Cultural events; literature and art

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Writers and poets – see appendix 5 below

 

21/4/2016, The artist Prince, full name Prince Rogers Nelson, born 7/6/1958, died.

1/2/2016, Murray Louis, American dancer and choreographer died (born 1926).

10/1/2016, David Bowie, born in 1947 as David Jones in Brixton, London, died of cancer two days after his 69th birthday.

25/1/2015, The Greek operatic singer Demis Roussos, born 14/6/1946, died. He sold 60 million albums, and was also known for his excess weight, 23 stone at its peak. Because of his weight be began to wear kaftans for his stage performances, reverting to trousers when he began a weight loss programme in 1980.

2/5/2012, In New York, a pastel version of Edward Munch’s The Scream sold for US$ 120 million at auction, a record sum for a work of art.

17/1/2007, Protests in the UK and India after, on the Big Brother Reality Show, Jade Goody was allegedly racist to Shilpa Shetty.

12/9/2003, Johnny Cash, US musician, died (born 1932).

15/5/1998, Frank Sinatra died.

21/10/1997, Elton John’sCandle in the Wind’, a tribute to Diana Princess of Wales, sold 31.8 million copies, the best seller ever.

5/4/1994, US rock star Kurt Cobain, frontman of Nirvana, shot himself aged 27.

8/4/1993, Marian Anderson, US musician, died.

12/8/1992, US composer John Cage died, aged 79.

4/7/1992, Joe Newman, US Jazz trumpeter, died (born 1922).

28/4/1992, The French composer Olivier Messiaen died aged 83. Also this day the English painter Francis Bacon died in Madrid, aged 82.

15/2/1992, US composer William Schuman died, aged 81.

24/3/1991, Madonna was awarded an Oscar in Los Angeles.

14/10/1990, Leonard Bernstein, US composer, died aged 72.

29/9/1989, Georges Ulmer, French composer died (born 1919)

20/9/1989, Musical ‘Miss Saigon’ premiered in London.

23/1/1989. Death of Spanish surrealist painter Salvador Dali. He was aged 78, and had lived as a recluse since his wife, Gala, died in 1982. Art collectors were troubled by revelations that Dali had signed blank canvasses for others  to paint.

6/1/1989, James Durbin, US pop singer, was born.

23/9/1988, Arwel Hughes, Welsh composer, died aged 79.

26/5/1988, Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical Cats opened in Moscow with a British and American cast.

17/4/1988, Louise Nevelson, sculptor born in Kiev, Russia, in 23/9/1900, died in New York.

18/3/1988, Percy Thrower, horticulturalist, died.

17/3/1988, Grimes, Canadian musician, was born.

5/2/1988, 3.8 million plastic noses were sold for the first ever Comic Relief Red Nose Day. £15 million was raised.

11/12/1987, At Christies auction house, London, Charlie Chaplin’s cane and bowler sold for £82,500, and his boots for £38,500.

2/4/1987, Buddy Rich, US jazz musician, died aged 69 (born 1917).

22/2/1987, Andy Warhol, American pop artist famous for his pictures of soup cans, died. He was born on 6/8/1926 to Czechoslovak immigrants in Pittsburgh.

14/2/1987, Bola Sete, guitarist, died aged 63.

16/12/1986, Serge Lifar, French ballet dancer, died aged 81.

31/8/1986. UK sculptor Henry Moore, born 1898, died aged 88.

20/2/1986, Francisco Paolo Mignone, composer, died aged 88.

23/1/1986, Joseph Beuys, German performance artist, died aged 64.

13/4/1985, Oscar Nemon, Croatian sculptor, died aged 79.

28/3/1985, Marc Chagall, French painter (born 7/7/1887 to poor Jewish parents in Vitebsk, Russia), died in St Paul de Vence. He had moved to Berlin in 1922, and then to Paris in 1932. In 1941 he fled to the US to escape the advancing Nazis, returning to France after World War Two ended.

16/4/1984, Count Basie, US jazz pianist, died aged 79.

25/11/1983, Anton Dolin, English ballet dancer, died aged 79.

24/7/1983, Georges Auric, French composer, died aged 84.

30/4/1983, George Balanchine, Russian dance director, died aged 79.

8/3/1983, Sir William Walton, English composer, died on the island of Ischia.

20/12/1982, Artur Rubenstein, Polish-American pianist, died aged 95.

6/2/1982, Ben Nicholson, English painter, died aged 87.

11/5/1981, Bob Marley, reggae musician, died of cancer aged 36.

23/1/1981, Samuel Barber, US composer, died aged 70.

4/1/1981, The Broadway show Frankenstein opened and closed on this night, losing US$ 2 million.

8/12/1980. John Lennon, born 9/10/1940 in Liverpool during an air raid, was shot dead in New York by Mark David Chapman. See 26/5/1969.

17/2/1980, Graham Sutherland, English artist, died aged 76.

18/1/1980, Cecil Beaton, English designer and photographer, died aged 76.

30/12/1979, Richard Rodgers, US composer, died aged 77

30/11/1979, Zeppo Marx, the agent of the Marx brothers, died in London.

15/8/1979, Peter Shukoff, US comedian and musician, was born.

6/5/1979, Bernard Leach, British studio pottery artist, died aged 92.

1/3/1978, Charlie Chaplin’s coffin was stolen from a cemetery in Switzerland.

25/12/1977, Charlie Chaplin died in Switzerland, aged 88.

13/9/1977, Leopold Stokowski, organist and conductor, died in Nether Wallop, Hampshire.

20/8/1977. Julius, or Groucho Marx, US comedian of the famous Marx Brothers, died in Los Angeles.

4/12/1976. Death of the composer Benjamin Britten, aged 63.

23/11/1976, Andre Malreux, French novelist. died aged 75.

18/11/1976, Man Ray, US artist, died aged 86.

11/11/1976, Alexander Calder, US sculptor, died aged 78.

22/10/1976, Edward Burra, English painter, died aged 71.

11/5/1976, Alvar Aalto, Finnish architect, died aged 78.

23/2/1976, The painter L S (Lawrence Stephen) Lowry, noted for his matchstick people, died in Glossop, Derbyshire.

9/8/1975. Death of the Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovitch.

26/5/1975, The stuntman Evel Knievel suffered severe spinal injuries whilst attempting to jump 13 buses in his car.

20/5/1975, Barbara Hepworth, English artist, died aged 72.

27/3/1975, Arthur Bliss, English composer, died aged 83.

4/3/1975, Queen Elizabeth II knighted the actor Charlie Chaplin.

19/2/1975, Italian composer Luigi Dallapiccola died in Florence aged 71.

19/1/1975, Thomas Hart Benton, US painter, died in Kansas City, Missouri..

24/12/1974. The Beatles’ legal partnership was formally dissolved.

24/5/1974, Duke Ellington, jazz musician, died of lung cancer aged 75.

6/4/1974, Abba won the Eurovision Song Contest with the song Waterloo.

10/11/1973, Nick Lachey, musician, was born.

22/10/1973, Pablo Casals, Spanish composer, died aged 96.

4/9/1973. The Rolling Stones played in London for the first time in 2 ½ years, and then attended a party at Buckingham Palace which Mick Jagger described as ‘very dull’.

1/9/1973, Ram Kapoor, Indian actor, was born in New Delhi.

6/7/1973, Otto Klemperer, Jewish-German composer, died aged 88.

8/4/1973. The Spanish painter Pablo Picasso died of a heart attack, aged 91. He was famous for his Cubist style.

29/11/1972, Carl W. Stalling, US composer, died aged 81.

10/10/1972, Sir John Betjeman, born 28/8/1906, was appointed Poet Laureate.

8/8/1972, The musical Jesus Christ Superstar premiered at the Palace Theatre, London.

21/4/1972, Severina Vuckovic, Croatian singer, was born.

6/7/1971, Louis Armstrong, US jazz musician, died aged 69.

6/4/1971. Igor Stravinsky, Russian-born composer, died in New York City aged 88.

24/3/1971, Arne Jacobsen, Danish architect, died aged 69.

18/9/1970, Rock musician Jimi Hendrix died of a drugs overdose.

8/5/1970. The Beatles’ final album, Let It Be, was released.

9/4/1970, The Beatles pop group disbanded.

6/12/1969. A free concert given by the Rolling Stones, at Altamont, California, ended in tragedy when Hell’s Angels stabbed a man to death.

25/11/1969, John Lennon returned his MBE to Buckingham Palace, in protest at British involvement in the Biafra civil war in Nigeria.

31/8/1969, Bob Dylan starred in a pop festival on the Isle of Wight, drawing in 150,000 fans.

17/8/1969, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, architect, died.

5/7/1969, Sir Walter Gropius, architect, founder of the Bauhaus school of design, died.

12/6/1969, Alexander Deyneka: Ukrainian artist (born 1899), died.

24/5/1969. The Black and White Minstrel Show at London’s Victoria Palace closed after 4,354 performances over seven years. It was the longest running musical show in Britain.

16/4/1969. Desmond Dekker became the first Jamaican artist to top the UK charts with The Israelites.

15/4/1969, The Woodstock music festival began in Bethel, New York.

2/4/1969, Jim Morrison, of pop group ‘The Doors’ was arrested in the USA.

20/3/1969. The Beatle John Lennon married Yoko Ono in Gibraltar.

12/3/1969, Beatle Paul McCartney married Linda Eastman at Marylebone Registry Office, London.

7/2/1969, Marvin Gaye’s I Heard It Through The Grapevine was released.

30/1/1969. The Beatles performed together for the last time.

30/8/1968, The single Hey Jude was released by The Beatles.

25/6/1968. Comedian Tony Hancock killed himself in a hotel bathroom in Sydney, Australia.

24/5/1968, The Rolling Stones hit, Jumpin’ Jack Flash was released.

23/2/1968, Tom Jones released his song Delilah.

29/12/1967, Paul Whiteman, US composer, died aged 77.

5/12/1967. The Beatles opened their Apple store on Baker Street.

10/11/1967, The Moody Blue’s single, Nights in White Satin was released.

1/11/1967, Rolling Stone Magazine started publication, the first Rock’n’roll periodical in the USA.

27/8/1967, Brian Epstein, who managed The Beatles rise to rock stardom, died in a swimming pool accident.

29/5/1967, Geronimo Baqueiro Foster, composer, died aged 69.

5/4/1967, Mischa Elman, Russian-US violinist, died in New York (born 20/1/1891 in Talnoye, Russia).

11/3/1967, Geraldine Farrar, US opera singer, died in Ridgefield, Connecticut (born in Melrose, Massachusetts, 28/2/1882).

17/2/1967, The Beatles’ hit, Penny Lane/Strawberry Fields Forever single was released.

1/6/1966. Folk music fans at the Albert Hall booed Bob Dylan for performing with an electric guitar.

28/2/1966, The Cavern Club, where The Beatles first played, went into liquidation.

9/2/1966, Sophie Tucker, last of the ‘red hot mamas’, died.

1/2/1966, The silent film comedian Buster Keaton died.

26/10/1965. The Beatles went to Buckingham Palace to be presented with their MBE’s.

27/8/1965. The Swiss architect Le Corbusier died.

12/6/1965. The Beatles were made MBEs in the Queen’s birthday honours.  A number of other holders of the medal returned theirs in disgust.

23/5/1965, David Smith, US sculptor, died aged 59.

2/3/1965, The Sound of Music went on release in the USA. It was an instant hit.

10/8/1964. An emergency casualty station had to be set up in Brighton to deal with a constant stream of hysterical girls overcome during a performance of the Rolling Stones.

16/7/1964, The Rolling Stones had their first UK No.1 hit  with It’s All Over Now.

3/6/1964, The Rolling Stones began their first US tour.

17/5/1964, Bob Dylan made his first major London appearance, at the Royal Albert Hall.

23/4/1964, Gianandrea Noseda, Italian pianist, was born.

17/4/1964, The Rolling Stones released their first LP.

15/3/1964, Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton married in Montreal.

1/2/1964. EMI’s managing director announced that The Beatles were making over £500,000 a month.

11/10/1963, Jean Cocteau, French artist (born 1889) died.

23/8/1963, The Beatles single She Loves You was released.

3/8/1963. The Beatles played in The Cavern, Liverpool, for the last time.

16/4/1963, Jimmy Osmond, US singer, was born.

11/4/1963, Nigel Pulsford, English guitarist, was born.

26/12/1962. The Beatles, an obscure group from Liverpool, just made no.17 in the charts with their single Love Me Do.

7/12/1962, Kirsten Flagstad, Norwegian opera singer, died aged 67.

5/8/1962. Marilyn Monroe, US film actress, died in Los Angeles aged 36, of a barbiturates overdose.

21/7/1962. The Rolling Stones made their first appearance at the Marquee Club in London.

9/5/1962, The Beatles signed a recording contract with EMI’s Parlophone label.

21/1/1962 The Beatles and Cliff Richard were making the charts.

1/1/1962. The Beatles had their first audition with a record company in London. Their manager, Brian Epstein, was told, guitar groups are out, this group won’t make it, go back to Liverpool.

13/12/1961, Grandma Moses, US painter, died aged 101.

9/11/1961, Jill Dando, British journalist and BBC television presenter, was born in Weston-super-Mare (murdered 1999).

2/11/1961, James Thurber, author, died in New York.

11/10/1961, Chico Marx, the piano-playing member of the Marx Brothers comedy team, died.

14/7/1961, Boy George was born.

23/8/1960, Oscar Hammerstein, US theatrical producer, died aged 65.

14/8/1960, Sarah Brightman, English singer, was born in Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire.

30/5/1960, Boris Pasternak, Russian author of Dr Zhivago, Nobel Prize winner in 1958 (which he declined), died near Moscow.

12/4/1960, The musician Ray Charles won Best Male Vocalist Grammy award.

15/2/1960, Mikey Craig, rock bassist, was born.

1959, The Barbie Doll was introduced at the annual Toy Fair in New York.

19/8/1959, Sir Jacob Epstein, sculptor, died in London, England (born 10/11/1880 in New York City).

28/5/1959, The Mermaid Theatre opened in the City of London.

18/2/1959, Erich Zeisl, US composer, born 18/5/1905, died.

3/2/1959, Buddy Holly, US musician, was killed in an air crash in Iowa.

21/1/1959, Cecil B de Mille, Hollywood film producer, died.

26/8/1958, Ralph Vaughan Williams, English composer, died aged 85.

16/8/1958, Madonna, US singer, was born.

8/8/1958. Columbia Records signed up a 17-year-old singer called Cliff Richard.

7/6/1958, Prince, American singer, was born.

20/12/1957. At the height of his career, Elvis Presley received his call-up papers.

2/11/1957, Elvis Presley set a record with 8 simultaneous UK top 30 entries.

24/10/1957, Christian Dior, French fashion designer and creator of ‘New Look’, died.

21/10/1957, Steve Lukather, US singer, was born.

20/9/1957 Jean Sibelius, composer, died.

13/9/1957. The Mousetrap became Britain’s longest running play, reaching its 1,998th performance.

7/8/1957, Oliver Hardy, of Laurel and Hardy fame, died of a stroke, aged 65. Laurel was then aged 67.

19/3/1957, Elvis Presley paid the US$ 1,000 deposit on a mansion called Graceland, being sold by Mrs Ruth Brown-Moore.

16/3/1957, Constantin Brancusi, sculptor, died in Paris.

13/1/1957, Elvis Presley recorded All Shook Up in a Hollywood studio.

15/4/1956, Emil Nolde, German-Danish painter, died aged 88.

6/4/1956, Paramount Pictures signed Elvis for a three-film, five-year contract worth $450,000.

4/3/1956, Kermit Driscoll, US jazz bassist, was born.

10/2/1956, Elvis Presley walked into a recording studio and made his first record, Heartbreak Hotel.

27/11/1955, Arthur Honegger, Swiss composer, died aged 63.

29/10/1955, Dmitri Shostakovich's Violin Concerto No. 1, originally completed in 1948, was premiered by the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra.

4/5/1955, Georges Enescu, Romanian composer and violinist, died in Paris, France (born 19/8/1881 in Liveni, Romania.

3/11/1954, Henri Matisse, painter, died in Nice aged 84.

5/10/1954, Bob Geldof, rock musician and charity fundraiser, was born in Dublin.

25/8/1954, Elvis Costello, English musician, was born.

19/5/1954, Charles Ives, US composer died (born 1874).

15/2/1954, Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons, was born.

9/11/1953. The Welsh poet Dylan Marlais Thomas, born in Swansea on 27/10/1914, died in New York City aged 39 after falling into an alcoholic coma. He had drunk 18 stiff whiskies. His major work, Under Milk Wood, was broadcast on radio in 1954.

15/10/1953 Youth culture was yet to arrive, as was the word ‘teenager’. Top of the pop charts were Mantovani, Doris Day, and Dean Martin.

17/7/1953, Maude Adams, US actress (born 11/11/1872) died.

28/3/1953, James Francis Thorpe, athlete, died.

23/3/1953, Raoul Dufy, French painter (born 3/6/1877 in Le Havre, France) died in Forcalquiers, France.

5/3/1953. Sergei Prokofiev, Russian composer, died.

27/8/1952, Harvey Corbett, US architect, died in New York city.,

21/1/1952, Billy Ocean, musician, was born.

28/7/1951, Walt Disney’s cartoon Alice in Wonderland was released.

6/3/1951, Ivor Novello, Welsh composer, died aged 58.

31/1/1951, Phil Collins, rock musician, was born.

10/1/1951, Sinclair Lewis, US novelist, died aged 65.

2/11/1950. George Bernard Shaw, born 26/7/1856 in Dublin, died aged 94, in Ayot St Lawrence, Hertfordshire, UK.  A failed novelist, he was 36 when his first play, Widower’s Houses, was performed.

16/10/1950, The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe, CS Lewis, was first published.

17/6/1950, Phoebe Snow, US musician, was born.

26/2/1950, Sir Harry Lauder, Scottish comedian and singer, died aged 79.

23/9/1949, Bruce Springsteen, US musician, was born.

8/9/1949, Richard Strauss, composer, died.

3/1/1949, Robert Aitken, US sculptor (born 8/5/1878) died.

31/12/1948, Donna Summer, US singer, was born.

22/3/1948, Andrew Lloyd Webber, British composer, was born.

24/8/1947, The Edinburgh International Festival of Music and Drama was launched. It was an antidote to the prevailing austerity.

25/3/1947. Elton John, British musician, was born in Pinner, London, as Reginald Kenneth Dwight.

8/1/1947. David Bowie, British musician and rock star, was born in London as David Jones.

9/8/1946, The Arts Council of Great Britain was incorporated.

14/6/1946. Demis Roussos, Greek operatic singer, was born; see 25/1/2015.

26/9/1945. Bela Bartok, composer, died.

21/5/1945, Herbert Adams, US sculptor (born 28/1/1858) died.

10/2/1945, Juan de Hernandez, composer, died aged 63.

10/1/1945, Rod Stewart, British rock singer, was born in London.

13/9/1944. William Heath Robinson, the English artist famous for his drawings of excessively complicated machinery cobbled together, died.

1/2/1944. In New York, the Dutch artist Piet Mondrian died, aged 71.

28/1/1944, John Tavener, English composer, was born (died 2013)

24/1/1944, Klaus Nomi, German singer was born (died 1983).

23/1/1944. Death of Norwegian artist Edvard Munch.

1/1/1944, Sir Edwin Lutyens, English architect, designer of The Cenotaph in London and planner of New Delhi, died in London.

28/4/1943, Sergei Rachmaninov, Russian composer, died in Beverley Hills, California.

24/11/1942, Billy Connolly, Scottish comedian, was born.

22/9/1942, Ralph Adams Cram, US architect, died

18/6/1942, Paul McCartney of The Beatles pop group was born in Liverpool.

22/1/1942, Walter Sickert, English painter, died aged 81.

5/11/1941, Art Garfunkel, of Simon and Garfunkel, was born in New York.

18/6/1941, Delia Smith was born.

15/3/1941, Alexej von Jawlensky, Russian expressionist painter, died aged 77.

21/1/1941, Placido Domingo, Spanish operatic tenor, was born in Madrid.

17/11/1940, Eric Gill, English sculptor, died aged 58.

9/10/1940. John Lennon, songwriter and musician in The Beatles pop group, was born in Liverpool.  He was the son of a ship’s steward.

7/7/1940, Ringo Starr, drummer in the Beatles pop group, was born Liverpool as Richard Starkey.

29/6/1940, Paul Klee, artist, died in Switzerland.

8/6/1940, Nancy Sinatra, daughter of singer Frank Sinatra, was born.

13/7/1939. Frank Sinatra made his first record, ‘From the Bottom of my Heart’ with the Harry James band.

21/4/1939, Edna Savage, UK singer, was born (died 31/12/2000).

10/4/1939, Glen Miller recorded Little Brown Jug.

2/4/1939, Marvin Gaye, soul singer, was born.

19/2/1939, Batman was first drawn by Bob Kane for a ‘Detective Comic’ to be issued in May 1939.

17/3/1938. Russian dancer Rudolf Nureyev born in Irkutsk, Siberia.

16/2/1938, John Corigliano, US composer, was born.

11/7/1937, US composer George Gershwin died, aged 38.

11/5/1937, Viliam Figus, Composer, died aged 62.

31/1/1937, Philip Glass, US composer, was born.

8/1/1937, Shirley Bassey, British singer and entertainer, was born in Cardiff, Wales.

16/9/1935, Carl Andre, US artist, was born.

13/6/1935, Christo Javachev and his partner Jean Claude, artists, were born.

20/5/1935, Mickey Rose, US actor, was born (died 2013).

24/11/1934, Alfred Schnittke, German composer, was born (died 1998).

28/9/1934, Brigitte Bardot, actress, female role model, was born in Paris.

10/6/1934, British composer Frederick Delius died in France.

25/5/1934. composer Gustav Holst, who wrote The Planets, died aged 59. He was buried in Chichester Cathedral.

24/4/1934, Laurens Hammond filed a patent for an "electrical musical instrument" known today as the Hammond organ.

23/2/1934. Sir Edward Elgar, English composer, (born 2/6/1857), died of pneumonia in Worcester. On 10/11/1910 he conducted the first performance of his violin concerto, played by Fritz Kreisler, at the Queen’s Hall, London Applause was described as worthy of the Battle of Trafalgar.

18/2/1934, Yoko Ono, the widow of Jon Lennon, was born.

23/7/1933. Richard Rogers, architect who designed the Pompidou Centre in Paris and the Lloyds Building in London, was born.

13/9/1932, Bengt Hallberg, Swedish pianist and composer, was born.

6/3/1932, John Philip Sousa, composer, died.

3/10/1931. Death of the Danish composer Carl Nielsen.

29/9/1931, William Orpen, Irish painter, died aged 52.

8/11/1929, The Museum of Modern Art in New York opened.

2/11/1929, The first News Theatre Cinema opened in New York, the Embassy.

12/10/1929, Magnus Magnusson, British writer and TV presenter, was born in Reykjavik, Iceland.

29/9/1929, Lata Mangeshkar, musician, was born.

3/2/1929, Val Doonican, singer, was born.

11/12/1928, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian author, was born.

26/8/1928, Actress Barbara Stanwyck and vaudeville comedian Frank Fay were married in St. Louis.

12/8/1928, Leos Janacek, Czech composer, died aged 74.

6/8/1928, Andy Warhol, US artist, was born.

13/8/1927, Hermann  Albert, German musicologist, died in Stuttgart (born 25/3/1871, Stuttgart).

6/12/1926. The impressionist painter Claude Monet died as a recluse in Coventry, aged 86.

31/10/1926. The USA magician and escapologist Harry Houdini died, aged 52. He was born as Ehrich Weisz in Hungary and adopted his later name from the conjuror Robert Houdin whose autobiography he read as a young boy. .Determined to match Houdin’s achievements and to haul his family out of poverty, Houdini ran away to New York to begin a life in magic and entertainment which would enthral thousands. He escaped from handcuffs in an underwater nailed packing crate, and later exposed many psychic frauds. Whilst giving a lecture on spiritualism in Montreal, Houdini was asked if he could withstand a blow to the abdomen. Before he had a chance to prepare himself, Houdini was struck three times by a student. Despite this he managed to perform again, but died of peritonitis in a Detroit hospital a few days later.

10/6/1926, Spanish architect Gaudi y Cornet died. His most famous building is the Sagrada Familia cathedral in Barcelona.

21/12/1925. Battleship Potemkin, a film by Sergei Eisenstein, opened in the USSR.

14/11/1925, The first Surrealist art exhibition opened in Paris.

17/7/1925, Lovis Corinth, German painter, died.

14/4/1925, John Singer Seargant, US painter, died aged 69.

21/1/1925, Benny Hill, English comedian, was born in Southampton.

29/11/1924, The composer Puccini died in Brussels.

11/6/1924, Théodore Dubois, French composer, died aged 86.

14/4/1924, Louis Sullivan, US architect, died in Chicago.

4/3/1924, Happy Birthday to You, a song written by two US teachers, the sisters Patty and Mildred Hill, first appeared in print in a book by Robert H Coleman.

9/12/1923, Meggie Albanesi, British actress, died aged 24.

28/5/1923, Gyorgy Ligeti, Hungarian composer, was born (died 2006).

26/11/1922. Birth of the American cartoonist Charles Schultz. At an arts instruction school in St Paul, Minnesota, Schultz asked fellow student Charlie Brown if he could use his name . He also used Brown’s moon-face looks to create the friendly loser-kid in the comic strip Peanuts, which featured in some 2,600 newspapers in 75 countries, translated into 21 languages. Schultz died in Santa Rosa, California, in 2000.

24/2/1922, Richard Hamilton, English painter, was born (died 2011).

8/1/1922, Jan Nieuwenhuys, Dutch painter, was born.

3/1/1922, Siegmund Nissel, German musician, was born.

16/12/1921, French composer and organist Camille Saint-Saens died aged 86.

9/9/1921, Charlie Chaplin arrived at Waterloo Station, London, on the boat train from Southampton, to a rapturous welcome. He was staying at the Ritz Hotel, socially a million miles from his childhood days in Lambeth.

2/8/1921. Death of the Italian tenor Enrico Caruso, whose funeral in Naples was attended by 50,000 people.

26/5/1921, Hal David, musician, was born.

10/10/1920, Thelonious Monk, US jazz musician, was born (died 1982)

8/10/1920, Raymond Reynaud, French painter and sculptor, was born.

27/3/1920, Death of Samuel Colman, US landscape painter (born 4/3/1832).

3/12/1919, Pierre Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter, died near Cannes, aged 78. He was born on 26/2/1841.

18/5/1919, Margot Fonteyne, English ballerina, was born (died 1991).

16/5/1919. Waldzin Valentino Liberace was born in Wisconsin. His father wanted him to be an undertaker.

20/1/1919, Stepan Lucky, composer, was born.

16/10/1918, Felix Arndt, composer, died aged 29.

25/4/1918, Ella Fitzgerald, US jazz singer, was born (died 1996).

25/3/1918, Claude Debussy, French composer, died of cancer in London aged 55.

18/11/1917, Pedro Infante, Mexican actor and singer, was born.

17/11/1917, Death of the sculptor Auguste Rodin, aged 77.

21/10/1917, Dizzie Gillespie, US jazz musician, was born (died 1993).

27/9/1917, The painter Edgar Degas died, aged 83 (born 19/7/1834, in Paris).

20/3/1917. Dame Vera Lynn was born.

1/3/1917, Robert Lowell, US poet, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

25/6/1916, Thomas C Eakins, US artist, died (born 25/7/1844).

22/4/1916, Yehudi Menuhin, US violinist, was born.

24/10/1915, Tito Gobbi, Italian baritone singer, was born (died 1984)

5/6/1915, French sculptor and draughtsman Henri Gaudier-Brzeska was killed in action in World War One, aged 23.

3/2/1915, Richard Bales, composer, was born.

28/11/1914, Vincent Fago, American comic book artist, was born.

24/11/1914, Lynne Chadwick, English sculptor, was born.

12/12/1913, Leonardo Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa which had been stolen from the Louvre three years earlier was found in a bedroom of a small hotel in Florence. An Italian, Vicenzo Peruggia, was arrested.

22/11/1913, Benjamin Britten, English composer, was born in Lowestoft, Suffolk.

16/5/1913, Woody Herman, US jazz musician, was barn (died 1987).

5/9/1912, Composer John Cage was born

27/8/1912, Tarzan of the Apes, by Edgar Rice Burroughs, first went into print as a magazine serial.

14/7/1912, Woody Guthrie, US folk singer, was born in Oklahoma.

1/7/1912, The first Royal Command Performance took place at the Palace Theatre, London, watched by King George V and Queen Mary.

22/8/1911, The Mona Lisa was stolen from The Louvre, Paris.

18/5/1911, The composer Gustav Mahler died of heart disease in Austria, aged 51.

26/10/1911, Mahalia Jackson, gospel singer, was born.

29/9/1910, US artist Winslow Homer died at his studio in Maine.

23/6/1910, Jean Anouilh, French dramatist, was born (died 1987).

21/6/1908, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Russian composer, died at Lyubensk.

7/1/1908, Sir Frederick Gibberd, town planner who designed Harlow New Town, was born (died 1984).  He also designed Didcot power station (1968), the Intercontinental Hotel at Hyde Park Corner, London (1975), Liverpool’s Catholic cathedral (1967), and the Regent’s Park Mosque (1977).

21/10/1907, George Bodley, English architect, died in Water Eaton, Oxford (born 1827).

4/9/1907, Edward Greig, Norwegian composer, died in Bergen.

22/1/1907, In London, a strike by music hall artists disrupted theatre performances.

22/10/1906, The painter Paul Cezanne died in Aix en Provence, France (born 19/1/1839).

8/7/1906, Philip Johnson, architect, was born in Cleveland, Ohio.

23/5/1906, The Norwegian poet Henry Ibsen died.

6/4/1906, The Poet Laureate, John Betjeman, was born in London.

9/3/1906, David Smith, sculptor, was born (died 1965).

13/10/1905, Sir Henry Irving, the first British actor to receive a knighthood, gave his final performance in Bradford, Yorkshire, before collapsing and dying in the arms of his dresser at the Midland Hotel.

29/4/1905, Rudolf Schwartz, Viennese conductor who survived the Nazi concentration camps to become conductor of the BBC Symphony orchestra, was born.

15/2/1905, Harold Arlen, musician, was born in New York.

2/2/1905, The Russian writer Maxim Gorky was released from prison.

21/1/1905, Christian Dior, French designer, was born in Granville.

1/11/1904, George Bernard Shaw’s play John Bull’s Other Island had its premier.

27/7/1904, Anton Dolin, English ballet dancer, was born in Sussex.

5/7/1904, The composer Edward Elgar was knighted.

26/5/1904, George Formby, Lancashire comedian who played the ukulele and was famous for his song Cleaning Windows, was born.

11/5/1904. Spanish painter Salvador Dali was born in Figueras, Upper Catalonia.

1/5/1904. The Czech composer Antonin Dvorak died.

9/1/1904, George Balanchine, ballet choreographer, was born (died 1983).

17/7/1903, James Whistler, painter, died aged 70.

8/5/1903, Death of the French Impressionist painter Eugene Henri Paul Gauguin, on the Marquesas Islands, Polynesia, aged 54. He was born in Paris in 1848 and spent a short time with Vincent Van Gogh. He died of syphilis. Gauguin had given up a successful career on the Paris stock exchange at 35 to pursue painting, at which he was self-taught.

21/5/1902, Marcel Lajos Breuer, architect, was born (died 1981)

11/4/1902, Fred Gaisberg, of the Gramophone Company, made the first recordings of Caruso.

29/3/1902, Sir William Walton, English composer, was born in Oldham, Lancashire, to musical parents.

5/12/1901, Walt Disney was born.

9/9/1901, The bespectacled short painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec died in Malrome from a paralytic stroke, aged 36.

16/8/1901, Edmond Audran, French composer, died in Paris (born in Lyons 11/4/1842).

31/7/1901, Jean Dubuffet, French artist, was born in Le Havre, France.

24/6/1901, The first Picasso exhibition opened in Paris.

23/5/1901, Edward Rubbra, composer, was born (died 1986)

12/3/1901, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, opened.

8/3/1901, Peter Benoit, composer, died in Antwerp (born in Flanders 17/8/1834).

20/2/1901, Louis Isadore Kahn, architect, was born (died 1974).

27/1/1901, The Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi died in Milan aged 87. His works included La Traviata and Il Travatore.

16/1/1901, Arnold Bocklin, Swiss painter, died (born in Basel 16/10/1827).

22/6/1900, In London, the Wallace Collection was opened to the Public.

21/4/1900, Charles Beecher, US composer, died in Georgetown, Massachusetts (born in Litchfield, Connecticut 7/10/1815).

20/1/1900, John Ruskin, writer and art critic, died near Coniston, Lake District, aged 80.

30/10/1899, Sir Arthur Blomfield, English architect, died (born 6/3/1829).

29/9/1899, Billy Butlin, holiday camp owner, was born in South Africa.

13/8/1899, Birth of film director Alfred Hitchcock.  He was born in Leytonstone, London, the son of a greengrocer.

3/6/1899, Johann Strauss the Younger, Austrian composer, violinist, and conductor, who wrote The Blue Danube waltz, died in Vienna.

2/6/1899, Lotte Reiniger, film animator, was born.

16/3/1899, The London erotic illustrator Aubrey Beardsley died aged 26.

30/1/1899, Harry Bates, British sculptor, died in London (born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire 26//4/1850).

30/7/1898, Henry Moore, British sculptor, was born in Castleford, Yorkshire, the son of a coal miner.

16/3/1898, Aubrey Beardsley, English artist, died in Mentone (born in Brighton 24/8/1872).

9/1/1898, Gracie Fields, singer and music hall star, was born in Rochdale, Lancashire, as Gracie Stansfield.

20/9/1897, Karel Bendl, Bohemian composer, died in Prague (born in Prague 16/4/1838).

10/5/1897, Monday (-17,529) William Best, English organist, died in Liverpool (born 13/8/1826 in Carlisle).

3/4/1897, Johannes Brahms, German composer, died at his home in Vienna, aged 64.

12/1/1896, Tommy Handley, British comedian, was born in Liverpool.

6/10/1895 Sir Henry Wood’s promenade concerts began at Queen’s Hall, London.

14/2/1895, Oscar Wilde’s final play, The Importance of Being Earnest, opened in London.

8/12/1894, James Thurber, author, was born in Columbus, Ohio.

9/2/1894, Adolphe Saxe, the Belgian musical instrument maker who invented the Saxophone, died in Paris.

6/11/1893. The composer Peter Illich Tchaikovsky, born.7/5/1840, died of cholera, after drinking infected water.

18/1/1892, Oliver Hardy, comedian in the Laurel and Hardy duo, was born in Atlanta, Georgia.

23/4/1891, Sergei Prokofiev, Russian composer, was born in Sontsovka in the Ukraine.

13/2/1891, Grant Wood, US painter, was born in Iowa.

11/1/1891, Baron Georges-Eugene Haussman, architect who designed the broad straight boulevards of Paris, died in poverty.

5/1/1891, Emma Abbot, US opera singer, died in Salt Lake City.

12/12/1890, Sir Joseph Boehm, British sculptor, died in South Kensington (born in Vienna 4/7/1834).

2/10/1890, Julius Groucho Marx was born (died 1977).

29/7/1890, Vincent Van Gogh, born 30/3/1853, died after prolonged insanity. He went to the spot where he had painted Cornfield with flight of birds and shot himself in the chest, on 27/7/1890, dying 2 days later.

7/7/1889, Giovanni Bottesini, Italian composer, died in Parma (born in Lombardy 24/12/1823).

17/5/1889, William Beverley, English painter, died in Hampstead, London (born in Richmond, Surrey).

15/8/1889, James Albery, English dramatist, died (born 4/5/1838 in London).

16/4/1889, Birth of the comedian Sir Charles Chaplin in Kennington, London (died 1977). He was the son of two music hall entertainers.

15/4/1889, Thomas Hart Benton, US painter, was born in Neosho, Missouri.

23/12/1888, The artist Vincent Van Gogh cut off his left ear lobe.

23/11/1888, Harpo Marx, one of the Marx Brothers comedy team, was born in New York City.

11/5/1888, Irving Berlin, US songwriter, was born as Israel Baline in Tyumen, Russia.

26/3/1888, Francis Bache, composer, died in London (born 14.9/1833 in Birmingham)

22/2/1888, Jean Alard, French violinist, died in Paris (born 8/5/1815 in Bayonne).

1887, L L Zamenhof devised ‘Esperanto’.

18/11/1887, Frank Dobson, English sculptor, was born.

15/11/1887, Georgia O’Keefe, artist, was born in Wisconsin.

1/11/1887, The artist L S (Laurence Stephen) Lowry was born in Rusholme, Manchester.

28/2/1887, Alexander Borodin, Russian composer, died in St Petersburg.

31/7/1886, Franz Liszt, Hungarian composer, died aged 74, in Bayreuth, Bavaria.

27/3/1886, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, architect, was born in Aachen, Germany.

16/6/1885, Wilhelm Camphausen, German painter (born 1818) died.

5/6/1885, Sir Julius Benedict, composer, died in London (born in Stuttgart 27/11/1804).

31/3/1885, Franz Abt, German composer, (born 22/12/1819 in Eilenburg, Saxony) died in Weisbaden.

10/12/1884, Jules Bastien-Lepage, French painter, died in Paris (born 1/11/1848 in Damvilliers).

12/5/1884, Bohemian composer Bedrich Smetana died in an asylum for the insane.

24/11/1883, Albert Bellows, US landscape painter, died in Auburndale, Massachusetts (born in Milford, Massachusetts, 20/11/1829)

15/7/1883, Tom Thumb, the American circus midget who finally attained a height of 40 inches, died.

30/4/1883, Edouard Manet, artist, died.

18/2/1883, The funeral of the composer Wagner was held at Bayreuth.

23/1/1883, The French artist Gustave Dore (born 6/1/1832 in Strasbourg|) died in Paris.

9/4/1882, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, English painter and poet, died.

25/10/1881, Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter who created Cubism, was born in Malaga, Andalusia.

28/3/1881, Modest Mussorgsky, Russian composer, died of chronic alcoholism aged 42.

25/3/1881, Bela Bartok, Hungarian composer, was born.

10/11/1880, The British sculptor James Epstein was born (of Russian-Polish descent) in New York City.

9/11/1880, Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, British architect, was born.

5/10/1880, Jacques Offenbach, composer, died in Paris.

18/12/1879, Paul Klee, artist, was born.

6/7/1879, Henry Smart, English organist, died (born 26/10/1813).

29/4/1879, Sir Thomas Beecham, English conductor, born.

8/5/1878, Robert Aitken, US sculptor (died 3/1/1949) was born.

27/7/1877, Ernst von Dohnanyi, Hungarian pianist (died New York, 9/2/1960) was born in Pozsony, Hungary.

17/8/1876, Wagner’s opera Gotterdammerung premiered at Bayreuth.

28/6/1876, August Wilhelm Ambros, Austrian musician, died in Vienna (born 1816).

19/2/1876, Constantin Brancusi, sculptor, was born in Romania.

25/6/1875, Antoine Barye, French sculptor, died (born in Paris 24/9/1796).

3/6/1875, Georges Bizet, French composer of the opera Carmen, died in Bougival near Paris.

7/3/1875, Maurice Ravel, French composer, was born in Ciboure in the Basque Country.

15/2/1875, Monday (-26,649) Sir William Bennett, English composer, died in St Johns Wood, London (born in Sheffield 13/4/1816).

21/9/1874, Gustav Holst, English composer, who wrote The Planets, was born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, as Gustavus Theodore von Holst, of Swedish origin.

6/4/1874, Harry Houdini, American magician and escapologist, was born in Appleton, Wisconsin, as Ehrich Weiss. He was the son of a rabbi from Budapest.

1/10/1873, Sir Edwin Landseer, painter, died in London.

26/9/1873, Julius Benedix, German dramatist, died in Leipzig (born in Leipzig 21/1/1811).

1/4/1873, Sergei Rachmaninov, last of the great Russian romantic composers, was born in Oneg, Nijni Novgorod. He later settled in the USA.

25/2/1873, Enrico Caruso, Italian operatic tenor, was born in Naples.

8/1/1873, Harvey Corbett, US architect, was born in San Francisco,

11/11/1872, Maude Adams, US actress, was born (died 17/7/1953).

24/8/1872, Aubrey Beardsley, English artist, was born in Brighton (died in Mentone 16/3/1898).

31/5/1872, The illustrator and cartoonist Heath Robinson was born. He was famous for his drawings of absurdly complicated machinery performing simple tasks.

22/5/1872, In Germany, the foundation stone of the Bayreuth Theatre was laid. It was built specially for the performance of Wagner’s works.

25/3/1871, The American sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, was born near Bear Lake, Idaho.

9/12/1870,  Maximillian Ainmuller, German artist, died (born in Munich, 14/2/1807).

20/10/1870, Michael Balfe, Irish composer, died (born in Dublin 13/5/1808).

8/8/1870, Maximillian Ainmiller, German glass painter (born 14/2/1807) died.

29/3/1869, Sir Edward Lutyens, British architect, was born in London.

8/3/1869, The French composer Berlioz died in Paris.

22/12/1868, Tuesday (-27,895) Solon Borglum, US sculptor, was born in Ogden, Utah.

25/5/1868, Rene Weil (Romain Coolus), French dramatist, was born in Rennes.

6/12/1867, Karl Bitter, US sculptor, was born in Vienna.

22/5/1867, Edward Baily, British sculptor, died in Holloway (born in Bristol 10/3/1788).

18/4/1867, John Smirke, who designed the façade of the British Museum, died.

31/1/1867, The four great bronze lions at the base of Nelson’s Column were completed by painter Sir Edward Landseer and positioned in Trafalgar Square.

14/1/1867, The painter Jean Auguste Ingres died aged 86 in Paris.

13/11/1866, Rossini, Italian composer, died in Passy, France, aged 76.

8/12/1865, Jean Sibelius, Finnish composer, was born in Hameenlinna, the son of a surgeon.

1/10/1865, Paul Dukas, French composer, was born in Paris, France (died17/5/1935 in Paris).

2/8/1865, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll (Charles Dodgson) was published.

6/7/1865, Emile Jacques Dalcroze, inventor of eurhythmics dancing, was born.

8/6/1865, Sir Joseph Paxton, ornamental gardener and architect who designed the Crystal Palace for the 1851 Great Exhibition, died.

11/6/1864, Richard Strauss, composer, was born in Munich, Germany

18/5/1864, Milton Aborn, US operatic singer, was born (died 12/11/1933).

2/4/1864, Louis Michel Eilshemius, US painter, was born in New Jersey (died 29/12/1941 in New York City.

13/1/1864, Stephen Foster, musician, died in New York (born 4/7/1926)

12/12/1863, Edward Munch, Norwegian artist who painted The Scream, was born.

7/12/1863, Pietro Mascagni, Italian composer, was born.

13/8/1863, The painter Eugene Delacroix died in Paris.

31/7/1863, Richard Aldrich, US music critic, was born (died 1937).

12/7/1863, Charles Cottet, French painter, was born at Puy.

24/5/1863, George Barnard, US sculptor, was born in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania.

22/8/1862, Composer Claude Debussy was born in St Germain en Laye, France.

24/3/1862, Frank Benson, US painter, was born in Salem, Massachusetts.

29/1/1862, Frederick Delius, English composer, born in Bradford, Yorkshire.

18/12/1860, Edward MacDowell, US composer, was born in New York City.

7/7/1860, Gustav Mahler, composer, was born in Kalischt, Bohemia.

20/10/1860, Walter Cope, US architect, was born in Pennsylvania.

7/9/1860, Grandma Moses, US painter, was born in Greenwich, New York State.

23/6/1860, On St John’s Eve, Mussorgsky completed St John’s Night on a Bare Mountain. After his death Rimsky Korsakov edited it and removed St John’s from the title.

12/5/1860, Sir Charles Barry, architect, died in Clapham, London (born in London 23/5/1795).

15/12/1859, Ludwig Zimenof, Polish linguist who created the artificial language Esperanto, was born in Bialystock.

24/11/1859, Charles Darwin, born 12/2/1809, published The Origin of the Species.

12/11/1859, French acrobat Jules Leotard performed the first circus trapeze act at the Cirque Napoleon, Paris, wearing the famous costume named after him.

4/10/1859, Death of German publisher Karl Baedeker, whose travel guides became famous.

19/5/1859, Dame Nellie Melba, Australian singer, was born.

22/12/1858, The composer Puccini was born in Lucca, Italy.

28/1/1858, Herbert Adams, US sculptor (died 21/5/.1945) was born.

16/9/1857, The tune Jingle Bells by James Pierpoint was copyrighted under its original title One Horse Open Sleigh. In 1965 it became the first song to be broadcast from space.

2/6/1857, Sir Edward Elgar, British composer, was born in Broadheath, near Worcester, the son of a music seller and organist.

27/10/1856, Kenyon Cox, US painter, was born in Ohio.

29/7/1856, Robert Schumann, German composer, died in an asylum near Bonn.

3/5/1856, Adolphe Adam, French composer (born 24/7/1803) died.

30/4/1855, Sir Henry Bishop, composer, died (born in London 18/11/1786).

6/11/1854, John Philip Sousa, composer, inventor of the sousaphone (a sort of large tuba), was born.

30/3/1853, The artist Vincemt Van Gogh was born in the Dutch village of Groot-Zundert, the son of a Lutheran pastor.

1/11/1852, Dame Emma Albani, Canadian singer (died 3/4/1930) was born.

30/9/1852, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, Irish composer, was born.

14/9/1852, Lord Pugin, co-designer of the Houses of Parliament with Sir Charles Barry, died at Ramsgate.

1/4/1852, Edwin Austin Abbey, US painter, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

19/12/1851, The painter Joseph Turner died in his house in Chelsea, London, under the assumed name of Booth.

11/3/1851, Verdi’s opera Rigoletto was first performed, in Venice.

1/2/1851, Mary Shelley, author of Frankenstein, died.

19/11/1850, Alfred Lord Tennyson was appointed Poet Laureate, a post he held until his death in 1892.

7/5/1850, Anton Seidl, Hungarian operatic conductor, was born (died 28/3/1898).

26/4/1850, Harry Bates, British sculptor, was born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire (died in London 30/1/1899).

23/4/1850, Sir William Wordsworth, Poet Laureate from 1843, died of pleurisy at Rydal Mount, Grasmere, aged 80.

22/2/1850, Sir William Allan, Scottish painter, died.

17/10/1849, Frederic Chopin, born 1/3/1810 near Warsaw, Poland, died aged 39 of tuberculosis in Paris.

25/9/1849, Johann Strauss the Elder died, aged 45, of scarlet fever.

15/12/1848, Edwin Blashfield, US artist, was born in New York City.

23/6/1848. Adolfe Sax, born on 6/11/1814 in Dinant, Belgium, was awarded a patent for the saxophone.

7/6/1848, Paul Gauguin, French painter, was born in Paris.  He was the son of a journalist.

4/11/1847, The composer Felix Mendelssohn died in Leipzig of a stroke, aged 38.

27/9/1847, Marie Lajeunesse, or Albani, Canadian singer, was born in Chambly, Quebec.

16/9/1847, Shakespeare’s birthplace in Stratford on Avon was purchased by the specially-formed Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. This was one of the first buildings acquired purely for preservation.

19/10/1845, Wagner’s opera ‘Tannhauser’ was first performed at Dresden.  Wagner’s music inspired either wonder or loathing, and he was also highly anti-Semitic.

30/5/1846, Peter Carl Faberge, Russian jeweller whose fabulous Easter Eggs were popular with the tsars, was born.

25/7/1844, Thomas C Eakins, US artist, was born (died 25/6/1916).

16/7/1844, Charles Dickens’ sixth book, The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit, was published in entirety.

21/5/1844, Guiseppe Baini, Italian musician, died in Rome (born in Rome 21/10/1775).

3/5/1844, Richard D’Oyly Carte, who produced the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, was born.

18/3/1844, Rimsky Korsakoov, Russian composer, was born in Novgorod.

9/7/1843, Washington Allston, US artist, died in Cambridge, Massachusetts (born 5/11/1779 in Waccamaw, South Carolina).

15/6/1843, Edward Grieg, Norwegian composer, was born in Bergen.  He was of Scottish descent.

22/10/1842, Anne Louise Cary, US singer, was born.

11/4/1842, Edmond Audran, French composer, was born in Lyons (died in Paris 16/8/1901).

8/9/1841, Anton Dvorak, Czech composer, was born near Prague.

25/2/1841, Pierre Auguste Renoir, French impressionist painter, was born in Limoges, the son of a tailor.

14/11/1840, Claude Monet, French Impressionist painter, was born in Paris.

12/11/1840, Auguste Rodin, French sculptor, was born in Paris.

7/5/1840, Peter Illyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer, was born in Votkinsk, the son of a government mines inspector.

21/3/1839, Modest Moussorgsky, Russian composer, was born in Karevo (now called Pskov).

16/2/1839, George Bissell, US sculptor, was born in New Preston, Connecticut.

19/1/1839, Paul Cezanne, French artist, was born in Aix en Provence, France.

25/10/1838, Georges Bizet, composer, was born in Bougival, Paris (died 3/6/1875).

12/8/1838, Sir Joseph Barnby, composer, was born in York (died in London 28/1/1896).

4/5/1838, James Albery, English dramatist, was born in London (died 15/8/1889).

4/1/1838, Charles Sherwood Stratton was born. He later became famous as Tom Thumb, a midget exhibited by Phineas Barnum.

31/3/1837, The painter John Constable. Died, aged 60.

20/1/1837, Sir Robert Soane, architect, died in London. He designed the Bank of England building on Threadneedle Street.

31/12/1836, Mili Balakirev, Russian composer, was born in Nizni-Novogorod.

26/6/1836, Rouget de Lisle, composer of La Marseillaise in 1792, died.

24/2/1836, US artist Winslow Homer was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

3/10/1835, Charles Saint-Saens, French composer, was born.

24/9/1835, Vincenzo Bellini, operatic composer, died in Puteaux, Paris (born in Catania, Sicily 1/11/1801).

26/6/1835, Baron Antoine Gros, French painter, drowned himself in the River Seine at Meudon, aged 64.

13/5/1835, John Nash, architect of Regents Park and Brighton Pavilion, died on the Isle of Wight. He had been commissioned by King George IV to redevelop parts of London, such as Trafalgar Square and Regent Street.

12/11/1834, Alexander Borodin, Russian composer, was born in St Petersburg.

1/9/1834, Amilcare Ponchielli, Italian musician, was born (died 17/1/1886).

17/8/1834, Peter Benoit, composer, was born in Flanders (died in Antwerp 8/3/1901).

19/7/1834, Edward Degas, painter, was born in Paris.

4/7/1834, Sir Joseph Boehm, British sculptor, was born in Vienna (died in South Kensington 12/12/1890).

14/9/1833, Francis Bache, composer, was born in Birmingham (died 26/3/1888 in London).

28/8/1833, Sir Edward Burne-Jones, English painter, was born.

20/6/1833, Leon Bonnat, French painter, was born in Bayomnne.

7/5/1833, Johannes Brahms, German composer, was born in Hamburg, the son of a poor orchestral musician.

6/1/1833, Gustav Dore, French artist, was born.

23/1/1832, Edouard Manet, French painter, was born in Paris.

6/1/1832, Gustave Dore, French artist, was born.

15/7/1831, Reinhold Begas, German sculptor, was born in Berlin.

10/11/1830, Jacob Epstein, British sculptor, was born.

7/1/1830, Albert Bierstadt, US landscape painter, was born in Solingen, Germany (died in New York City 18/2/1902).

1829, The accordion was invented by Damian, in Vienna.

20/11/1829, Albert Bellows, US landscape painter, was born in Milford, Massachusetts (died in Auburndale, Massachusetts, 24/11/1883).

6/3/1829, Sir Arthur Blomfield, English architect, was born (died 30/10/1899).

19/11/1828, Franz Schubert, born 31/1/1797, died of typhus, aged 31.

8/11/1828, Thomas Bewick, wood engraver, died (born near Newcastle on Tyne 8/1753).

16/4/1828, Francisco de Goya, Spanish painter and etcher, died in France aged 82.

20/3/1828, The Norwegian poet Henry Ibsen was born in Skien, Norway.

8/2/1828, Jules Verne, French writer and early author of science fiction, was born in Nantes, Brittany.

16/10/1827, Arnold Bocklin, Swiss painter, was born in Basel (died 16/1/1901).

15/10/1827, Ralph Blakelock, US painter, was born in New York.

22/4/1827, Thomas Rowlandson, English watercolour painter (born 1756) died in London.

26/3/1827, Composer Ludwig van Beethoven died in Bonn, aged 57. His last words were reputedly “I shall hear in Heaven”. His funeral was on 29/3/1827, in Vienna; thousands attended it.

30/11/1825, Adolphe Bouguereau, French painter, was born in La Rochelle (died 20/8/1905).

25/10/1825, Johann Strauss junior, composer, was born in Vienna, Austria.

13/4/1825, William Beard, US painter, was born in Painesville, Ohio (died 1900).

2/3/1824, Bedrich Smetana, Czech composer, was born in Litomysl, Bohemia.

24/12/1823, Giovanni Bottesini, Italian composer, was born in Lombardy (died in Parma 7/7/1889).

1/12/1823, Ernest Reyer, French composer, was born.

7/5/1823, Despite his deafness, Beethoven conducted the first performance of his Ninth Symphony.

22/2/1822, Rosa Bonheur, French painter, was born in Bordeaux (died 1899).

1821,The harmonica was invented by the German CFL Buschmann, as an aid to tuning a piano.

1821, The designer, Louis Vuitton, was born in Jura, eastern France, to a farming family. At age 13 he walked to Paris and became apprentice to a master trunk maker.

15/5/1821, John Callcott, English musician (born 20/11/1766) died.

16/12/1820, Sir George Scharf, director of the British National Portrait Gallery, was born (died 19/4/1895).

22/12/1819, Franz Abt, German composer, (died 31/3/1885 in Weisbaden) was born in Eilenburg, Saxony.

13/9/1819, Clara Schumann, German pianist, was born (died 20/5/1986).

20/6/1819, Jacques Offenbach, composer, was born in Cologne, Germany.

11/4/1819, Sir Charles Halle, German musician who founded the Halle Orchestra in Manchester, was born.

26/9/1818, John Sims Reeves, English vocalist, was born (died 25/10/1900).

25/8/1818, Elizabeth Billington, opera singer, died near Venice.

21/6/1818, Sir Richard Wallace, art collector and philanthropist, was born.

13/4/1816, Sir William Bennett, English composer, was born in Sheffield (died in St Johns Wood, London, 15/2/1875).

7/10/1815, Charles Beecher, US composer, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut (died in Georgetown, Massachusetts, 21/4/1900).

29/9/1815, Andreas Achenbach, German landscape painter, was born (died 31/3/1910).

8/5/1815, Jean Alard, French violinist, was born in Bayonne (died 22/2/1888 in Paris).

4/3/1815, Frances Abington, English actress (born 1737) died

6/11/1814, Adolphe Sax, Belgian musician and instrument-maker who invented the Saxophone and Saxhorn, was born.

1/6/1814, Francois Ponsard, French dramatist, was born (died 7/7/1867).

10/10/1813, The Italian composer Guiseppe Verdi was born in Le Roncole, near Busseto, the son of an innkeeper.

22/5/1813, Richard Wagner, German operatic composer, was born in Leipzig.

7/2/1812, The author Charles Dickens was born in Landport, Portsmouth, the son of a clerk in the navy pay office.

22/10/1811, Franz Liszt, Hungarian composer and pianist, was born in the village of Raiding near Odenburg.

18/7/1811, William Thackeray, poet, was born in Calcutta, India; his father was an official of the East India Company.

13/7/1811, Sir George Gilbert Scott, architect who designed the Albert Memorial and St Pancras Station, was born.

21/1/1811, Julius Benedix, German dramatist, was born in Leipzig (died in Leipzig 26/9/1873).

8/6/1810, Robert Schumann, German composer, was born.

5/7/1810, American showman Phineas T Barnum was born in Bethel, Connecticut.

1/3/1810, Frederic Chopin, Polish composer and pianist, was born in Zelazowa Wola, near Warsaw, the son of a Frenchman.

31/5/1809, Franz Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer, died in Vienna.

28/3/1809, George Richmond, British artist, was born.

3/2/1809, Felix Mendelssohn, German composer, was born in Hamburg, son of a banker.

22/12/1808, Beethoven’s 5th and 6th symphonies received their premiere in Vienna.

15/5/1808, Michael Balfe, Irish composer, was born in Dublin (died 20/10/1870).

9/3/1808, Guiseppe Bonomi, English architect, died in London (born in Rome 19/1/1739).

14/2/1807, Maximillian Ainmuller, German artist, was born in Munich (died 9/12/1870).

22/10/1806, Thomas Sheraton, furniture designer and cabinet maker, died.

22/2/1806, James Barry, English painter, died (born in Cork 11/10/1741).

20/11/1805, Beethoven’s only opera, Fidelio, premiered at the Theater an der Wein, in Vienna.

28/5/1805, Luigi Boccherini, Italian composer, died in Madrid (born 1743).

2/2/1805, Thomas Banks, English sculptor, died in London (born in London 29/12/1735).

27/11/1804, Sir Julius Benedict, composer, was born in Stuttgart (died in London 5/6/1885).

14/3/1804, Johann Strauss the Elder, Austrian composer, was born in Vienna, son of an innkeeper.

11/12/1803, Hector Berlioz, French composer, was born in La Cote St Andre, near Grenoble, son of a doctor.

24/7/1803, Adolphe Adam, French composer, was born (died 3/5/1856).

22/10/1802, Samuel Arnold, English composer, died in London (born 10/8/1740 in London).

3/3/1802, Beethoven’s opera “Moonlight Sonata” was published.

7/3/1802, Sculptor and animal painter Sir Edward Landseer was born in London, the son of an engraver. He designed the bronze lions at the base of Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square.

3/11/1801, Karl Baedeker, guide book publisher, was born.

1/11/1801, Vincenzo Bellini, operatic composer, was born in Catania, Sicily (died in Puteaux, Paris, 24/9/1835).

31/8/1801, Sir Joseph Paxton, architect of the Crystal Palace, was born at Milton Bryant near Woburn, Bedfordshire.

4/8/1799, John Bacon, sculptor, died in London (born 24/11/1740 in Southwark),

26/4/1798, The painter Eugene Delacroix was born near Paris.

17/2/1798, Friedrich Beneke, German writer, was born in Berlin (died 1854).

31/1/1797, Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born near Vienna. He was the son of a schoolteacher.

24/9/1796, Antoine Barye, French sculptor, was born in Paris (died 25/6/1875).

23/5/1795, Birth of the architect Sir Charles Barry, who designed the Houses of Parliament in London

3/1/1795, Josiah Wedgwood, English potter and creator of blue jasper ware, died in Staffordshire.

9/2/1794, Jacques Ancelot, French dramatist, was born in Havre (died 1854).

19/7/1793, Thomas Doughty, US painter (died 22/7/1856 in New York city) was born Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

29/2/1792, Gioacchino Rossini, Italian composer, was born in Pesano, on the Adriatic coast. He was the son of an itinerant horn player.

23/2/1792, Joshua Reynolds, English portrait painter, died in London.

5/12/1791, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, died of typhus in Vienna and was buried in the common ground of St Mark’s churchyard.

2/8/1788, The painter Thomas Gainsborough, born 14/5/1727, died.

10/7/1788, Mozart completed his Jupiter Symphony. Born on 27/1/1756, Mozart died on 5/12/1791 from typhus and was buried in a pauper’s grave with several other paupers.

10/3/1788, Edward Baily, British sculptor, was born in Bristol (died in Holloway 22/5/1867).

10/8/1787, Mozart completed his famous Eine Kleine Nachtmusik.

20/6/1787, Karl Abel, German musician (born 1725) died in London.

18/11/1786, Sir Henry Bishop, composer, was born in London (died 30/4/1855).

3/4/1783, Washington Irving, author of Rip Van Winkle, was born.

6/2/1783. English landscape gardener Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown died. Kew Gardens and Blenheim Palace are examples of his work.

27/10/1782, Birth of the Italian composer and violinist Niccolo Paganini, in Genoa.

19/8/1780, Pierre Beranger, French songwriter, was born in Paris (died 16/7/1857).

18/12/1779, Joseph Grimaldi, English clown who invented the white face make up for clowns, was born.

5/11/1779, Washington Allston, US artist, was born in Waccamaw, South Carolina. He died 9/7/1843 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

20/1/1779, David Garrick, English actor and theatre manager, died. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

3/8/1778, La Scala opera house  in Milan opened, the work of Guiseppe Piermarini.

5/3/1778, Thomas Arne, English composer, died in London.

22/1/1778, Lord Byron, English romantic poet, was born in London.

11/6/1776. John Constable, landscape painter, was born in East Bergholt, Suffolk, the son of a landowner and miller.

16/12/1775, Jane Austen, author, was born at Steventon in Hampshire, the seventh child of eight born to a rector.

21/10/1775, Guiseppe Baini, Italian musician, was born in Rome (died in Rome, 21/5/1844).

23/4/1775, The painter Joseph Mallory William Turner was born at Covent Garden, London. He was the son of a barber.

1/12/1774, Johann Agricola, German musician died in Berlin (born4/1/1720 in Dobitschen).

16/12/1770, Beethoven, German composer, was born in Bonn, the son of an undistinguished tenor.

7/4/1770, William Wordsworth, poet, was born, at Cockermouth, Cumberland. He was the son of an attorney.

10/12/1768, The Royal Academy of Arts, London, was founded.  Joshua Reynolds was the first President.

20/4/1768, The painter Canaletto died in Venice. Born there in 1697, Canaletto painted many scenes of Venice before moving to England in 1746 to paint the country houses there.

20/11/1766, John Callcott, English musician (died 15/5/1821) was born.

27/10/1764, The painter and engraver William Hogarth died in London, aged 67.  He was buried in Chiswick churchyard. He also pushed for legislation to protect the intellectual property of artists, the so-called ‘Hogarth Act’ of 1753.

9/7/1764, Louis Baltard, French architect, was born in Paris (died in Paris 13/1/1874).

21/4/1760, Britain’s first art exhibition opened. The Annual Exhibition of United Artists was held at the premises of the Society of Arts on The Strand, London.

14/4/1759. George Frederick Handel, German composer, died, aged 74, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. He was born in Halle, Saxony, on 23/2/1685. He settled in England and became court composer to George II.

15/10/1758, Johann Heinrich von Dannecker, German sculptor, was born (died 1841)

23/7/1757. The composer Scarlatti died, aged 71.

27/1/1756, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, was born in Salzburg, the son of a musician.

10/9/1753. Birth of the architect Sir John Soane. He was born at Goring, near Reading, the son of a mason, and in 1788 he became architect and surveyor to the Bank of England. The new exterior he created for the Bank was regarded as his most famous work. In 1806 he became Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy; he was knighted in 1831. His home at 13 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, which he designed, was the setting for his art and antiques collection. He lived there alone after his wife died in 1815; it is now the John Soane Museum. He also designed the Dulwich College Picture Gallery in south London.

28/7/1750. The composer Johann Sebastian Bach died, almost blind, of apoplexy. He was born on 21/3/1685 in Eisenach, Germany. He fathered 20 children, and also composed 300 cantatas, two oratorios, the St John and St Matthew Passions, and Mass in B Minor.

17/1/1749, Vittorio Alfieri, Italian dramatist (died 8/10/1803) was born in Asti, Piedmont.

30/3/1746, Francisco de Goya, Spanish painter, was born in Fuendetodos, near Saragosa, son of a master gilder.

13/4/1742, The performance of Handel’s Messiah in Dublin marked the climax of his popularity.

11/10/1741, James Barry, English painter, was born in Cork (died 22/2/1806).

28/7/1741, Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer, notably of The Four Seasons, died in Vienna.

24/11/1740, John Bacon, sculptor, was born in Southwark (died 4/8/1799 in London)

10/8/1740, Samuel Arnold, English composer, was born in London (died 22/10/1802 in London).

19/1/1739, Guiseppe Bonomi, English architect, was born in Rome (died in London 9/3/1808).

17/1/1738, German architect, Matthaus Poppelman, died aged 74.

18/12/1737, Antonio Stradivari, famous Italian violin maker, died in Cremona, Lombardy.

3/2/1736, Johann Albrechtsberger, Austrian musician, was born in Kloster-Neuburg (died 7/3/1809 in Vienna).

29/12/1735, Thomas Banks, English sculptor, was born in London (died in London 2/2/1805).

7/12/1732, The Covent Garden Theatre, London, opened

31/3/1732, Franz Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer, was born in Rohrau, son of a wheelwright.

26/4/1731, Daniel Defoe, English author who wrote Robinson Crusoe, died.

27/1/1731, Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italian harpsichord maker, who designed the first piano in 1710, died in Florence.

12/7/1730, Josiah Wedgewood, potter, was born at Burslem, Staffordshire.

14/5/1727, Artist Thomas Gainsborough was born in Sudbury, Suffolk. He was the son of a cloth merchant.

26/3/1726, Sir John Vanbrugh, English playwright and architect of Blenheim Palace, Castle Howard, and many other stately homes, died of quinsy.

16/7/1723, Joshua Reynolds, English portrait painter, was born at Plympton Earls, Devon.

25/2/1723, Sir Christopher Wren, architect, born 20/10/1632 in East Knoyle, Wiltshire, died aged 91, in London. His works included St Paul’s Cathedral (see 22/6/1675) and Chelsea Hospital. He was buried in the crypt of St Pauls Cathedral.

4/1/1720, Johann Agricola, German musician (died 1/12/1774 in Berlin) was born in Dobitschen.

2/3/1717, First ballet performed in England, The Loves of Mars and Venus , at The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London.

19/2/1717, David Garrick, English actor and theatre manager, was born in Hereford, son of an army captain.

8/3/1714, C P E Bach, composer, born.

1711, The tuning fork was invented by English instrument maker, John Shore.

12/3/1710, Thomas Arne, composer of Rule Britannia, was born in London, the son of an upholsterer.

14/7/1699, William Bates, English writer, died in Hackney (born in London 11/1625).

10/11/1697, The painter William Hogarth was born at Smithfield, London, the son of a teacher.

18/10/1697. Birth of the painter Canaletto. He was born in Venice, as Giovanni Antonio Canal, and was trained by his father who was a scene painter. As a youth Canaletto went to Rome to study under the classical painter Pannini. He returned to Venice to become the most famous painter of Venetian views of the 18th century. His patron was Joseph Smith who served as English consul in Venice; as a result Canaletto’s work became popular with English travellers and he cane to England in 1746, staying there for most of the next 10 years. He painted his four views of Warwick castle, the two largest of which are (2001) in the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery.

16/4/1696, Giovanni Batista Tiepolo, Venetian painter, was born.

21/11/1695, Henry Purcell, English composer, died in London from tuberculosis.

21/3/1685, Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer, was born in Eisenach, Thuringia.

23/2/1685, George Frederick Handel, German composer, was born in Halle, the son of a barber-surgeon.

15/12/1683, Izaak Walton, author of The Compleat Angler, died at Winchester aged 90.

28/11/1680, The Italian sculptor Giovanni Bernini died.

4/3/1678. Birth of the Venetian composer and violinist Antonio Lucio Vivaldi.

15/12/1675. Jan Vermeer died.

15/3/1673, The painter Salvator Rosa died in Rome, aged 57.

4/10/1669. The Dutch painter Rembrandt died in solitude and poverty, aged 63, in Amsterdam, having survived both his wife and his mistress. He gradually went bankrupt after his wealthy wife died in 1642, although in his 30s he earned large sums of money from painting portraits of the elite in Amsterdam. He left a legacy of 600 paintings, 1500 drawings and 350 etchings.

9/4/1667, The world’s first art exhibition opened at the Palais Royale in Paris, organised by the Academie de Peinture et de Sculpture. It closed on 23/4/1667.

1/1/1660, Samuel Pepys began his Diary.  This was discontinued on 31/5/1669.

2/5/1655, Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italian who invented the first piano, was born in Padua.

10/6/1654, Alessandro Algardi, Italian sculptor (born 1602 in Bologna) died in Rome.

21/6/1652. The architect, Inigo Jones, died. He had designed the Queen’s House at Greenwich and the Banqueting Hall at Whitehall. He also laid out Lincoln’s Inn Fields and Covent Garden.

16/4/1646, Birth of Jules Hardouin-Mansart, French court architect to King Louis XIV who designed the Hall of Mirrors and the Orangery at Versailles.

9/12/1641, Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish court painter to Charles I from 1632, died in his studio in Blackfriars, London, aged 42, and was buried in Old St Pauls.

30/5/1640, Peter Paul Reubens, Flemish Baroque painter, died in Antwerp.

4/8/1639, Juan Alarcon, Spanish dramatist, died in Madrid.

1636,The first known European version of the Cinderella story.The name derives from Gatto Cerentola, or ‘Cinder-Cat’. However the story dates back to ancient Egypt.

1636,The first known written version of the Sleeping Beauty story. However in this Italian version of the story, the heroine was raped by a man who rode off and vanished the next morning,leaving her the mother of twins nine months later.

1634, Villagers at Oberammagau vowed to put on an annual Passion Play if they were spared the Black Death.

23/2/1633, Samuel Pepys, diarist, born in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London. He was the son of a tailor.

31/10/1632, Jan Vermeer, Dutch painter, was born in Delft, the son of an art dealer.

20/10/1632, Christopher Wren, English astronomer and architect, designer of St Paul’s Cathedral, was born in East Knoyle, Wiltshire, the son of a dean.

12/3/1628, John Bull, composer and organist, died.

8/4/1614. The Greek-born Spanish painter  Domenikos Theotokopoulos, or El Greco died in Toledo.

18/7/1610, The Italian painter Caravaggio died, A man with a violent temper, he had killed a man in 1606 and had to flee Rome for Naples, He heard that he was to be pardoned by the Pope and died on his way back to Rome.

15/7/1606. Rembrandt, or Harmenszoon Van Rijn, the Dutch painter, was born at Leyden.  He was the son of a prosperous miller.

6/6/1599, Diego Velasquez, Spanish painter, was born in Seville.

22/3/1599, Sir Anthony van Dyck, Flemish artist and court painter to Charles I of England, was born in Antwerp, son of a cloth manufacturer.

31/5/1594, Tintoretto, his real name being Jacopo Robusti, one of the great Italian painters, died in Venice, aged 76.

2/2/1594, The composer Palestrina died in Rome (born ca. 1525).

3/9/1592, Robert Greene, dramatist, died.

21/10/1581, Il Domenichino, Italian painter (died 15/4/1641 in Naples) was born in Bologna, Italy.

28/6/1577, Peter Van Rubens, Flemish painter, was born in Siegen, Westphalia, the son of a lawyer.

27/8/1576. Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) died, of bubonic plague, in Venice. His age was uncertain, but was believed to be over 90.

15/7/1573, The architect Inigo Jones was born in London.  He was the son of a clothmaker.

7/71573, Giacomo Barocchio, Italian architect, died in Rome (born in Vignola 1/10/1507).

23/11/1572, The painter Bronzino died in Florence, aged 69.

6/4/1528. Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, died in Nuremberg, aged 57.

6/4/1520. The painter Raphael died on his 37th birthday.  He was born in Urbino, Italy, on 6/4/1483.

30/11/1518, Andrea Palladio, Italian architect, was born.

29/9/1518, Tintoretto, Venetian painter, was born as Jabobi Robusti, the son of a dyer.

1513, Macchiavelli wrote ‘The Prince’.

1/11/1512, Michaelangelo unveiled his painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

25/10/1510, Giorgione, painter, died.

17/5/1510, Death of the Florentine painter Sandro Botticelli, aged 65, whose work included The Birth of Venus.

1/10/1507, Giacomo Barocchio, Italian architect, was born in Vignola (died in Rome 7/71573).

13/9/1506, Andrea Mantegna, Italian painter, died in Mantua.

8/9/1504, Michelangelo, 29, unveiled his statue of David in Florence. The 13 foot high marble statue had taken him three years to carve.

1499, Oxford University instituted a Degree in Music.

29/8/1499, Alessio Baldovinetti, Florentine painter, died (born 14/10/1427).

28/3/1483, Raphael, Italian painter, was born in Urbino as Raffaello Sanzio or Santi.

6/3/1475, Michelangelo, Italian painter and sculptor, was born in Capresse, Tiuscany, as Michelagniolo di Lodovico Buonarroti.

1472, First printed sheet music, in Bologna, Italy.

21/5/1471, Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, was born in Nuremberg. He was the son of a goldsmith.

8/10/1469, Fra Filippo Lippi, painter, died.

13/12/1466, Donatello, sculptor, died.

26/4/1452, Leonardo Da Vinci, Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, scientist, and inventor, was born into The Renaissance.

16/4/1446, Filippo Brunelleschi, the Florentine architect and sculptor who designed the city’s cathedral, died.

9/6/1441, Dutch painter Jan van Eyck, equerry to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died.

14/10/1427, Alessio Baldovinetti, Florentine painter, was born (died 29/8/1499).

14/2/1404, Leone Alberti, Italian artist, was born (died 1472).

8/1/1337, The painter Giotto died, aged 70.

50 AD, Earliest version of the oboe in use, in Rome.

18,000 BCE, The world’s oldest sculptures, made in Asia, have been dated to this period.

45,000 BCE, The oldest musical instrument in the world, a flute, has been dated to this period.

 

Appendix 5Writers and poets

3/8/2008, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, writer, died, aged 90.

18/3/2008, Sir Arthur C Clarke, science fiction writer, died aged 90.

6/4/2005, US novelist Saul Bellow died, aged 89.

24/5/2000. The funeral of novelist Dame Barbara Cartland.

30/6/1997, The first book in the award-winning Harry Potter series by J K Rowling was published.

25/11/1993, The English author and composer Anthony Burgess died, aged 76.

21/1/1993, Abe Kobo, Japanese writer, died (born 7/3/1924).

18/1/1993, Eleanor Hibbert, English writer, died (born 1/9/1906).

11/4/1992, Eve Merriam, US poet, died (born 19/7/1916).

6/4/1992, Isaac Asimov, science fiction writer, born 2/1/1920, died.

29/2/1992, Ruth Pitter, English poet (born 7/11/1897) died.

11/12/1991, Artur Lundkvist, Swedish writer (born 3/3/1906) died.

23/11/1990, Roald Dahl, British writer, died (born 13/9/1916)

26/9/1990, Alberto Moravia, Italian fiction writer, died (born 28/11/1907).

15/9/1989, US writer Robert Penn Warren, born 24/4/1905 in Guthrie, Kentucky, died in Stratton, Vermont.

19/4/1989, Daphne du Maurier, writer, died.

23/9/1987, The book, Spycatcher, memoirs of former British intelligence officer Peter Wright, was to be published in Australia despite opposition by Britain’s MI5.

20/9/1987, Michael Stewart, US playwright, died aged 63.

11/4/1987, Primo Levi, Italian Jewish writer, died aged 67.

19/12/1984. Ted Hughes was appointed Poet Laureate in succession to Sir John Betjeman.

15/3/1983, Rebecca West, British author, died aged 90.

24/2/1983, Tennessee Williams, US playwright (born 26/3/1911) died in New York City.

19/5/1984, Sir John Betjeman, Poet Laureate since 1972, died aged 78.

12/9/1981, Eugenio Montale, Italian poet, died aged 84.

10/3/1981, Death of Sir Maurice Oldfield, the British intelligence chief thought to be the model for ‘M’ in Ian Fleming’s James Bond novels.

14/5/1979, Jean Rhys, novelist, died aged 88.

14/4/1978, F R Leavis, British literary critic, died aged 82.

11/4/1977, Jacques Prevert, French poet, died aged 77.

12/1/1976, Dame Agatha Christie, English crime story writer and creator of the Belgian detective character Hercule Poirot, died.  She was born in Torquay on 15/9/1890.

14/2/1975, PG Wodehouse, author, died.

14/12/1974, Walter Lippmann, US political writer, died aged 85.

29/7/1974, Erich Kastner, German author, died aged 75.

28/9/1973, W H Auden, English-American poet, died aged 66.

2/9/1973, J R R Tolkien, author of The Lord of the Rings, died at Bournemouth.

22/2/1973, Elizabeth Bowen, Irish novelist, died aged 73.

28/9/1970, John Dos Passos, US writer, died in Baltimore, Maryland..

7/7/1970, Sir Allen Lane, publisher and founder of Penguin paperback books in 1936, died.

7/6/1970, E M Forster, novelist, died.

11/3/1969. The author John Wyndham died.

20/12/1968. John Steinbeck, American author who wrote The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men, Nobel Prize Winner in 1962, died in New York City.

28/11/1968. Enid Blyton, creator of Noddy and Big Ears, died. She was born on 11/8/1897 in East Dulwich. In the mid 1930s she began writing her stories, which featured Noddy, the Famous Five, and the Secret Seven.

1/6/1968, Helen Keller, US author, died aged 87.

7/10/1967, Norman Angell, English author and politician, died aged 92.

31/8/1967, Ilya Ehrenburg, Soviet author, died aged 75.

9/8/1967, Joe Orton, English author and playwright, died aged 34.

22/7/1967, The US poet Carl Sandburg died in North Carolina.

23/12/1966, Heimito von Doderer, Austrian novelist (born 5/11/1896 in Vienna) died in Vienna.

16/12/1965, Somerset Maugham, author, died this day.

31/7/1965, J K Rowling, British author of the Harry Potter series, was born.

4/1/1965. The poet and playwright T S Eliot died. He was born on 26/9/1888 in Saint Loius, Missouri. After studying at Harvard University he went to Paris in 1910 to teach French literature and philosophy at the Sorbonne. Later, after the start of World War One, he went to Merton College, Oxford, to read Greek Philosophy. In 1915 he married Vivien Haigh-Wood and in 1919 became a British citizen. His first volume of poetry, Prufrock and other Observations, was published in 1917 followed by Poems in 1919. In 1922 The Waste Land, regarded as his greatest poem, reflected the discontent that followed the trauma of the Great War. In 1948 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.

9/12/1964, English poet Dame Edith Sitwell died, aged 77.

12/8/1964, Ian Fleming, British author and creator of James Bond, died aged 56.

7/9/1962, Isak Dinesen, Danish writer, died (born 17/4/1885).

7/6/1962, William Faulkner, US writer (born 25/9/1897 in New Albany, Mississippi) died in Oxford, Mississippi.

2/6/1962, Vita Sackville-West, British novelist, died.

27/9/1961, Hilda Doolittle, US poet (born 10/9/1886 in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania), died in Zurich, Switzerland.

2/7/1961, The author Ernest Hemingway, born 21/7/1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, committed suicide.

25/10/1957, Lord Edward Dunsany, writer, died in Dublin, Ireland (born 24/7/1878 in London, England)

29/1/1956, H L Mencken, US writer, died aged 75.

12/8/1955, Thomas Mann, German novelist, died aged 80.

2/8/1955, The US poet Wallace Stevens died in Hartford, Connecticut.

9/11/1953. The Welsh poet Dylan Marlais Thomas, born in Swansea on 27/10/1914, died in New York City aged 39

26/9/1952, George Santayana, Spanish writer, died aged 88.

2/6/1951, John Erskine, US author, died  in New York (born in New York City, 5/10/1879).

19/2/1951, French writer Andre Gide died.

19/3/1950, Edgar Rice Burroughs, author of the Tarzan books, died aged 75.

24/2/1950, Richard Wayne Bandler, US author, was born.

13/2/1950, Rafael Sabatini, Italian novelist, died aged 74.

11/2/1950, Author Kurt Vonnegut was published for the first time, as his story "Report on the Barnhouse Effect" appeared in Collier's magazine.

21/1/1950. George Orwell died (born 1903). This was the pen name of British author Eric Arthur Blair. His best known works include Animal Farm and 1984.

6/6/1949, George Orwell’s book Nineteen Eighty Four was published. Suffering from tuberculosis, Orwell completed the book between periods of hospitalisation in a remote house in The Hebrides.

6/5/1949, Maurice Maeterlinck, Belgian playwright, died aged 86.

24/4/1947, Willa Cather, US writer, died aged 73.

6/2/1947, Hans Fallada, German novelist, died in Berlin (born 21/7/1893 in Greifswald, Germany).

31/8/1946, Harley Granville-Barker, English playwright, died aged 69.

13/8/1946. Author H G Wells; born on 21/9/1866, died in London, aged 76.

27/7/1946, The US writer Gertrude Stein (born 3/2/1874 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania), died in Paris, France.

8/6/1946, Gerhart Hauptmann, German novelist, died aged 83.

28/12/1945, Theodore Dreiser, US author (born 27/8/1871 in Terre Haute, Indiana), died in Hollywood, California.

20/7/1945, Paul Valery, French poet, died aged 74.

31/7/1944. The pilot and writer Antoine de Saint-Exupery, author of ‘The Little Prince’, was reported missing.

16/5/1944, George Ade, US author (born 9/2/1866) died.

12/5/1944, Arthur Quiller Couch, Cornish writer, died aged 80.

28/3/1944, Stephen Leacock, Canadian writer, died aged 74.

22/12/1943. The author Beatrix Potter died aged 77.

7/8/1941, Rabindranath Tagore, Indian author and intellectual, died aged 80.

18/3/1941, Wolfgang Bauer, writer, was born.

8/3/1941, Sherwood Anderson, US novelist, died aged 65.

21/12/1940. F Scott Fitzgerald, US author, died.

11/2/1940, Death of John Buchan, author of The Thirty Nine Steps, also Governor-General of Canada, died and was cremated in Montreal. His ashes were returned to England and buried in Elsfield, Oxfordshire.

12/4/1939, Alan Ayckbourn, English playwright, was born.

28/1/1939, W B (William Butler) Yeats, Irish poet, playwright, and Nobel Prize winner in 1923, died in the south of France.

9/10/1938, John Sutherland, English author, was born.

1/6/1938, Khawar Rizvi, poet, was born in the Punjab, British India.

19/4/1938, Henry Newbolt, English poet, died aged 75.

3/7/1937, Tom Stoppard, Czech-born British playwright, was born.

10/12/1936, Luigi Pirandello, Italian author, died aged 69.

23/8/1936, Juliette Adam, French writer (born 4/120/1836) died.

14/6/1936, G K Chesterton, British poet and novelist, died.

18/1/1936, Rudyard Kipling, English novelist who won the Nobel Prize in 1907, died.

30/7/1935. Penguin paperbacks went on sale in Britain. The first such book on sale was a biography of Shelley.

17/6/1935, G W Russell, Irish writer, died aged 68.

23/5/1935, Laase Stromstedt, Swedish author, was born (died 2009).

9/5/1934, Alan Bennett, British playwright, was born.

4/12/1933, Stefan George, German poet, died aged 65.

21/1/1933, George Augustus Moore, Irish writer, died aged 80.

1/1/1933, Joe Orton, English author, was born (died 1967)

6/7/1932, Kenneth Grahame, author who wrote Wind in the Willows, died (born 8/3/1859).

18/3/1932, John Updike, US author, was born (died 2009)

10/2/1932, Edgar Wallace, English writer, died aged 57.

21/1/1932, Lytton Strachey, founder member of the Bloomsbury Group, an influential writers and intellectual group, died.

31/8/1931, Hall Caine, British novelist, died aged 78.

27/3/1931, Arnold Bennett, English writer, died aged 64.

16/8/1930, Ted Hughes, English poet, was born (died 1998)

7/7/1930, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, British author created the crime detective character Sherlock Holmes, died, aged 71.

13/10/1929, Walasse Ting, Chinese-American poet, was born in Shanghai. He died in 2010.

15/7/1929, Hugo von Hoffmannsthal, Austrian author, died aged 55.

10/4/1928, English writer Stanley John Weyman died, aged 72.

12/3/1928, US playwright Edward Albee was born (died 2016).

11/1/1928. Thomas Hardy, English poet and novelist, author of Tess of the D’Ubervilles, died in Dorset aged 87.

14/10/1926. In Britain, A A. Milne published Winnie the Pooh, a children’s book.

3/9/1926, Alison Lurie, US writer, was born.

3/10/1925, Gore Vidal, US writer, was born (died 2012).

15/5/1926, Peter Shaffer, English playwright, was born (died 1926).

14/5/1925, Henry Rider Haggard, English writer, died aged 69.

3/6/1924, German novelist Franz Kafka died in a sanatorium at Kierling, near Vienna, after a seven year battle with tuberculosis.

9/1/1923. Katherine Mansfield, New Zealand author, died aged 34.

15/11/1922, Marcel Proust, French writer, died aged 51.

22/10/1922, Lyman Abbott, US author, died (born 18/12/1835)

11/6/1921, Michael Meyer, English writer, was born.

2/1/1920. Isaac Asimov was born.

30/4/1919, Oscar Adams, US author, died (born 1855).

27/1/1919, Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (born 21/11/1877) died.

8/1/1919, Peter Altenberg, writer, died aged 59.

11/12/1918, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian novelist, was born in Rostov.

2/11/1918, Frederick Leboyer, author, was born.

27/3/1918, Henry Brooks Adams, historian, novelist and philosopher, died (born 16/2/1838).

8/3/1918, Charles Adams, US poet (born 21/4/1842) died.

16/12/1917, Arthur C Clarke, British science-fiction writer, was born.

13/3/1917, Maria Vlamynck, Flemish author, was born.

22/11/1916, Jack London, author and campaigner for social justice (born 12/1/1876 in San Francisco) died destitute of a drugs overdose.

14/11/1916, H H Munro (Saki) died, aged 45.

13/9/1916,  Roald Dahl, author of children’s books, was born in Llandaff, Glamorganshire.

20/5/1916, Owen Chadwick, British writer, was born

10/7/1915, Saul Bellow, US author, was born in Lachine, Quebec.

23/4/1915, Rupert Brooke, British poet, died at Lemnos.

11/11/1914, Howard Fast, US author, was born in New York City.

27/10/1914, Dylan Marlais Thomas, Welsh poet, was born in Swansea, the son of a schoolmaster.

7/11/1913. Birth of the French novelist and playwright Albert Camus. He was born in Algeria and studied philosophy. He worked as an actor, teacher, and journalist; and was active in the French Resistance in World War II. But he found fame as an existentialist writer; for example his nihilist novel The Outsider, 1942, contained the line “Mother died today. Or perhaps it was yesterday. I don’t know”. He was awarded the Nobel prize for literature I 1957, and died in 1960.

11/8/1913, Angus Wilson, English novelist, was born (died 1991).

29/3/1913, R. S. Thomas, Welsh poet, was born  in Cardiff (died 2000).

14/5/1912, August Strindberg, playwright, died in Stockholm, Sweden..

20/4/1912, Bram Stoker, Dublin-born creator of Dracula in 1897, died aged 65 in London.

26/3/1912, Tennessee Williams, US playwright, was born (died 1983).

29/5/1911, W S Gilbert, English poet and dramatist, died aged 75.

26/3/1911, Tennessee Williams, US playwright (born 26/3/1911) died in New York City.

7/11/1910, Leo Tolstoy, author of War and Peace and Anna Karenina, died.

5/6/1910, Death of American short-story writer O. Henry (real name William Sydney Porter).

26/4/1910, Bjornstjerne Bjornson, Norwegian writer, died (born 8/12/1832).

28/5/1908, Ian Fleming, creator of James Bond, was born in London.

12/3/1908, Edmondo de Amicis, Italian writer, died in Bordighera (b0rn 21/10/1846 in Oneglia).

25/1/1908, Louise de la Ramee, English novelist (pen name Ramee) died aged 67.

10/12/1907. Rudyard Kipling was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature, the first time it had been awarded to an English writer.

28/11/1907, Alberto Moravia, Italian novelist, was born (died 1990).

15/11/1907, Moncure Conway, author, died in Paris (born 17/3/1832 in Virginia, USA).

12/9/1907, Louis Macneice, Irish poet, was born (died 1963).

13/5/1907, Daphne du Maurier, English novelist, was born in London.

21/2/1907, W H Auden, English poet, was born.

16/2/1907, Giosue Carducci, Italian poet (born 27/7/1836) died.

28/8/1906, John Betjeman, poet, was born (died 1984).

20/6/1906, Catherine Cookson, British writer, was born.

13/4/1906, Samuel Beckett, Irish playwright, was born.

9/2/1906, Paul Laurence Dunbar, poet and novelist (born 27/6/1872 in Dayton, Ohio) died of tuberculosis. Son of a former slave, his poetry did much to describe the everyday lives of Black Americans.

21/6/1905, Jean Paul-Sartre, French dramatist and novelist, was born in Paris.

24/3/1905, Jules Verne, French science fiction writer, died in Amiens aged 77.

2/10/1904, Graham Greene, novelist, was born (died 1991).

22/7/1904, Wilson Barrett, playwright, died (born in Essex 18/2/1846).

2/7/1904, The Russian playwright, Anton Chekhov, born 17/1/1860 in Taganrog, died in Germany whilst being treated for tuberculosis.

24/3/1904, Sir Edwin Arnold, British poet, died (born 10/6/1832).

2/3/1904, Theodor Seuss Geisel, author of children’s books, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts.

1/11/1903, Theodor Mommsen, writer, died aged 87.

15/7/1903, Walter Dumeaux Edmonds, US novelist, was born in Booneville, New York.

25/6/1903, Birth of the author George Orwell, in Motihari, Bengal, India.  He was born as Eric Arthur Blair.

13/3/1903, Nikolaas Beets, Dutch poet, died in Utrecht (born in Haarlem 13/9/1814).

1902, Beatrix Potter’s first book, The Tale of Peter Rabbit, was published.

25/10/1902, Frank Norris, US novelist, died.

21/9/1902, Sir Allen Lane, English publisher who founded Penguin books and brought about the paperback revolution, was born.

20/9/1902, Stevie Smith, poet and novelist, was born (died 1971)

2/9/1902, Edward Egglestone, US author (born 10/12/1837 in Vevay, Indiana) died in Lake George, New York.

9/7/1901, Barbara Cartland, British writer of romantic novels, was born.

9/6/1901, Sir Walter Besant, English author, died in Hampstead, London (born in Portsmouth 14/8/1836).

24/3/1901, Charlotte M Yonge, novelist, died, aged 78.

3/2/1901, Rosamund Lehmann, novelist, was born (died 1900).

30/11/1900, The Irish writer Oscar Wilde (born Dublin 1854) died in poverty in Paris under the pseudonym Sebastian Medmoth. Wilde’s stage and literary career ended in 1895 when the Marquess of Queensbury, angered by Wilde’s friendship with his son, accused Wilde of sodomy. Wilde sued for libel but lost the case and was at once prosecuted for homosexuality. He served two years in gaol 1895-97 before fleeing to France and poverty.

29/6/1900, Antoine de Saint Exupery, author of The Little Prince, was born.

24/10/1899, Grant Allen, English author, died in Hindhead (born 24/2/1848 in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

11/6/1899, William Blaikie, theological writer, died (born in Aberdeen 5/2/1820).

17/1/1899, Nevil Shute, English novelist, was born in Ealing, London.

22/5/1898, Edward Bellamy, US writer died in Chicopee Falls (born in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts 25/3/1850).

14/1/1898, Lewis Carroll, author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, died in Guildford, Surrey.

2/1/1898, Sir Edward Bond, English librarian, died (born in Hanwell 31/12/1815).

11/8/1897, Enid Blyton, author of children’s books, was born in Dulwich.

26/5/1897, Bram Stoker’s Dracula was first published.

26/11/1896, Mathilde Blind, English author, died (born in Mannheim 21/3/1841).

24/9/1896, F Scott Fitzgerald, US author, was born.

14/1/1896, John Dos Passos, US writer, was born in Chicago, Illinois.

22/10/1895, Ruggero Bonghi, Italian writer, died (born in Naples 20/3/1828).

7/10/1895, William Wetmore Story, US poet, died (born 12/2/1819).

2/3/1895, Stuart Blackie, Scottish writer, died in Edinburgh (born in Glasgow 28/7/1809).

29/12/1894, Christina Rossetti, English poet, died (born 5/12/1830).

3/12/1894, Robert Louis Stevenson, who wrote Treasure Island, died.

26/7/1894, Aldous Huxley, novelist, was born.

24/3/1894, Verney Cameron, English explorer of Africa and author (born 1/7/1844) died.

8/2/1894, Thursday (-18,716) Robert Ballantyne, writer, died in Rome (born in Edinburgh 24/4/1825).

6/10/1892, Alfred Lord Tennyson, poet laureate from 1850, died at Aldworth, Surrey. He was born on 6/8/1809.

19/4/1892, Friedrich Bodenstedt, German author, died in Wiesbaden (born in Hanover 22/4/1819).

3/1/1892, Author J.R.R.Tolkein, creator of The Lord Of The Rings and The Hobbit, was born in Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, South Africa. He died in Bournemouth in 1973.

20/7/1891, Pedro Alarcon, Spanish writer, was died in Madrid (born 10/3/1833 in Guadix).

26/2/1891, Fortune du Boisgobey, French fiction writer (born in Granville 11/9/1824) died.

13/10/1890, William Belknap, US politician, died in Washington DC (born in Newburgh, New York, 22/9/1829).

18/9/1890, Dion Boucicault, Irish playwright, died in New York (born in Dublin 26/12/1822).

15/9/1890, Agatha Christie, crime writer, was born in Torquay, Devon, as Agatha Mary Clarissa.  (died 12/1/1976).

26/8/1890, Vasile Alecsandri, Rumanian poet, died in Mircesti (born 21/7/1821 in Bacau, Moldova).

2/8/1890, Louise Ackermann, French poet (born 30/11/1813) died.

27/4/1890, William Blades, English writer, died in Sutton, Surrey (was born in Clapham, London 5/12/1824).

29/3/1890, Armand Pontmartin, French writer (born 16/7/1811) died.

10/2/1890, Boris Pasternak, Russian writer, author of Dr Zhivago, was born in Moscow.

10/12/1889, Ludwig Anzengruber, Austrian dramatist, died in Vienna (born 29/11/1839 in Vienna)

18/11/1889, William Allingham, Irish poet, died in Hampstead, London (born 19/3/1824 in Ballyshannon, Donegal).

25/10/1889, Guillaume Augier, French dramatist, died in Croissy (born 17/9/1820 in Valence, Drome).

2/9/1889, Samuel Austin Allibone, US author, died in Lucerne, Switzerland (born 17/4/1816 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania).

31/7/1889, Horatius Bonar, Scottish clerical writer, died (born in Edinburgh 19/12/1808).

25/7/1888, Herman Bonitz, German scholarly writer, died in Berlin (born in Saxony 29/7/1814).

21/7/1889, Michael Baumgarten, German theological writer, died (born in Haseldorf 25/3/1812).

23/4/1889, Jules Barbey, French writer, died in Paris (born 2/11/1808).

26/9/1888, Poet T S Eliot was born – see 4/1/1965.

15/4/1888, Matthew Arnold, British poet, died in Liverpool (born 24/12/1822 in Laleham, Staines).

6/3/1888, Louisa Alcott, US author, died (born 29/11/1832)

30/1/1888, Edward Lear, English author and artist, who wrote the Book of Nonsense, died in San Remo, Italy.

31/5/1887, Thomas Baynes, English writer, died (born in Wellington, Somerset 24/3/1823).

15/5/1886, Emily Dickinson, US poet, died in Amherst, Massachusetts.

13/4/1886, Anna Bosboom-Toussaint, Dutch novelist, died in The Hague (born in Alkmaar 16/9/1812)

11/9/1885, DH Lawrence, author of Lady Chatterley’s Lover, was born.

22/5/1885, Victor Hugo, French poet and novelist, author of Les Miserables, died in Paris aged 83.

16/1/1885, Edmond About, French novelist (born 14/2/1828) died.

31/10/1884, Maria Bashkirtseff, Russian writer, died (born in Gavrontsi 23/11/1860).

22/8/1884, Henry Bohn, British publisher, died in Twickenham (born in London 4/1/1796).

11/4/1884, John Blunt, English clerical writer, died in London (born 1823).

3/7/1883, Franz Kafka, Czech poet and playwright, was born.

20/6/1883,  Gustave Aimarde, French novelist, died 20/6/1883 in Paris (born 13/9/1818 in Paris).

1/6/1882, John Drinkwater, poet and dramatist, was born.

27/4/1882, Ralph Waldo Emerson, US poet and essayist, died aged 78 in Concord..

24/3/1882, H W Longfellow, real name Henry Wadsworth, American poet, died in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

8/2/1882, Berthold Auerbach, German novelist, died in Cannes (born 28/2/1812 in Nordstetten).

18/1/1882, A A Milne English writer of children’s books and creator of Winnie the Pooh, was born in St John’s Wood, London.

3/1/1882, William Ainsworth, English novelist (born 4/2/1805) died.

24/12/1881, Leonard Bacon, writer, died 24/12/1881 in New Haven, Connecticut (born 19/2/1802 in Detroit, Michigan)

21/10/1881, Johann Bluntschell, Swiss political writer, died in Karlsruhe (born in Zurich 7/3/1808).

20/7/1881, Theodor Bergk, German scholarly writer, died in Ragatz, Switzerland (born in Leipzig 3/5/1797).

1/7/1881, Ventura Ruiz Aguilera, Spanish poet, died in Madrid.

26/6/1881, Theodor Benfrey, German writer, died in Gottingen (born neat Gottingen 28/1/1809).

26/5/1881, Jakob Bernays, German writer, died in Bonn (born in Hamburg 11/9/1824).

3/5/1881, George Banks, British writer, died in London (born in Birmingham 2/3/1821).

5/2/1881, Thomas Carlyle, Scottish essayist, died at 5 Cheyne Row, Chelsea, London.

28/1/1881, Fyodor Dostoyevsky died (born in Moscow, 30/10/1821, son of a surgeon) . His funeral cortege on 31/1/1881 was followed by 30,000 people. He wrote, amongst others, The Idiot, Crime and Punishment, and The Brothers Karamazov.

13/7/1880, Antal Csengery, Hungarian historical writer (born 2/6/1822) died in Budapest.

31/10/1879, Jacob Abbott, US writer of books for children, died in Farmington, Maine.

5/10/1879, John Erskine, US author, was born in New York City (died 2/6/1951 in New York).

2/10/1879, US poet Wallace Stevens was born in Reading, Pennsylvania.

2/3/1879, Jules Bastide, French writer, died (born in Paris 2/11/1800).

30/1/1879, Adelardo Lopez de Ayala, Spanish writer, died (born in Guadacanal 1/5/1828).

1/1/1879, E M Forster, English novelist, was born.

17/7/1878, Aleardo Aleardi, Italian poet, died.

12/5/1878, Catherine Esther, US writer and educationalist, died in Elmira, New York (born in East Hampton, Long Island 6/9/1800).

6/1/1878, The US poet Carl Sandburg was born in Galesburg, Illinois.

21/11/1877, Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (died 27/1/1919) was born.

16/10/1877, Theodore Barriere, playwright, died in Paris (born in Paris 1823)

17/6/1877, US writer John Abbott died in Fair Haven, Connecticut.

6/3/1877, Joseph Autran, French poet, died in Marseilles (born 20/6/1813 in Marseilles).

27/5/1876, Joseph Bosworth, English historical writer, died (born 1789).

25/4/1876, Thomas Aird, Scottish poet, died in Dumfries (born 28/8/1802 in Bowden, Roxburghshire).

17/4/1876, Ian Hay, British author, was born.

5/3/1876, Marie Agoult, French author (born 31/12/1805 in Frankfort on Main) died in Paris.

1/9/1875, Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan, was born in Chicago. He never visited Africa where his stories were set.

17/8/1875, Wilhelm Beek, German scholarly writer, died in Cape Town.

4/8/1875, Hans Christian Andersen, the Danish writer famous for his fairy stories, died aged 70.

14/5/1875, Gottfried Bernhardy, scholarly writer, died (born in Landsberg 20/3/1800).

29/5/1874, G K Chesterton, English writer, born.

4/4/1874, Charles Beule, French writer, died (born in Saumur 29/6/1826),

24/1/1874, Adam Black, Scottish book publisher, died (born in Edinburgh 20/2/1784).

16/1/1874, Robert William Service, Canadian poet, was born.

7/1/1874, Henry Bell, Scottish writer, died (born in Glasgow 8/11/1803).

16/12/1871, Willibald Alexis, novelist (born 26/9/1798 in Breslau) died in Arnstadt, Thuringia.

10/9/1871, Richard Bentley, book publisher, died (born in London 1794).

31/7/1871, Phoebe Cary, US poet, (born 4/9/1824) died.

20/1/1871, Peirre Ponson du Terrail, French romantic writer (born 8/7/1829) died.

22/12/1870, Gustavo Becquer, Spanish writer, died in Madrid (born in Seville 17/2/1836).

20/7/1870, Lucien Anatole Prevost-Paradol, French writer, born 8/8/1829, died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

9/6/1870, Charles Dickens, author, born 7/2/1812 at Landport, Portsmouth, died at Godshill, near Rochester, Kent, of a brain haemorrhage the previous evening.

18/1/1870, Samuel Bailey, British author (born in Sheffield 1791) died.

10/8/1869, Laurence Binyon, English poet, was born in Lancaster.

18/7/1869, Louis Bouilhet, French poet, died in Rouen (born in Cany 27/5/1822).

8/12/1868, Norman Douglas, British writer (died in Capri, Italy, 9/2/1952) was born in Deeside, Scotland.

17/10/1868, Bernhard Beskow, Swedish dramatist, died (born 10/4/1796).

4/8/1868, Jacques Boucher, French writer, died in Abbeville (born in Rethel 10/9/1788).

2/12/1867, English author Charles Dickens drew large crowds in New York to his readings of his novels there.

23/10/1867, Franz Bopp, German scholarly writer, died (born in Mainz 14/7/1791).

31/8/1867, Charles Baudelaire, French poet, died in Paris (born in Paris 9/4/1821).

23/8/1867, Auguste Barthelemy, French poet, died in Marseilles (born 1796).

4/8/1867, John Galsworthy, English novelist, was born.

27/5/1867, Enoch Arnold Bennett, British novelist, was born.

12/4/1867, Robert Bell, Irish writer, died (born in Cork 16/1/1800).

21/9/1866, The author H G Wells was born at Bromley, Kent.  He was the son of a professional cricketer.

27/8/1866, Eugene de Bully, French writer, died in Paris (born in Paris 8/11/1806).

28/7/1866, Beatrix Potter, author and illustrator of children’s books, and creator of Peter Rabbit, was born in South Kensington, London.

30/12/1865, Rudyard Kipling, story and verse writer, was born in Bombay.

15/10/1865, Andres Bello, poet, died in Santiago, Chile (born in Caracas, Venezuela, 29/11/1781)

4/8/1865, William Aytoun, Scottish poet, died in Blackhills near Elgin (born 21/6/1813).

13/6/1865, The Irish writer William Butler Yeats was born.

9/6/1864, Charles Dickens was involved in a train crash at Staplehurst in Kent. He had to return to the wreckage to salvage the manuscript for a part of the story Our Mutual Friend.

26/3/1864, Jan Baake, Dutch writer, died (born 1/9/1787)

29/1/1864, Lucy Aikin, historical writer, died in Hampstead, London (born 6/11/1781 in Warrington).

24/12/1863, William Thackeray, poet, died in London.

22/10/1863, Johann Bohmer, German historical writer, died in Frankfort (born in Frankfort am Main 22/4/1795).

24/12/1862, John Leycester Adolphus, English author, died.

29/8/1862, Maurice Maeterlink, Belgian poet and playwright, was born.

6/5/1862, Henry Thoreau, writer, died of tuberculosis.

22/12/1860, Marian Evans, who wrote under the pen name George Eliot, died (born 22/11/1819).

23/11/1860, Maria Bashkirtseff, Russian writer, was born in Gavrontsi (died 31/10/1884).

9/5/1860, James Barrie, British novelist, was born in Kirriemuir.

29/1/1860, Ernst Moritz Arndt, German poet, died in Bonn (born 26/12/1769 in Schoritz, Rugen).

17/1/1860,  Anton Chekhov, Russian author, was born at Taganrog, son of a shopkeeper.

16/12/1859, Wilhelm Grimm, co-author with his brother Jacob of fairy tales, died in Berlin.

14/7/1859, Petrus Borel, French writer, was born in Lyons (died in Algeria 14/7/1859).

22/5/1859, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, author, creator of Sherlock Holmes, was born to Irish parents in Edinburgh.

2/5/1859, Jerome K Jerome, author, was born at Walsall.

30/4/1859, Sergei Aksakov, Russian writer (born 20/9/1791) died.

20/4/1859, Charles Dickens’ novel A Tale of Two Cities was published.

20/1/1859, Elisabeth Arnim, German authoress, died in Berlin (born 4/4/1785 in Frankfort am Main).

25/11/1858, Alfred Capus, French author, was born.

6/4/1858, Charles Bennett, US scholarly writer, was born in Providence, Rhode Island.

8/9/1857, Jean Boissonade, French scholarly writer, died (born in Paris 12/8/1774).

9/7/1857, Robert Blum, US artist, was born in Cincinnatti, Ohio, (died in New York City 8/6/1903).

23/9/1856, William Archer, English writer, was born in Perth.

25/4/1856, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, or Lewis Carroll, met the young Alice Liddell, who was the inspiration for his Alice books.

15/12/1855, Maurice Bouchor, French poet, was born in Paris.

21/7/1855, Daniel Atterbom, Swedish poet, died.

31/3/1855, Charlotte Bronte, oldest of the three literary sisters, died during pregnancy.

22/10/1854, Albrecht Bitzius, Swiss novelist, died (born in Morat 4/10/1797).

7/8/1854, Charles Dickens’ tenth book, Hard Times, was published in entirety.

26/12/1853, Rene Bazin, French novelist, was born in Angers.

12/9/1853, Charles Dickens’ ninth book, Bleak House, was published in entirety.

3/6/1853, Cesare Balbo, Italian writer, died (born 1/11/1789 in Turin)

7/6/1852, Hosea Ballou, US writer, died in Boston (born in Richmond, New Hampshire, 30/4/1771).

21/2/1852, Nikolia Gogol, Russian story writer and novelist, died in Moscow.

21/12/1850, James Lane Allen, US novelist, was born near Lexington, Kentucky.

14/11/1850, Charles Dickens’ eighth book, David Copperfield, was published in entirety.

13/11/1850, The writer Robert Louis Stevenson was born in Edinburgh, at 8 Howard Place.  His father and grandfather were lighthouse builders.

18/8/1850, Honore de Balzac, French writer, died in Paris.

24/5/1850, Jane Porter, English novelist (born 1776) died.

25/3/1850, Edward Bellamy, US writer, was born in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts (died in Chicopee Falls 22/5/1898).

19/1/1850, Augustine Birrell, author, was born near Liverpool.

7/10/1849, Edgar Allen Poe, US fiction writer, died aged 40, in Baltimore, Maryland.

4/6/1849, Marguerite Blessington, Irish novelist, died in Paris (born in County Tipperary 1/9/1789).

28/5/1849, Anne Bronte, English novelist, died in Scarborough, Yorkshire, aged 29.

10/2/1849, Bernard Barton, English poet, died in Woodbridge (born in Carlisle 31/1/1784).

26/1/1849, Thomas Beddoes, English dramatist, died (born in Clifton 20/7/1803).

22/1/1849, August Strindberg, playwright, was born in Stockholm, Sweden.

19/12/1848, Emily Bronte, English novelist who wrote Wuthering Heights, born 30/7/1818, died from tuberculosis.

18/12/1848, Bernhard Bolzano, Austrian clerical writer, died in Prague (born in Prague 5/10/1781).

16/11/1848, Charles Bemont, scholarly writer, was born in Paris

9/7/1848, Jaime Balmes, Spanish writer, died in Vich ( born in Vich, Catalonia, 28/8/1810).

12/4/1848, Charles Dickens’ seventh book, Dombey and Son, was published in entirety.

8/11/1847, Bram Stoker, author of Dracula, was born in Dublin.

16/10/1847, Jane Eyre was first published.

21/10/1846, Edmondo de Amicis, Italian writer, was born in Oneglia, Liguria (died in Bordighera, 12/3/1908).

18/2/1846, Wilson Barrett, playwright, was born in Essex (died 22/7/1904).

25/11/1845, Jose Maria Eca del Quieroz, Portuguese writer was born (died in Paris, 16/8/1900).

17/6/1845, Richard Barham, English writer, died (born in Canterbury 6/12/1788).

12/5/1845, Janos Bacsanyo, Hungarian poet, died 12/5/1845 in Linz (born in Tapolcza, 11/5/1763).

3/5/1845, Thomas Hood, poet, died.

15/2/1845, Samuel Blanchard, British author, died (born in Great Yarmouth 15/2/1804).

23/10/1844, Robert Bridges, poet laureate, was born.

13/12/1843, Some 6,000 copies of Charles Dicken’s ‘A Christmas Carol’ were sold on the first day of publication.

23/9/1843, George Bell, Scottish legal writer, died (born in Edinburgh 20/3/1770).

6/4/1843, William Wordsworth was appointed poet laureate, the day before his 73rd birthday.

22/1/1843, Friedrich Blass, German scholarly writer, was born in Osnabruck (died in Halle 5/3/1907).

26/11/1842, Alexandre Beljame, French writer, was born in Villiers (died in Domont 19/9/1906).

21/4/1842, Charles Adams, US poet (died 8/3/1918) was born.

14/4/1842, Jean Bouilly, French writer, died in Paris (born near Tours 24/1/1763)

24/2/1842, Thursday (-37,693) Arrigo Boito, Italian poet, was born in Padua.

23/2/1842, Marie Beyle, French writer, died in Paris (born in Grenoble 23/1/1783).

15/12/1841, Charles Dickens’ fourth and fifth books, The Old Curiosity Shop and Barnaby Rudge, were published in entirety.

3/11/1841, Isabella Alden, US author, was born (died 1930).

21/3/1841, Mathilde Blind, English author, was born in Mannheim (died 26/11/1896).

20/3/1841, Edgar Allen Poe published a new literary genre, the detective story. The Murders in the Rue Morgue challenged readers to deduce who the villain was before the final page.

14/2/1841, Jean Acard, French poet, was born in Toulon.

17/8/1840, Wilfrid Blunt, English poet, was born in Sussex.

2/6/1840, Thomas Hardy, novelist, was born in Higher Bockhampton, Dorset, the son of a stonemason.

13/5/1840, Alphonse Daudet, French novelist, born.

29/11/1839, Ludwig Anzengruber, Austrian dramatist, was born in Vienna (died in Vienna 10/12/1889).

23/10/1839, Charles Dickens’ third book, The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, was published in entirety.

12/6/1839, Wordsworth received an honorary doctorate from Oxford University.

17/5/1839, Archibald Alison, Scottish author, died in Colinton (born 13/11/1757 in Edinburgh).

22/4/1839, Thomas Bayly, English writer, died (born in Bath 13/10/1797).

9/11/1838, Charles Dickens’ second book, The Adventures of Oliver Twist, was published in entirety.

16/2/1838, Henry Brooks Adams, historian, novelist and philosopher, was born in Boston, Massachusetts (died 27/3/1918).

17/11/1837, Charles Dickens’ first book, The Pickwick Papers, was published in entirety.

9/4/1837, Henry Becque, French dramatist, was born in Paris (died May 1899).

10/2/1837, Alexander Pushkin, Russian writer, was killed in a duel.

4/12/1836, Edward Arber, English writer, was born.

11/11/1836, Thomas Aldrich, US author, was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire (died 19/3/1907 in Boston).

4/10/1836, Juliette Adam, French writer, was born in Verberie, Oise.

14/8/1836, Sir Walter Besant, English novelist, was born.

17/2/1836, Gustavo Becquer, Spanish writer, was born in Seville (died in Madrid 22/12/1870).

1/12/1835, Nicolas Baptiste, French writer, died in Paris (born in Bordeaux 18/6/1761).

30/5/1835, Alfred Austin, English poet-laureate, was born in Headingley, Leeds.

20/2/1835, Alessandro Ancona, Italian writer, was born in Pisa.

18/12/1835, US author Lyman Abbott was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts.

30/11/1835, Mark Twain was born.

5/12/1834, William Blades, English writer, was born in Clapham, London (died in Sutton, Surrey 27/4/1890).

8/10/1834, Francois Boieldieu, French poet, died in Paris (born in Rouen 15/12/1775).

16/9/1834, Antoine Arnault, play writer, died in Goderville (born in Paris, January 1766).

28/1/1834, Sabine Baring-Gould, English novelist, was born in Exeter.

9/5/1833, Francois Andrieux, French writer, died in Paris (born 6/5/1759 in Strasbourg).

10/3/1833, Pedro Alarcon, Spanish writer, was born in Guadix (died 20/7/1891 in Madrid).

8/12/1832, Sir George Birdwood, writer was born.

13/12/1832, Christian Beck, German historical writer, died in Leipzig (born in Leipzig 22/1/1757).

29/11/1832, Louisa Alcott, US author (died 6/3/1888) was born.

15/10/1832, Isabella Bishop, travel writer was born in Yorkshire (died in Edinburgh 7/10/1904).

10/6/1832, Sir Edwin Arnold, British poet, was born (died 24/3/1904).

17/5/1832, Moncure Daniel Conway, US author, was born (died 15/11/1907)

5/5/1832, Hubert Bancroft, historical writer, was born in Granville, Ohio.

22/3/1832, Johann van Goethe, German poet and writer, author of Faust, died aged 82.

27/1/1832, Lewis Carroll, English mathematician and children’s book author, notably Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, was born at the vicarage at Daresbury, near Warrington. His name was originally Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, first son of a family of 12 children.

18/12/1831, Willem Bilderdijk, Dutch poet, died in Haarlem (born in Amsterdam 7/9/1756).

15/12/1831, Hannah Adams, US writer (born 1755) died.

23/1/1831, Edward Beesly, English historical writer, was born in Feckenham, Worcestershire.

21/1/1831, Ludwig Arnim, German writer, died in Brandenburg (born 26/1/1781 in Berlin).

10/12/1830, Emily Dickinson, US poet, was born in Amherst, Massachusetts.

20/2/1830, Robert Anderson, Scottish writer, died in Edinburgh (born 7/1/1750 in Carnwath, Lanarkshire)

2/1/1830, Henry Kingsley, English novelist, was born.

22/9/1829, William Belknap, US politician, was born in Newburgh, New York (died in Washington DC 13/10/1890).

28/8/1828, Count Leo Tolstoy, Russian writer, was born of aristocratic descent in Tula Province.

1/5/1828, Adelardo Lopez de Ayala, Spanish writer, was born in Guadacanal (died 30/1/1879).

20/3/1828, Ruggero Bonghi, Italian writer, was born in Naples (died 22/10/1895).

14/2/1828, Edmond About, French writer (died 16/1/1885) was born in Dieuze, Lorraine.

5/12/1827, Marie Henri d’Arbois de Jubainville, French historical writer, was born in Nancy (died February 1910).

12/8/1827, William Blake, British poet, died.

1/5/1827, John Bascom, US author, was born in Genoa, New York State.

3/10/1826, Jens Baggesen, Danish poet, died in Hamburg (born 15/2/1764 in Korsor).

29/6/1826, Charles Beule, French writer, was born in Saumur (died 4/4/1874),

25/12/1825, Henri Bornier, French poet, was born in Lunel (died 1/1901).

7/6/1825, Richard Blackmore, English novelist, was born in Berkshire (died in Teddington 20/1/1900).

6/5/1825, Lady Anne Barnard, writer, died in London (born in Fife 12/12/1750).

24/4/1825, Robert Ballantyne, writer, was born in Edinburgh (died 8/2/1894 in Rome).

9/3/1825, Anna Barbauld, English poet, died (born in Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire 20/6/1743).

5/12/1825, Antoine Barbier, French writer, died in Paris (born in Coulommiers 11/1/1765)

11/12/1824, Victor Balaguer, Spanish author, was born in Barcelona (died in Madrid 14/1/1901).

11/9/1824, Jakob Bernays, German writer, was born in Hamburg (died in Bonn 26/5/1881).

19/3/1824, William Allingham, Irish poet, was born in Ballyshannon, Donegal (died in Hampstead, London, on 18/11/1889).

5/2/1824, Charles Dickens, then aged 12, was sent out to work labelling shoe polish bottles.

19/8/1823, Robert Bloomfield, English poet, died in Shefford, Bedfordshire (born in Honington, Suffolk 3/12/1766)

15/8/1823, Marie Boissier, French scholarly writer, was born in Nimes (died 6/1908).

24/3/1823, Thomas Baynes, English writer, was born in Wellington, Somerset (died 31/5/1887).

14/3/1823, Theodore Banville, French poet, was born in Moulins (died in Paris 15 3/1891).

26/12/1822, Dion Boucicault, Irish playwright, was born in Dublin (died in New York 18/9/1890).

24/12/1822, Matthew Arnold, British poet, was born in Laleham, Staines (died 15/4/1888 in Liverpool).

8/7/1822, Percy Bysshe Shelley died. He drowned in a storm whilst sailing off the coast of Italy.

27/5/1822, Louis Bouilhet, French poet, was born in Cany (died in Rouen 18/7/1869).

30/10/1821, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Russian novelist, was born.

21/7/1821, Vasile Alecsandri, Rumanian poet, was born in Bacau, Moldova (died 26/8/1890 in Mircesti).

1/7/1821, Anatole Barthelemy, French writer, was born in Reims (died 1904).

9/4/1821, Charles Baudelaire, French poet, was born in Paris (died in Paris 31/8/1867).

2/3/1821, George Banks, British writer, was born in Birmingham (died in London 3/5/1881).

23/2/1821, John Keats, English poet, died of tuberculosis in Rome, aged only 25.

17/9/1820, Guillaume Augier, French dramatist, was born in Valence, Drome (died 25/10/1889 in Croissy).

14/6/1820, John Bartlett, US writer, was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts (died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 3/12/1905.

30/3/1820, Anna Sewell, author of Black Beauty, was born in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk.

5/2/1820, William Blaikie, theological writer, was born in Aberdeen (died 11/6/1899).

17/1/1820, The novelist Anne Bronte (known as Acton Bell) was born, the youngest of three sisters, at Thornton, Yorkshire.

22/11/1819, The novelist George Elliot was born as Marian Evans, near Nuneaton.

16/9/1819, Anna Bosboom-Toussaint, Dutch novelist, was born in Alkmaar (died in The Hague, 13/4/1886).

1/8/1819, Herman Melville, author of Moby Dick, was born.

22/4/1819, Friedrich Bodenstedt, German author, was born in Hanover (died in Wiesbaden 19/4/1892).

8/2/1819, John Ruskin, English writer and art critic, was born in Dulwich, London, the son of a wine dealer.

13/9/1818, Gustave Aimarde, French novelist, was born in Paris (died 20/6/1883 in Paris).

30/7/1818, Novelist Emily Bronte was born at Thornton, Yorkshire. On of the three famous sisters, she wrote Wuthering Heights under the name of Ellis Bell in 1846.

27/12/1817, Henry Thoreau, writer, was born in Concord, Massachusetts.

18/7/1817, Jane Austen, novelist,  died.

12/1/1817, Juan Andres, Spanish writer, died in Rome (born 1740 in Planes, Valencia).

9/10/1816, Edward Blomfield, English scholarly writer, died  in Cambridge (born in Bury St Edmunds 14/2/1788).

25/4/1816, Byron, poet, sailed from Dover to self-imposed exile in Italy.

22/4/1816, Philip Bailey, English poet, was born in Nottingham (died 6/9/1902).

21/4/1816, Charlotte Bronte, eldest of the three literary sisters, was born in Thornton, daughter of a Yorkshire clergyman.

17/4/1816, Samuel Austin Allibone, US author, was born in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. He died in Lucerne, Switzerland, on 2/9/1889.

31/12/1815, Sir Edward Bond, English librarian, was born in Hanwell (died 2/1/1898).

30/5/1815, Otto Bohtlingk, German Sanskrit scholar and writer, was born in St Petersburg (died in Leipzig 1/4/1904).

24/4/1815, Anthony Trollope, British writer, was born.

29/7/1814, Herman Bonitz, German scholarly writer, was born in Saxony (died in Berlin 25/7/1888)

11/6/1814, Henry Bellows, US ecclesiastical writer, was born in Boston, Massachusetts (died in New York City 30/1/1882)

12/2/1813, Thomas William Allies, English historical writer, was born in Midsomer Norton, near Bristol (died 17/6/1903 in London).

30/11/1813, Louise Ackermann, French poet (died in Nice, 2/8/1890) was born in Paris.

14/11/1813, Antonio de Capmany y Montpalau, Spanish author (born 24/11/1742) died.

9/9/1813, Henry Reeve, English publicist, was born (died 21/10/1895).

20/6/1813, Joseph Autran, French poet, was born in Marseilles (died in Marseilles 6/3/1877).

24/12/1812, Joel Barlow, US poet, died in Poland (born in Redding, Connecticut 24/3/1754)

4/11/1812, Aleardo Aleardi, Italian poet, was born at Verona (died 17/7/1878).

25/9/1812, Friedrich Biedermann, German writer, was born in Leipzig (died in Leipzig 5/3/1901).

22/5/1812, Theodor Bergk, German scholarly writer, was born in Leipzig (died in Ragatz, Switzerland, 20/7/1881).

12/5/1812, Eccentric poet and artist Edward Lear was born at Highgate, London.

25/3/1812, Michael Baumgarten, German theological writer, was born in Haseldorf (died 21/7/1889).

17/12/1811, Louis Beffroy, French dramatist, died in Paris (born in Laon 6/11/1757).

16/7/1811, Armand Pontmartin, French writer, was born (died 29/3/1890).

14/6/1811, Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, was born.

25/3/1811, Poet Shelley was sent down from Oxford for publishing The Necessity of Atheism.

3/2/1811, Johann Beckman, German scientific author, died (born in Hoya 4/6/1739).

28/8/1810, Jaime Balmes, Spanish writer, was born in Vich, Catalonia (died in Vich 9/7/1848).

18/12/1809, Alexander Adam, Scottish writer died (born 24/6/1741, near Forres).

6/9/1809, Bruno Bauer, German writer, was in Elsenburg (died in Rixdorf 13/4/1882).

31/3/1809, Nikolai Gogol, Russian author, was born in Sorochinsty, Poltava.

19/1/1809, Edgar Allen Poe, American writer of macabre stories, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, of theatrical parents.

6/8/1809, Alfred Lord Tennyson, poet, was born.

26/6/1809, Petrus Borel, French writer, was born in Lyons (died in Algeria 14/7/1859).

28/1/1809, Theodor Benfrey, German writer, was born neat Gottingen (died in Gottingen 26/6/1881)

24/12/1808, Thomas Beddoes, English scientific writer, died (born in Shifnal, Shropshire 13/4/1760).

19/12/1808, Horatius Bonar, Scottish clerical writer, was born in Edinburgh (died 31/7/1889).

2/11/1808, Jules Barbey, French writer, was born (died in Paris 23/4/1889).

13/9/1808, Saverio Bettinelli, Jesuit writer, died (born in Mantua 18/7/1718).

7/3/1808, Johann Bluntschell, Swiss political writer, was born in Zurich (died in Karlsruhe 21/01/1881).

8/11/1806, Eugene de Bully, French writer, was born in Paris (died in Paris 27/8/1866).

3/3/1806, Heinrich Boie, German author, died in Meldorf (born in Meldorf 19/7/1744).

12/10/1805, The Theatre Royal, Bath, was founded.

18/9/1805, John Abbott, US writer, was born in Brunswick, Maine.

11/4/1806, Anton Auersperg, Austrian poet, was born in Laibach (died in Graz 12/9/1876).

21/12/1805, Manuel Bocage, Portuguese poet, died (born 1765).

3/8/1805, Christopher Anstey, poet, died (born 31/10/1724 in Brinkley, Cambridgeshire).

29/4/1805, Henri Barbier, French poet, was born in Paris (died in Nice 13/2/1882).

2/4/1805, Hans Christian Anderson, Danish fairy tale writer, was born in Odense, son of a shoemaker.

4/2/1805, William Ainsworth, English novelist (died 3/1/1882) was born.

15/5/1804, Samuel Blanchard, British author, was born in Great Yarmouth (died 15/2/1845).

27/4/1804, Jonathan Boucher, English scholarly writer, died in Epsom, Surrey (born near Wigton 12/3/1738).

14/11/1803, Jacob Abbott, US writer of books for children, was born in Hallowell, Maine.

8/11/1803, Henry Bell, Scottish writer, was born in Glasgow (died 7/11/1874).

8/10/1803, Alfieri, poet, died in Florence.

27/8/1803, Edward Beecher, US writer, was born in East Hampton, Long Island (died in Brooklyn, New York, 28/7/1895).

18/8/1803, James Beattie, Scottish poet, died (born in Kincardine 25/10/1735).

20/7/1803, Thomas Beddoes, English dramatist, was born in Clifton (died 26/1/1849).

25/5/1803, Ralph Waldo Emerson, US poet and essayist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

28/8/1802, Thomas Aird, Scottish poet, was born in Bowden, Roxburghshire (died 25/4/1867 in Dumfries).

26/2/1802, Victor Hugo, French poet and novelist, was born in Besancon, the son of a professional soldier.

19/2/1802, Leonard Bacon, writer, was born in Detroit, Michigan (died 24/12/1881 in New Haven, Connecticut).

13/1/1802, Edouard Bauernfeld, Austrian dramatist, was born in Vienna (died in Vienna 9/8/1890).

31/5/1801, Johann Baiter, Swiss writer, was born in Zurich (died in Zurich 10/10/1877).

22/11/1800, Jules Bastide, French writer, was born in Paris (died 2/3/1879).

6/9/1800, Catherine Esther, US writer and educationalist, was born in East Hampton, Long Island (died in Elmira, New York, 12/5/1878)

12/8/1800, Jean Jacques Ampere, writer, son of the famous scientist, was born in Lyons (died 27/3/1864 in Pau).

23/6/1800, Charlotte Birch-Pfieffer, German dramatist, was born in Stuttgart (died in 24/8/1868).

20/3/1800, Gottfried Bernhardy, scholarly writer, was born in Landsberg (died 14/5/1875).

22/2/1800, William Barnes, poet, was born in Rushay, Dorset (died in Winterbourne 7/10/1886).

16/1/1800, Robert Bell, Irish writer, was born in Cork (died 12/4/1867).

29/11/1799, Amos Bronson Alcott, US writer, was born in Wolcott, Connecticut (died 4/3/1888 in Boston).

6/6/1799, Alexander Pushkin Russian writer, was born

20/5/1799, Honore de Balzac born.

18/5/1799, Pierre Beaumarchais, French dramatist, died in Paris (born in Paris 24/1/1732).

29/6/1798, Willibald Alexis, novelist (died 16/12/1871 in Arnstadt, Thuringia) was born in Breslau.

20/6/1798, Jeremy Belknap, US author, died in Boston (born in Boston 4/6/1744).

3/4/1798, John Banim, Irish novelist, was born in Kilkenny (died in Booterstown 30/8/1874).

13/10/1797, Thomas Bayly, English writer, was born in Bath (died 22/4/1839).

4/10/1797, Albrecht Bitzius, Swiss novelist, was born in Morat (died 22/10/1854).

30/8/1797, Mary Shelley, English novelist, best known as the author of Frankenstein, was born in London.

11/8/1797, A secret Home Office report suspected Coleridge and the Wordsworths of being enemy agents, because of their wandering around the countryside with campstools and making detailed sketches of the landscape.

21/7/1796, Robert Burns, Scottish poet, died aged 37 in Dumfries, and was buried there.  He was born on 25/1/1759, the eldest son of a poor peasant farmer, about 2 miles from Ayr, at Alloway.

19/4/1796, Bernhard Beskow, Swedish dramatist, was born (died 17/10/1868).

4/1/1796, Henry Bohn, British publisher, was born in London (died in Twickenham 22/8/1884).

31/10/1795, John Keats, English romantic poet, was born in London, the son of an innkeeper.

19/5/1795, James Boswell, Scottish diarist and biographer of Dr Johnson, died in London, aged 54.

30/4/1795, Jean Jacques Barthelemy, French writer, died (born in Cassis, Provence 20/1/1716).

22/4/1795, Johann Bohmer, German historical writer, was born in Frankfort am Main (died in Frankfort 22/10/1863).

11/2/1795, Karl Bellman, Swedish poet, died (born in Stockholm 4/2/1740).

28/11/1794, Cesare Beccaria-Bonesana, Italian writer, died in Milan (born in Milan 15/3/1735).

29/9/1792, The Theatre Royal, Dumfries, was founded.

4/8/1792, Percy Bysshe Shelley, poet, was born at Warnham.

5/4/1792, Hew Ainslie, Scottish poet (died 1878) was born.

20/9/1791, Sergei Aksakov, Russian writer (died 30.4.1859) was born.

14/9/1791, Franz Bopp, German scholarly writer, was born in Mainz (died 23/10/1867).

7/7/1791, Thomas Blacklock, Scottish poet, died (born in Dumfriesshire 1721).

11/7/1790, William Wordsworth and his friend Robert Jones set off on a walking tour of France and Switzerland.

6/3/1790, Joseph Bellamy, religious writer, died (was born in Cheshire, Connecticut 20/2/1719).

19/1/1790, Daniel Atterbom, Swedish poet, was born (died 21/7/1855).

1/9/1789, Marguerite Blessington, Irish novelist, was born in County Tipperary (died in Paris 4/6/1849).

25/11/1788, Thomas Amory, English author, died.

1/10/1788, William Brodie was hanged in Edinburgh. His career inspired Robert Louis Stevenson to write The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.

14/2/1788, Edward Blomfield, English scholarly writer, was born in Bury St Edmunds (died  in Cambridge 9/10/1816).

22/1/1788, George Gordon, or Lord Byron, poet, was born in London.

6/12/1788, Richard Barham, English writer, was born in Canterbury (died 17/6/1845).

10/9/1788, Jacques Boucher, French writer, was born in Rethel (died in Abbeville 5/8/1868).

1/9/1787, Jan Baake, Dutch writer, was born in Leiden (died 26/3/1864)

15/2/1787, Roger Boscovich, scientific writer, died in Milan.

29/1/1787, Thomas Paine, English writer, was born.

6/5/1786, Karl Borne, German satirical writer, was born in Frankfort am Main (died in Paris 12/2/1837).

24/2/1786, Wilhelm Grimm, German collector of fairy tales along with his brother Jacob, was born in Hanau.

24/11/1785, Philipp Bockh, German scholarly writer, was born in Karlsruhe (died in Berlin 3/8/1867).

4/4/1785, Elisabeth Arnim, German authoress, was born in Frankfort am Main (died 20/1/1859 in Berlin).

4/1/1785, Jacob Grimm, older of the two German brothers famous for fairy tales, was born in Hanau.

19/10/1784, Leigh Hunt, British poet and essayist, was born.

20/2/1784, Adam Black, Scottish book publisher, was born in Edinburgh (died 24/1/1874).

31/1/1784, Bernard Barton, English poet, was born in Carlisle (died in Woodbridge 19/2/1849).

23/1/1783, Marie Beyle, French writer, was born in Grenoble (died in Paris 23/3/1842).

2/1/1783, Johann Bodmer, author, died in Zurich (born near Zurich 19/7/1698).

10/6/1782, The Grand Theatre, Lancaster, was founded.

6/11/1781, Lucy Aikin, historical writer, was born in Warrington (died 29/1/1864 in Hampstead, London).

26/1/1781, Ludwig Arnim, German writer, was born in Berlin (died in Brandenburg 21/1/1831).

17/8/1780, George Croly, British author, was born in Dublin.

7/9/1779, John Armstrong, writer, died.

15/12/1775, Francois Boieldieu, French poet, was born in Rouen (died in Paris 8/10/1834).

26/8/1775, William Behr, German writer, was born in Salzheim (died in Bamberg 1/8/1851).

5/3/1775, Pierre Buirette, French dramatist, died (born in Auvergne 17/11/1727).

10/2/1775, Charles Lamb, English writer, was born in The Temple, London, son of a clerk.

12/8/1774, Jean Boissonade, French scholarly writer, was born in Paris (died 8/9/1857).

15/6/1774, Karl Bogatzky, German hymn writer, was born in Lower Silesia (died 15/6/1774).

21/4/1774, Jean Biot, French scientific writer, was born in Paris (died in Paris 3/2/1862).

21/10/1772, The poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who wrote The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, was born at Ottery St Mary in Devon.  He was the son of a vicar.

30/4/1771, Hosea Ballou, US writer, was born in Richmond, New Hampshire (died in Boston 7/6/1852).

11/1/1771, Jean Argens, French writer, died near Toulon (born 24/6/1704 in Aix en Provence).

3/1/1771, Louis Bignon, French historical writer, was born in Rouen (died 1841).

15/8/1771, The novelist Sir Walter Scott was born in Edinburgh.

23/6/1770, Mark Akenside, English poet, died in London (born 9/11/1721 in Newcastle on Tyne).

20/3/1770, George Bell, Scottish legal writer, was born in Edinburgh (died 23/9/1843).

26/12/1769, Ernst Moritz Arndt, German poet, was born in Schoritz, Rugen (died 29/1/1860 in Bonn).

3/12/1766, Robert Bloomfield, English poet, was born in Honington, Suffolk (died in Shefford, Bedfordshire, 19/8/1823)

5/5/1766, Jean Astruc, French writer, died in Paris (born 19/3/1684 in Sauve, Languedoc).

9/1/1766, Thomas Birch, Writer, was born in Clerkenwell, London (died 9/1/1766).

11/5/1765, Janos Bacsanyo, Hungarian poet, was born in Tapolcza (died 12/5/1845 in Linz).

11/1/1765, Antoine Barbier, French writer, was born in Coulommiers (died in Paris 5/12/1825).

30/5/1764, The Theatre Royal, Bristol, was founded.

9/3/1763, William Cobbett, English political journalist, was born in Farnham, Surrey, the son of a farmer.

24/1/1763, Jean Bouilly, French writer, was born near Tours (died in Paris 14/4/1842).

7/12/1762, Paul Adam, French novelist, was born in Paris.

6/4/1762, George Benson, English ecclesiastical writer, died (born in Cumberland 1/9/1699).

18/6/1761, Nicolas Baptiste, French writer, was born in Bordeaux (died in Paris 1/12/1835).

1/10/1760, William Beckford, English author, was born (died 1844).

13/4/1760, Thomas Beddoes, English scientific writer, was born in Shifnal, Shropshire (died 24/12/1808).

10/11/1759, Friedrich Schiller, German poet and dramatist, was born.

7/10/1759, Joseph Ames, English author, died in Wapping (born 23/1/1689 in Yarmouth).

6/5/1759, Francois Andrieux, French writer, was born in Strasbourg (died 9/5/1833 in Paris).

25/1/1759, Robert Burns, Scottish poet, was born at Alloway, near Ayr, Ayrshire, son of a poor farmer.

28/11/1757, Poet, artist, and visionary William Blake was born in London.

13/11/1757, Archibald Alison, Scottish author, was born in Edinburgh (died 17/5/1839 in Colinton).

6/11/1757, Louis Beffroy, French dramatist, was born in Laon (died in Paris 17/12/1811).

22/1/1757, Christian Beck, German historical writer, was born in Leipzig (died in Leipzig 13/12/1832).

7/9/1756, Willem Bilderdijk, Dutch poet, was born in Amsterdam (died in Haarlem 18/12/1831).

24/3/1754, Joel Barlow, US poet, was born in Redding, Connecticut (died in Poland 14/12/1812).

14/1/1753, George Berkeley, scholarly writer, died (born 12/3/1685).

12/12/1750, Lady Anne Barnard, writer, was born in Fife (died in London 6/5/1825).

26/4/1750, Thomas Belsham, English ecclesiastical writer, was born in Bedford (died 1829).

7/1/1750, Robert Anderson, Scottish writer, was born in Carnwath, Lanarkshire (died 20/2/1830 in Edinburgh).

28/8/1749, Johann Goethe, German poet and novelist, author of Faust, was born in Frankfurt Am main, son of a lawyer.

21/9/1748, John Balguy, English writer, died in Harrogate (born in Sheffield 12/8/1686).

19/10/1745, Satirist Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver’s Travels, died aged 77.

19/7/1744, Heinrich Boie, German author, was born in Meldorf (died in Meldorf 3/3/1806).

4/6/1744, Jeremy Belknap, US author, was born in Boston (died in Boston 20/6/1798).

3/3/1744, Jean Barbeyrac, French legal writer, died (born in Beziers, Languedoc, 15/3/1674).

20/6/1743, Anna Barbauld, English poet, was born in Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire (died 9/3/1825).

4/4/1743, Robert Ainsworth, English writer, died in London (born 1660 in Eccles, Manchester).

27/10/1742, Nicholas Amhurst, English poet, died in Twickenham (born 16/10/1697 in Marden, Kent).

14/7/1742, Richard Bentley, English scholar and writer, died (born near Wakefield 27/1/1662).

24/6/1741, Alexander Adam, Scottish writer (died 18/12/1809) was born near Forres.

28/10/1740, James Boswell, Scottish diarist and biographer of Samuel Johnson, was born.

4/2/1740, Karl Bellman, Swedish poet, was born in Stockholm (died 11/2/1795).

4/6/1739, Johann Beckman, German scientific author, was born in Hoya (died 3/2/1811).

12/3/1738, Jonathan Boucher, English scholarly writer, was born near Wigton (died in Epsom, Surrey, 17/4/1804).

25/10/1735, James Beattie, Scottish poet, was born in Kincardine (died 18/8/1803).

15/3/1735, Cesare Beccaria-Bonesana, Italian writer, was born in Milan (died in Milan 28/11/1794).

27/2/1735, John Arbuthnot, English author, died in London.

24/1/1732, Pierre Beaumarchais, French dramatist, was born in Paris (died in Paris 18/5/1799).

17/11/1727, Pierre Buirette, French dramatist, was born in Auvergne (died 5/3/1775).

15/9/1726, Angelo Bandini, Italian author, was born in Florence (died 1800).

31/10/1724, Christopher Anstey, poet, was born in Brinkley, Cambridgeshire (died 3/8/1805).

23/1/1722, Henri Boulainvilliers, French political writer, died in Paris (born in Normandy 1658).

9/11/1721, Mark Akenside, English poet, was born in Newcastle on Tyne (died 23/6/1770 in London).

29/12/1720, The Haymarket Theatre, London, was founded.

25/4/1719, Daniel Defoe’s novel ‘Robinson Crusoe’ was published in London.

20/2/1719, Joseph Bellamy, religious writer, was born in Cheshire, Connecticut (died 6/3/1790).

28/7/1718, Etienne Balzuc, French writer, died in Paris (born in Tulle 24/11/1630).

18/7/1718, Saverio Bettinelli, Jesuit writer, was born in Mantua (died 13/9/1808).

27/4/1718, Jacques Bernard, French theological writer, died (born in Nions 1/9/1658).

26/12/1716, Thomas Gray, the poet best known for his Elegy written in a Country Churchyard, was born in London, the son of a money broker.

20/11/1716, William Blackwood, Scottish book publisher, was born in Edinburgh (died 16/9/1834).

20/1/1716, Jean Jacques Barthelemy, French writer, was born in Cassis, Provence (died 30/4/1795).

11/12/1712, Count Francesco Algarotti, Italian arts writer (died 1764 in Pisa) was born in Venice.

3/1/1712, Joshua Barnes, English writer, died in Hemingford, Hampshire, (born in London 10/1/1654).

13/3/1711, Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux, French poet, died (born in Paris 1/11/1636).

18/9/1709, Samuel Johnson, poet and lexicographer, was born in Lichfield, Staffordshire, son of a bookseller.

2/2/1709, The Scottish sailor, Alexander Selkirk, inspiration for Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, was rescued after being marooned for four months on an island off Chile.

1/10/1708, John Blow, English composer, died in Westminster (born 1648).

27/2/1706, John Evelyn, whose diary covered the last 65 years of his life, died aged 86 at Wotton, near Dorking, Surrey.

21/1/1706, Adrien Baillet, French writer, was born in Neuville, Picardy died (born 13/6/1649 in Neuville, Picardy).

23/11/1705, Thomas Birch, Writer, was born in Clerkenwell, London (died 9/1/1766).

24/6/1704, Jean Argens, French writer, was born in Aix en Provence (died near Toulon, 11/1/1771).

12/4/1704, Jacques Bossuet, French writer, died (born in Dijon 27/9/1627).

4/6/1703, Samuel Pepys was buried at St Olaves church in Hart Street, London.

26/5/1703, Samuel Pepys died at Clapham, London, aged 70. He became an MP in 1679. His diaries ran from 1660 to 1669, when he stopped due to failing eyesight.

27/5/1702, Dominique Bouhours, French literary critic, died (born in Paris 1628).

1/5/1700, John Dryden, Poet Laureate for over 20 years, died in London.

1/9/1699, George Benson, English ecclesiastical writer, was born in Cumberland (died 6/4/1762).

19/7/1698, Johann Bodmer, author, was born near Zurich (died in Zurich 2/1/1783).

16/10/1697, Nicholas Amhurst, English poet, was born in Marden, Kent (died 27/4/1742 in Twickenham).

30/6/1697, Sir Thomas Blount, English author, died in Tittenhanger (born in Upper Holloway 12/9/1649)

16/10/1691, Isaac de Benserade, French poet, died.

3/10/1690, Robert Barclay, Scottish Quaker writer, died (born 1648).

7/9/1690,  Karl Bogatzky, German hymn writer, was born in Lower Silesia (died 15/6/1774).

23/1/1689, Joseph Ames, English author, was born in Yarmouth (died 7/10/1759 in Wapping).

31/8/1688, John Bunyan religious writer, author of The Pilgrim’s Progress, died at the house of a friend in Holborn, London. See 12/11/1660.

12/8/1686, John Balguy, English writer, was born in Sheffield (died 21/9/1748 in Harrogate).

12/3/1685, George Berkeley, scholarly writer, was born (died 14/1/1753).

19/3/1684, Jean Astruc, French writer, was born in Sauve, Languedoc (died 5/5/1766 in Paris).

3/6/1683, Sadlers Wells Theatre, London, was founded.

14/3/1680, Rene le Bossu, French literary critic, died (born in Paris 16/3/1631).

18/12/1876, Edward Benlowes, English poet, died.

8/11/1674, The poet John Milton died at the age of 65. His best known work was Paradise Lost. He was born in Chalfont St Giles, Buckinghamshire, and studied at Christ College, Cambridge, from 1652-53, writing poetry in English, Latin, and Italian. He served as secretary for Cromwell’s government and pamphleteered for civil and religious liberty. After the monarchy was restored, Milton was arrested as a supporter of the Commonwealth but soon released. Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained were published in 1667 and 1671, after he went blind in 1652.

27/10/1674, John Bona, Italian clerical writer, died (born in Piedmont 10/10/1609).

15/3/1674, Jean Barbeyrac, French legal writer, was born in Beziers, Languedoc (died 3/3/1744).

1/5/1672, Birth of Joseph Addison, English writer and Whig who co-founded The Spectator in 1711

31/5/1669, Samuel Pepys, naval administrator and politician, made the last entry in his diary which began on 1/1/1660.

9/8/1668, Jakob Balde, German writer, died in Neuberg, (born in Ensisheim, Alsace, 4/1/1604).

13/4/1668, John Dryden was appointed the first Poet Laureate. He kept this office until 1689.

27/1/1662, Richard Bentley, English scholar and writer, was born near Wakefield (died 14/7/1742).

1/9/1658, Jacques Bernard, French theological writer, was born in Nions (died 27/4/1718).

27/4/1654, Charles Blount, English author, was born in Upper Holloway (died 8/1693).

10/1/1654, Joshua Barnes, English writer, was born in London (died in Hemingford, Hampshire, 3/8/1712).

20/10/1640, John Ball, writer, died (born 10/1585).

13/6/1639, Adrien Baillet, French writer, was born in Neuville, Picardy (died 21/1/1706).

6/8/1637, The first poet laureate, Ben Johnson, died in poverty.

1/11/1636, Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux, French poet, was born in Paris (died 13/3/1711).

9/8/1631, John Dryden, poet, was born at Aldwinde in Northampton.

31/3/1631, John Donne, English poet, born in London in 1572, died in London.

16/3/1631, Rene le Bossu, French literary critic, was born in Paris (died 14/3/1680).

4/2/1631, Lupercio Argensola, Spanish poet, died in Saragossa (baptised in Barnastro 14/12/1559).

24/11/1630, Etienne Balzuc, French writer, was born in Tulle (died in Paris 28/7/1718).

29/4/1630, Theodore Aubigne, French poet, died in Geneva (born 8/2/1552 in St Maury, Pons).

27/9/1627, Jacques Bossuet, French writer, was born in Dijon (died 12/4/1704).

6/3/1627, Richard Barnfield, English poet, died in Stone (born in Norbury, Staffordshire 8/2/1544).

12/3/1626, John Aubrey, English writer, was born near Malmesbury (died June 1697 in Oxford).

6/8/1623, Anne Hathaway, wife of Shakespeare, died. They married on 27/11/1582, when Shakespeare was aged 18.

15/8/1621, John Barclay, Scottish poet, died in Rome (born 28/1/1582).

31/10/1620, John Evelyn, English diarist and author, was born in Wotton, near Dorking, Surrey.

6/3/1619, Cyrano de Bergerac, French novelist, was born in Paris.

12/10/1617, Bernardino Baldi, Italian writer, died in Urbino (born in Urbino 6/6/1533).

31/7/1617, Nicolas Antonio, Spanish writer, was born in Seville (died 1684).

23/4/1616, The playwright William Shakespeare, born on 23/4/1564, died.

29/7/1612, Jacques Bongars, French writer, died in Paris (born in Orleans 1554).

10/10/1609, John Bona, Italian clerical writer, was born in Piedmont (died 27/10/1674).

20/5/1609, The sonnets of William Shakespeare were first published.

9/12/1608, John Milton, English poet, was born in Cheapside, London, the son of a scrivener.

13/10/1605, Theodore Beza, French theological writer, died (born in Vezelai, Burgundy, 24/6/1519).

4/1/1604, Jakob Balde, German writer, was born in Ensisheim, Alsace (died in Neuberg, 9/8/1668).

17/1/1600, Spanish dramatist, Pedro Calderon de la Barca, was born.

30/5/1599, Samuel Bochart, French scholarly writer, was born in Rouen (died in Caen 16/.5/1667).

21/2/1595, Robert Southwell, English poet and Jesuit martyr, was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.

29/4/1594, Thomas Cooper, English author, died in Winchester.

9/8/1593, Author Izaak Walton was born at Stafford.

18/4/1593, Shakespeare’s first published work, the poem Venus and Adonis, was entered into the Stationer’s Register.

6/2/1593, Jacques Amyot, French writer, died (born 30/10/1513 in Melun).

21/6/1587, Kaspar von Barth, German writer, was born (died 1658).

18/4/1587, John Foxe, preacher and author, died.

27/11/1582, William Shakespeare, playwright, married Anne Hathaway at the age of 18.

28/1/1582, John Barclay, Scottish poet, was born (died in Rome 15/8/1621).

13/6/1574, Richard Barnfield, English poet, was born in Norbury, Staffordshire (died in Stone 6/3/1627).

12/2/1567, Thomas Campion, English poet, was born (died 1620).

2/7/1566, Nostradamus died – did he foresee this?

7/1/1566, Louis de Blois, Flemish mystical writer, died (born 10/1506).

23/4/1564, William Shakespeare, playwright, was born in Stratford on Avon. He was the third of eight children.  His father, John Shakespeare, was a glove maker and alderman, and his mother, Mary Arden, was a daughter of the gentry.

6/2/1564, Christopher Marlowe, English poet, was born in Canterbury, son of a shoe maker.

14/12/1559, Lupercio Argensola, Spanish poet, was born (baptised) in Barbastro (died in Saragossa  4/2/1631).

18/4/1556, Luigi Alamanni, Italian poet, died in Amboise (born in Florence, 1495).

1/3/1555, Nostradamus published his famous book of predictions.

18/1/1547, Pietro Bembo, Italian writer, died (born in Venice 20/5/1470).

5/5/1553, Erasmus Albertus, German writer, died in Mecklenburg.

6/6/1533, Ludovico Ariosto, Italian poet, died.

8/2/1552, Monday (-143,620) Theodore Aubigne, French poet, was born in St Maury, Pons (died 29/4/1630 in Geneva).

30/10/1513, Friday (-157,539) Jacques Amyot, French writer, was born in Melun (died 6/2/1593).

14/12/1503, The French astrologer Nostradamus was born, as Michel de Nostradame.  He wrote his book of prophecies in 1555.

21/11/1495, John Bale, English author, was born in Cove, near Dunwich (died 11/1563).

5/11/1494, Hans Sachs, poet and dramatist, was born.

8/9/1474, Ludovic Ariosto, poet, was born.

20/5/1470, Pietro Bembo, Italian writer, was born in Venice (died 18/1/1547).

25/10/1400, Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet and storyteller, who wrote the unfinished Canterbury Tales, (born ca. 1340) died at his home in Westminister.

17/4/1397, Geoffrey Chaucer told The Canterbury Tales for the first time.

6/10/1393, Osbern Bokenham, English chronicler, was born.

21/12/1375, Giovanni Boccaccio, writer, died.

14/9/1321, The poet Dante Alighieri died aged 56 at Ravenna, in the 20th year of exile from his native Florence.

24/1/1287, Richard Aungervyle, English writer and bibliophile, was born near Bury St Edmunds (died14/4/1345).

 

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