Chronography of Africa
Page last modified 23/12/2021
For events in North Africa relating to the Islamic World and Arab Spring see also Islam & Middle East
See also Algeria
See also Angola
See also Chad
See also Congo DR-Kinshasa
See also Egypt
See also Ghana
See also Ethiopia & Eritrea
See also Mali
See also Morocco
See also Namibia
See also Nigeria
See also South Africa
See also Sudan/South Sudan
See also Uganda
See also Zimbabwe
Benin (Dahomey) � see Appendix 3 below
Botswana � see Appendix 4 below
Burkina Faso - see Appendix 4a below
Burundi � see Appendix 4b below
Cameroon� -see Appendix 5 below
Cape Verde � see Appendix 6 below
Central African Republic � see Appendix 8 below
Comoros � see Appendix 9 below
Congo-Brazzaville � see Appendix 9a below
Cote D�Ivoire � see Appendix 10 below
Djibouti � see Appendix 10a below
Equatorial Guinea � see Appendix 10b below
Gabon � see Appendix 10c below
(Gambia) � see Senegal
Guinea � see Appendix 11a below
Guinea-Bissau � see Appendix 11b below
Kenya � see Appendix 12 below
Lesotho � see Appendix 12a below
Liberia � see Appendix 13 below
Libya � see Appendix 14 below
Madagascar � see Appendix 15 below
Malawi � see Appendix 16 below
Mauritania � see Appendix 17 below
Mauritius � see Appendix 18 below
Mozambique � see Appendix 19 below
Niger � see Appendix 21 below
Rwanda � see Appendix 22 below
Sao Tome � see Appendic 23 below
Senegal & Gambia � see Appendix 24 below
Seychelles � see Appendix 25 below
Sierra Leone � see Appendix 26 below
Somalia � see Appendix 27 below
Swaziland � see Appendix 28a below
Tanzania � see Appendix 29 below
Togo � see Appendix 29a below
Tunisia � see Appendix 30 below
Western Sahara � see Appendix 32 below
Zambia � see Appendix 33 below
See also Internatiional Unions for pan-African organisations
For 2014 Ebola crisis see Medical
Africa � General
11/4/1996, A treaty establishing Africa as a nuclear-free zone was signed in Cairo.
25/5/1986. Bob Geldof�s Race Against Time had 30 million people worldwide running for Sport Aid to raise money for the starving in Africa.
23/4/1976, Henry Kissinger began a tour of Africa. He stated that his top priority was an end to the maverick status of Southern Rhodesia. He promised Mozambique aid because of the trade losses it had suffered in closing its border with Rhodesia.
28/5/1975,The Treaty of Lagos was signed, creating ECOWAS as a means of continental integration. Borders were to be open to travel and trade.
28/2/1975. The Lome Convention was signed in Lome, capital of Togo, between the EC and 46 developing nations.� The agreement provided for free access for the export of these 46 countries into the EC, also for aid and investment.� It laid the foundation for the post imperialistic (colonial) relations between Europe and Africa.
1/10/1972, The archaeologist and anthropologist David Leakey died. He had worked on human fossils in Africa to trace the history of mankind.
10/11/1952, 77-year-old doctor and philosopher Albert Schweitzer was awarded the Nobel Prize for his humanitarian work in Africa.
30/1/1944, The Brazzaville Conference; French colonial governors met in Brazzaville, capital� of French Equatorial Africa, to set out post-war relations between France and her African colonies. Further intergration between France and the colonies was anticipated, rather than eventual independence.
10/5/1904, Sir Henry Morton Stanley, British explorer in Africa and journalist, died in London.
27/9/1902, A British Crown ordinance authorised White settlement of the east African uplands.
17/7/1898. The Frenchman Captain J Marchand reached Fashoda (now Kodok) in the Nile Valley in an attempt to build a continuous belt of French colonial territory from west to east across Africa. However the British similarly wanted a contiguous territory from north to south. Lord Kitchener, advancing south from Egypt to fight the Mahdi from Sudan, conquered the Sudanese on 2/9/1898 and then learned of �white men flying a strange flag at Fashoda�. The British reached Fashoda on 19/9/1898, under General Kitchener. War between France and Britain seemed imminent, neither side being willing to give way until Lord Salisbury was able to announce on 4/11/1898 that the French would back down. On 21/3/1899 a declaration was made that united all French territories in north, west, and central Africa into one unit whilst giving Fashoda to the British.
5/5/1897, James Bent, explorer of Africa, died in London (born near Leeds 30/3/1852).
1894, Britain and France disputed the frontier between the French colony of Dahomey (now Togo) and the British colony of Nigeria. The British had previously signed a treaty with the Chief of the Bussa, who occupied Borgu region, but the French claimed that the Bussa were subordinate to the Chief of Nikki region. Britain and France raced to sign a treaty with Nikki, a race which Britain won by 5 days.
12/5/1894, The Congo Treaty, between Britain and Belgium, gave Britain a lease on a corridor between Lakes Tangynika and Albert.
24/3/1894, Verney Cameron, English explorer of Africa and author (born 1/7/1844) died.
30/12/1893, Sir Samuel Baker, explorer of Africa, died in Sandford Orleigh (born in London 8/6/1821).
13/2/1892, Wilhelm Junker, German explorer of Africa, died (born 6/4/1840).
11/2/1892, James Grant, Scottish explorer of eastern Africa in the 1860s, died (born 11/4/1827).
31/7/1891, Britain claimed African territory north of the Zambezi, up to the Congo basin, to be in its sphere of influence.
26/5/1887, The Imperial British East Africa Company received a charter to colonise Kenya and Uganda.
11/9/1886, Edward Flegel, German explorer of Africa,died (born 1/10/1855)
20/4/1885, Gustav Nachtigal, German explorer of central Africa, died.
26/2/1885, A meeting of 15 nations in Berlin hosted by Bismark divided up east and central Africa amongst European countries.
1884, The German explorer, Dr Karl Peters, formed the Deutsche Kolonialverein, a society to promote German colonisation of Africa.
1877, Henry Stanley explored the course of the River Zaire.
31/7/1874, Charles Beke, explorer of Africa and the Bible Lands, died in Bromley, Kent (born in Stepney, London, 10/10/1800).
18/4/1874, David Livingstone�s remains were interred in Westminster Abbey. He died in Africa on 1/5/1873.
30/4/1873, The Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone died of malaria near Lake Bangweulu in Zambia, aged 60. He was found dead at Chitambo, kneeling in prayer by his bed. He had worked from age 10 to 24 in a cotton factory, and when aged 27 was ordained under the London Missionary Society. He discovered Victoria Falls when aged 41 and Lake Nyasa aged 46. He was buried on 18/4/1874 in Westminster Abbey.
10/11/1871. Historic meeting of explorer and missionary David Livingstone (born 19/3/1813, in Blantyre, Lanarkshire) with Sir Henry Morton Stanley at Ujiji (now in Tanzania). Livingstone died on 1/5/1873.
25/11/1865, Heinrich Barth, German explorer of Africa, died in Berlin (born in Hamburg 16/2/1821).
30/11/1864, William Baikie, explorer of Africa, died in Sierra Leone,(born 21/8/1824 in Kirkwall, Orkney).
18/9/1864, English explorer John Hanning Speke died after a shooting accident aged 37.
15/9/1864, John Speke, English explorer in Africa who discovered Lake Victoria, accidentally shot himself whilst partridge shooting.
14/3/1864, Lake Albert in Africa was discovered and named by Sir Samuel Baker.
23/2/1863, British explorers John Speke and J A Grant announced they have discovered Lake Victoria to be the source of the Nile.
9/1/1861, MacGregor Laird, pioneer of British trade on the River Niger, died.
16/9/1859, Lake Nyasa was discovered by David Livingstone.
3/8/1858, John Speke, 31, English explorer, discovered Lake Victoria, source of the Nile.
17/11/1855, Scottish explorer David Livingstone discovered, on the River Zambezi, a large waterfall. He called it the Victoria Falls.
1/10/1855, Edward Flegel, German explorer of Africa, was born (died 11/9/1886)
5/7/1853, The colonial administrator Cecil Rhodes was born at Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, the 7th of 11 children..� His father was a vicar.
30/3/1852, James Bent, explorer of Africa, was born near Leeds (died in London 5/5/1897).
6/4/1840, Wilhelm Junker, German explorer of Africa, was born (died 13/2/1892).
28/3/1840, Eduard Schnitzer (Emin Pasha), German explorer of Africa, was born (died 10/1892).
31/7/1835, Paul du Chaillu, explorer of Africa, was born (died 29/4/1903).
6/2/1834, Richard Lander, explorer of the Niger valley, Africa, died.
4/5/1827, John Manning Speke, English explorer who was the first European to see Lake Victoria, and later identified as the source of the Nile, was born.
13/4/1827, Hugh Clapperton, Scottish explorer of west-central Africa, died (born 1788).
21/8/1824, William Baikie, explorer of Africa, was born in Kirkwall, Orkney (died in Sierra Leone, 30/11/1864).
10/1/1824, Thomas Bowditch, English explorer of west Africa, died in Bathurst (born 1790).
8/6/1821, Sir Samuel Baker, explorer of Africa, was born in London (died in Sandford Orleigh 30/12/1893).
16/2/1821, Heinrich Barth, German explorer of Africa, was born in Hamburg (died in Berlin 25/11/1865).
19/3/1813, The explorer and missionary David Livingstone, first White man to see the Victoria Falls, was born at 9 Shuttle Row, Blantyre, East Kilbride, Scotland.
10/10/1800, Charles Beke, explorer of Africa and the Bible Lands, was born in Stepney, London (died in Bromley, Kent, 31/7/1874).
21/6/1796. The Scottish explorer Mungo Park reached the River Niger.
22/5/1795, The Scottish explorer Mungo Park set sail on his first voyage to Africa,
27/4/1794, James Bruce, Scottish explorer of Africa, died (born 14/12/1730).
27/12/1793, Alexander Laing, Scottish explorer of Africa, the first recorded European to reach Timbuktu, was born (died 26/9/1826).
1/1/1786, Dixon Denham, English explorer of Africa, was born (died 8/5/1828).
10/9/1771, Birth of the surgeon and west African explorer Mungo Park, at Foulshiels near Selkirk. He charted the course of the River Niger.
14/11/1770, British explorer James Bruce discovered the source of the Blue Nile, at Lake Tana.
14/12/1730, James Bruce, Scottish explorer of Africa, was born (died 27/4/1794).
4/8/1578, Sebastian, King of Portugal, was killed in the Battle of Al Kasr al Kebir.
1570, Kanem-Bornu became a major power in the region.
9/2/1513, The Portuguese explorer Pedro Mascarenhas discovered the island of Reunion. (near Madagascar)
14/4/1498, Vasco da Gama arrived at the trading city of Malindi, east Africa, after putting in at Kilwa and Monbasa.
1482, The Portuguese constructed a fort at Sao Jorge da Mina,Gold Coast (now Elmina, Ghana) for securing the Portuguese monopoly in the west African gold trade. By the early 1500s, some 680kg of gold a year was being shipped to Portugal from this fort.
4/9/1479, The Treaty of Alcovas between Portugal and Spain confirmed Castile�s claim on the Canary Islands, and Portugal�s claim on the Azores and Madeira, also Portuguese rights in west Africa.
1473, Portuguese �ships first reached the Congo River.
1473, Portuguese �ships first crossed the Equator.
1472, The Portuguese discovered the island of Fernando Po off west Africa.
1469, The Portuguese King, Alfonso V agreed that,in return for an annual fee, merchant explorer Fernao Gomes would be allowed to continue to push Portuguese exploration efforts further down the west African coast. Ultimately this also opened the way for Portuguese penetration into Brazil.
1460, Death of Henry the Navigator. This might have halted further Portuguese exploration of the west African coast, but see 1469.
1455, The Portuguese discovered the Gambia River.
1415, Prince Henry the Navigator led a Portuguese expedition to capture the port of Ceuta from the Moors. On finding treasure from Senegal, which had been brought by caravan across the Sahara, he decided to try and reach Senegal by sea. However his sailors feared sailing too far south, in case they fell off the edge of the (flat) earth, and they also believed the hot sun would scorch� them black, like the Africans.
980, In east Africa, the Zanj Empire was founded by Ali ibn Hasan, succeeding the Kilwa Empire.
450 BCE, Earliest evidence of metallurgy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Iron was smelted by the Nok Culture in furnaces at Taruga.
3000 BCE, The Sahara began to turn from grassland into desert.
Appendix 3 � Benin (Dahomey)
1996, Kerekou was re-elected, amidst allegations of fraud.
1991, In multi-Party elections, President Kerekou was defeated by Nicephore Soglo, and the result was honoured.
1975, Dahomey was renamed Benin.
1972, Dahomey adopted Marxist-Leninism as official doctrine, This was dropped in 1989.
1/8/1960, Benin (Dahomey) became independent from France.
23/7/1897, Germany and France agreed the border between their colonies of Togo and Dahomey (now Benin).
22/6/1894, Dahomey (Benin) became a French colony.
3/12/1892. The French imposed a protectorate on Dahomey (Benin) after they captured its capital, Abomey.
17/11/1892, Behanzin, King of Dahomey,faced by greatly superior French forces, set fire to his capital Abomey then abandoned it to the French.
1892, Behanzin continued to make slave raids into neighbouring territories, although slavery was supposed to be abolished in the area; he also attacked a French gunboat. This provoked a French attack on Behanzin.
1890, France agreed a treaty with King Behanzin of Dahomey that France would lease the cities of Cotonou and Porto Novo in return for an annual payment to Behanzin.
1889, Britain and France agreed between them that France would colonise Cotonou, on the Dahomey (Benin) coast. Indigenous Dahomeyans fiercely resusted the French.
1863, Porto Novo became a French colony.
1850s, After slavery was abolished, palm oil became the main export commodity.
1670, The French established a trading post at Offa, on the coast of Dahomey (Benin).
1620, The Fon, indigenous slave traders, founded the Kingdom of Dahomey.
1400s, the Kingdom of Benin was established by the Obas.
Appendix 4 � Botswana
2001, Botswana recorded the world�s highest HIV infection rate of 38.3% of the population.
1998, Vice President Festus Mogae succeeded Masire as President.
1992, Strikes and a corruption scandal hit Botswana. Senior Botswana Democratic Party officials forced to resign.
1980, Vice President Quett (later known as Ketumile) succeeded the late Seretse Khama as President.
1967, Diamonds were discovered at Orapa, Botswana.
30/9/1966. Botswana became independent. It had formerly been called Bechuenaland.� Sir Setese Khama was its first President.
13/7/1980, Sir Seretse Khama, President of Botswana since 1966, died in a London hospital.
1965, Gaborone was designated as the capital of Botswana. The Botswana Democratic Party won the elections, and Seretse Khama became Prime Minister.
3/3/1965, Bechuanaland (now Botswana) became self-governing, with Seretse Khama (Bechuenaland Democratic Party) as Prime Minister.
1962, Seretse Khama founded the Botswana Democratic Party.
1961, In Botswana, Seretse Khama was appointed to the Executive Council.
1959, Copper mining began in Botswana.
1950, In Botswana, the British deposed and exiled Seretse Khama, Chief of the Ngwato.
1948, A possible merger between Botswana and South Africa was ruled out when the National Party came to power there. However South Africa continued to dominate the Botswana economy, which was effectively merely a labour resource for South African mines and farms.
1903, The city of Serowe was founded by Chief Khama.
11/9/1895, Three African Chiefs, Khama of the Ngwato tribe, Bathoen of the Ngwaketse and Sebele of the Kwena,� from Bechuanaland (now Botswana) met with the British Prime Minister, Joseph Chamberlain, Their mission was to obtain British protection from the exploitative colonisation of Cecil Rhodes, who was then establishing White economic domination over African lands across much of southern Africa. In fact Rhodes was then preparing for the disastrous Jameson Raid See South Africa, 1896 against Chamberlain�s wishes. This made Chamberlain more sympathetic to the African Chiefs, and British Royal protection was granted to the existing tribal rule in Bechuanaland.
8/10/1885, Britain claimed the Bechuenaland Protectorate (now Botswana).
1867, Gold mining began in Botswana; gold had been discovered at Tati in 1864. Gold mining began at Madibi in 1906.
1813, The London Missionary Society established a permnanent mission in Bechuenaland.
1801, First European exploration of Botswana began.
Appendix 4a � Burkina Faso
2005, Compaore won a straight third term in office.
15/101987, The authoritarian and absolute rule of Thomas Sankora led to a rebellion mounted by Blaise Compaore. Sankara was shot and Compaore gained power.
3/8/1984, The Republic of Upper Volta changed its name to Burkina Faso.
1983, Thomas Sankara became President of Upper Volta. He abjured luxury and was proud to be totally against all corruption. He was assassinated in 1987.
5/8/1960, Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) became independent from France.
11/12/1958, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) gained autonomy from France.
1920, Upper Volta was created a separate colony from French Sudan.
1890s, French forces conquered the region from the Mossi people.
1300s, Arrival of Islam.
1000s, Rise of the Mossi Kingdom.
Appendix 4b � Burundi
2000, The Arusha Peace Accord between Hutus and Tutsis was signed,l agreeing to power-sharing.
25/7/1996, A coup by the Burundian Army deposed the moiderate Hutu President, Sylvestre Ntibantunganya, who fled to the UN Ambassador�s residence for safety. Pierre Buyoya was installed as President in his place.
4/4/1995, In Burundi, Tutsi soldiers massacred 400 Hutu women and children (see 9/3/1995).
9/3/1995, Hutu leader Ernest Kabushemeye was assassinated in Burundi. There were immediate reports of genocide and a refugee crisis, amidst fears of a repeat of the violence in 1994 in Rwanda. See 4/4/1995.
1993, Ndadaye, the first Hutu President, was killed in a Tutsi-led army coup.
3/9/1987, Coup in Burundi. The Military Committee for National Redemption was founded.
1972, Tutsis massacred 150,000 Hutus.
1966, The Army overthrew the monarchy.
1959, Burundi was split from Rwanda, and became independent from Belgium in 1962.
1922, Belgium took over administration of Burundi following German defeat in World War One.
1897, Burundi was incorporated into German East Africa.
Appendix 5 � Cameroon � See also Nigeria (7/1890) for the creation of Cameroonian territorial extension northwards to Lake Chad.
2000, World Bank approval for an oil and pipeline project was gained, despite fears of environmental damage.
11/10/1992, In Cameroon�s first multi-party elections, President Biya won a slim majority.
4/1988, Biya was �elected� President with 98.75% of the vote.
1986, Lake Nyos, having become supersaturated with carbon dioxide from volcanic activity below, erupted a huge cloud of the gas, which then flowed downhill, suffocating 1,700 people within 15 minutes.
6/4/1984, An abortive coup in Cameroon. The Cameroonian President, Paul Biya, a Christian from the south of the country, had ordered that all northern Muslim palace guards be replaced by southern Christians. Several days of fighting ensued but the rebel ringleaders were arrested and 35 executed. Biya consolidated his power.
1961, Cameroon became independent.
1/10/1961. The British Trust territory of Southern Cameroons joined with French Cameroons to form the Republic of Cameroon.
1/1/1960. The independent Republic of the Cameroons was proclaimed.
18/2/1916, The last German garrison in Cameroon surrendered.
10/6/1915, Second Battle of Garua. The remaining 249 German and African troops stationed in garrisons around Garua, Kamerun surrendered to British and French forces.
1884, Cameroon became a German protectorate.
11/7/1884, Germans began to sign up Cameroon chiefs as subjects.
1472, The Portuguese began slave trading in the Cameroons region.
Appendix 6 � Cape Verde
17/2/1991, The Cape Verdean Presidential election, Cape Verde's first multiparty presidential election since 1975, was won by Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro.
5/7/1975, Cape Verde gained independence from Portugal after nearly 500 years of colonial rule.
16/2/1944, Ant�nio Mascarenhas Monteiro, the second President of Cape Verde, was born.
1869, Emancipation of the slaves in the Cape Verde region.
1831-33, Major famine hit Cape Verde.
1730-33, Major famine hit Cape Verde.
1600, Ribiera Grande became a major centre of the slave trade.
1462, The Portuguese established, on the Cape Verde Islands, the colonial city of Ribiera Grande (now called Cidade Velha). This was the first European city on the Tropics, with a cathedral, fortress, walls and slave market.
1456, Alvise Cadamosto, a venetian captain working for the Portuguese, visited the Cape Verde archipelago.
1441, The Portuguese discovered the Cape Verde Islands.
Appendix 8 � Central African Republic
2005, Unrest in the north caused thousands to flee into neighbouring Chad.
12/6/1987, In the Central African Republic, Bokassa was found guilty of treason and murder, but acquitted of cannibalism. He was sentenced to death, but this was later commuted to life in prison. Six years later, President Andre Kolingba freed him in an amnesty; he died of a heart attack shortly afterwards.
16/12/1986, Bokassa was, to his surprise, deported from France to face trial in the Central African Republic.
1981, Dacko was ousted by General Kolingba.
20/9/1979, �Emperor� Bokassa was deposed in Central Africa, with French help, and a Republic restored under his cousin, David Dacko. Dacko had been President until Bokassa, then an army colonel, overthrew him in a coup in 1965. Bokassa now fled to France, amid accusations of child cannibalism, and that he had wasted money on extravagant living.
4/12/1977. In the Central African Republic, Jean Bedel Bokassa crowned himself Emperor.
4/12/1976, The military ruler of the Central African Republic, Jean-Bedel Bokassa, declared the country a Parliamentary monarchy, the Central African Empire, with himself as monarch, Emperor Bokassa I.
1/1/1966. Bokassa took over as leader of the Central African Republic, overthrowing President Dacko.. In 1977 he organised a lavish coronation ceremony., appointing himself �Emperor�, which cost US$20million, a quarter of his country�s annual income.
13/8/1960, The Central African Republic became independent.
29/3/1959, Barthelemy Boganda, Prime Minister of the Central African Republic, was born.
1958, Central Africa was granted self-government.
22/2/1921, Jean-Bedel Bokassa, ruler of the Central African Republic, was born.
1889, The French established a colony at Bangui.
Appendix 9 � Comoros
2006, Muslim cleric Ahmed Abdallah Sambi won Presidential elections.
3/9/1997, 300 troops were dispatched from Moroni, the Comoras capital on Grande Comore, to put down the secession movement on Anjouan. Rebels, helped by foreign mercenaries, put up fierce resistance and the Government troops withdrew. France declined to intervene., the OAU sponsored peace talks. Later in 1997 the Comoros President appointed an Anjouan as his Prime Minister.
7/1997, The Anjouan and Moheli islands declared independence from Comoros.
1979, Comoros became a One-Party State
6/7/1975, The Comoros declared their independence from France.
1974, Referendum produced vote in favour of independence from France. However Mayotte voted to remain French.
1886, Comoros became a French protectorate. Previously it was ruled by a matrilineal hereditary Sultanate, closely linked to the Arab world.
Appendix 9a � Congo-Brazzaville
10/1997, Angolan forces intervened in Congo-Brazzaville in support of Sassou-Nguessou. Lissouba fled to Burkina Faso, and Sassou-Nguesso became President.
5/7/1997, A truce mediated by Gabon ended the worst of the fighting in Congo-Brazzaville but sporadic conflict continued.
6/1997, Army units loyal to General Denis Sassou-Nguesso, President of Congo-Brazzaville 1979-92, rebelled against President Pascal Lissouba. Lissouba had been attempting to reduce the control of French oil company Elf Acquitanine, on his country�s oil industry since his election in 1992. Over 2,000 died in fighting and looting in the capital, Brazzaville, which was largely destroyed over the next four months.
1990, Marxism-Leninism was abandoned.
12/1968, President Ngouabi of the Congo (Brazzaville) changed the country�s name to the People�s Republic of the Congo and declared it Africa�s only Marxist-Leninist State. He founded the Congolese Worker�s Party as the only legitimate Party.
15/8/1960. The Congo (Brazzaville) became independent from France.
1940, The French Governor of Congo, General Felix Eboue, chose to support de Gaulle and rejected the French Vichy Government.
4/9/1905, Pierre Paul Brazza, French explorer of Africa and founder of the French Congo (Brazzaville), died (born 26/1/1852).
1891, France founded the colony of Congo, on the north bank of the River Zaire.
1880, French explorer Count Savorgnan visited the Congo region. He made a treaty with Makoko, chief of Teke, which he later claimed gave France rights over the area.
26/1/1852, Pierre Paul Brazza, French explorer of Africa and founder of the French Congo (Brazzaville), was born (died 4/9/1905).
Appendix 10 � Cote D�Ivoire (Ivory Coast) 9-20
1/2019, Ex-President Laurent Gbagbo was acquitted at The Hague of charges relating to violence after the 2010 election. In 8/2018 Simone Gbagbo, wife of Laurent, had been amnestied by President Ouattara in a move of reconciliation.
9/2017, The chocolate industry was accused of causing environmental destruction on Cote D�Ivoire by clearing� the rainforest, harming wildlife.
1/2017,PresidentOuattara faced unrest in the army and police over low pay and unpaid bonuses.
3/2016, Al Quaeda attack on holidaymakers at Grand Bassam resort, killing 18.
12/2011, Electtions were won by President Ouattara; Gbagbo�s supporters boycotted the vote.
11/4/2011, Laurent Gbagbo, former President of the Cote D�Ivoire, was captured. He faced charges at The Hague of crimes against humanity, for massacring political opponents.
12/2010, Mr Ouaattara was declared the winner of Presidential elections. Howevet Gbagbo disputed this result, and in ensuing violence some 3,000 people were killed.
4/2008, Rising food prices caused riots. Gbagbo suspended import duties on food.
10/2005, Gbagbo suspended elections and retained power.
5/2005, Violence in the western town of Duekoue.
9/11/2004, In retaliation for the incident of 6/11/2004, the French Government ordered its forces to destroy the entire Cote D�Ivoire air force. There were anti-French riots on the streets of the capital Abidjan.
6/11/2004, 9 French peacekeepers were killed when the Cote D�Ivoire air force bombed the rebel-held stronghold of Bouake. A 4,000-strong French force was policing the peace deal agreed between the Government and rebels in January 2003. See 9/11/2004.
3/2004, Opposition rally against Gbagbo; violence erupted.
30/10/2003, Peace talks began in Cote D�Ivoire.
17/10/2003, Ceasefire in the Cote D�Ivoire civil war.
23/9/2003,) Rebel forces in Cote D�Ivoire withdrew from the Government of National Unity.
19/9/2002, Mutiny by the military, protesting against forced disbandment, �became full-scale civil war, with the Ivory Coast Patriotic Movement taking control of the north of Cote D�Ivoire. In early 2003 a new concensus Government was formed, including some rebel members. See 17/10/2002.
24/10/2000, Laurent Gbagbo won Presidential elections in Cote D�Ivoire. On 26/10/2000 Robert Guei who had claimed victory had to flee the country, in the face of a popular uprising against him.
Start of Gbago administration
23/12/1999, President Bedie was overthrown by the military, and General Robert Guei took power/
5/1995, Cote D�Ivoire split along religious-ethnic lines as� tte Muslim Alassane Ouattara challenged Bedie for the post of President.
7/12/1993, Felix Houphouet Boigny, President of Cote d�Ivoire, died. Henri Konan Bedie became President.
1990, In democratic elections, Houphouet Boigny defeated Laurent Gbagbo for the post of President.
1970, Oil production began.
7/8/1960. Ivory Coast became independent from France. President Felix Houphouet Boigny became President,� a post he held untio his death in 1993.
1910, Rebellion by the southern Abe people was harshly suppressed.
10/1/1889. France declared a protectorate over the Ivory Coast.
1842, France gained trading rights on the Cote D�Ivoire coast. It then imposed a protectorate over the coastal zone.
1700, France established a factory at Grand Bassam, which operated until 1707.
1600s, Europeans began slave-trading along the coast.
1300s, Mandinka settlement began in the region.
Appendix 10a � Djibouti
2002, President Ismail Guelleh �won� elections, as the sole candidate. Multi-Party elections were subsequently held in 2003.
2002, US forces set up a base in Djibouti as part of the �War on Terror�.
2000, Civil war in Djibouti ceased.
1997, Dissident FRUD members attacked Djiboutian Government troops oin the north of the country.
26/12/1994, Djibouti signed a peace agreement with FRUD (Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy). FRUD was an Afar guerrilla group.
1993, Gouled was re-elected in the first contested elections.
1992, Competing political parties now allowed in Djibouti.
11/1991. The Afar-dominated FRUD began an insurrection against the Isar-dominated Government of Djibouti.
1981, RPP (People�s Progress Assembly) became the only legal political Party.
2/6/1977, Djibouti became independent, after over 100 years of French rule.
19/3/1967, French Somaliland (now Djibouti) rejected independence in a� referendum.
1862, French colonists took control of the port of Obock, in northern Djibouti.
Appendix 10b � Equatorial Guinea
2004, Simon Mann and 66 other mercenaries were arrested (in Zimbabwe) en-route to Equatorial Guinea to overthrow the President, Teodoro Obiang. Mann was extradited to equatorial Guinea in 2008 where he was enstenced to 34 years; however he was released in 2009 after his family paid �250,000.
1996, Oil was discovered in waters off Equatorial Guinea.
12/10/1968. Equatorial Guinea became independent from Spain. Francisco Macias Nguema was elected President; he then established a One Party State and abrogated parts of the Constitution. He ruled until 1979.
1900, The Treaty of Paris confiormed Rio Muni as a Spanish colony.
1858, Spain occupied Bioko, developing cocoa plantations there.
1778, Portugal ceded control of Fernando Po (Bioko) and tye Annobon Islands to Spain, under thre Treaty of El Pardo.
Appendix 10c � Gabon
2005, Bongo was re-elected President.
1990, First multi-Party elections since 1964. However there were widespread allegations of fraud.
1989, Coup against Bongo failed.
1973, Bongo was re-elected; he converted to Islam and changed his first name to Omar.
1968, Gabon became a One-Party State.
1967, Albert-Bernard (later, Omar Bongo) became President.
1964, Attempted military coup; the French intervened to reinstate M�ba.
17/8/1960, Gabon became an independent nation, from France. Leon M�ba was the forst President.
30/12/1935, Omar Bongo, President of Gabon, was born.
1889, Gabon became part of the French Congo.
1880, French explorer Count Savorgnan de Brazza claimed that a treaty he signed with King Makoko of the Tete gave France rights to colonise large areas of central Africa. In fact much of this area was not under Makoko�s control.
1849, Libreville was founded by Vili slaves who had been freed by the French.
1472, First visit by Europeans; Portuguese trading ships called at what is now Gabon.
(Gambia � see Senegal)
Appendix 11a � Guinea
5/92021, President Alpha Conde was deposed in a military coup.
1998, Conde re-elected President.
1993, Conde was narrowly re-elected.
1992, Multi-Party democracy introduced.
1985, Attempted coup against Conde, foiled by loyalist soldiers.
1984, Sekou Toure died, The Army staged a bloodless coup, and dissolved the National Assembly. Colonel Lansana Conde became leader.
1980, Toure was returned, unopposed, for a 4th term.
1977, Strong opposition to Toure�s Marxist policies forced him to accept a mixed economy.
2/10/1958, Guinea was proclaimed an independent republic. Sekou Toure was elected President.
1947, The Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG) was formed by Ahmed Sekou Toure.
1904, Guinea became part of the French West African Federation.
1898, French forces defeated Samori, and established a colony.
1892, The French invaded Futa Djallon.
1891, War began between France and Samori. Samori offered to cede his empire to Britain.
1870s, Almamy Samori Toure consolidated his Mandinka Wassulu Empire as a bulwark against French colonial expansiob. His capital was at Bisandugu. He captured KIankari in 1879.
1700s, Islam thrived in the region under the Fula people.
1460s, Portuguese sailors explored the region.
1200s, The gold mines of Wangara were contributing to the wealth of the Islamic Mali Empire.
Appendix 11b � Guinea Bissau
2003, Yalla was overthrown in an army coup.
2000, Mane was kiulled in a coup attempt. Kumba Yalla became President.
1993, Guinea Bissau abolished the death penalty for all offences.
1999, The opposition Party for Social Renewal (PRS) defeated the African Party for the Independence of Guinea Bussau and Cape Verde (PAIGC).
1998, Army rebellion against the government by Ansumane Mane led to international intervention by other West African States.
1994, First multi-Party elections won by the PAIGC.
1984, A new constitution established Marxism-Leninism in Guinea Bissau.
1980, Military coup, sparked by resentment at the domination of Cape-Verdeans in the government,
1974, Luis de Almaeida Cabral, brother of the assassinated Amilcar, became President of Guinea Bissau.
10/9/1974, Guinea Bissau became independent from Portugal.
1973, Amilcar Cabreal was assassinated in Conakry. By now the PAIGC controlled two thirds of Guinea-Bissau.
1962, Guerrilla attacks began on Portuguese army posts and police stations. Many areas wree soon cleared of tye Portugiuese.
1959, Striking dock workers aewer massacred in Bissau.
1956, Amilcar Cabril ((1921-73) founded the African Party for the Independence of Guoinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC).
1879, Bissau and Cacheu were united as Portuguese Guinea.
1616, Portugal built a fortress at Cacheu to control the slave trade.
1446, Portuguese explorer Nuno Tristao visited the region.
1000s, Four main ethnic groups, the Balante, Fulani, Manydyako and Molinke, lived in the region.
Appendix 12 � Kenya
10/2017, Uhuru Kenyatta was �elected� with 98% of the vote.
2005, Violent protests in Nairobi against the new Constitution proposed by President Kibaki.
2002, Kibaki became the first non-KANU President, promising to end corruption. In fact, corruption worsened.
1999, President Arap Moi appointed palaeontologist Richard Leakey to head a drive against corruption. Leakey resigned in 2001.
7/8/1998, A lorry bomb exploded outside the US embassy in Kenya.
5/1/1998, Kenya�s President, Daniel Arap Moi, who had ruled since 1978, was sworn in for a fyrther 5-year term.
29/12/1997, Violence marred elections in Kenya. President Arap Moi won a further term, in elections widely seen as flawed.
1991, Pro-democracy protests crushed.
14/10/1978, Daniel Arap Moi became President of Kenya.
1961, The Kenyan Government began purchasing 1,000,000 acres of farmland from the Europeans, at market process.� This was then sold to Kenyan Africans, with loans on easy terms.
7/1/1945, Raila Odinga, Prime Minister of Kenya (2008-2013),was born in Maseno, Kenya
15/8/1930, Tom Mboya, Kenyan trade unionist, activist and statesman, was born (died 1969).
2/9/1924, Daniel Arap Moi, President of Kenya, was born.
16/5/1907. Nairobi was chosen as capital of British East Africa (Kenya) because of its location on the Mombasa-Uganda railway.
1698, Omanis from the Arabian Peninsula now controlled the entire Kenyan coast.
1505, The Portuguese sacked Mombasa. They took over the Swahili trading ports.
1498, The Portuguese under Vasco da Gama visited Mombasa, then a powerful trading city.
1200, Emergence of the Swahili culture in Kenya; a blend of Arab, African and Persian influnces.
Appendix 12a Lesotho
2007, General Strike called by the Opposition.
2004, After a three-year drought, Prime Minister Mosisili appeaqled for food aid.
1998, The New Lesotho Congress for Democracy won the elections. South Africa intervened after a coup attempt in Lesotho.
1996, King King Moshoeshoe II killed in na car crash. King Letsie III acceded.
1994, Return of King Moshoeshoe II.
1993, Military rule ended; free elections.
30/4/1991, In Lesotho, Major-General Justin Lekhanya, military leader, was deposed by Colonel Elias Ramaema.
1990, Exile of King Moshoeshoe II; his son was installed as King Letsie III.
1986, South Africa imposed a border blockade, thereby obtaining the extradition of 60 African National Congress members.
4/10/1966. Lesotho became independent. It had been formerly known as Basutoland, and had been a British Protectorate since 1868.
2/5/1938, King Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho was born.
1884, Lesotho became the British colony of Basutoland.
Appendix 13 - Liberia
4/6/2007, At The Hague, the war crimes trial of Charles Taylor, former Liberian President, began.
23/11/2005, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was elected as first female President of Liberia.
11/8/2003, Charles Taylor stepped down as President of Liberia and fled to Nigeria. He had been accused of war crimes and of backing rebel forces.
4/1999, Civil war restarted in Liberia; conflict continued until 2003.
19/7/1997, Charles Taylor was elected President of Liberia. He was backed by Libya.
6/6/1993. In Liberia, 270 civilians were massacred when rebel forces of the Patriotic National Front attacked a rubber plantation near Monrovia.
10/9/1990, Liberian President Samual Doe died after being captured by rebels. Prince Johnson took over government.
7/6/1990. Civil war continued in Liberia, as rebels from the National Patriotic Front, led by Charles Taylor, advanced on the capital Monrovia. Fughting had started in December 1989.
24/12/1989, Rebel forces led by Charles Taylor, a descendant of the freed American slaves, entered Liberia from Cote D�Ivoire, with the objective of deposing the dictatorial Liberian President Samuel Doe. A civil war began, which ended in 9/1990 with the torture and execution of Doe by another rebel group. Another civil war began, with Taylor now pillaging the country.
12/4/1980, A rebellion led by Master Sergeant Samuel K Doe overthrew the government of William Tolbert, who was assassinated (a descendant of the freed slaves who returned to Liberia). These former slaves, arriving in 1847, had come to oppress the indigenous inhabitants of the country. Doe was an ethnic Krahn, one of these indigenous peoples; Doe became the first indigenous ruler of Liberia. Doe promoted himself to General, then commenced pillaging the country.
23/7/1971, W V S Tubman, President of Liberia, died aged 75. He was succeeded by William Tolbert.
1944, Tubman became President.
29/10/1938, Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, President of Liberia, was born.
1926, The US company, Firestone Tyre and Rubber, established operations in Liberia.
11/12/1900, William D. Coleman, the President of Liberia since 1896, resigned under pressure after failing to extend government control further away from the capial. Coleman, frrom Fayette County, Kentucky, was replaced by Secretary of State Garretson W. Gibson.
29/11/1895, William Tubman, President of Liberia, was born.
26/7/1847, Liberia became the first African colony to attain independence.
22/1/1824, The Ashanti army heavily defeated the British in the Gold Coast.
Appendix 14 � Libya
11/9/2012, Islamists attacked the US diplomatic compound in� Benghazi, Libya. The US Ambassador and three other US diplomats were killed.
17/7/2012, In Libya, the General National Congress came to power. However it could not maintain stability in the country.
7/7/2012, Libya held its first post Ghaddaffi elections; the country was still politically unstable.
22/1/2012, The head of the Transitional Council of Liberation in Libya resigned in protest over the slow pace of improvements in Libya.
20/10/2011, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was killed in Sirte, as National Transitional Council forces took control of the country.
20/8/2011, In Libya, Arab Spring rebels began to take over the capital, Tripoli.
30/4/2011, NATO strikes in Libya killed Gadhafi�s youngest son.
21/3/2011, British MPs voted 557 to 13 in favour of airstrikes against Gaddafi.
19/3/2011, Arab Spring: civil war continued in Libya. NATO intervened to help the rebels.
17/3/2011, The UN Security Council authorised a no-fly zone over Libya. This effectively authorised French and UK airstrikes against Gaddafi.
15/2/2011, Arab Spring protests in Libya.
11/10/2004, The EU lifted its 180-year embargo on arms sales to Libya after the country renounced weapons of mass destruction.
26/2/2004, The US lifted a travel ban on visiting Libya, ending restrictions that had been in force for 26 years.
19/12/2003, Libya announced it would disclose and dismantle its plans to develop nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction; this was a victory for US foreign policy.
2000, Gaddafi proposed a United States of Africa.
5/4/1999, Two Libyans suspected of the bombing of a Pan Am flight over Lockerbie in 1988 were handed over to the Scottish authorities for eventual trial in The Netherlands.� The UN suspended sanctions against Libya.
11/11/1993. The USA imposed new sanctions on Libya for refusing to handover two suspects wanted for the Lockerbie bombing of a Pan Am plane.
15/4/1992, UN sanctions imposed on Libya (authorised by the UN, 31/3/1992) came into effect. These were because of Libya�s refusal to hand over two men suspected of the Lockerbie bombing.
31/8/1989. Libya and Chad signed a peace agreement ending 25 years of war.
5/1/1989, A US aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean shot down two Libyan fighter aircraft.
28/12/1987, Tunisia and Libya restored diplomatic relations.
17/4/1986, In Libya, three British hostages were murdered in revenge for British participation in US air raids on Libya.
8/1/1986. President Reagan froze Libyan assets in the US. Mrs Thatcher refused to join the US in this action.
10/3/1982, The USA embargoed oil imports from Libya, alleging Libyan involvement in terrorist groups.
6/5/1981. The USA expelled all Libyan diplomats.
24/7/1977, Algeria�s President intervemed to arrange a ceasefire between Libya and Egypt.
21/7/1977, A brief border war started between Libya and Egypt,� Bot sides suffered heavy losses of men and equip,ment.
1/7/1977, Deadline set by Ghaddaffi for Egyptian workers to leave Libya, or be arrested, after Ghaddaffi had accused Egypt of trying to provoke a war so it could seize Libyan oilfields.
16/1/1970, Colonel Ghaddafi became Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council in Libya.
14/11/1969. Ghaddaffi nationalised all foreign banks in Libya.
1/9/1969. President Ghaddaffi, 27 years old, ousted King Idris of Libya in a military coup. King Idris was in Greece at the time in hospital.
1/1/1952, Libya became independent. An Italian colony from 1911, when Italy took the territory from the Ottoman Turks, the region had come under British administration in 1942.
24/12/1951. Independent kingdom of Libya was established.� Idris I, aged 61, was the first King.
21/11/1949, The United Nations declared that Tripolitania should form part of the independent state of Libya.
25/10/1938. Libya was incorporated into Italy.
1/1/1935. The Italian colonies of Cyrenaica, Tripoli, and Fezzan were renamed Libya.
14/1/1928. Clashes between Italians and tribesmen in Libya, 100 tribesmen killed.
6/12/1925, Italy agreed the frontier of Libya with Egypt.
Appendix 15 � Madagascar
2006, Ravalomana won elections. In 2007 the electorate approved plans to increase Presidential powers.
2003, Ratsiraka retired; he was given a 10 year sentence of hard labour in absentia for corruption. His former Prime Minister received a 12-year sentence.
2002, Madagascar was divided as opposition leader Marc Ravalomana claimed victory in the 2001 Presidential elections. Mediation by the Organisation of African Unity failed to break the deadlock, as the incumbent President Didier Ratsiraka set up a rival government oin the port city of Tamatave. The High Court ruled in favour of Ravalomana and Ratsiraka went into exile.
1997, Ratsiraka was elected President.
1996, Zafy was impeached.
1993, Zafy�s CFV Party defeated Ratsiraka�s coalition government in free elections.
1991, Opposition Forces Vives (CFV), a coalition of opposition parties, was set up by Albert Zafy.
1977, A �Democratic Republic� was set up, with only one political Party permitted.
1975, Didier Ratsikira, a radical socialist, took power.
26/6/1960, Madagascar became an independent republic.� It had been a French colony since 1896.
14/10/1958, Madagascar gained autonomy.
29/3/1947. Nationalist uprising in Madagascar against the French. Thiusands were killed in riots.
7/5/1942, Madagascar was occupied by British troops to forestall any Japanese invasion.
1898, Viiolent anti-French protests began, lasting until 1906. They were brutally suppressed.
1897, End of the reign of the last monarch of Madagascar, Queen Ranavalona (reigned 1883-97).
6/8/1896. Madagascar was proclaimed a French colony.
30/9/1895. The capital of Madagascar, Tananarive, surrendered to the French.
5/8/1890.� Britain agreed to recognise Madagascar as a French colony and France recognised Zanzibar as a British protectorate. France gave up claims to the lower Niger and retained the desert territories of the Sahara.
13/6/1883, The French continued fighting in Madagascar.� Tamatave was bombarded and French subjects expelled from the capital.
16/5/1883, The French commenced hostilities in Madagascar, bombarding Majunga.
1827, King Radama I, Hova King of Madagascar, died after an 18-year reign during which British influence had been encouraged. He was succeeded by Queen Ranavaloana I, who reigned foir 33 years and was hostile to both British and French influence and missionaries
1686, France formally annexed Madagascar.
10/6/1660, Etienne de Flacourt, French colonial Governor of Madagascar, died (born 1607).
1500, Portuguese explorer Diego Dias visited Madagascar.
Appendix 16 � Malawi
2004, Bingu wa Mutharika won the Presidency.
2002, Severe cholera epidemic and food shortages.
1999, Muluzi was re-elected Presaident. However in 2006 he was arrested on corruption charges.
1994, Bakili Muluzi�s opposition United Front won the first democratic elections.
1993, One-Party rule ended after referendum.
1992, Anti-Government riots, as illegal opposition groups united. Western aid suspended over Human Rights violations.
1986, Over the next three years (to 1989), nearly one million refugees entered Malawi from Mozambique.
6/7/1971, Dr Hastings Banda was sworn in as President of Malawi for life, having established a One-Party State.
6/7/1964. Malawi, formerly Nyasaland, became independent. �It had been a British Protectorate since 1891. The Scottish explorer David Livingstone named the lake, Lake Nyasa, after being told that was its name by the locals; however nyasa meant �mass of waters�. So Lake Nyasa meant �lake-lake�. On independence the name Malawi was chosen, from the former 16th century Kingdom of Maravi, believed to have ruled over the Zambesi river as far as Mombasa.
1/2/1963, Nyasaland became independent, later to be called Malawi.
3/3/1959, In Nyasaland (Malawi) Hastings Banda and other leaders of the Nyasaland African Congress were arrested.
20/2/1959, Disturbances in the British territory of Nyasaland (now Malawi).
1/8/1953, Nyasaland (now Malawi) federated with Southern and Northern Rhodesia to form� the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. This federation lasted until 1963.
1907, Hastings Kumuzu Banda, first President of independent Malawi in 1964, was born in what was then the British Protectorate of Nyasaland.
1891, The British Protectorate of Nyasaland was set up, after some years of Scottish missionary activity.
Appendix 17 � Mauritania
2005, President Taya was overthrown. This was followed by free elections.
1991, Amnesty for political prisoners.
1989, Border clashes with Senegal over grazing rights. The Arab dominated Mauritanian Government expelled many Africans into Senegal.
1985, Mauritania normalised relations with Morocco.
1984, Taya seized power in a coup, and won subsequent elections in 1993.
1981, Diplomatic relations with Morocco were broken.
1979, Peace was achieved with the Polisario guerrillas fighting for control over neighbouring Western Sahara.
28/11/1960, Mauritania became fully independent from France.
1896, Mauritania was colonised by France.
1445, The Portuguese established a fort and slave market in Arguin Bay.
Appendix 18 � Mauritius
1992, Mauritius became a Republic.
1968, Mauritius gained independence from Britain.
1839, The last slaves were freed on Mauritius; landowners received over �2 million compensation for this. Indians were imported as a replacement labour force.
1814, Britain took control of Mauritiu under the Treaty of Paris. During the Anglo-French conflict of the early 1800s, the French had used Mauritius as a base to harass British shipping in the Indian Ocean.
1722, French settlers colonised Mauritius.
1598, Dutch Admiral Wijbrand von Warwijk discovered Mauritius. He named it after Count Maurice of Nassau. The Dutch built a fort at Grand Port, and imported some convicts and slaves, but made no permanent civilian settlmenet, and abandoned the island in 1710.
1505, Mascarenhas, Portuguese explorer, discovered Mauritius. It was then uninhabited.
Appendix 19 � Mozambique 8-20
10/2014, Renamo signed a truce with the Mozamique Government.
2007, Chinese President, Hu Jintao, visited and promised major Chinese investment.
2004, Armando Guebuza won the Presidential elections for Frelimo.
2000, Mozambique hit hy severe flooding, followed by a major drought in 2002.
1995, Mozambique joined the Commonwealth, becoming the only member not to be a former Brirtish colony.
1994, Frelimo won democratic elections.
4/10/1992, Chissano signed the Rome Peace Agreement with Renamo. This ended the Mozambique conflict.
1990, Renamo lost support from South Africa as apartheid ended there.
1989, Frelimo dropped its Marxist-Leninist stance and supported multi-party elections and the free market. War and malnutrition claimed one million lives.
3/11/1986, President Machel died in a suspicious plane crash in South Africa.� Joaquim Chissano was elected President of Mozambique.
1984, The Nkomati Accord. South Africa agreed to cease funding rename if Mozambique halted aid to the ANC. However fighting continued.
1982, Zimbabwean troops arrived in Mozambique to help defend the important Mutare-Beira rail link.
23/11/1977, Rhodesian troops entered Mozambique and killed over 1,000 alleged guerrillas.
1976, Renamo (Resistencia Nacional Mozambicana) was set up within Mozambique with the help of Rhodesia and later with South African assistance also. It was an armed resistance movement against the Frelimo Government.
3/3/1976, The newly-independent country of Mozambique closed its border with Rhodesia, as a protest against the illegal regime there.
25/6/1975. Mozambique became independent from Portugal.� This followed a ten-year war against Portuguese colonial rule.
20/9/1974, Friday (+10,727) A Nationalist government took control in Mozambique, headed by Jacques Chissano.
1/1970, Construction work began on the Cabora Bassa dam, Zambesi River, Mozambique.
1962, Frelimo, the Frente de Libertacao de Mocambique, was founded in Dar es Salaam. Initially led by Eduardo Mondlane, until his assassination, it fought for the independence of Mozambique from the Portuguese. When independence was achieved in 1975, the Marxist-Leninist Frelimo became the only legal party in Mozambique. A civil war began with the violent dissident group Renamo, which by the end of the 1990s had claimed over 100,000 lives and created one million refugees. Frelimo and Renamo siged a peace treaty in 1992, and Renamo was recognised as a legitimate political party. Frelimo won Mozambique�s first multiparty elections in 1994.
1951, Mozambique was constituted an overseas department of Portugal. Lisbon introduced settlement schemes.
1894, The Mapondera Movement began a resistance against Portuguese taxation, led by Kadungire Mapondera. Regarded as a hero by the local workers, he was captured and executed in 1904.
1842, Poretugal nominally outlawed the slave trade in Mozambique, but it went on anyway for decades afterwards.
1684, The Mwene Matapa Kingdom recognised Portuguese sovereignty.
1505, Mozambique became a Portuguese colony
1498, Vasco da Gama arrived in Mozambique.
Ca.1000, Shona Empire flourished between the Limpopo and Zambezi Rivers.
Ca. 200 CE, Bantu peoples moved into what is now Mozambique, from central-west Africa.
Appendix 21� -Niger.
18/2/2010, The President of Niger was overthrown in a military coup.
2005, A planned ceremony to free 5,000 slaves was cancelled as the Government denied the existence of slavery. There were also protests at steep rises in the costs of essential foodstuffs.
2004, Mamadou Tandja won a second Presidential term.
2001, Niger banned hunting to preserve its wildlife population, including lions, giraffes and hippopotamuses.
9/4/1999, The President of Niger, Ibrahim Bare Mainassara, was assassinated by his own guards. His Guard Commander, Major Douad Malam Wanke, took power.
24/5/1995, All Tuareg groups had now signed a peace deal with the Niger Government, and an amnesty was granted with imprisoned Tuaregs being released.
9/10/1994, The main Tuareg opposition organisation, the Co-ordination of Armed Resistance (CRA) signed a peace deal with the Niger Government.
1996, A military coup was followed by civilian multi-Party elections which were won by Mamadou Tandja.
1990, A Tuareg rebellion began, lasting until 1995.
1987, Kountche died. General Ali Saibou oversaw a transition to civilian democracy.
1984, The River Niger dried up due to drought. Niger�s uranium boom ended.
1974, Military coup, led by General Seyu Kountche.
1973, Severe drought killed 60% of Niger�s livestock.
1968, France opened uranium mines in Niger.
3/8/1960, Niger became independent from France. Diori became President.
1959, The radical Sawaba Party, led by Djibo Bakary, was banned.
1916-17, Tureg rebellion; the Tuareg occupied Agadez and the Air Mountains.
1883 � 1904, France overcame the Islamic Sokoto Empire and established control over Chad. Agadez was occupied against Tuareg resistance.
1300s, Agadez became a major centre of trans-Saharan trade. The Songhai and Mali Empires were powerful at this time.
Appendix 22 � Rwanda
19/11/2008, Germany extradited Rose Kabuye to France, where she faced charges over the killing of a former Rwandan President, Juvenal Habyarimana.� This incident sparked the 1994 Rwandan genocide.
2005, 36,000 prisoners who had confessed to genocide were released.
3/12/2003, Two media executives and a journalist were convicted of genocide by the International Tribunal for Rwanda, after inciting the murder of ethnic Tutsis in 1994.
2000, Paul Kagame was elected President; he attempted to rebuild national unity bwteeen Hutus and Tutsis.
1/5/1998, The former Rwandan Prime Minister, Jean Kambanda, pleaded guilty at The Hague to six counts of genocide, at the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
1988, Large numbers of refugees arrived in Rwanda from Burundi.
1980, Civilian rule returned to Rwanda.
1973, Kayibanda was ousted in a military coup.
1972, Ethnic conflict flared up in Rwanda.
1963, Tutsis attempted to seize power, sparking long-lasting ethnic conflict with the Hutus.
1/7/1962. Rwanda and Burundi became independent. Rwanda was under a Hutu Government.� They had formerly been part of the Belgian administration of Ruanda-Urundi.
8/3/1937, Juvenal Habyarimana, President of Rwanda, was born.
1922, Belgium took over administration of Rwanda from Germany.
1897, The indigenous African kingdom of Rwanda was absorbed into German East Africa.
1000, Hutu agriculturalists arrived in what is now Rwanda, followed by Tutsi cattle herders.
Appendix 23 � Sao Tome
2001, Fradique de Menezes won the Presidency and promised greater co-operation with Parliament; he survived an attempted coup in 2003.
1995, Principe was granted autonomy.
12/7/1975, Sao Tome and Principe declared independence from Portugal, as a one-Party Marxist State. The plantations were nationalised.
Appendix 24 � Senegal & Gambia
2017, In The Gambia, President Yahya Jammeh fled the country after losing an election to Adama Jarrow.
1996, Yahya Jammeh won Presidentual elections; however three major Parties were excluded from these elections.
1994, In The Gambia, Yahya Jammeh, military officer, seized power in a coup. Jawara was ousted from power.
22/2/1992, The Pope visited Goree Island, near Dakar, Senegal, to commemorate the �forgotten holocaust� of the estimated 15 million slaves who passed through this way on route to slavery in the Americas.
18/7/1991, Senegal settled a border dispute with Mauritania, see 4/1989.
4/1989, In violent border clashes between Senegal and Mauritania, 450 had died. Over 50,000 people, from both sides, were repatriated. The dispute was sparked by the killing of two Senegalese peasans, allegedly by Mauritanian border guards.
1988, Diouf was decisively re-elected.
1983, Diouf was re-elected. The post of Prime Minister was abpolished.
1/2/1982 Senegal and Gambia formed a loose federation. This federation dissolved in 1989.
1981, Full multi-Party democracy was established in Senegal.
1981, Senegalese troops assisted The Gambia to crush an army revolt.
1974, Multiparty politics returned to Senegal.
24/4/1970, After a national referendum, Gambia, which had been a British colony since 1843, became a Republic within the Commonwealth. Jawara was the President.
1966, Senegal became a one-Party State, under the Senegalese Progressive Union Party, remaining so until 1974.
18/2/1965. The Gambia, the smallest country in Africa, became an independent monarchy. It had been a British colony since 1843.
22/8/1960. Senegal seceded from Mali.
20/8/1960, Senegal became independent, from France.
4/4/1960, Senegal became independent.
1959, in The Gambia, Dawda Jawara founded the People�s Progressive Party.
1904, Dakar became capital of French West Africa.
1895, Senegal became part of French West Africa.
1888, The Gambia became a British colony.
20/4/1857, The west African Muslim leader Al Hajj Uman laid siege to the French fort at Medine, Senegal.
1816, Britain acquired the site of Bathurst (now Banjul) after a contest for control with other European powers.
1661, Britain took control of The Gambia territory, by occupying Fort James at the mouth of the River Gambia.
1626, French settlement of Senegal.
1616, The Dutch occupied Goree Island. Britain captured James Island.
1444, The Portugiese established trading posts in the region, followed by the Dutch and French.
1100, The region was part of the Mali Empire, until ca. 1300.
1000s, Rise of the Jolof Empire.
Appendix 25 � Seychelles
2004, James Michel, former Vice President to Rene, assumed the Presidency.
2001, The Opposition Seychelles National Party made gains in legislative elections.
1993, Democratic elections held for the first time since 1976. Rene remained President, for the Seyshelles People�s Progressive Front.
1979, One Party socialist rule was established.
1977, Rene took power in a coup.
18/6/1976, Britain granted independence to the Seychelles.
1971, Seychelles International Airport opened.
1814, France ceded the Seychelles to Britain by the Treaty of Paris. De Quincy, having anglicised his name, remained as Governor. The British anglicised the islands� name to The Seychelles.
1794, Britain militarily took control of the Seychelles from France. The French commander, Jean Baptiste Queau de Quinssy, surrendered to the British. However the British did not actually occupy the islands and he was left de facto in charge.
1770, France colonised the Seychelles, at that time uninhabited, principally to deny the British a port on the way to India. They also exploited the timber reserves, and introduced slavery.
1756, France, to more formally claim the Seychelles, dispatched Captain Corneille Nicolas Morphey to claim them. He placed a stone on the islands carved with the Arms of France. He named the islands after the Finance Minister of Louis XV, Moreau des Sechelles.
1726, Captain Picault returned to the Seychelles to explore and map them, and named the main island Mahe after the Governor of Mauritius, Mahe de Labourdonnais.
1724, Captain Picault from France became the first European to land on the Seychelles. The islands were previously known to Arab and early Portuguese explorers. He took some tortoises and coconuts back to Mauritius,
Appendix 26 � Sierra Leone
18/1/2002, The civil war in Sierra Leone ended. Ahmad Kabba of the Sierra Leone People�s Party won elections.
1/5/2000, Britain sent 700 Para troops to Sierra Leone to restore order after rebel forces attacked UN peacekeepers. Britain (as the former colonial power) sent soldiers to restore order in the country, ending a decade of civil war. Sankoh was charged with war crimes, but died of a stroke before he could be tried.
2/1999, The Revolutionary United Front attacked the capital, Freetown. A third of the city was destroyed, and 6,000 people massacred.
13/2/1998, In Sierra Leone a Nigerian-led force of West African peacekeepers overthrew the military government of Major Johnny Paul Koroma and reinstated President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah.
25/5/1997, In Sierra Leone, the civilian Government of Ahmed Kebbah was ousted in a coup. Major Johnny Paul Koroma replaced him. Other African States warned they may use force to reinstate civilian rule.
30/11/1996, In Sierra Leone, Government and rebel forces signed a peace agreement, ending a 5-year civil war.
29/4/1992, The autocratic Siaka Stevens regime in Sierra Leone was overthrown, by a military group led by Captain Valentine Strasser.
23/3/1991, Foday Sankoh, supported by Charles Taylor of Liberia, created the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), an armed group which then took over the diamond-rich areas of the country. Sankoh�s RUF also dismembered some 10,000 children, and forced others as young as 10 into military service. The RUF �soldiers� were not paid, but expected to �pay themselves� from looting. By 2000, the conflict had killed some 100,000 to 200,000 people, from a population of 4.5 million.
Sierra Leone Civil war began
1977, Sierra Leone became a Single-Party State.
27/4/1961. Sierra Leone became independent, and joined the Commonwealth.
1896, Britain declared a Protectorate over Sierra Leone.
11/3/1792, Hundreds of freed African slaves gathered beneath a 300-year-old cotton tree to celebrate the founding of Freetown, Sierra Leone. The tree had begun growing about the time slave shipments first began out of Africa.
1787, British administration of the coastal area around Freetown began.
1462, Portuguese sailor Pedro da Cinta visited the area.
1100s, Temnes settlement in the region.
Appendix 27 � Somalia
25/4/2013, The UK reopened its embassy in Somalia, closed for 25 years.
1960, Somalia became independent,
1/4/1950, Italy took over the Somaliland Trusteeship from Britain.
11/1/1904, British troops massacred 1,000 rebels in Somaliland, who were under the command of the �Mad Mullah�
4/1/1903, British forces under General Manning landed at Obbia to attack the army of Mohammed bin Abdullah, the so-called �Mad Mullah�.
28/5/1902. British marched against the 'Mad Mullah' in East Africa.
Appendix 28a � Swaziland
2002, Mass pro-democracy protests.
1986, Makhosetive was crowned as King Mswati III, aged 18.
1982, King Sobhuza died. The Queen Mother became Regent for Prince Makhosetive. Power struggle between modernists and traditionalists.
1973, King Sobhuza banned all political activity and repealed the Constitution.
6/9/1968. Swaziland became independent from Britain.
1902, Britain established a protectorate over Swaziland.
Appendix 29 � Tanzania
2015, John Magufuli elected President, he began to reverse some democratic reforms of the past decade.
2005, Jakaya Kikwete was elected President.
7/8/1998, A lorry bomb exploded outside the US embassy in Tanzania.
1995, Banjamin Mkopa was elected President. First free elections for nearly 30 years.
27/10/1985, Julius Nyerere retired as President of Tanzania after 24 years. He was succeeded by Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Mwinyi began to relax his predecessor�s Socialist policies.
29/1/1967, President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania issued the Arusha Declaration. It set out principles of �African Socialism� which proved to be politically popular but economically disastrous.
29/10/1964, The name of Tanzania was officially adopted, for the union this day of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
26/4/1964. Tanganyika and Zanzibar united as Tanzania. Julius Nyerere was the first President.
12/1/1964, Zanzibar was proclaimed a Socialist Republic. The Arab Sultan of Zanzibar was banished from the country, and an African-led government took control.
10/12/1963. Zanzibar became independent.� It had been a British Protectorate since 1890.
9/12/1962, Tanzania became a Republic within the Commonwealth, with Julius Nyerere as first President.
2/11/1962, Tangynika elected Nyerere as president.
9/12/1961, Tangynika became independent. See 9/12/1962.
1/9/1960. Nyerere became Tangynika's first Prime Minister.
8/5/1925, Ali Hassan Mwinyi, President of Tanzania, was born.
1919, After World War One, Britain took over the Tangynika colony from Germany.
13/6/1916, Jan Smuts captured Wilthemstal in German East Africa (now Tanzania).
1/7/1913. Zanzibar was incorporated into British East Africa.
12/1898, German colonisers under Wissman stormed the rebel port of Bagamoyo, where Bushiri bin Salim had incited, in 1888, an uprising of coastal Arab slave traders against the British and Germans. Bushiri was captured and hanged, whilst the British and Germans co-operated in emnforcing a coastal blockade to prevent the export of slaves and import of arms to the rebels.
7/11/1890, Zanzibar became a German Protectorate.
17/2/1885, Germany established a protectorate over the Tanganyika coast.
1873, The USA forced the Sultan of Zanzibar to close the slave market.
1500, Portuguese traders took over Swahili ports along the coast.
1200, A distinct Swahili culture, with Arab, African and Persian influences, was flourishing.
850, Arab merchants established trading posts at Kilwa, whilst Persian merchants settled at Zanzibar and Pemba.
Appendix 29a � Togo
5/2/2005, Gnassingbe Eyadema, President of Togo, died (born 26/12/1935). He was replaced by his son, Faure, in elections widely seen as rigged.
1967, Gnassinghe Eyadema seized power in a coup, and went on to become Africa�s longest-serving ruler by the time of his death. His rule was oppressive and brutal.
27/4/1960. Togo became independent.� The French sector became the new country of Togo; the British sector joined with Ghana.
26/12/1935, Gnassingbe Eyadema, President of Togo, was born (died 5/2/2005).
1919, Togo was taken from Germany, and divided between Britain and France.
23/7/1897, Germany and France agreed the border between their colonies of Togo and Dahomey (now Benin).
5/7/1884, The German Consulate at Tunis formally proclaimed that Togo was a German protectorate.
Appendix 30 - Tunisia
26/6/2015, Islamist gunmen stormed a tourist beach at Sousse, Tunisia, shooting dead 38 holidaymakers. The Tunisian holiday industry subsequently collapsed. Simultaneous terrorist attacks took place in France and Kuwait.
1987, Zine el Abidine Ben Ali (born 1936) ousted President Bourguiba of Tunisia and became President himself. Bourguiba went into retirement.
1974, Bourguiba was elected President for life by the� National Assembly.
1964, Collectivisation of agriculture was begun; however this policy was abandoned in 1969.
22/7/1961, The UN ordered a ceasefire in Tunisia, after clashes between Tunisians and French.
17/2/1958, France and Tunisia agreed to mediation by the UK and USA.
11/2/1958, Tunisia banned French warships from using its port at Bizerta.
8/2/1958, France bombed the Tunisian town of Sakiet Sidi Youssef as a reprisal for alleged Tunisian involvement on a French patrol in Algeria near the Tunisian frontier on 11/1/1958. Tunisia confined all French troops in the country to barracks.
25/7/1957, Tunisia abolished the monarchy and became a republic.� Habib Bourguiba was elected as the first President.
1574, Tunisia became a province of the Ottoman Empire.
1/6/1535, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, captured Tunis.
1230, Foundation of the Nafsid Dynasty. Tunis became the capital.
698, Arab invaders seized Carthage, and founded a new city called Tunis.
534, Byzantine rule re-established in North Africa.
439, The Vandals seized Carthage, ending Roman rule there.
Appendix 32 � Western Sahara
6/8/2016, The newly-elected leader of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), or Western Sahara, President Brahim Gali, vowed to continue the fight for liberation from Moroccan occupation.
10/4/1979, Cambodia recognised the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
14/4/1976, Spain withdrew the last of its troops from the Spanish Sahara. This allowed Morocco to annex the phosphate-rich country.
27/2/1976, The Western Sahara declared its independence. Spain gave up its territories in the Sahara but retained the enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta.
14/11/1975, Spain pulled out of the Western Sahara under the Madrid Accord. However this left the territory vulnerable to occupation by Morocco.
10/5/1973, The Polisario was founded by radical students at Ain Bentili. Its aim was to free the Western Sahara from Spanish, then Moroccan, control.
1884, Spain colonised Rio de Oro (Western Sahara).
Appendix 33 � Zambia
2001, Levy Mwanasawa of the MMD won Presidential elections.
31/10/1991, President Kaunda of Zambia was heavily defeated in multi-party elections. Frederick Chiluba won for the MMD.
1972, UNIP one party rule.
24/10/1964. Northern Rhodesia became the independent Republic of Zambia.� Kenneth Kaunda was the first President.� This ended 75 years of British rule.
11/8/1964, A Christian-sectarian based rebellion in Zambia, the Lumpa Church, led by Alice Lenshina ended.
22/1/1964, Kenneth Kaunda, leader of the United National Independence Party, became the first President of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia).
18/5/1960. The Queen Mother opened the Kariba dam on the Zambesi River.
6/1959, The wall of the Kariba Dam (Zambia-Zimbabwe border) was completed.
6/11/1956. Work began on the Kariba High Dam on the River Zambesi, between Zambia and Zimbabwe. See 18/5/1960.
1924, Zambia became a British protectorate.
28/4/1924, Kenneth Kaunda, Zambia�s first President, was born in Lubwa.
1910, The city of Lubumbashi was founded, originally called Elizabethville, in the copper mining area of Shaba, Zambia.
1905, The city of Lusaka was founded.