writer, died (born 15/2/1786).

21/12/1850, James Lane Allen, US novelist, was born near Lexington, Kentucky.

14/11/1850, Charles Dickens’ eighth book, David Copperfield, was published in entirety.

13/11/1850, Writer Robert Louis Stevenson was born in Edinburgh, at 8 Howard Place.  His father and grandfather were lighthouse builders.

5/10/1850, William Gibson, US writer, was born (died 16/7/1896).

5/9/1850, James Ingram, English writer, died (born 21/12/1774).

2/9/1850, Eugene Field, US poet, was born (died 4/11/1895).

18/8/1850, Honore de Balzac, French writer, died in Paris.

6/8/1850, Henri Chantavoine, French writer, was born.

27/6/1850, Lafcadio Hearn, writer on Japan, was born (died 26/9/1904).

22/6/1850, Ignaz Goldziher, Hungarian Orientalist writer, was born.

16/6/1850, Margaret Fuller, US authoress, died (born 23/5/1810).

24/5/1850, Jane Porter, English novelist (born 1776) died.

7/4/1850, William Bowles, English poet, died in Salisbury (born in Northamptonshire 24/9/1762).

25/3/1850, Edward Bellamy, US writer, was born in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts (died in Chicopee Falls 22/5/1898).

26/1/1850, Francis Jeffrey, Scottish writer, died (born 23/10/1773).

24/1/1850, Charles Craddock, US author, was born.

19/1/1850, Augustine Birrell, author, was born near Liverpool.

26/12/1849, Francis Brown, USA Semitic scholar and writer, was born.

20/12/1849, Michail Eminescu, Romanian poet, was born (died 1889).

24/11/1849, Frances Burnett, novelist, was born.

16/11/1849, Edward Dana, scientific writer, was born.

7/10/1849, Edgar Allen Poe, US fiction writer, died aged 40, in Baltimore, Maryland.

1/10/1849, Anne Edgren-Leffler, Swedish author, was born (died 21/10/1892).

21/9/1849, Edmund Gosse, English poet, was born.

3/9/1849, Ernst Feuchtersleben, Austrian poet, died (born 29/4/1806).

29/8/1849, Jean Buchon, French scholarly writer, died (born 21/5/1791).

3/8/1849, William Henley, British poet, was born (died 11/7/1903).

16//6/1849, Wilhelm de Wette, German religious writer, died (born 12/1/1780).

4/6/1849, Marguerite Blessington, Irish novelist, died in Paris (born in County Tipperary 1/9/1789).

28/5/1849, Anne Bronte, English novelist, died in Scarborough, Yorkshire, aged 29.

22/5/1849, Maria Edgeworth, Irish novelist, died (born 1/7/1767).

27/4/1849, Severino Fabriani, Italian writer, died (born 7/1/1792).

28/3/1849, James Darmesteter, French author, was born (died 19/10/1894).

10/2/1849, Bernard Barton, English poet, died in Woodbridge (born in Carlisle 31/1/1784).

26/1/1849, Thomas Beddoes, English dramatist, died (born in Clifton 20/7/1803).

22/1/1849, August Strindberg, playwright, was born in Stockholm, Sweden.

6/1/1849, Hartley Coleridge, English writer, died (born 19/9/1796).

31/12/1848, Johann Hermann, German scholarly writer, died (born 28/11/1772).

19/12/1848, Emily Bronte, English novelist who wrote Wuthering Heights, born 30/7/1818, died from tuberculosis.

18/12/1848, Bernhard Bolzano, Austrian clerical writer, died in Prague (born in Prague 5/10/1781).

16/11/1848, Charles Bemont, scholarly writer, was born in Paris

11/11/1848, Hans Delbruck, German historical writer, was born.

6/11/1848, Richard Jefferies, English naturalist writer, was born (died 14/8/1887).

25/10/1848, Karl Franzos, German novelist, was born (died 28/1/1904).

5/10/1848, Jean Detaille, French painter, was born.

2/10/1848, Georg Goldfuss