Historical events from 2137 BCE to 31 December 1199

Page last modified 5/12/2019


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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm


For dates from 1/1/1200 click here


27/5/1199, Thursday (-272,445) (Britain, France) King John became King of England, also the Angevin lands in France.

8/5/1199, Saturday (-272,464)

18/4/1199, Sunday (-272,484) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1199. Tuesday (-272,496) Richard I, Richard Lionheart, died, killed by an arrow in battle whilst besieging Chaluz Castle.

10/12/1198, (Islam) Abu al Walid, also known as Averroes, Arab philosopher, was born in Marrakesh, Morocco.

9/6/1198, Tuesday (-272,797) Otto of Brunswick was crowned King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, Otto IV.

8/5/1198, Friday (-272,829)

29/3/1198, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/1/1198. (1) Pope Celestine III died.

(2) On his election as Pope, Innocent III called for a new Crusade.

28/9/1197, The Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI died.

8/5/1197, Thursday (-273,194)

6/4/1197, Sunday (-273,226)

Tuesday (-273,273)

8/5/1196, Wednesday (-273,559)

21/4/1196, Sunday (-273,576) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1195, Monday (-273,925)

2/4/1195, Sunday (-273,961) Easter Sunday.

26/12/1194, (Germany) Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, was born at Iesi, Italy.

Tuesday (-274,274)

8/5/1194, Sunday (-274,290)

10/4/1194, Sunday (-274,318) Easter Sunday.

26/3/1194, Richard captured Nottingham Castle – the cause of his brother, John was lost.

8/5/1193, Saturday (-274,655)

8/4/1193, Thursday (-274,685)

28/3/1193, Sunday (-274,696) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1193. Thursday (-274,720) Saladdin, Sultan of Egypt, died. See 2/11/1192.

2/11/1192. Peace was concluded between Richard I (Lionheart) of England and Saladdin of Jerusalem (see 2/12/1187). The Crusades never achieved their objective of liberating the Holy Land from the Muslims but because they caused the death of so many noblemen the system of serfdom and landholding in Europe was gradually dismantled. Feudalism gradually ended over the period from 1300 to the Thirty Year’s War, 1618-48.

8/5/1192, Friday (-275,020)

5/4/1192, Sunday (-275,053) Easter Sunday.

6/9/1191. Richard I defeated the Saracens at the Battle of Arsouf.

Tuesday (-275,275)

4/7/1191. The Crusaders under Richard I captured Acre from Saladdin, during the Third Crusade.

8/5/1191, Wednesday (-275,386)

14/4/1191, Sunday (-275,410) Easter Sunday

8/2/1191, (-) Yaroslav II, Grand Prince of Vladimir, was born.

4/7/1190, (-275,704) Richard I set out on a Crusade, leaving his younger brother John in Europe.

10/6/1190. (-275,728) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) drowned in a river on his way to the Holy Land in the Third Crusade.

8/5/1190. Tuesday (-275,751) After some six months of increasing persecution, 500 Jews were massacred in York after they had taken refuge in the Castle there. The Jews were killed by groups of young men after a three day siege before these men were due to depart on a Crusade, backed by people who were deeply in debt to Jewish moneylenders. King Richard I, crowned on 2/9/189, showed his dislike of the Jews  by forbidding any to attend his coronation feast, and anti-Semitism was on the rise in England from then.

25/3/1190, Sunday (-275,795) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1190, Thursday (-275,812)

8/1/1190, (-275,871)

8/11/1189, (-275,932)

3/9/1189. (-275,998) Richard the Lionheart (Richard I) was crowned King at Westminster, after his father Henry II, died. His first act was to free his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine from the Tower of London where King Henry II imprisoned her 16 years earlier for supporting their sons, Richard and John, in a rebellion against Henry. Richard was planning a Third Crusade.

13/8/1189, (-276, 019) Richard the Lionheart arrived in England, to a hero’s welcome.

6/7/1189, (-276,057) King Henry II, King of England, died at Chinon, succeeded by his third son, Richard I (Lionheart).

8/5/1189, Monday (-276,116)

9/4/1189, Sunday (-276,145) Easter Sunday.

21/1/1189. Henry II of England, with Philip Augustus and Frederick Barbarossa, assembled troops for a third Crusade.

Tuesday (-276,276)

8/5/1188, Sunday (-276,481)

17/4/1188, Sunday (-276,502) Easter Sunday.

17/12/1187, Pope Gregory VIII died.

2/12/1187. Jerusalem surrendered to Saladin (see 2/11/1192). Saladin was born in 1138, in Tikrit (Saddam Hussein’s native town) of Kurdish parents and  was educated in Syria. In 1164 he accompanies his uncle on a military campaign in Egypt. The aim was to substitute Sunni for Shia Islam there, and also to drive the Crusader Franks out of the Levant. The local Syrian leader died in 1174 and Saladin defeated his 11 year old successor and seized power. The Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad gave Saladin power over all the lands from Morocco to Syria; Saladin later extended his rule into Mesopotamia. Saladin also subdued the Assassins, a Muslim sect that had twice tried to kill him. He now attacked the Crusaders, and on 1 July 1187 captured Tiberias after a six day siege.

After the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, the Franks were almost evicted from the region, holding on only at Antioch, Tripoli, and Tyre. European states set aside their differences in panic and three rulers; Richard I of England, Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, and Philip Augustus of France, set out on a third Crusade. The Crusaders marched on Muslim-held Acre, Saladin arrived, and there ensued a long battle, control swinging back and forth. After two years, Acre fell to the Crusaders. Peace negotiations began, (see 2/11/1192), the end result being a marriage of his daughter with Saladin’s brother, Al-Malik, who was knighted by Richard. The peace gave the coast to the Europeans and the interior to the Muslims. In February 1188 Saladin fell ill with a fever and died 12 days later aged 55.

5/9/1187, Louis XIII, King of France, was born.

4/7/1187, (Christian, Islam) The Battle of the Horns of Hattin (an extinct volcano crowned with two rocky outcrops). Saladin’s 20,000 strong army defeated Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem. Guy de Lusignan had made a tactical error in attempting to relieve Saladin’s siege of Tiberias. Thirst drove Lusignan’s troops to drink at a nearby lake, where Saladin then attacked them.

12/11/1187, Tuesday (-276,843)

8/5/1187, Friday (-276,847)

1/5/1187, Friday (-276,854) Battle of Cresson: Saladin defeated the Crusaders.

1/4/1187, Wednesday (-276,884)

29/3/1187, Sunday (-276,887) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1186, Thursday (-277,212)

Tuesday (-277,277)

13/4/1186, Sunday (-277,237) Easter Sunday

8/5/1185, Wednesday (-277,577)

21/4/1185, Sunday (-277,594) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1184, Tuesday (-277,942)

8/4/1184, Sunday (-277,972)

1/4/1184, Sunday (-277,979) Easter Sunday

11/6/1183, Saturday (-278,274) Richard I’s elder brother died. Richard became heir to the English throne, also the Angevin lands, Normandy and Aquitaine.

Tuesday (-278,278)

8/5/1183, Sunday (278,308)

17/4/1183, Sunday (-278,329) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1182, Saturday (-278,673)

28/3/1182, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1181, Friday (-279,038)

5/4/1181, Sunday (-279,071) Easter Sunday.

18/9/1180, Louis VII, King of France, died.

Tuesday (-279,279)

8/5/1180, Thursday (-279,403)

20/4/1180, Sunday (-279,421) Easter Sunday.

1/11/1179, Louis VII, in declining health, had his son crowned as King of the Franks, Phillip II. In 1190 Phillip II became the first monarch to style himself ‘King of France’.

8/5/1179, Tuesday (-279,769)

8/4/1179, Sunday (-279,799)

1/4/1179, Sunday (-279,806) Easter Sunday

18/6/1178, A violent explosion was seen on the face of the Moon. Later, astronomers calculated this may have been the meteor that created the crater known as Giordano Bruno.

9/5/1178, Tuesday (-280,133)

9/4/1178, Sunday (-280,162) Easter Sunday.

29/12/1177, (Christian, Spain) The Order of Alcantara (founded 1156 as the Order of Saint Julian) received Papal approval. It was a military order of crusading knights, and played a part in the Reconquista of Spain from the Muslims.

Tuesday (-280,280)

24/7/1177, (Italy) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa effected a reconciliation with Pope Alexander III at Venice.

8/5/1177, Sunday (-280,499)

24/4/1177, Sunday (-280,513) Easter Sunday.

17/9/1176, Emperor Manuel of Byzantium was defeated by the Muslims, in the Crusades.  Without Byzantium the Crusader hold on Palestine was untenable.

29/5/1176, The Battle of Legnano; Italian city-states gained autonomy from the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa. The Lombard League of Italian towns, supported by Pope Alexander III, objected to Barbarossa’s interference in their internal affairs. Barbarossa had laid waste to Milan, but was defeated at Legnano, north-west of Milan, and admitted defeat.

8/5/1176, Saturday (-280,864)

4/4/1176, Sunday (-280,898) Easter Sunday.

6/10/1175, (Ireland) At a Council in Windsor, King Henry II and Roderick O’Connor, King of Connaught, signed the Treaty of Windsor whereby O’Connor continued to rule Connaught but paid an annual tribute to Henry.

29/6/1175, Sunday (-281,178) King Henry II held a Council at Gloucester, at which oaths of loyalty were obtained from the Welsh princes.

8/5/1175, Thursday (-281,230)

13/4/1175, Sunday (-281,255) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-281,281)

5/9/1174, Fire gutted the Choir of Canterbury Cathedral. It was rebuilt using the pointed arch, the first known use of this type of arch in England.

8/5/1174, Wednesday (-281,595)

24/3/1174,  Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/8/1173, The construction of what is now known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa began.

8/5/1173, Tuesday (-281,960)

8/4/1173, Sunday (-281,990) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-282,282)

8/5/1172, Monday (-282,325)

16/4/1172, Sunday (-282,347) Easter Sunday.

17/10/1171, King Henry landed near Waterford, Ireland.  Ireland submitted peacefully to English rule.

8/5/1171, Saturday (-282,691)

28/3/1171, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

29/12/1170. The murder of Thomas Becket, 40th Archbishop of Canterbury, by four knights in his own Cathedral. The knights (Reginald Fitzurse, William de Tracy, Hugh de Merville, and Richard de Breton) believed they were acting on King Henry II’s orders. Becket, far from being the docile cleric Henry believed him to be on appointing him as Archbishop of Canterbury, was a firm upholder of ecclesiastical privileges. Henry, furious at Becket’s excommunication of the six bishops who had assisted the Archbishop of York at the crowning of Henry II’s son in Westminster Abbey, uttered the fatal cry. “Who will rid me of this turbulent priest”. The four knights gave Henry his answer.

2/12/1170, Thomas Beckett returned to Canterbury from his voluntary exile. He had left England on 2/11/1164.

14/6/1170, (-283,019) King Henry II’s son was crowned, not as was custom by the Archbishop of Canterbury but by the Archbishop of York. This was a major snub to Thomas Beckett, and against Papal instructions. Henry then made verbal reconciliation with Beckett, who, impatient to return to England, did so without proper guarantees of safety.

8/5/1170, Friday (-283,056)

5/4/1170, Sunday (-283,089) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-283,283)

8/5/1169, Thursday (-283,421)

20/4/1169, Sunday (-283,439) Easter Sunday.

4/2/1169, An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of around 7 struck the eastern coast of Sicily, causing an estimated 15,000 deaths.

8/5/1168, Wednesday (-283,786)

8/4/1168, Monday (-283,816)

31/3/1168, Sunday (-283,824) Easter Sunday.

24/12/1167, King John, sixth and youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was born in Oxford.

8/5/1167, Monday (-284,152)

27/4/1167, Thursday (-284,163) Italians from the cities of Bergamo, Brescia, Cremona, Mantua, Treviso and Verona arrived at the ruins of Milan to rebuild it. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa had imposed a non-native ruler, or Podesta, upon it, as he had upon other Italian cities he controlled, following the surrender of Milan to him after his siege of it in 1158. The taxes imposed upon Milan by the Podesta were heavy and they revolted. In 1162 Frederick returned to Milan and this time razed it to the ground, dispersing its inhabitants into the countryside. Although Frederick went on to capture Rome in 1167, his army was decimated by malaria and he had to return to Germany for reinforcements. Facing domestic issues in Germany he could not return south and deal with this act of defiance in rebuilding Milan. He was unable to re-enter Italy until 1174, by which time the Lombard League had consolidated and gained control of the central and eastern Alpine passes. In 1168 the Lombards founded a new city, called Alessandria in honour of Pope Alexander II, to defend the western frontier. Alessandria withstood a 6-month siege by Frederick (1174-5) and on 29/5/1176 Frederick was decisively defeated at Legnano.

9/4/1167, Sunday (-284,181) Easter Sunday.

28/1/1167, (Jewish) Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra, Jewish scholar, born in Toledo, Spain, ca. 1092, died.

29/7/1166, (-) Henry II, Count of Champagne, was born.

Tuesday (-284,284)

8/5/1166, Sunday (-284,517)

24/4/1166, Sunday (-284,531) Easter Sunday.

9/12/1165, Malcolm IV, King of Scotland, died aged 24. He was succeeded by his 22-year-old brother, William the Lion, who ruled until 1214.

21/8/1165, Philip Augustus, King of France, was born.

8/5/1165, Saturday (-284,882)

4/4/1165, Sunday (-284,916) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1164, Friday (-285,247)

12/4/1164, Sunday (-285,273) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-285,285)

8/5/1163, Wednesday (-285,613)

24/3/1163,  Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

3/6/1162, Thomas Becket was consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury.

8/5/1162, Tuesday (-285,978)

8/4/1162, Sunday (-286,008) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-286,286)

8/5/1161, Monday (-286,343)

16/4/1161, Sunday (-286,365) Easter Sunday.

7/2/1161, (-) The title ‘Confessor’ was conferred upon King Edward, by Papal Bull. It signified his adherence to religious principles in the face of temptation.

18/4/1161, (-286,363) Theobald of Bec, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

8/5/1160, (-286,708)

27/3/1160, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

1/9/1159. Death of Pope Adrian IV, elected Pope on 4/12/1154. He was formerly Nicholas Breakspear, and was the only English Pope. In 1155 he authorised King Henry II of England to invade Ireland and hold it as a hereditary fief of the Papacy. Breakspear was born at Bedmond Farm in Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, around 1100. His father became a monk of St Albans abbey, presumably after the death of his wife. Nicholas Breakspear also applied to join the Abbey at age 18 but was refused admission because of too little schooling. He went abroad as a wandering scholar and finally became a monk in the Augustinian Abbey of St Rufus in Avignon in 1130. He was elected Abbot in 1137 and came to the notice of the Pope, Eugenius III. The Pope recognised his qualities and made him a bishop and a cardinal; Breakspear was sent on a trip to war-torn Scandinavia where he restored peace. After 4 years Breakspear returned to Rome to find that Eugenius III had died and was succeeded by Anastasius IV, a man of 90. Within the year Anastasius IV was dead and Nicholas Breakspear was unanimously elected Pope, taking the name Adrian IV.

8/5/1159, Friday (-287,074)

12/4/1159, Sunday (-287,100) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-287,287)

8/5/1158, Thursday (-287,439)

20/4/1158, Sunday (-287,457) Easter Sunday.

8/9/1157. King Richard I was born in Oxford, third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and later known as Richard the Lionheart. Although he reigned for nearly ten years he was only in England twice, for a total of 160 days. He was mostly away on crusades.

8/5/1157, Wednesday (-287,804)

8/4/1157, Monday (-287,834)

31/3/1157, Sunday (-287,842) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1156, Tuesday (-288,169)

15/4/1156, Sunday (-288,192) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-288,288)

21/6/1155, Tuesday (-288,491)

18/6/1155, Saturday (-288,494) Rioting in Rome as English born Pope Adrian crowned Frederick Barbarossa as Holy Roman Emperor; 1,000 died.

8/5/1155, Sunday (-288,535)

8/4/1155, Friday (-288,565)

27/3/1155, Sunday (-288,577) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1155, Tuesday (-288,596)

28/2/1155, Monday (-288,604) Henry, son of Henry II, was born.

28/1/1155, Friday (-288,635)

28/12/1154, Tuesday (-288,666)

19/12/1154. Sunday (-288,675) Henry II became King of England, on the death of Stephen on 24/10/1154.

4/12/1154. Saturday (-288,690) Election of Pope Adrian IV,  (169th Pope). Adrian IV was Nicholas Breakespear, the only ever English Pope. This followed the death of Pope Anastasius IV (168th Pope) on 3/12/1154, who was Pope from 9/7/1153. He was a strict disciplinarian, which led to attempts to defame his character: he had to appear before Pope Eugene III to clear his character. Adrian IV settled a dispute with Emperor Frederick I over the See of Magdeburg, and he granted the Lordship of Ireland to King Henry II of England.

4/11/1154, Thursday (-288,720)

24/10/1154. Sunday (-288,731) King Stephen of England died at Dover.

24/9/1154, Friday (-288,761)

24/8/1154, Tuesday (-288,792)

24/6/1154, Thursday (-288,853)

8/5/1154, Saturday (-288,900)

4/4/1154, Sunday (-288,934) Easter Sunday,

26/2/1154. (-) King Roger II of Sicily died and was succeeded by his son William the Bald.

24/5/1154, (-289,249) David I, King of Scotland 1124-53, died.

8/5/1153, Friday (-289,265)

19/4/1153, Sunday (-289,284) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-289,289)

8/5/1152, Thursday (-289,630)

8/4/1152, Tuesday (-289,660)

30/3/1152, Sunday (-289,669) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1152, Friday (-289,713) Conrad III, Holy Roman Emperor, died at Bamberg (see 7/3/1138).

8/5/1151, Tuesday (-289,996)

8/4/1151, Sunday (-290,026) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-290,290)

8/5/1150, Monday (-290,361)

16/4/1150, Sunday (-290,383) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1149, Sunday (-290,726)

3/4/1149, Sunday (-290,761) Easter Sunday.

2/11/1148, Saint Malachy, Church reformer, died.

8/5/1148, Saturday (-291,091)

11/4/1148, Sunday (-291,118) Easter Sunday.

28/10/1147. The Moslems in Lisbon surrendered peacefully to an allied Christian force under Portugal’s Alfonso Henriques. The Moslem inhabitants were allowed to depart peacefully.

25/10/1147, Battle of Dorylaeum, the Seljuq Turks defeated German crusaders under Conrad III.

7/10/1147, Almeria, one of the most important maritime and commercial centres of al-Andalus, fell into Christian hands after two months of siege.

Tuesday (-291,291)

8/5/1147, Thursday (-291,457)

20/4/1147, Sunday (-291,475) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1146, Wednesday (-291,822)

8/4/1146, Monday (-291,852)

31/3/1146, Sunday (-291,860) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1145, Tuesday (-292,187)

15/4/1145, Sunday (-292,210) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-292,292)

8/5/1144, (-292,552)

26/3/1144, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

24/9/1143, Pope Innocent II died.

8/5/1143, Saturday (-292,918)

4/4/1143, Sunday (-292,952) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1143, John II, Byzantine Emperor, was killed accidentally.

8/5/1142, Friday (-293,283)

Tuesday (-293,293)

21/4/1142, Tuesday (-293,300) (France) The French scholar Peter Abelard was born at Chalon sur Saone.

19/4/1142, Sunday (-293,302) Easter Sunday.

1/11/1141. Following the death of King Henry I, Matilda his daughter and her cousin Stephen of Blois were fighting a civil war for the English throne. Rival barons robbed and burned villages and abbeys.

14/9/1141, The Battle of Winchester; King Stephen’s release was secured.

8/5/1141, Thursday (-293,648)

30/3/1141, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1141, At the Battle of Lincoln, King Stephen was captured. He had been besieging Lincoln Castle, and was taken by forces under Earl Robert of Gloucester and Earl Ranulf of Chester.

8/5/1140, Wednesday (-294,013)

7/4/1140, Sunday (-294,044) Easter Sunday.

6/2/1140, Thurstan, Archbishop of York, died.

Tuesday (-294,294)

25/7/1139, King Alfonso Henriques I (1110-85) of Portugal defeated the Muslims at Ourique.

8/6/1139, Thursday (-294,348)

8/5/1139, Monday (-294,379)

23/4/1139, Sunday (-294,394) Easter Sunday.

11/10/1138, An earthquake in Aleppo, Syria, killed about 230,000 people.

22/8/1138, At the Battle of The Standard, a Scottish Highland and Pict army under King David was defeated near Northallerton by English from Yorkshire and the east Midlands.

8/5/1138, Sunday (-294,744)

3/4/1138, Sunday (-294,779) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1138, Monday (-294,806) Conrad III (1093-1152) was again chosen as Holy Roman Emperor (see 18/12/1127). He was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on 13/3/1138, but was still opposed by Henry the Proud, the powerful Duke of Bavaria and Saxony. Henry the Proud died in 10/1139, but Conrad still faced opposition from Henry’s brother, Welf. Peace was finally arranged at Frankfort in 5/1142, with Henry the Lion (son of Henry the Proud) installed as Duke of Saxony, whilst Bavaria was given to Conrad’s stepbrother, Henry Jasomirgott, Margrave of Austria, who married Gertrude, widow of Henry the Proud.

1/8/1137, Louis VI, King of France, died, aged 56. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Louis VII.

8/5/1137, Saturday (-295,109)

11/4/1137, Sunday (-295,136) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-295,295)

8/5/1136, Friday (-295,474)

22/3/1136, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

22/12/1135, The coronation of King Stephen took place.

1/12/1135. King Henry I died, aged 66, apparently of a surfeit of lampreys, near Rouen. See 1/11/1141.  His nephew Stephen succeeded him. Henry’s only son, Robert, had drowned in 1120 and Henry I wanted his daughter Maud to succeed him; the barons considered it unfitting for a woman to be monarch and backed the claim of Stephen, Henry’s nephew.

8/5/1135, Wednesday (-295,840)

7/4/1135, Sunday (-295,871) Easter Sunday.

30/3/1135, Saturday (-295,879) (Jewish) The great Jewish teacher Moses ben Maimon (Maimonedes) was born in Cordoba. See 13/12/1204.

8/5/1134, Tuesday (-296,205)

15/4/1133, Sunday (-296,228) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-296,296)

24/8/1133, In London, the first Bartholomew’s Day Fair was held. It was held annually thereafter until 1855.

8/5/1133, Monday (-296,570)

8/4/1133, Saturday (-296,600)

26/3/1133, Sunday (-297,613) Easter Sunday.

25/3/1133, Saturday (-297,614) Henry II, first Plantagenet King of England, was born near Le Mans, eldest son of Geoffrey Count of Anjou and Matilda, daughter of Henry I.

8/5/1132, Sunday (-296,935)

10/4/1132, Sunday (-209,963) Easter Sunday.

4/12/1131, (Iran) Omar Khayyan, Persian poet and mathematician, born 5/15/1048, died at Nishapur.

Tuesday (-297,297)

9/5/1131, Saturday (-297,300)  (Christian) Tintern Abbey was founded.

8/5/1131, Friday (-297,301)

19/4/1131, Sunday (-297,320) Easter Sunday.

25/12/1130. The Norman King Roger II was crowned King of Sicily in Palermo Cathedral by the anti-Pope Anacletus, who thereby gained a powerful supporter for his claim on the Papacy against the Pope Innocent II.

8/5/1130, Thursday (-297,666)

8/4/1130, Tuesday (-297,696)

30/3/1130, Sunday (-297,705) Easter Sunday.

14/2/1130, (-297,749) Pope Honorius II died.

8/5/1129, Wednesday (-298,031)

14/4/1129, Sunday (-298,055) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-298,298)

8/5/1128, Tuesday (-298,396)

22/4/1128, Sunday (-298,412) Easter Sunday.

18/12/1127, (-) Conrad III (1093-1152) was chosen as Holy Roman Emperor, in opposition to Lothair. He hastily crossed the Alps to be crowned King of Italy at Monza, 6/1128. Whilst being acknowledged as King in northern Italy he was rejected as King by both rival Popes, Innocent II and Anacletus II. He failed to consolidate his holdings in Italy, and returned to Germany in 1132, where he fought with Lothair until 10/1135. He then submitted to Lothair, was pardoned, and recovered his estates, When Lothair died in 12/1137, Conrad III was again chosen as Emperor on 7/3/1138.

8/5/1127, Sunday (-298,762)

3/4/1127, Sunday (-298,797) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1126, Saturday (-299,127)

11/4/1126, Sunday (-299,154) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-299,299)

23/5/1125, (-299,477) Holy Roman Emperor Henry V died at Utrecht. He was succeeded by the 55-yerar-old Lothair, who was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on 13/9/1125.

8/5/1125, Friday (-299,492)

29/3/1125, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

27/11/1124. Death of King Alexander I of Scotland.. He was born in ca.1078. He founded many abbeys and bishoprics, among them Incholm and Scone.

7/7/1124, Tyre fell to the Crusaders.

8/5/1124, Thursday (-299,857)

6/4/1124, Sunday (-299,889) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1124, (-299,918)

8/1/1124, (-299,978)

17/12/1124, Monday (-300,000)

17/10/1124, (-300,061)

17/8/1124, (-300,122)

5/8/1124, (-300,134)

30/7/1124, Monday (-300,140)

5/6/1123. Tuesday (-300,195) St Bartholomew Hospital, London, was founded.

8/5/1123, (-300,223)

18/3/1123, The First Lateran Council began.

Tuesday (-300,300)

23/9/1122. The Diet of Worms. A council was held at the German town of Worms, to settle a dispute between Church and State that went back to 1076, when Pope Gregory VII excommunicated King Henry IV of Germany, seeking to impose papal power over the king. Both Henry IV and his son, the present King Henry V set up anti-Popes and forced the Pope to flee to refuge in a monastery. Pope Calixtus  II and King Henry V agreed at this Diet that the King would not force the election of Bishops but allow their free election by the Church; in return the King will be present at the election of Bishops and have some influence over disputes within the church.

8/5/1122, Monday (-300,588)

26/3/1122, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1121, Sunday (-300,953)

15/4/1121, Sunday (-300,976) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1121, Sunday (-300,981) Easter Sunday.

25/11/1120, William Aethelney, son and heir of the English King Henry I, drowned when his ship hit rocks whilst sailing from Normandy to England.

Tuesday (-301,301)

8/5/1120, Saturday (-301,318)

18/4/1120, Sunday (-301,338) Easter Sunday.

19/9/1119, Severe earthquake in Gloucestershire & Warwickshire, England.

8/5/1119, Thursday (-301,684)

8/4/1119, Tuesday (-301,714)

30/3/1119, Sunday (-301,723) Easter Sunday.

21/12/1118, Thomas Beckett was born in Cheapside, London.

11/12/1118. The Christians captured Saragossa, Spain, from the Muslims.

8/5/1118, (-302,049)

14/4/1118, Sunday (-302,073) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-302,302)

8/5/1117, (-302,414)

25/3/1117, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1116, Monday (-302,779)

2/4/1116, Sunday (-302,815) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1115, Saturday (-303,145)

18/4/1115, Sunday (-303,165) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-303,303)

8/5/1114, Friday (-303,510)

29/3/1114, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1113, Thursday (-303,875)

6/4/1113, Sunday (-303,907) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1112, Wednesday (-304,240)

21/4/1112, Sunday (-304,257) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-304,304)

8/5/1111, Monday (-304,606)

2/4/1111, Sunday (-304,642) Easter Sunday.

4/12/1110, First Crusade, the Crusaders conquered Sidon.

8/5/1110, Sunday (-304,971)

10/4/1110, Sunday (-304,999) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-305,305)

8/5/1109, Saturday (-305,336)

25/4/1109, Sunday (-305,349) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1108, Friday (-305,701)

5/4/1108, Sunday (-305,734) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1107, Wednesday (-306,067)

14/4/1107, Sunday (-306,091) Easter Sunday

8/1/1107, (-) King Edgar of Scotland died and was succeeded by his brother Alexander I.

28/9/1106. (Britain, France) King Henry of England defeated his brother Robert at the Battle of Tinchebrai in France and reunited England and Normandy, divided since William the Conqueror died, see 5/8/1100 and 9/9/1087.

Tuesday (-306,306)

8/5/1106, Tuesday (-306,432)

25/3/1106, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1105, Monday (-306,797)

9/4/1105, Sunday (-306,826) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1104, Sunday (-307,162)

17/4/534, Sunday (-307,183) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-307,307)

8/5/1103, Friday (-307,528)

29/3/1103, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1102, Thursday (-307,893)

6/4/1102, Sunday (-307,925) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1101, Wednesday (-308,258)

21/4/1101, Sunday (-308,275) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-308,308)

5/8/1100, Henry I, youngest son of William the Conqueror aged 31, was crowned in Westminster Abbey. The rightful heir, older brother Robert, was away on the First Crusade and not expected to return until 1101. Henry I was expected to buy him off with territories in Normandy, see 28/9/1101.

2/8/1100. William Rufus, (William II), king of England after William the Conqueror, (see 9/9/1087) was killed in the New Forest by an arrow in a hunting accident; he was allegedly mistaken for a deer. His brother, Henry, who became Henry I, was crowned on 5/8/1100, succeeded him.

29/7/1099, Pope Urban II died in Rome.

18/7/1100, Godfrey de Bouillon, first Crusader king of Jerusalem, died.

8/5/1100, Tuesday (-308,623)

8/4/1100, Sunday (-308,653)

1/4/1100, Sunday (-308,660) Easter Sunday

15/7/1099. Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders, (see 27/11/1095). 40,000 people, both Jews and Muslims, were slaughtered in two days, an event European scholar-monks acclaimed as ‘the greatest event since the Crucifixion’. On 12/8/1099 the Crusaders defeated Al-Afdal, the Fatimid Vizier of Egypt, at Ascalon. He was bringing an army to recapture Jerusalem, which the Egyptians had earlier lost to the Turks.

7/6/1099, The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem.

1/8/1098, Monday (-308,904) Adhemar de Monteil, Criusader, Bishop of Puy en Velay from 1077, died during the plague in Antioch.

3/7/1098, Sunday (-308,933)

3/6/1098, Friday (-308,963) The Crusaders took Antioch.

8/5/1099, Sunday (-308,989)

10/4/1099, Sunday (-309,017) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-309,309)

8/5/1098  Saturday (-309,354)

28/3/1098, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

21/3/1098, Cîteaux Abbey was founded by the Cistercian Order.

21/10/1097, The Crusaders arrived at Antioch.

24/6/1097, (-) The Crusaders took Nicea.

8/5/1097, Friday (-309,719)

5/4/1097, Sunday (-309,752) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1096, Thursday (-310,084)

13/4/1096, Sunday (-310,109) Easter Sunday

27/11/1095. Pope Urban II called for a Crusade to the Holy Land. He talked of how, due to Turkish misrule, it was no longer safe for Christian pilgrims to visit the holy sites of Jerusalem. The Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum on 30/6 1097, opening the way to Jerusalem. Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders on 15/7/1099.

19/11/1095, The Council of Clermont began. The council was called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

Tuesday (-310,310)

8/5/1095, Tuesday (-310,450)

8/4/1095, Sunday (-310,480)

1/4/1095, Sunday (-310,487)

25/3/1095, Sunday (-310,494) Easter Sunday.

12/11/1094, Duncan II, son of Malcolm III Canmore and his first wife Ingibiorg, were murdered by his uncle Donald III Ban. In 1072 Duncan II had been sent as hostage to the court of William I The Conqueror, where he remained until his father’s death in 1093. Then, with the help of an army supplied by William II Rufus, he defeated Donald III in May 1094. However Duncan II was loathed in Scotland for being too pro-Norman/English and so he was assassinated.

8/10/1094, St Marks Basilica in Venice was consecrated.

17/6/1094. Valencia, Spain, was captured by the Christians from the Arabs; the city surrendered due to starvation after a 20 month siege.

8/5/1094, Monday (-310,815)

9/4/1094, Sunday (-310,844) Easter Sunday.

13/11/1093, (-) Malcolm III, King of Scotland, died.

11/8/1093, Construction of Durham Cathedral in England began.

11/5/1093, Tuesday (311,178)

8/5/1093, Saturday (-311,181)

17/4/1093, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-311,311)

8/5/1092, Friday (-311,546)

6/5/1092, Wednesday (-311,548) Lincoln Cathedral was consecrated (begun 1075).

6/4/1092, Monday (-311,578)

28/3/1092, Saturday (-311,587) Easter Sunday.

23/10/1091, Thursday (-311,743) A severe storm in London destroyed London Bridge along with St Mary le Bow church. 600 houses were damaged, also the Tower of London.

8/9/1091, Monday (-311,788)

8/8/1091, Friday (-311,819)

8/7/1091, Tuesday (-311,850)

8/6/1091, Sunday (-311,880)

8/5/1091, Thursday (-311,911)

13/4/1091, Sunday (-311,936) Easter Sunday

8/5/1090, Wednesday (-312,276)

21/4/1090, Sunday (-312,293) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-312,312)

11/8/1089, A powerful earthquake was recorded in Britain.

8/5/1089, Tuesday (-312,641)

8/4/1089, Sunday (-312,671)

1/4/1089, Sunday (-312,687) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1088, Monday (-313,006)

16/4/1088, Sunday (-313,028) Easter Sunday.

12/3/1088, (-) Odo was elected Pope; he took the name Urban II.

15/11/1087. Domesday Book completed.

26/9/1087, The coronation of King William II of England.

13/9/1087, John II Komnenos, Byzantine Emperor, was born.

9/9/1087. William the Conqueror died, aged 60, in Rouen, France, from injuries sustained when his horse stumbled. He was succeeded in Normandy by Robert Curthose and in England by William Rufus, William II, who was crowned on 26/9/1087. See 2/8/1100, and 28/9/1106.

Tuesday (-313,313)

8/5/1087, Saturday (-313,372)

5/4/1087, Monday (-313,405)

28/3/1087, Sunday  (-313,413) Easter Sunday.

23/10/1086, (Spain) The Almoravids from North Africa invaded Spain, defeating Alfonso’s army at Zallaqah this day.

8/5/1086, Friday (-313,737)

5/4/1086, Sunday (-313,770) Easter Sunday.

25/12/1085, (-) King William I of England ordered a complete survey of the wealth of the kingdom, known as the Domesday Book.

8/10/1085, The Cathedral of St Marks in Venice was consecrated.

25/5/1085, Sunday (-314,119) (1) The Christian, Alfonso VI of Leon, captured Toledo (the old Visigothic capital) from the Arabs.

(2) Pope Gregory VII died in exile. His supporters elected Desiderius, Abbott of Monte Casino, as Pope Victor III, refusing to accept the papacy of Clement III as being a puppet of King Henry IV of Germany. When Victor III died the cardinals elected Urban II (1086-99) as Pope, a candidate favoured by Gregory VII himself.

8/5/1085, Thursday (-314,102)

20/4/1085, Sunday (-314,120) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-314,314)

27/5/1084, Monday (-314,448) Pope Gregory VII was still holding out against the army of Henry IV, a few hundred yards away from the Basilica, in the Castel Sant Angelo (then known as the House of Cencius). Gregory appealed for help from the Normans in Sicily. On this day the Normans entered Rome and escorted Gregory VII to safety in Salerno. The Normans then pillaged Rome and burnt it to the ground.

31/3/1084, Sunday (-314,505) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1084, Sunday (-314, 512) Palm Sunday. Henry IV of Germany, having captured Rome, installed Pope Clement III. In turn Clement III crowned Henry IV as Emperor on Easter Sunday 1084.

8/5/1083, Monday (-314,833)

9/4/1083, Sunday (-341,912) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1082, Sunday (-315,198)

24/4/1082, Sunday (-315,212) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-315,315)

8/5/1081, Saturday (-315,563)

4/4/1081, Sunday (-315,597) Easter Sunday.

15/10/1080, Rudolf of Swabia was killed in battle, leaving Henry IV as unchallenged ruler of Germany.

8/5/1080, Friday (-315,928)

12/4/1080, Sunday (-315,954) Easter Sunday

7/3/1080, King Henry IV of Germany was excommunicated a second time by Pope Gregory VII, see 27/1/1080. In response Henry IV summoned an assembly of bishops to Brixen and declared Pope Gregory VII deposed and appointed Wilbert, Archbishop of Ravenna, in his place. However not everyone, even in Germany, accepted the right of Henry IV to judge a Pope ‘appointed by God’.

27/1/1080, King Henry IV of Germany defeated Saxon rebels at Flarchheim. Emboldened by this, he rejected the mediation efforts of Pope Gregory VII to settle the rulership dispute between him and Rudolf of Swabia, see 25/10/1077 and 7/3/1080.

8/5/1079, Wednesday (-316,294)

Tuesday (-316,316)

24/3/1079,  Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1078, Tuesday (-316,659)

8/4/1078, Sunday (-316,689) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1077, Monday (-317,024)

16/4/1077, Sunday (-317,046) Easter Sunday.

25/1/1077, German King Henry IV, who was losing popular support because of his excommunication by Pope Gregory VII, arrived at Canossa Castle, northern Italy, to do penance in reconciliation. He knelt in the snow in a monk’s hair shirt for three days before the Pope admitted him. “Going to Canossa” became a saying for reluctant penance, especially in Germany. Henry IV had faced a rebellion by Saxons, and had to reach Pope Gregory by a roundabout route via Burgnndy and Provence. Pope Gregory VII wanted, politically, to refuse forgiveness, but as head of the Christian Church he had no choice but to dispense it. The rebels, feeling betrayed by Gregory VII, rejected the kingship of Henry IV anyway and elected Rudolf of Swabia in his place. Germany faced effective civil war. Pope Gregory, to restore his influence over Germany, sent a Papal Legate northwards in 1079 to settle who was the rightful ruler of Germany, decreeing that if either Rudolf or Henry rejected the findings of this legate they would be excommunicated. However see 27/1/1080.

Tuesday (-317,317)

8/5/1076, Sunday (-317,389)

27/3/1076, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

24/1/1076, German King Henry IV called an assembly of German Bishops to Worms to complain about the interference of  Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) in the rulership of Milan. Earlier, a revolutionary faction called the Pataria had usurped Henry IV’s control over Milan, which included the right to appoint the Archbishop of Milan. Milan was very strategically important to Henry IV as it controlled the Alpine passes between Italy and Germany. Pope Gregory VII sided with the rebels against King Henry IV and insisted that he, Gregory, had the right to appoint the Archbishop (see 4/3/1075, Dictatus Papae). The German Bishops signed a letter of protest from Henry IV calling for Hildebrand “that false monk, who had forsaken the cloisters” (see 22/4/1073)  to resign as Pope and that Henry IV did not recognise him as Pope. The message caused an uproar in Rome, in fact the messenger was nearly killed, saved only by the intervention of Hildebrand himself. Two days later Gregory VII (Hildebrand) excommunicated and nominally deposed King Henry IV. See 25/1/1077.

8/5/1075, Friday (-317,755)

5/4/1075, Sunday (-317,788) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1075, (-317,820) Hildebrand issued the Dictatus Papae, 27 short propositions setting out the powers of the Roman Catholic Church. These propositions, aimed at curbing the Greek Church and the temporal power of European Kings, included, (I) that the Roman Catholic Church was founded by God alone, i.e. it was more than ‘just’ apostolic (III), only the Pope can dismiss or reinstate Bishops, (XII), the Pope has the authority to depose Emperors,, (XVI), That only the Pope had the authority to call Councils (the Greek Church didn’t), (XIX), The Pope can be judged by no-one except God himself, (XXII), The Roman Church has never erred and is in fact infallible,

8/5/1074, Thursday (-318,120)

20/4/1074, Sunday (-318,138) Easter Sunday.

22/4/1073, Tuesday (-318,136) Hildebrand was elected Pope Gregory VII. His election was unusual, being accomplished by Roman clergy and common people, rather than by Cardinals.

Tuesday (-318,318)

8/5/1073,Wednesday (-318,485)

8/4/1073, Monday (-318,515)

31/3/1073, Sunday (-318,523) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1072, Tuesday (-318,850)

8/4/1072, Sunday (-318,880) Easter Sunday.

10/1/1072, The Normans conquered Palermo, Sicily.

26/8/1071. The armies of the Byzantine leader Emperor Romanus Diogenes and the Turkish leader Mohammed Ibn Da’ud clashed at Manzikert (or, Malazagird), north of Lake Van. The Byzantines had entered Armenia with the French and Normans, and some Turks from the Uzes tribe, and the Turkish leader had to abandon a campaign in Syria and hurry north to meet this invasion. The Turkish cavalry routed the enemy. Ibn Da’ud died on 24/11/1072.

8/5/1071, Sunday (-319,216)

24/4/1071, Sunday (-319,230) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1071. Saturday (-319,238) The Norman, Robert Guiscard, took Bari after a three year siege. This ended Byzantine rule in Italy, which had lasted five centuries. On 10/1/1072 Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger took Palermo in Sicily.

4/6/1070. Roquefort cheese was created in a cave near Roquefort, France.

Tuesday (-319,319)

8/5/1070, Saturday (-319,581)

4/4/1070, Sunday (-319,615) Easter Sunday.

28/10/1069. Tuesday (-319,774) Death of Abbad-al-Motadid, Arab ruler in Spain.

21/9/1069, Sunday (-319,811) The Norman castle of York was attacked and overran. The defenders were all killed, except for two castellans and their families, who were held for ransom. William, who had been hunting in the Forest of Dean, hurried north yet again. Delayed by heavy rain, he eventually arrived in York to find it a deserted smouldering ruin. The local rebels had withdrawn, and the Danes returned to their ships on the Humber, unreachable by William’s soldiers. William now took decisive action. Having paid off the Danes to go away, he killed and burned large parts of the population and its villages in the north of England, in what became known as the Harrying of the North, Large regions of Lancashire, Yorkshire, Cheshire and Staffordshire were devastated. Thousands were made homeless or starved.

19/9/1069, Friday (-319,813) The Norman garrison at York faced further rebellions by supporters of Edgar Aetheling, assisted by Danish ships under Asbjorn, brother of King Sweyn II of Denmark. This day the York defenders attempted to improve their defences by clearing the ground in front of the castle, but succeeded in starting a fire that badly damaged the city and destroyed St Peter’s Cathedral.

17/7/1069, Friday (-319,876)

8/5/1069, Friday (-319,946)

12/4/1069, Sunday (-319,972) Easter Sunday

8/5/1068, Thursday (-320,311)

Tuesday (-320,320)

23/3/1068, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1067, Tuesday (-320,677)

8/4/1067, Sunday (-320,707) Easter Sunday.

25/12/1066. (-) William the Conqueror was crowned King of England, in Westminster Abbey.

14/10/1066 Battle of Hastings. William the Conqueror had landed in England, at Pevensey Bay, seven miles from the Battle site, on 28/9/1066. The English lost partly because they left their strong position on the crest of a hill, and partly because they were exhausted by the Battle of Stamford Bridge and the long march south. The Witan chose Edgar Atheling, grandson of Edmund Ironside, as King. William circled London and approached from the north. At Berkhamsted, Edgar and other Saxon nobles met William and offered him the crown. King Edward the Confessor of England (1003-66, see 5/1/1066) had promised the throne of England to King William of Normandy upon his death. However in response to a Viking threat, Edward also promised the throne to the Danish King Svein Estrithsson, and Harald Hadraada of Norway had also been promised the English throne by an earlier King. The English nobility preferred a native ruler, Harold of Wessex.

28/9/1066, William the Conqueror landed at Hastings.

25/9/1066. King Harold defeated the Norwegians under Tostig at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, near York, unaware that William of Normandy was about to invade the south coast. Tostig had begun an invasion of Northumbria.

20/9/1066, Harald Hardraada of Norway and Earl Tostig defeated the northern English Earls Edwin and Morcar. However the Norwegian forces were weakened so that they lost to Harold II at Stamford Bridge (25/9/1066). In turn the northern English forces were so weakened by these two battles that they could not fully assist Harold at Hastings (14/10/1066).

8/5/1066, Monday (-321,042)

16/4/1066, Sunday (-321,064) Easter Sunday.

7/1/1066. Harold was crowned King of England in succession to Edward the Confessor. Ten months later he died at the Battle of Hastings.

5/1/1066. Death of Edward the Confessor, said to be England’s most pious king.  Leaving no heir, he recommended Harold as his successor. See 14/10/1066.

28/12/1065, (-) Westminster Abbey was consecrated.

24/6/1065, Ferdinand I, King of Castile and Leon, died.

Tuesday (-321,321)

8/5/1065, Sunday (-321,407)

27/3/1065, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1064, Saturday (-321,772)

11/4/1064, Sunday (-321,799) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1063, Thursday (-322,138)

30/4/1063, Wednesday (-332,146) Renzong, Emperor of China, died.

20/4/1063, Sunday (-332,156) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-322,322)

8/5/1062, Wednesday (-322,503)

8/4/1062, Monday (-322,533)

31/3/1062, Sunday (-322,541) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1061, Tuesday (-322,868)

15/4/1061, Sunday (323,891-) Easter Sunday.

4/8/1060, Henry I, King of France, died after a 29-year reign, aged 52. He was succeeded by his 8-year-old son who ruled as King Philip  I until 1108.

8/5/1060, Monday (-323,233)

8/4/1060, Saturday (-323,263)

1/4/1060, Saturday (-323,270)

26/3/1060, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-323,323)

23/8/1059, Pope Nicholas II (1058-61) met with Robert Guiscard, leader of the Normans of southern Italy, at Melfi, and accepted Robert’s vassalship. Robert pledged that if Pope Nicholas died before him, he would assist the Cardinals in the election of a new Pope. In effect, Robert was pledging to protect the Cardinals from political interference by the Roman nobility. In return Pope Nicholas bestowed upon Robert the title of Duke of Calbria and Apulia. This infuriated the (Byzantine) Roman Emperor, who claimed all of Italy as part of his domain, and insisted that Nicholas could not give away lands he had no title to.

8/5/1059, Saturday (-323,599)

4/4/1059, Sunday (-323,633) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1058, Friday (-323,964)

19/4/1058, Sunday (-323,983) Easter Sunday.

29/3/1058, Pope Stephen X died.

17/3/1058, Lulach, King of Scots, died and was succeeded by Malcolm III, son of Duncan I.

15/8/1057. The Scottish king Macbeth, who killed King Duncan 1 in 1040, was killed in battle by Duncan’s son, Malcolm.

Tuesday (-324,324)

8/5/1057, Thursday (-324,329)

30/3/1057, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

5/10/1056, Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, died, aged 38. He was succeeded as German king by his 5-year-old son, who reigned as Henry IV until 1106. His mother Agnes acted as Regent until 1065.

8/5/1056, Wednesday (-324,694)

7/4/1956, Sunday (-324,725)

8/5/1055,  Monday (-325,060)

16/4/1055, Sunday (-325,082) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-325,325)

4/7/1054, Chinese astronomers recorded a supernova so bright it could be seen in daylight for 23 days and at night for almost 2 years.

8/5/1054, Sunday (-325,425)

3/4/1054, Sunday (-325,460) Easter Sunday.

19/4/1054, Pope Leo IX died.

8/5/1053, Saturday (-325,790)

14/4/1053, Wednesday (-325,814) Godwin, Earl of Wessex, died.

11/4/1053, Sunday (-325,817) Easter Sunday.

4/10/1052, Vladimir Yaroslavich, Prince of Novgorod, died.

8/5/1052, Friday (-326,155)

19/4/1052, Sunday (-326,174) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-326,326)

8/5/1051, Wednesday (-326,521)

8/4/1051, Monday (-326,551)

31/3/1051, Sunday (-326,559) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1050, Tuesday (-326,866)

15/4/1050, Sunday (-326,889) Easter Sunday.

1/10/1049, Pope Leo IX (1048-54), noted for his attempts to eradicate simony, arrived at Reims, France. In March 1049 he had begun a tour of the Christian lands of Europe, to assert his authority over these regions. He left Rome and travelled via Florence, Pavia and Cologne to Reims. Whilst still Bishop of Toul, Pope Leo IX had pledged to be present at the Consecration of the Cathedral of Reims, built to honour St Remigius, who had baptised Clovis and played a large role on converting the Franks to Christianity. In fact due to opposition to Leo’s visit by the King of France, only 20 bishops and 40 abbots attended at Reims, a clear sign of Leo’s limited authority on France. After parading an effigy of the Saint around the town, before setting in in its place in the Cathedral, Leo set it on the high altar as a ‘witness’ and asked all present to declare, individually one by one, that they had not paid money for their office. Many of those present would not make such a statement.

8/5/1049, (-327,251)

26/3/1049, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-327,327)

15/5/1048, Sunday (-327,609) The Persian mathematician and poet Omar Khayyam was born at Nisipar. He was the first to solve cubic equations (those containing terms to the power of three).

8/5/1048, Sunday (-327,616)

3/4/1048, Sunday (-327,651) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1047, Friday (-327,982)

19/4/1047, Sunday (-328,001) Easter Sunday.

25/12/1046, The German King was crowned Holy Roman Emperor Henry III in Rome by Pope Clement II.

Tuesday (-328,328)

8/5/1046, Thursday (-328,347)

30/3/1046, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1045, Wednesday (-328,712)

7/4/1045, Sunday (-328,743) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1044, Tuesday (-329,077)

22/4/1044, Sunday (-329,093) Easter Sunday.

11/1/1043, (Germany) Agnes (1024-77), daughter of William V the Pious, Duke of Aquitaine and Agnes of Aquitaine, married Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry III died in 1056 and Agnes (daughter) served as Regent for her minor son, Henry IV. However when Henry IV came of age, Agnes refused to relinquish the throne. She was eventually deposed by the efforts of two German bishops; she thereafter lived in Rome, as a staunch supporter of Pope Gregory VII, until her death in 1977.

Tuesday (-329,329)

8/5/1043, Sunday (-329,443)

3/4/1043, Sunday (-329,478) Easter Sunday. Edward the Confessor was crowned.

8/6/1042,  Harthacanute, King of Denmark and England, died.

8/5/1042, Saturday (-329,808)

11/4/1042, Sunday (-329,835) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1041, Friday (-330,173)

22/3/1041, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-330,330)

14/8/1040, Macbeth murdered Duncan I, King of Scotland, and became King himself.

8/5/1040, Thursday (-330,538)

6/4/1040, Sunday (-330,570) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1040, Harold Harefoot, King of England, was born.

4/6/1039, (-330,877) Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II died in Utrecht, aged 49. He was succeeded as German King by his 21-year-old son, Henry.

8/5/1039, Tuesday (-330,904)

15/4/1039, Sunday (-330,927) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1038, Monday (-331,269)

26/3/1038, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-331,331)

18/6/1037, Persian philosopher and physician Avicenna died. His writings were valued sources for European doctors.

8/5/1037, Sunday (-331,634)

10/4/1037, Sunday (-331,662) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1036, Saturday (-331,999)

18/4/1036, Sunday (-332,019) Easter Sunday.

12/11/1035. (-) Death of the Danish King of England, Canute (Cnut), aged 40. His kingdom disintegrated. Harold I, Cnut’s son by Aelgifu of Northampton, became Regent of England whilst his half-brother delayed in Denmark. England split into the old political pattern of Northumbria and Mercia against Wessex.

Tuesday (-332,332)

8/5/1035, Thursday (-332,365)

30/3/1035, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1034,  Wednesday (-332,730)

14/4/1034, Sunday (-332,754) Easter Sunday

8/5/1033, Tuesday (-333,095)

22/4/1033, Sunday (-333,111) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-333,333)

8/5/1032, Monday (-333,460)

2/4/1032, Sunday (-333,496) Easter Sunday.

20/7/1031, Robert II (The Pious), King of France, died aged 61 He was succeeded by his 23-year-old son Constance of Aquitaine, who ruled as Henry I until 1060.

8/5/1031, Saturday (-333,826)

11/4/1031, Sunday (-333,853) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1030, Friday (-334,191)

29/3/1030, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-334,334)

8/5/1029, Thursday (-334,556)

6/4/1029, Sunday (-334,588) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1028, Wednesday (-334,921)

14/4/1028, Sunday (-334,945) Easter Sunday

8/5/1027, Monday (-335,287)

26/3/1027, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday. Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II was crowned in Rome.

Tuesday (-335,335)

8/5/1026, Sunday (-335,652)

10/4/1026, Sunday (-335,680) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1025, Saturday (-336,017)

18/4/1025, Sunday (-336,037) Easter Sunday.

13/7/1024, The Holy Roman Emperor Henry II died aged 51 after a 10-year reign. He was succeeded as King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor by his 34-year-old son, who ruled as Conrad II until 1039.

Tuesday (-336,336)

8/5/1024, Friday (-336,382)

5/4/1024, Sunday (-336,415)

8/5/1023, Wednesday (-336,748)

14/4/1023, Sunday (-336,772) Easter Sunday

8/5/1022, Tuesday (-337,113)

25/3/1022, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-337,337)

8/5/1021, Monday (-337,478)

2/4/1021, Sunday (-337,514) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1020, Sunday (-337,843)

16/4/1020, Sunday (-337,864) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1019, Friday (-338,209)

29/3/1019, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-338,338)

8/5/1018, Thursday (-338,574)

6/4/1018, Sunday (-338,606) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1017, Wednesday (-338,939)

21/4/1017, Sunday (-338,956) Easter Sunday.

6/1/1017, (-) (Britain) Cnut was crowned King of England in London.

30/11/1016, (-) King Edmund was murdered and Cnut became King of England.

18/10/1016, (-) The Danes under Canute defeated the Saxons at the Battle of Assandun (now Ashingdon, Essex)

8/5/1016, Tuesday (-339,304)

23/4/1016, Monday (-339,319) Ethelred died and was succeeded by his son Edmund II, Ironside. Edmund and Cnut fought for the throne. Edmund agreed to keep Wessex and leave Cnut ruling over the rest of England.

8/4/1016, Sunday (-339,334)

Tuesday (-339,339)

1/4/1016, Sunday (-339,341) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1015, Sunday (-339,670)

10/4/1015, Sunday (-339,698) Easter Sunday.

6/10/1014, The Byzantine Emperor Basil II defeated the Bulgarian army, after a 28-year war, under Tsar Samuel, then ordered the defeated 15,000 men to be blinded. Basil arranged for one eye of every hundredth man to be spared so the army could find its way back to the Tsar.

8/5/1014, Saturday (-340,035)

25/4/1014, Sunday (-340,048) Easter Sunday.

23/4/1014, Friday (-340,050) Battle of Clontarf: Gaelic Irish forces under Brian Boru defeated several allied Viking forces in Ireland, ending their power there but losing Brian in the battle.

25/12/1013, The Danish King, Swein Forkbeard, invaded England and was declared its King. However he died 5 weeks later.

Tuesday (-340,340)

8/5/1013, Friday (-340,400)

5/4/1013, Sunday (-340,433) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1012, Thursday (-340,765)

19/4/1012. Saturday (-340,784) St Alpheage, archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered by the Danes. He had been captured by the Danes who sacked Canterbury in 1011 and kept in prison for 7 months, and killed when a ransom was not paid.. Born in 954, St Alpheage was elected Abbot at Bath, and in 984 became the Bishop of Winchester. In 1006 he succeeded Aelfric as Archbishop of Canterbury.

13/4/1012, Sunday (-340,790) Easter Sunday

8/5/1011, Tuesday (-341,131)

Tuesday (-341,341)

25/3/1011, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1010, Monday (-341,496)

9/4/1010, Sunday (-341,525) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1009, Sunday (-341,861)

16/4/1009, Sunday (-341,882) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1008, Saturday (-342,226)

28/3/1008, Sunday  (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-342,342)

8/5/1007, Thursday (-342,592)

6/4/1007, Sunday (-342,624) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1006, Wednesday (-342,957)

21/4/1006, Sunday (-342,974) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1005, Tuesday (-343,322)

Tuesday (-343,343)

8/4/1005, Sunday (-343,352)

1/4/1005, Sunday (-343,359) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1004, Monday (-343,687)

16/4/1004, Sunday (-343,709) Easter Sunday.

12/5/1003. Wednesday (-344,049) Sylvester II, (Gerbert of Aurillac) the first French Pope, died. Elected in 999 with the backing of Otto III, he encouraged the Holy Roman Emperor’s ambition to re-create the Roman Empire of the west.

8/5/1003, Saturday (-344,053)

28/4/1003, Wednesday (-344,063)

28/3/1003, Sunday  (-344,094) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-344,344)

21/6/1002, Pope Leo IX was born.

8/5/1002, Friday (-344,418)

5/4/1002, Sunday (-344,451) Easter Sunday.

23/1/1002, The Holy Roman Emperor, Otto III, died aged 21, whilst fighting Rome. He was succeeded as King of the Franks and Bavarians by his 28-year-old cousin Henry, Duke of Bavaria, who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1014.

2/12/1001. (-) The Danes in England were massacred on the orders of King Aethelred, after his policy of buying them off had failed to halt the Dane’s raids. In revenge Sweyn returned in 1002 and ravaged Exeter in 1003 and Norwich and Thetford in 1004. After a lull in 1005 Danish attacks on English towns resumes and Aethelred bought them off for a larger sum than ever, £36,000, in 1007. But in 1010 the Danes were bough off again, for £48,000 this time. In the 1010s the Danes made efforts to gain political control of the English Kingdom of northern and western England. Aethelred, called the Unready as he was without rede or counsel, had been a weak, improvident, and self-indulgent monarch, and he died in London on 23/4/1016. His wife Emma subsequently married Canute, and died in retirement at Winchester on 6/3/1052 after not her son (Hardicanute) but Harold Harefoot had become king of England.

8/5/1001, Thursday (-344,783)

13/4/1001, Sunday (-344,808) Easter Sunday

25/12/1000, Stephen I became King of Hungary, which was established as a Christian kingdom.

8/5/1000, Wednesday (-345,148)

8/4/1000, Monday (-345,178)

31/3/1000, Sunday (-345,186) Easter Sunday.

17/12/999, Adelheid, widow of King Otto I of Germany, mother of King Otto II and grandmother of King Otto III, born 931, died.

Tuesday (-345,345)

8/5/999, (-345,514)

9/4/999, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

4/2/999, Pope Gregory V died.

2/11/998, (-) The Abbot of Cluny, France, instituted this day as All Soul’s day, when prayers are said for the dead. This way the Church co-opted the ancient pagan festival of Samhain, at the beginning of November, when the souls of the dead were said to return to roam the Earth.

8/5/998, Sunday (-345,879)

16/4/998, Sunday (-345,900) Easter Sunday.

8/5/997, Saturday (-346,244)

23/4/997, Friday (-346,259) St Adalbert, the Apostle of the Prussians, from Prague, was murdered by the Prussians, whom he was trying to convert. He had also preached to the Hungarians and Bohemians, the latter being annoyed by his asceticism.

28/3/997, Sunday  (-346,285) Easter Sunday.

14/10/996, Hugh Capet, King of the Franks, died aged 58. He was succeeded by his 26-year-old son who ruled as Robert II until 1031.

Tuesday (-346,346)

8/5/996, Friday (-346,609)

12/4/996, Sunday (-346,635) Easter Sunday

8/5/995, Wednesday (-346,975)

21/4/995, Sunday (-346,992) Easter Sunday.

8/5/994, Tuesday (-347,340)

Tuesday (-347,347)

8/4/994, Sunday (-374,370)

1/4/994, Sunday (-374,377) Easter Sunday.

8/5/993, Monday (-347,705)

16/4/993, Sunday (-347,727) Easter Sunday.

8/5/992, Sunday (-348,070)

8/4/992, Friday (-348,100)

27/3/992, Sunday (-348,112) Easter Sunday.

29/2/992, Monday (-348,139) Saint Oswald, Archbishop of York, died.

15/6/991, Monday (-348,398) Empress Theophano, Byzantine-born widow of King Otto II of Germany, died.

Tuesday (-348,348)

8/5/991, Friday (-348,436)

5/4/991, Sunday (-348,469) Easter Sunday.

28/9/990. King Wenceslas of Bohemia, the Good King Wenceslas of the Christmas carol, died in Stara Boleslav.

8/5/990, Thursday (-348,801)

20/4/990, Sunday (-348,189) Easter Sunday.

13/2/990, Ethelgar, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

8/5/989, Wednesday (-349,166)

8/4/989, Monday (-349,196)

31/3/989, Sunday (-349,204) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-349,349)

19/5/988, Saturday (-349,520) Saint Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury (born near Glastonbury ca. 910) died in Canterbury. He was appointed to Archbishop by King Edgar in 959.

8/5/988, Tuesday (-349,531)

8/4/988, Sunday (-349,581) Easter Sunday.

8/5/987, Sunday (-349,897)

24/4/987, Sunday (-349,911) Easter Sunday.

8/4/987, Friday (-349,927)

8/3/987, Tuesday (-349,958)

8/5/986, Saturday (-350,262)

4/4/986, Sunday (-350,296) Easter Sunday.

2/3/986, Lothair, King of the Franks, died, aged 44. He was succeeded by his 19-year-old son who ruled briefly as Louis V (le Faineant).

Tuesday (-350,350)

8/5/985, Friday (-350,627)

12/4/985, Sunday (-350,653) Easter Sunday

8/5/984, Thursday (-350,992)

23/3/984, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

7/12/983, (-) The Holy Roman Emperor Otto II died in his palace in Rome, aged 28. He was succeeded by his 3-year-old son.

Tuesday (-351,351)

8/5/983, Tuesday (-351,358)

8/4/983, Sunday (-351,388) Easter Sunday.

8/5/982, Monday (-351,723)

16/4/982, Sunday (-351,745) Easter Sunday.

8/5/981, Sunday (-352,088)

27/3/981, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-352,352)

8/5/980, Saturday (-352,453)

11/4/980, Sunday (-352,480) Easter Sunday.

8/5/979, Thursday (-352,819)

20/4/979, Sunday (-352,837) Easter Sunday.

8/5/978, Wednesday (-353,184)

8/4/978, Monday (-353,214)

31/3/978, Sunday (-353,222) Easter Sunday.

18/3/978, Monday (-353,235) King Edward the Martyr was murdered at Corfe Castle, and succeeded by Ethelred II (The Unready or Ill-Advised).

Tuesday (-353,353)

8/5/977, Tuesday (-353,549)

8/4/977, Sunday (-353,579) Easter Sunday.

8/5/976, Monday (-353,914)

23/4/976, Sunday (-353,929) Easter Sunday.

10/1/976, Byzantine co-Emperor John I Tzimisces died aged 51 after returning from a second campaign against the Saracens. The other co-Emperor, Basil II, then aged 20, now ruled alone until 1025.

8/5/975, Saturday (-354,280)

4/4/975, Sunday (-354,314) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-354,354)

8/5/974, Friday (-354,645)

12/4/974, Sunday (-354,671) Easter Sunday

7/5/973, Wednesday (-355,011) Otto I, King of Germany, died, aged 60, after an 11-year reign. He was succeeded by his 18-year-old son, Otto II, who had been joint Emperor since Christmas 967, and who in 972 had married the Byzantine Princess Theophano, daughter of Romanus II. Otto II ruled until 7/12/ 983.

23/3/973, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-355,355)

8/5/972, Wednesday (-355,375)

7/4/972, Sunday (-355,406) Easter Sunday.

8/5/971, Monday (-355,741)

16/4/971, Sunday (-355,763) Easter Sunday.

8/5/970, Sunday (-356,106)

27/3/970, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

28/10/969. After a prolonged siege, Byzantium captured Antioch from the Arabs.

Tuesday (-356,356)

8/5/969, Saturday (-356,471)

11/4/969, Sunday (-356,498) Easter Sunday.

8/5/968, Friday (-356,839)

19/4/968, Sunday (-356,858) Easter Sunday.

8/5/967, Wednesday (-357,202)

8/4/967, Monday (-357,232)

31/3/967, Sunday (-357,240) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-3570,357)

8/5/966, Tuesday (-357,567)

15/4/966, Sunday (-357,590) Easter Sunday.

14/4/966, Saturday (-357,591)Mieszko I, the first duke of Poland, was baptized a Christian. This is usually considered the beginning of the Polish state.

8/5/965, Monday (-357,932)

26/3/965, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/964, Sunday (-358,297)

3/4/964, Sunday (-358,332) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-358,358)

8/5/963, Friday (-358,663)

19/4/963, Sunday (-358,682) Easter Sunday.

12/4/963, Saturday (-358,697) The foundation of Luxembourg. On this day Count Sigefroi of the House of Ardenne acquired the site of present day Luxembourg City for the purpose of erecting a castle there.

8/5/962, Thursday (-359,028)

8/4/962, Tuesday (-359,058)

30/3/962, Sunday (-359,067) Easter Sunday.

2/3/962, Sunday (-359,095)

2/2/962, Sunday (-359,123) The Saxon Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII.

Tuesday (-359,359)

8/5/961, Wednesday (-359,393)

7/4/961, Sunday (-359,424) Easter Sunday.

8/5/960, Tuesday (-359,758)

22/4/960, Sunday (-359,774) Easter Sunday.

1/10/959, King Eadwig of England died, and was succeeded by his brother Edgar, who effectively completed the unification of England when Northumbria finally submitted to his rule.

2/6/959, Thursday (-360,099) Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

8/5/959, Sunday (-360,124)

3/4/959, Sunday (-360,159) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-360,360)

8/5/958, Saturday (-360,489)

11/4/958, Sunday (-360,516) Easter Sunday.

8/5/957, Friday (-360,854)

19/4/957, Sunday (-360,873) Easter Sunday.

17/6/956, Hugh The Great died, 2 months after gaining mastery of Burgundy. He was succeeded by his 18-year-old son, Hugh Capet, who was reluctantly acknowledged as Duke of the Franks by his cousin, Lothair, King of the Franks.

8/5/956, Thursday (-361,219)

6/4/856, Sunday (-361,251) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-361,361)

10/8/955, At the Battle of Lechfeld, near Augsburg, Otto I of the Holy Roman Empire heavily defeated the Magyars, stopping their westwards invasion into Germany.

8/5/955, Tuesday (-361,585)

15/4/955, Sunday (-361,608) Easter Sunday.

10/9/954, Louis IV, King of France, died aged 33. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old son Lothair who reigned until 986.

8/5/954, Monday (-361,950)

26/3/954, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/953, Sunday (-362,315)

3/4/953, Sunday (-362,350) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-362,362)

8/5/952, Saturday (-362,680)

18/4/952, Sunday (-362,700) Easter Sunday.

8/5/951, Thursday (-363,046)

30/3/951, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-363,363)

8/5/950, Wednesday (-363,411)

7/4/950, Sunday (-363,442) Easter Sunday.

8/5/949, Tuesday (-363,776)

22/4/949, Sunday (-363,792) Easter Sunday.

8/5/948, Monday (-364,141)

2/4/948, Sunday (-364,177) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-364,364)

8/5/947, Saturday (-364,507)

11/4/947, Sunday (-364,534) Easter Sunday.

8/5/946, Friday (-364,872)

22/3/946, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/945, Thursday (-365,237)

6/4/945, Sunday (-365,269) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-365,365)

8/5/944, Wednesday (-365,602)

14/4/944, Sunday (-365,626) Easter Sunday

8/5/943, Monday (-365,968)

26/3/943, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/942, Sunday (-366,333)

10/4/962, Sunday (-363,361) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-366,366)

8/5/941, Saturday (-366,698)

18/4/941, Sunday (-366,718) Easter Sunday.

8/5/940, Friday (-367,063)

29/3/940, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

27/10/939, King Athelstan of Mercia died.

Tuesday (-367,367)

8/5/939, Wednesday (-367,429)

14/4/939, Sunday (-367,453) Easter Sunday

8/5/938, Tuesday (-367,794)

22/4/938, Sunday (-367,810) Easter Sunday.

8/5/937, Monday (-368,159)

2/4/937, Sunday (-368,195) Easter Sunday.

2/7/936, Henry the Fowler, King of Germany, died aged 60 after a 17-year reign. He was succeeded by his 23-year-old son, who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962 and ruled as Otto I until 973.

Tuesday (-368,368)

8/5/936, Sunday (-368,524)

16/4/936, Sunday (-368,545) Easter Sunday.

8/5/935, Friday (-368,890)

29/3/935, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/934, Thursday (-369,255)

6/4/934, Sunday (-369,287) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-369,369)

8/5/933, Wednesday (-369,620)

14/4/933, Sunday (-369,644) Easter Sunday

8/5/932, Tuesday (-369,985)

8/4/932, Sunday (-370,015)

1/4/932, Sunday (-370,022) Easter Sunday.

8/5/931, Sunday (-370,351)

Tuesday (-370,370)

10/4/931, Sunday (-370,379) Easter Sunday.

8/5/930, Saturday (-370,716)

18/4/930, Sunday (-370,736) Easter Sunday.

8/5/929, Friday (-371,081)

5/4/929, Sunday (-371,114) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-371,371)

8/5/928, Thursday (-371,446)

13/4/928, Sunday (-371,471) Easter Sunday

8/5/927, Tuesday (-371, 812)

25/3/927, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/926, Monday (-372,177)

2/4/926, Sunday (-372,213) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-372,372)

8/5/925, Sunday (-372,542)

16/4/925, Sunday (-372,563) Easter Sunday.

17/7/924, King Edward the Elder of England died and was succeeded by his son Aethlstan.

8/5/924, Saturday (-372,907)

28/3/924, Sunday  (-) Easter Sunday.

15/6/923, Robert I, King of France, was killed in battle.

8/5/923, Thursday (-373,273)

6/4/923, Sunday (-373,305) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-373,373)

29/9/922, In France, Charles III (The Simple) was deposed by rebellious barons and replaced by King Odo who was crowned this day at Reims.

8/5/922, Wednesday (-373,638)

21/4/922, Sunday (-373,655) Easter Sunday.

8/5/921, Tuesday (-374,003)

8/4/921, Sunday (-374,033)

1/4/921, Sunday (-374,040) Easter Sunday.

8/5/920, Monday (-374,368)

Tuesday (-374,374)

9/4/920, Sunday (-374,397) Easter Sunday.

8/5/919, Saturday (-374,734)

25/4/919, Sunday (-374,747) Easter Sunday.

23/9/918, German King Conrad I died after a 7-year reign.

8/5/918, Friday (-375,099)

5/4/918, Sunday (-375,132) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-375,375)

8/5/917, Thursday (-375,464)

13/4/917, Sunday (-375,489) Easter Sunday

8/5/916, Wednesday (-375,829)

24/3/916, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/915, Monday (-376,195)

9/4/915, Sunday (-376,224) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-376,376)

8/5/914, Sunday (-376,560)

16/4/914, Sunday (-376,581) Easter Sunday.

8/5/913, Saturday (-376,925)

28/3/913, Sunday  (-) Easter Sunday.

23/11/912, The Holy Roman Emperor, Otto the Great, was born.

8/5/912, Friday (-377,290)

12/4/912, Sunday (-377,216) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-377,377)

8/11/911, Following the death of King Louis III (The Child) at age 18, the son of Conrad, Count of Lanhgau, was chosen as German King, at Forchheim.

8/5/911, Wednesday (-377,656)

21/4/911, Sunday (-377,673) Easter Sunday.

14/4/911, Pope Sergius III died.

8/5/910, Tuesday (-378,021)

8/4/910, Sunday (-378,051)

1/4/910, Sunday (-378,058) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-378,378)

8/5/909, Monday (-378,386)

16/4/909, Sunday (-378,408) Easter Sunday.

8/5/908, Sunday (-378,751)

27/3/908, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

4/7/907. The Bavarians suffered a disastrous defeat by the Hungarians.

8/5/907, Friday (-379,117)

5/4/907, Sunday (-379,150) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-379,379)

2/5/907, King Boris I of Bulgaria died.

8/5/906, Thursday (-379,482)

13/4/906, Sunday (-379,507) Easter Sunday

8/5/905, Wednesday (-379,847)

8/4/905, Monday (-379,877)

31/3/905, Sunday (--379,885) Easter Sunday.

1/7/904. The Arabs sacked Thessalonica, the second greatest city of the Empire after Byzantium itself, before withdrawing.

8/5/904, Tuesday (-380,212)

8/4/904, Sunday (-380,242) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-380,380)

8/5/903, Sunday (-380,578)

16/4/903, Sunday (-380,599) Easter Sunday.

13/12/902, The Anglo-Saxon men of Kent defeated the Vikings of East Anglia at the Battle of the Holme

1/8/902. The Arabs captured Taormina, which completed their conquest of Sicily from Byzantium.

8/5/902, Saturday (-380,943)

28/3/902, Sunday  (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/901, Friday (-381,308)

12/4/901, Sunday (-381,334) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-381,381)

8/5/900, Thursday (-381,673)

20/4/900, Sunday (-381,691) Easter Sunday.

8/1/900, Coronation of Edward the Elder.

26/10/899. Death of King Alfred the Great, succeeded by Edward the Elder. Born in ca.848, he was sent at the age of 5 to be confirmed by Pope Leo IV. At this time Alfred had three elder brothers and so was by no means guaranteed to be the future King of Wessex. Alfred’s two eldest brothers, Aethelbald and Aethelbert, had short reigns. The third brother, Aethelred, became king in 866. In 868 Aethelred and Alfred made an unsuccessful attempt to throw the Danes out of Mercia. In 870 numerous battles were fought by Aethelred against the Danes; a Danish defeat at Englefield, Berkshire, on 31/112/870 was followed by a Danish victory at Reading on 4/1/871. The Danes lost again at the Battle of Ashdown, near Compton Beauchamp, Shrivenham, on 8/1/871, but defeated the English on 22/1/871 at Basing, and repeated the Danish victory at Marton, Wiltshire, on 22/3/871. Aethelred, Alfred’s older brother, died in April 871, and while Alfred was busy with the funeral the Danes won another victory, and defeated his army once more at Wilton in May 871.

From then until 876 the Danes were occupied fighting elsewhere in England but in 876 they returned to Wessex to occupy Wareham and in 877 managed to take Exeter. Here the Danes were blockaded by Alfred, and a Danish relief fleet was scattered by storms. Hence the Danes submitted and withdrew to Mercia. In early January 878 the Danes suddenly attacked King Alfred’s Christmas celebrations at Chippenham; most were killed but Alfred and a few men escaped to the fort at Athelney, from where he made preparations for attacks on the Danes. By May 878 Alfred was ready and he moved out of Athelney, joined by armed soldiers from Somerset, Wiltshire, and Hampshire. The Danes also moved out of their camp at Chippenham and the two armies met at Edington in Wiltshire. The result was a decisive victory for Alfred; the Danes surrendered, and Guthrum, the Danish King, and 29 of his chief men, submitted to baptism as Christians. By the Peace of Wedmore, 878, the Danes were cleared from all of Wessex and from Mercia west of Watling Street. There were no more Danish attacks on England until 884 or 885 when a Danish landing in Kent was successfully repelled; this nevertheless encouraged an uprising by East Anglian Danes. Alfred then managed to capture London from the Danes.. After a further period of peace, the Danes on the continent found their position becoming more precarious and in 892 or 893, attempted to colonise, with their women and children, areas of Kent and the Thames estuary.

8/5/899, Tuesday (-382,039)

8/4/899, Sunday (-382,069)

1/4/899, Sunday (-382,076) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-382,382)

8/5/898, Monday (-382,404)

16/4/898, Sunday (-382,426) Easter Sunday.

8/5/897, Sunday (-382,769)

27/3/897, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/896, Saturday (-383,134)

4/4/896, Sunday (-383,168) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-383,383)

8/5/895, Thursday (-383,500)

20/4/895, Sunday (-383,518) Easter Sunday.

8/5/894, Wednesday (-383,865)

8/4/894, Monday (-383,895)

31/3/894, Sunday (-383,903) Easter Sunday.

8/5/893, Tuesday (-384,230)

8/4/893, Sunday (-384,260) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-384,384)

8/5/892, Monday (-384,595)

23/4/892, Sunday (-384,610) Easter Sunday.

8/5/891, Saturday (-384,961)

4/4/891, Sunday (-384,995) Easter Sunday.

8/5/890, Friday (-385,326)

12/4/890, Sunday (-385,352) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-385,385)

8/5/889, Thursday (-385,691)

23/3/889, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/888, Wednesday (-386,056)

7/4/888, Sunday (-386,087) Easter Sunday.

13/1/888,  With the death of Charles the Fat, the Frankish kingdom was split again, and this time permanently. Odo, Count of Paris became King of the Western Franks.

Tuesday (-386,386)

8/5/887, Monday (-386,422)

16/4/887, Sunday (-386,444) Easter Sunday.

29/8/886, Byzantine Emperor Basil I died after a 19-year reign. He was succeeded by a son of the late Emperor Michael (by Basil’s widow, Eudocia); he reigned until 912 as Leo VI (The Wise).

8/5/886, Sunday (-386,787)

27/3/886, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

26/11/885, Paris was attacked by the Northmen but they failed to take the city.

8/5/885, Saturday (-387,152)

11/4/885, Sunday (-387,179) Easter Sunday.

12/12/884, King Carloman of France died whilst out hunting and was succeeded as King of the West Franks by Holy Roman Emperor Charles III (The Fat), son of the late Louis the German.

Tuesday (-387,387)

8/5/884, Friday (-387,517)

19/4/884, Sunday (-387,536) Easter Sunday.

8/5/883, Wednesday (-387,883)

8/4/883, Monday (-387,913)

31/3/883, Sunday (-387,921) Easter Sunday.

5/8/882, Louis III, King of France, died, aged 19. His brother Carloman succeeded him.

8/5/882, Tuesday (-388,248)

8/4/882, Sunday (-388,278) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-388,388)

8/5/881, Monday (-388,613)

23/4/881, Sunday (-388,628) Easter Sunday.

8/5/880, Sunday (-388,978)

3/4/880, Sunday (-389,013) Easter Sunday

8/5/879, Friday (-389,344)

12/4/879, Sunday (-389,370) Easter Sunday

10/4/879, Friday (-389,372) King Louis II (The Stammerer) of France died at Compeigne, aged 32, after a reign of 18 months. He was succeeded jointly by his sons, Louis III and Carloman, and divided the kingdom between them a few months later.

Tuesday (-389,389)

8/5/878, Thursday (-389,709)

23/3/878, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/877, Wednesday (-390,074)

7/4/877, Sunday (-390,105) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-390,390)

8/5/876, Tuesday (-390,439)

15/4/876, Sunday (-390,462) Easter Sunday.

12/8/875, Holy Roman Emperor Louis II died in Brescia, aged 50.

8/5/875, Sunday (-390,805)

27/3/875, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/874, Saturday (-391,170)

11/4/874, Sunday (-391,197) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-391,391)

8/5/873, Friday (-391,535)

19/4/873, Sunday (-391,554) Easter Sunday.

8/5/872, Thursday (-391,900)

30/3/872, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/871, Tuesday (-392,266)

15/4/871, Sunday (-392,289) Easter Sunday.

23/4/871, (-392,281) King Ethelred of Wessex died in battle against the Danes; he was succeeded by King Alfred.

22/3/871, (-392,313) Battle of Marton (Wiltshire), between the Danes and Wessex.

22/2/871, (-392,341)

22/1/871, (-392,372) Battle of Basing, between the Danes and Wessex. King Ethelred of Wessex was defeated.

8/1/871, Battle of Ashdown, between the Danes and Wessex. King Ethelred of Wessex defeated the Danes.

4/1/871, Battle of Reading, between the Danes and Wessex. King Ethelred of Wessex was defeated.

Tuesday (-392,392)

31/12/870, Battle of Englefield (Berkshire), between the Danes and Wessex. King Ethelred of Wessex defeated the Danes.

20/11/870, The Danes murdered Edmund, King of East Anglia, when he refused to become their subject. He was succeeded by Oswald, last English King of East Anglia. The Danes moved south west and camped at Reading, ready to invade Wessex.

8/8/870, (-392,539) The Treaty of Mersen was signed.  Charles the Bald and his half-brother Louis the German divided the Kingdom of their nephew Lothair II (died 869) between them.

8/5/870, Monday (-392,631)

26/3/870, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/8/869, Lothair II, King of Lotharingia, died.

26/5/869, An earthquake and tsunami devastated a large part of the Sanriku  coast near Sendai, Japan.

8/5/869, Sunday (-392,996)

3/4/869, Sunday (-393,031)

11/5/868. The world’s first printed book, the Diamond Sutra, was published in China. It was found in 1900.

8/5/868, Saturday (-393,361)

18/4/868, Sunday (-393,381) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-393,393)

13/11/867, Pope Nicholas I died.

8/5/867, Thursday (-393,727)

30/3/867, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/866, Wednesday (-394,092)

7/4/866, Sunday (-394,123) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-394,394)

8/5/865, Tuesday (-394,457)

22/4/865, Sunday (-394,473) Easter Sunday.

23/7/864, Edict of Pistres: Charles the Bald ordered defensive measures against the Vikings.

8/5/864, Monday (-394,822)

2/4/864, Sunday (-394,858) Easter Sunday.

8/5/863, Saturday (-395,188)

11/4/863, Sunday (-395,215) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-395,395)

8/5/862, Friday (-395,553)

19/4/862, Sunday (-395,572) Easter Sunday.

8/5/861, Thursday (-395,918)

6/4/862, Sunday (-395,950) Easter Sunday.

8/5/860, Wednesday (-396,283)

14/4/860, Sunday (-396,307) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-396,396)

3/6/859. Edgar, King of All England, was crowned on Whit Sunday by Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the Saxon Abbey on the site of the present Bath Abbey.

8/5/859, Monday (-396,649)

26/3/859, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

13/6/858, Ethelwulf, King of Wessex, died and was succeeded by his son Ethelbald, who had been his co-ruler for three years and who married his stepmother Judith.

8/5/858, Sunday (-397,014)

3/4/858, Sunday (-397,049) Easter Sunday.

8/5/857, Saturday (-397,379)

Tuesday (-397,397)

18/4/857, Sunday (-397,399) Easter Sunday.

22/12/856, Earthquake in Danghan, Iran, killed 200,000.

8/5/856, Friday (-397,744)

29/3/856, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

29/9/855, Holy Roman Emperor Lothair abdicated in Prum aged 60. He divided his kingdom between his three sons. 33-year-old Louis II received Italy, which he had already governed since 844, and now ruled until 875. His brother Lothair received Austrasia, which he renamed Lotharingia, later, Lorraine A third son received Provence and southern Burgundy.

8/5/855, Wednesday (-398,110)

7/4/855, Sunday (-398,141) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-398,398)

8/5/854, Tuesday (-398,475)

22/4/854, Sunday (-398,491) Easter Sunday.

8/5/853, Monday (-398,840)

2/4/853, Sunday (-398,876) Easter Sunday.

8/5/852, Sunday (-399,205)

10/4/852, Sunday (-399,233) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-399,399)

22/8/851, Battle of Jengland. Erispoe, king of Brittany and son of Nominoe, defeated the Franc king Charles the Bald in Jengland-Besle  near Grand Forgery in Brittany. This is considered as the birth of the Breton state.

8/5/851, Friday (-399,571)

22/3/851, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday

8/5/850, Thursday (-399,936)

6/4/850, Sunday (-399,968) Easter Sunday.

5/3/850, Wednesday (-400,000)

8/5/849, Wednesday (-400,301)

14/4/849, Sunday (-400,325) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-400,400)

8/5/848, Tuesday (-400,666)

4/4/848,  Wednesday (-400,700)

25/3/848, Sunday (-400,710) Easter Sunday.

8/5/847, Sunday (-401,032)

10/4/847, Sunday (-401,060) Easter Sunday.

1/11/846, Louis II, King of France, was born.

8/5/846, Saturday (-401,397)

Tuesday (-401,401)

18/4/846, Sunday (-401,417) Easter Sunday.

8/5/845, Friday (-401,762)

29/3/845, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

28/3/845,  Saturday (-) Siege of Paris ended when Paris was sacked by a Viking raiding fleet, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collected a huge ransom in exchange for leaving. The Vikings also sacked Hamburg and Melun.

8/5/844, Thursday (-402,127)

13/4/844, Sunday (-402,152) Easter Sunday

10/8/843, The Treaty of Verdun divided the Holy Roman Empire into three equal shares  The imperial crown and central portion from Frisia to Italy went to Lothair.  Louis the German received Germany, and Charles the Bald, son of Pepin, received France.

Tuesday (-402,402)

8/5/843, Tuesday (-402,493)

22/4/843, Sunday (-402,509) Easter Sunday.

8/5/842, Monday (-402,858)

2/4/842, Sunday (-402,894) Easter Sunday.

25/6/841, The Battle of Fontenoy (Carolingian Civil War).

8/5/841, Sunday (-403,223)

16/4/841, Sunday (-403,244) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-403,403)

8/5/840, Saturday (-403,588)

5/5/840, One of the sons of Charlemagne, Emperor Louis of Bavaria, died of fright during a solar eclipse.  His other sons quarrelled, causing the division of his empire into France, Germany, and Italy, see 10/8/843.

28/3/840, Sunday  (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/839, Thursday (-403,954)

6/4/839, Sunday (-403,986) Easter Sunday.

8/5/838, Wednesday (-404,319)

14/4/838, Sunday (-404,343) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-404,404)

8/5/837, Tuesday (-404,684)

8/4/837, Sunday (-404,714)

1/4/837, Sunday (-404,721) Easter Sunday.

8/5/836, Monday (-405,049)

9/4/836, Sunday (-405,078) Easter Sunday.

8/5/835, Saturday (-405,415)

Tuesday (-405,405)

18/4/835, Sunday (-405,435) Easter Sunday.

8/5/834, Friday (-405,780)

5/4/834, Sunday (-405,813) Easter Sunday.

8/5/833, Thursday (-406,145)

13/4/833, Sunday (-406,170) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-406,406)

8/5/832, Wednesday (-406,510)

24/3/832, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/831, Monday (-406,876)

2/4/831, Sunday (-406,912) Easter Sunday.

8/5/830, Sunday (-407,241)

16/4/830, Sunday (-407,262) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-407,407)

8/5/829, Saturday (-407,606)

28/3/829, Sunday  (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/828, Friday (-407,971)

5/4/828, Sunday (-408,004)

8/5/827, Wednesday (-408,337)

21/4/827, Sunday (-408,354) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-408,408)

8/5/826, Tuesday (-408,702)

8/4/826, Sunday (-408,732)

1/4/826, Sunday (-408,740) Easter Sunday.

8/5/825, Monday (-409,067)

9/4/825, Sunday (-409,096) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-409,409)

8/5/824, Sunday (-409,432)

24/4/824, Sunday (-409,446) Easter Sunday.

8/5/823, Friday (-409,798)

5/4/832, Sunday (-409,831) Easter Sunday.

8/5/822, Thursday (-410,163)

13/4/822, Sunday (-410,188) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-410,410)

8/5/821, Wednesday (-410,528)

24/3/821, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/820, Tuesday (-410,893)

8/4/820, Sunday (-410,923) Easter Sunday.

8/5/819, Sunday (-411,259)

16/4/819, Sunday (-411,280) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-411,411)

8/5/818, Saturday (-411,624)

28/3/818, Sunday  (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/817, Friday (-411,989)

12/4/817, Sunday (-412,015) Easter Sunday

8/5/816, Thursday (-412,354)

20/4/816, Sunday (-412,372) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-412,412)

8/5/815, Tuesday (-412,720)

8/4/815, Sunday (-412,750)

1/4/815, Sunday (-412,757) Easter Sunday.

8/5/814, Monday (-413,085)

16/4/814, Sunday (-413,108) Easter Sunday.

28/1/814, Charlemagne died of pleurisy, aged 71.

Tuesday (-413,413)

8/5/813, (-413,450)

27/3/813, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/812, Saturday (-413,815)

4/4/812, Sunday (-413,849) Easter Sunday.

8/5/811, Thursday (-414,181)

13/4/811, Sunday (-414,206) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-414,414)

8/5/810, Wednesday (-414,546)

8/4/810, Monday (-414,576)

31/3/810, Sunday (-414,584) Easter Sunday.

8/5/809, Tuesday (-414,911)

8/4/809, Sunday (-414,941) Easter Sunday.

9/4/809, Monday (-414,940) The Bulgars captured Sofia.

8/5/808, Monday (-415,276)

16/4/808, Sunday (-415,298) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-415,415)

8/5/807, Saturday (-415,642)

28/3/807, Sunday  (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/806, Friday (-416,007)

12/4/806, Sunday (-416,033) Easter Sunday

8/5/805, Thursday (-416,372)

20/4/805, Sunday (-416,390) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-416,416)

19/5/804. Sunday (-416,726) Death of Alcuin, a learned churchman of the eight century. He was born at Eboracum (York) in 735 and became head of the Episcopal school of York in 766. Between 781 and 790 Alcuin helped Charlemagne teach church and other knowledge to the Frankish nobility.

8/5/804, Wednesday (-416,737)

8/4/804, Monday (-416,767)

31/3/804, Sunday (-416,775) Easter Sunday.

8/5/803, Monday (-417,103)

16/4/803, Sunday (-417,125) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-417,417)

8/5/802, Sunday (-417,468)

27/3/802, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/801, Saturday (-417,833)

4/4/801, Sunday (-417,867) Easter Sunday.

25/12/800, Charlemagne was crowned first Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III.

8/5/800, Friday (-418,198)

19/4/800, Sunday (-418,217) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-418,418)

8/5/799, Wednesday (-418,564)

8/4/799, Monday (-418,594)

31/3/799, Sunday (-418,602) Easter Sunday.

8/5/798, Tuesday (-418,929)

8/4/798, Sunday (-418,959) Easter Sunday.

8/5/797, Monday (-419,294)

23/4/797, Sunday (-419,309) Easter Sunday.

29/7/796. Death of King Offa of Mercia. His kingdom covered much of England south of a line from the Humber to Preston, and he had subdued the only other kingdom south of this line, Wessex, (Hampshire to Cornwall) in 777. on 17/12/796 Offa’s son and successor Egfrith  died and was succeeded by Cenwulf.

Tuesday (-419,419)

8/5/796, Sunday (-419,659)

3/4/796, Sunday (-419,694) Easter Sunday.

25/12/795. Death of Pope Adrian I, Pope from 772 to 795. He halted the trend against the use of images in Church which was taking place in the east of Christendom. In 726 Emperor Leo III of Constantinople had banned the use of religious images in Christendom. This trend was upheld by a meeting of churchmen in Constantinople in 730; all visible symbols of Christ, other than the Eucharist, were forbidden and anyone using icons or statues would be accused of idolatry and paganism. Leo felt that what were symbols of the divine have become divinities in themselves, and the seemingly inexorable spread of Islam made Christians wonder about the power of their images. Leo wanted to strengthen Christianity’s appeal against Islam, which forbids any portrayal of the human form. Leo was also concerned about the growing power of the monasteries, which threatened the divide between church and state.

Tuesday (-420,420)

8/5/795, Friday (-420,025)

12/4/795, Sunday (-420,051) Easter Sunday

8/5/794, Thursday (-420,390)

23/3/794, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/1/794, Vikings again raided Lindisfarne.

8/6/793. Vikings raided the monastery at Lindisfarne, killing many of the monks.

8/5/793, Wednesday (-420,755)

7/4/793, Sunday (-420,786) Easter Sunday.

8/5/792, Tuesday (-421,120)

15/4/792, Sunday (-421,143) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-421,421)

8/5/791, Sunday (-421,486)

27/3/791, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/790, Saturday (-421,851)

11/4/790, Sunday (-421,878) Easter Sunday.

8/5/789, Friday (-422,216)

19/4/789, Sunday (-422,235) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-422,422)

8/5/788, Thursday (-422,581)

30/3/788, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/787, Tuesday (-422,947)

8/4/787, Sunday (-422,977) Easter Sunday.

8/5/786, Monday (-423,312)

23/4/786, Sunday (-423,327) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-423,423)

8/5/785, Sunday (-423,677)

3/4/785, Sunday (-423,712) Easter Sunday.

8/5/784, Saturday (-424,042)

11/4/784, Sunday (-424,069) Easter Sunday.

8/5/783, Thursday (-424,408)

Tuesday (-424,424)

23/3/783, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/782, Wednesday (-424,773)

7/4/782, Sunday (-424,804) Easter Sunday.

8/5/781, Tuesday (-425,138)

15/4/781, Sunday (-425,161) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-425,425)

8/5/780, Monday (-425,503)

26/3/780, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/779, Saturday (-425,869)

11/4/779, Sunday (-425,896) Easter Sunday.

15/8/778. Roland (Count Hruodland), a loyal ally of King Charles of the Franks, or Charlemagne, was killed in the Pyrenees in an ambush by the Basques. The Basques were never conquered even by the Romans. Roland was returning to France after a successful campaign against the Arabs in Spain.

8/5/778, Friday (-426,234)

19/4/778, Sunday (-426,253) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-426,426)

8/5/777, Thursday (-426,599)

30/3/777, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/776, Wednesday (-426,964)

14/4/776, Sunday (-426,988) Easter Sunday

8/5/775, Monday (-427,330)

26/3/775, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-427,427)

8/5/774, Sunday (-427,695)

3/4/774, Sunday (-427,730) Easter Sunday.

8/5/773, Saturday (-428,060)

18/4/773, Sunday (-428,080) Easter Sunday.

8/5/772, Friday (-428,425)

Tuesday (-428,428)

29/3/772, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

4/12/771, (-) Carloman I, King of the Franks, died, leaving his brother Charlemagne king of the now complete Frankish kingdom.

8/5/771, Wednesday (-428,791)

7/4/771, Sunday (-428,822)

8/5/770, Tuesday (-429,156)

22/4/770, Sunday (-429,172) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-429,429)

8/5/769, Monday (-429,521)

2/4/769, Sunday (-429,557) Easter Sunday

24/9/768, Pepin III, King of the Franks, died.

8/5/768, Sunday (-429,886)

10/4/768, Sunday (-429,914) Easter Sunday.

28/6/767, Pope Paul I died.

8/5/767, Friday (-430,252)

19/4/767, Sunday (-430,271) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-430,430)

8/5/766, Thursday (-430,617)

6/4/766, Sunday (-430,649) Easter Sunday.

8/5/765, Wednesday (-430,982)

14/4/765, Sunday (-431,006) Easter Sunday

22/3/765, The Sixth Imam was killed, poisoned by Caliph al-Mansur.

8/5/764, Tuesday (-431,347)

25/3/764, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-431,431)

18/11/763, Forces of the Tibetan Empire under Trisong Detsan occupied the Tang Chinese capital Chang’an for 16 days.

8/5/763, Sunday (-431,713)

3/4/753, Sunday (-431,748) Easter Sunday.

30/7/762, The city of Baghdad was founded by Caliph al-Mansur. The city was completed in 766, by 100,000 labourers; it was circular and 1.5 miles in diameter.

8/5/762, Saturday (-432,078)

18/4/762, Sunday (-432,098) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-432,432)

8/5/761, Friday (-432,443)

29/3/761, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/760, Thursday (-432,808)

6/4/760, Sunday (-432,840) Easter Sunday.

8/5/759, Tuesday (-433,174)

22/4/759, Sunday (-433,190) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-433,433)

8/5/758, Monday (-433,539)

2/4/1758, Sunday (-433,575) Easter Sunday.

29/5/757, (-433,883) Pope Paul I acceded. He succeeded Pope Stephen II.

8/5/757, Sunday (-433,904)

26/4/757, Tuesday (-433,916) This second Pope Stephen II died (see 26/3/752).

10/4/757, Sunday (-433,932) Easter Sunday.

9/3/757, (-433,964) A major earthquake struck Palestine and Syria.

8/5/756, Saturday (-434,269)

2/5/756, Sunday (-434,275) Shomu, Emperor of Japan, died.

2/4/756, Friday (-434,305)

28/3/756, Sunday  (-434,310) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-434,434)

8/5/755, Thursday (-434,635)

6/4/755, Sunday (-434,667) Easter Sunday.

5/6/754. Wednesday (-435,972) The English missionary Boniface and 53 companions were murdered in Germany by pagans..

8/5/754, Wednesday (-435,000)

14/4/754, Sunday (-453,024) Easter Sunday

8/5/753, Tuesday (-435,365)

25/3/753, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-435,435)

8/5/752, Monday (-435,730)

9/4/752, Sunday (-435,759) Easter Sunday.

26/3/752, (-435,773) Pope Stephen II (another Pope Stephen) was elected, succeeding the Pope Stephen II who died that month before taking office. See 26/4/757.

14/3/752, (-435,785) Pope Zachary (741-52) died in Rome.

8/5/751, Saturday (-436,096)

18/4/751, Sunday (-436,116) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-436,436)

8/5/750, Friday (-436,461)

29/3/750, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

28/11/749, The Abbasid Dynasty was established in Baghdad with the accession of Abu’l Abbas (died 5/6/754), ruling until the Mongol Invasion of 1258. They claimed descent from Abbas, uncle of Mohammed.

8/5/749, Thursday (-436,826)

13/4/749, Sunday (-436,851) Easter Sunday

18/1/749, A severe earthquake hit Palestine.

8/5/748, Wednesday (-437,191)

Tuesday (-437,437)

8/5/747, Monday (-437,557)

2/4/747, Sunday (-437,593) Easter Sunday.

8/5/746, Sunday (-437,922)

16/4/746, Sunday (-437,943) Easter Sunday.

8/5/745, Saturday (-438,287)

28/3/745, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-438,438)

8/5/744, Friday (-438,652)

17/4/744, Friday (-438,673) Walid II, Islamic leader, was killed. He was succeeded by Yazid III.

5/4/744, Sunday (-438,685) Easter Sunday.

8/5/743, Wednesday (-439,018)

14/4/743, Sunday (-439,042) Easter Sunday

8/5/742, Tuesday (-439,383)

2/4/742, Monday (-439,419) Charlemagne was born.

1/4/742, Sunday (-439,420) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-439,439)

2/2/742, (-439,478)

2/1/742, (-439,509)

5/12/741, (-439,537) Pope Zachary acceded. He succeeded Pope Gregory III.

22/10/741. (-439,581) Death of Charles Martel (see 25/10/732) at his country palace at Quierzy, aged 53. He divided his realm between his older son, Carloman, and his younger son, Pepin (Pippin). Carloman received the eastern lands (now Germany) whilst Pepin received the west (France).

8/9/741, (-439,625)

8/7/741, (-439,687)

8/5/741, Monday (-439,748)

9/4/741, Sunday (-439,777) Easter Sunday.

26/10/740, An earthquake struck Constantinople.

8/5/740, Sunday (-440,113)

24/4/740, Sunday (-440,127) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-440,440)

8/5/739, Friday (-440,479)

5/4/739, Sunday (-440,512) Easter Sunday.

8/5/738, Thursday (-440,844)

13/4/738, Sunday (-440,869) Easter Sunday

8/5/737, Wednesday (-441,209)

24/3/737, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-441,441)

8/5/736, Tuesday (-441,574)

8/4/736, Sunday (-441,604) Easter Sunday.

25/5/735. Death of the historian Bede at Jarrow monastery, aged 63.

8/5/735, Sunday (-441,940)

16/4/735, Sunday (-441,961) Easter Sunday.

8/5/734, Saturday (-442,305)

28/3/734, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-442,442)

8/5/733, Friday (-442,670)

5/4/733, Sunday (-442,703) Easter Sunday.

25/10/732. The Frankish general, Charles Martel, won a major victory over the Arabs at Poitiers. In 718 an Arab siege of Constantinople had been defeated. The Arabs had crossed the Pyrenees, sacked Bordeaux and Poitiers, and were advancing on the wealthy monastery of St Martin at Tours. Eudo, Duke of Aquitaine, appealed to Charles who brought the Frankish army south to help. The Arabs, their leader killed, retreated south, probably to put down a Berber uprising in north Africa.

8/5/732, Thursday (-443,035)

20/4/732, Sunday (-443,053) Easter Sunday.

8/5/731. Wednesday (-443,401)

Tuesday (-443,443)

1/5/731, Tuesday (-443,408)

1/4/731, Sunday (-443,438) Easter Sunday

11/2/731, Pope Gregory II died.

8/5/730, Monday (-443,766)

9/4/730, Sunday (-443,795) Easter Sunday.

9/5/729, Monday (-444,130) Osric, King of Northumbria, died and was succeeded by Ceolwulf.

8/5/729, Sunday (-444,131)

24/4/729, Sunday (-444,145) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-444,444)

8/5/728, Saturday (-444,496)

4/4/728, Sunday (-444,530) Easter Monday.

8/5/727, Thursday (-444,862)

13/4/727, Sunday (-444,887) Easter Sunday

8/5/726, Wednesday (-445,227)

24/3/726, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-445,445)

8/5/725, Tuesday (-445,592)

8/4/725, Sunday (-445.622) Easter Sunday.

8/5/724, Monday (-445,957)

16/4/724, Sunday (-445,979) Easter Sunday.

26/1/724, (-) Yazid II, Islamic leader, died. He was succeeded by Hisham.

8/5/723, Saturday (-446,323)

28/3/723, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-446,446)

30/9/722. Boniface was ordained as Bishop of Germany by the Pope and returned to Germany to continue his conversion work there.

8/5/722, Friday (-446,688)

12/4/722, Sunday (-444,714) Easter Sunday

8/5/721, Thursday (-447,053)

8/5/720, Wednesday (-447,418)

20/4/720, Sunday (-447,436) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-447,447)

8/4/720, Monday (-447,448)

31/3/720, Sunday (-447,456) Easter Sunday.

9/2/720, (-) Omar II, Islamic leader, died. He was succeeded by Yazid II.

8/5/719, Monday (-447,784)

16/4/719, Sunday (-447,806) Easter Sunday.

8/5/718, Sunday (-448,149)

27/3/718, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

24/12/717, An earthquake shook many places in northern Syria, and destroyed the Old Church of Edessa.

15/8/717, Muslim forces attempted to capture Constantinople, but were defeated  However Emperor Theodosius was deposed and succeeded by the 37-year-old Emperor Leo III, who ruled until 741. This was the start of the Isaurian Dynasty, which endured until 802.

8/5/717, Saturday (-448,514)

4/4/717, Sunday (-448,548) Easter Sunday.

8/5/716, Friday (-448,879)

19/4/716, Sunday (-448,898) Easter Sunday.

8/5/715, Wednesday (-449,245)

9/4/715, Tuesday (-449,274) Pope Constantine I died.

31/3/715, Sunday (-449,283) Easter Sunday.

16/12/714, Pepin II, ruler of the Franks, died.

Tuesday (-449,449)

8/5/714, Tuesday (-449,610)

8/4/714, Sunday (-449,640) Easter Sunday.

28/2/714, An earthquake struck Syria.

8/5/713, Monday (-449,975)

16/4/713, Sunday (-449,998) Easter Sunday.

8/5/712, Sunday (-450,340)

3/4/712, Sunday (-450,375) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-450,450)

19/7/711, Battle of Guadalete: Umayyad Moors' victory over the Visigothic army. Visigothic king Roderic (Rodrigo in Spanish and Portuguese) died in the battle.

8/5/711, Friday (-450,706)

12/4/711, Sunday (-450,732) Easter Sunday

8/5/710, Thursday (-451,071)

20/4/710, Sunday (-451,089) Easter Sunday.

25/5/709. Death of Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne. Born around 640, Aldhelm was educated by an Irish scholar and monk, Meldun (or Maildulf), who had settled in the British stronghold of Bladow, on the site of Malmesbury. Aldhelm succeeded Meldulf as head of the Christian community at Malmesbury when Meldulf retired due to ill health in 675. Under Aldhelm, the community at Malmesbury increased and he founded two other centres of learning at Frome and at Bradford on Avon.

8/5/709, Wednesday (-451,436)

Tuesday (-451,451)

8/4/709, Monday (-451,466)

31/3/709, Sunday (-451,474) Easter Sunday.

8/5/708, Tuesday (-451,801)

15/4/708, Sunday (-451,824) Easter Sunday.

25/3/708, Sunday (-451,845) Pope Constantine I was consecrated, succeeding Sisinnius.

8/5/707, Sunday (-452,167)

Tuesday (-452,452)

27/3/707, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/706, Saturday (-452,532)

4/4/706, Sunday (-452,566) Easter Sunday.

16/12/705, Empress Wu Hou of China died. Born in 625, she became a junior concubine in the palace of Emperor Tai Tsung in 638; on his death in 649 she became very close to his successor, Kao Tsung. In 655 she became Empress. By 660 Emperor Kao Tsung was very ill and Wu Hou was effective ruler of China. Between 655 and 675 China conquered Korea. In 690 Wu Hou officially became Empress. In February 705 Chinese government ministers forced her to abdicate in favour of her son, Chung Tsung.

8/5/705, Friday (-452,897)

19/4/705, Sunday (-452,916) Easter Sunday.

8/5/704, Thursday (-453,262)

Tuesday (-453,453)

30/3/704, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/703, Tuesday (-453,628)

8/4/703, Sunday (-453,658) Easter Sunday.

8/5/702, Monday (-453,993)

23/4/702, Sunday (-454,008) Easter Sunday.

8/5/701, Sunday (-454,358)

3/4/701, Sunday (-454,393) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-454,454)

8/5/700, Saturday (-454,723)

11/4/700, Sunday (-454,750) Easter Sunday.

8/5/699, Thursday (-455,089)

23/3/699, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/698, Wednesday (-455,454)

Tuesday (-455,455)

7/4/698, Sunday (-455,485) Easter Sunday.

8/5/697, Tuesday (-455,819)

15/4/697, Sunday (-455,842) Easter Sunday.

8/5/696, Monday (-456,184)

Tuesday (-456,456)

26/3/696, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/695, Saturday (-456,550)

11/4/695, Sunday (-456,577) Easter Sunday.

9/11/694, Hispano-Visigothic king Egica accused the Jews of aiding the Muslims, and sentenced all Jews to slavery.

8/5/694, Friday (-456,915)

19/4/694, Sunday (-456,934) Easter Sunday.

8/5/693, Thursday (-457,280)

Tuesday (-457,457)

30/3/693, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/692, Wednesday (-457,645)

14/4/692, Sunday (-457,669) Easter Sunday

8/5/691, Monday (-458,011)

23/4/691, Sunday (-458,026) Easter Sunday.

8/5/690, Sunday (-458,376)

3/4/690, Sunday (-458,411) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-458,458)

8/5/689, Saturday (-458,741)

11/4/698, Sunday (-458,768) Easter Sunday.

8/5/688, Friday (-459,106)

29/3/688, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-459,459)

8/5/687, Wednesday (-459,472)

7/4/687, Sunday (-459,503) Easter Sunday.

20/3/687, Cuthbert died on Farne Island.

8/5/686, Tuesday (-459,837)

15/4/686, Sunday (-459,860) Easter Sunday.

20/5/685, Ecgfrith, King of Northumbria, died.

8/5/685, Monday (-460,202)

26/3/685, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-460,460)

26/11/684, A great earthquake struck Japan.

8/5/684, Sunday (-460,567)

10/4/684, Sunday (-460,595) Easter Sunday.

8/5/683, Friday (-460,933)

19/4/683, Sunday (-460,952) Easter Sunday.

8/5/682, Thursday (-461,298)

30/3/682, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-461,461)

8/5/681, Wednesday (-461,663)

14/4/681, Sunday (-461,687) Easter Sunday

10/10/680. Al-Husayn, son of Ali, was killed in battle at Kerbala. He was fighting a rival caliph (successor), Yazid, a Sunni Moslem of the Ummayad dynasty. His death gave birth to Shi’ism; a dissident group of Moslems who claimed that only the descendants of Mohammed can rightfully interpret the Koran. They saw Al-Husayn as a martyr.

8/5/680, Tuesday (-462,028)

25/3/680, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/679, Sunday (-462,394)

3/4/679, Sunday (-462,429) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-462,462)

8/5/678, Saturday (-462,759)

18/4/678, Sunday (-462,779) Easter Sunday.

8/5/677, Friday (-463,124)

29/3/677, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/8/676, (-) Death of St Colman, Bishop of Lindisfarne from 661. An Irish monk, he attended the Synod of Whitby in 664, where he supported the Celtic method of calculating Easter date against the Roman, but was overruled by King Oswy.

16/6/676, Monday (-463,450) Pope Adeodatus II (77th Pope) died, succeeded by Pope Donus (died 678)

Tuesday (-463,463)

8/5/676, Thursday (-463,489)

6/4/676, Sunday (-463,521) Easter Sunday

8/5/675, Tuesday (-463,855)

22/4/675, Sunday (-463,871) Easter Sunday.

8/5/674, Monday (-464,220)

2/4/674, Sunday (-464,256) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-464,464)

4/7/673, Saturday (-464,530) Egbert I, King of Kent, died.

8/6/673, Wednesday (-464,554)

8/5/673, Sunday (-464,585)

10/4/673, Sunday (-464,613) Easter Sunday.

8/5/672, Saturday (-464,950)

25/4/672, Sunday (-464,963) Easter Sunday.

11/4/672, Sunday (-464,977) Pope Adeodatus II (77th Pope) acceded. He ruled until 676.

8/5/671, Thursday (-465,316)

6/4/671, Sunday (-465,348) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-465,465)

8/5/670, Wednesday (-465,681)

14/4/670, Sunday (-465,705) Easter Sunday

15/2/670, Death of King Oswy of Bernicia (northern England). Born ca. 612, son of King Aedilfrith of Bernicia,, he became king in 642. He attempted to gain control of the neighbouring Kingdom of Deira.

8/5/669, Tuesday (-466,046)

25/3/669, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/668, Monday (-466,411)

9/4/668, Sunday (-466,440) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-466,466)

8/5/667, Saturday (-466,777)

18/4/667, Sunday (-466,797) Easter Sunday.

8/5/666, Friday (-467,142)

29/3/666, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-467,467)

8/5/665, Thursday (-467,507)

6/4/665, Sunday (-467,539) Easter Sunday.

8/5/664, Wednesday (-467,872)

21/4/664, Sunday (-467,889) Easter Sunday.

8/5/663, Monday (-468,238)

2/4/663, Sunday (-468,274) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-468,468)

8/5/662, Sunday (-468,603)

10/4/662, Sunday (-468,631) Easter Sunday.

8/5/661, Saturday (-468,968)

28/3/661, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/660, Friday (-469,333)

5/4/660, Sunday (-469,366) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-469,469)

8/5/659, Wednesday (-469,699)

14/4/659, Sunday (-469,723) Easter Sunday

8/5/658, Tuesday (-470,064)

25/3/658, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/657, Monday (-470,429)

Tuesday (-470,470)

9/4/657, Sunday (-470,458) Easter Sunday.

8/5/656, Sunday (-470,794)

16/4/656, Sunday (-470,815) Easter Sunday.

16/9/655, Pope Martin I died.

8/5/655, Friday (-471,160)

29/3/655, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-471,471)

8/5/654, Thursday (-471,525)

13/4/654, Sunday (-471,550) Easter Sunday

8/5/653, Wednesday (-471,890)

21/4/653, Sunday (-471,907) Easter Sunday.

8/5/652, Tuesday (-472,255)

1/5/652, Tuesday (-472,262)

1/4/652, Sunday (-472,292) Easter Sunday.

31/8/651, Saint Aidan, missionary and first bishop of Lindisfarne, died.

Tuesday (-472,472)

8/5/651, Sunday (-472,621)

16/4/651, Sunday (-472,642) Easter Sunday.

8/5/650, Saturday (-472,986)

28/3/650, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/649, Friday (-473,351)

5/4/649, Sunday (-473,384) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-473,473)

8/5/648, Thursday (-473,716)

20/4/648, Sunday (-473,734) Easter Sunday.

8/5/647, Tuesday (-474,082)

1/5/647, Tuesday (-474,089)

1/4/647, Sunday (-474,119) Easter Sunday.

8/5/646, Monday (-474,447)

Tuesday (-474,474)

9/4/646, Sunday (-474,476) Easter Sunday.

8/5/645, Sunday (-474,812)

24/4/645, Sunday (-474,826) Easter Sunday.

8/5/644, Saturday (-475,177)

4/4/644, Sunday (-475,211) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-475,475)

8/5/643, Thursday (-475,543)

13/4/643, Sunday (-475,578) Easter Sunday

17/9/642. Alexandria, Egypt, surrendered to the Arabs led by Amr Ibn Al-As. Amr invaded Syria in 633 and attacked Egypt in 639, taking Pelusium in January 640 and Heliopolis in June 640. In 646 Amr defeated a Greek attempt to retake Alexandria. Amr died, as governor of Egypt, on 6/1/664. The Arabs moved on south to conquer Nubia, also conquering Cyrenicia and Tripolitania in 643.

5/8/642. Death of the Christian King Oswald of Northumbria at the Battle of Maserfield, lost to the invading Kingdom of Mercia, under the pagan King Penda. King Oswald had succeeded to the Kingdom of Bernicia in 634 and in 635 reunited the whole of Northumbria under his rule Northumbria had previously been converted to Christianity by Paulinus  but had relapsed under the heathen successors to Edwin. Oswald was a Christian and sent for a new Bishop. Paulinus had been a member of the Roman Church but his successor was from the Celtic church, the monastery of Iona, which Oswald had visited during his exile. The first monk sent under Oswald failed to make any headway amongst the ‘uncouth Northumbrians’ but a second, Aidan, was sent as Bishop of Northumbria. Aidan retained his See when the Mercians defeated and slew Oswald, and Aidan died at Bamburgh on 31/8/651.

8/5/642, Wednesday (-475,908)

24/3/642, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/641, Tuesday (-476,273)

8/4/641, Sunday (-476,303) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-476,476)

6/7/640, The Battle of Heliopolis was fought between Arab Muslim armies and the Byzantine Empire.

8/5/640, Monday (-476,638)

16/4/640, Sunday (-476,660) Easter Sunday.

20/1/640, Eadbald, King of Kent, died and was succeeded by his son Earconberht.

8/5/639, Saturday (-477,004)

28/3/639, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/638, Friday (-477,369)

5/4/638, Sunday (-477,402) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-477,477)

8/5/637, Thursday (-477,734)

20/4/642, Sunday (-477,752) Easter Sunday.

15/8/636. The Byzantine army was crushed by the Moslem Arabs at the Battle of Yarmuk, on the River Yarmuk, east of the Sea of Galilee. The Arabs, who took Damascus in 635, now controlled all of Syria. In 637 the Arabs destroyed the Persian army at the Battle of Qadisiyya. Jerusalem was captured by the Arabs in 638 under Caliph Umar.

8/5/636, Wednesday (-478,099)

8/4/636, Monday (-478,129)

31/3/636, Sunday (-478,137) Easter Sunday.

8/5/635, Monday (-478,465)

Tuesday (-478,478)

9/4/635, Sunday (-478,494) Easter Sunday.

30/7/634, The Byzantine army of Emperor Heraclius, defending Damascus against an alliance of Arab raiders, was defeated by Khalid at the Battle of Ajnadayn in southern Palestine.

8/5/634, Sunday (-478,830)

24/4/634, Sunday (-478,844) Easter Sunday.

8/5/633, Saturday (-479,195)

4/4/633, Sunday (-479,229)

Tuesday (-479,479)

8/6/632. Mohammed died, aged about 62.  He was buried in Mecca.  See 16/7/622.

8/5/632, Friday (-479,560)

12/4/632, Sunday (-479,586) Easter Sunday

8/5/631, Wednesday (-479,926)

24/3/631, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/630, Tuesday (-480,291)

8/4/630, Sunday (-480,321) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-480,480)

8/5/629, Monday (-480,656)

16/4/629, Sunday (-480,678) Easter Sunday.

8/5/628, Sunday (-481,021)

27/3/628, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/627, Friday (-481,387)

12/4/627, Sunday (-481,413) Easter Sunday. Paulinus, last of the missionaries send by Pope Gregory I, built a wooden church in the old Roman legionary headquarters in York and baptised Edwin of Northumbria as the first Christian king in Northern England.

Tuesday (-481,481)

8/5/626, Thursday (-481,752)

20/4/625, Sunday (-481,770) Easter Sunday.

8/5/625, Wednesday (-482,117)

31/3/625, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/624, Tuesday (-482,482)

15/4/623, Sunday (-482,505) Easter Sunday.

8/5/623, Sunday (-482,848)

27/3/623, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

16/7/622. Friday (-483,144) The traditional starting day of the Islamic era, when Muhammad fled persecution in Mecca for the city of Medina, then known as Yattrib. This flight is called the Hejirah. In Arabia around 610, Mohammed had called for an end to the demons and idols of the Arab religion and to convert to monotheistic worship of Allah. Born around 570, Mohammed was of the Quraysh tribe, a Bedouin tribe in the Arabian peninsula. This tribe occupied Mecca, a wealthy caravan trading centre, and Mohammed was married to a wealthy widow. Arabs also came to Mecca to worship at the Kaaba, a black meteoric stone of which the Qurayshi are guardians. Mohammed denounced the idol worship associated with the Kaaba, and made enemies of some wealthy merchants, especially with his calls to help the poor. Mohammed died on 8/6/632. He saw himself as an instrument of God. His new religion was called Islam, meaning submission; its adherents were Moslems, or those who submit. In 630 the citizens of Mecca accepted his new religion; in return Mohammed agreed that the Kaaba should remain as a place of pilgrimage for Moslems.

12/6/622, Saturday (-483,178)

8/5/622, Saturday (-483,213)

4/4/622, Sunday (-483,247) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-483,483)

8/5/621, Friday (-483,578)

19/4621, Sunday (-483,597) Easter Sunday.

8/5/620, Thursday (-483,943)

8/4/620, Tuesday (-483,973)

30/3/620, Sunday (-483,982) Easter Sunday.

8/5/619, Tuesday (-484,309)

8/4/619, Sunday (-484,339) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-484,484)

8/5/618, Monday (-484,674)

16/4/618, Sunday (-484,696) Easter Sunday.

8/5/617, Sunday (-485,039)

3/4/617, Sunday (-485,074) Easter Sunday.

8/5/616, Saturday (-485,404)

11/4/616, Sunday (-485,431) Easter Sunday.

29/7/615,  Queen Sal K’uk was succeeded by her son Pacal the Great as ruler of the Maya city state Palenque (Mexico). He began a building program at his capital that produced some of Maya civilization's finest art and architecture.

Tuesday (-485,485)

8/5/615, Thursday (-485,770)

20/4/542, Sunday (-485,788) Easter Sunday.

15/10/614. Chlothar II, now sole ruler of the Franks after the execution of Queen Brunhild, issued the Edict of Paris, in an attempt to stamp out corruption in his dominions.

8/5/614,  (-486,135)

5/5/614. The Persians completed the conquest of Syria by capturing Jerusalem. They seized the ‘true cross’, the most holy relic of Christendom. However on 3/4/628 the Persian ruler Kavadh sued for peace with Byzantium. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, as well as the ‘true cross’. This cross was restored to Jerusalem by Heraclius on 21/3/630.

31/3/614, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-486,486)

8/5/613, Tuesday (-486,500)

15/4/613, Sunday (-486,523) Easter Sunday.

8/5/612, Monday (-486,865)

26/4/612, Wednesday (-486,877)

26/3/612, Sunday (-486,908) Easter Sunday.

8/5/611, Saturday (-487,231)

4/4/611, Sunday (-487,265) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-487,487)

8/5/610, Friday (-487,596)

19/4/610, Sunday (-487,615) Easter Sunday.

13/5/609, Tuesday (-487,956) The Pantheon in Rome was consecrated as "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda") by Pope Boniface IV.

8/5/609, Thursday (-487,961)

30/4/609, Wednesday (-487,969)

1/4/609, Tuesday (-487,998)

30/3/609, Sunday (-488,000) Easter Sunday.

8/5/608, Wednesday (-488,326)

7/4/608, Sunday (-488,357)

Tuesday (-488,488)

8/5/607, Monday (-488,692)

23/4/607, Sunday (-488,707) Easter Sunday.

8/5/606, Sunday (-489,057)

3/4/606, Sunday (-489,092) Easter Sunday

8/5/605, Saturday (-489,422)

11/4/605, Sunday (-489,449) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-489,489)

8/5/604, Friday (-489,787)

22/3/604, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

12/3/604. Thursday (-) Pope Gregory the Great died in Rome. Aged 64, he had been Pope for 14 years. He was the son of a Senator, and wealthy, but at the age of 33 sold off his property and gave the money to the poor. He founded several  monasteries, and entered one himself. Pope Gregory had appointed Bishop Augustine of Hippo to begin the work of introducing Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons.

8/5/603, Wednesday (-490,153)

7/4/603, Sunday (-490,184) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-490,490)

8/5/602, Tuesday (-490,518)

15/4/602, Sunday (-490,541) Easter Sunday.

8/5/601, Monday (-490,883)

8/5/600, Sunday (-491,248)

10/4/600, Sunday (-491,276) Easter Sunday.

26/3/601, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

1/1/600, The Law of Ethelbert, King of Kent 560-616, set out the following compensation payments for various injuries. Cutting off an ear, 12 shillings, or 25 shillings if the victim was also deaf in the other ear. Striking out an eye, 50 shillings. Breaking the chin bone, 20 shillings. Knocking out one front tooth, 6 shillings; for an additional tooth injured, 4 shillings; for a third tooth, 3 shillings, for each tooth injured beyond that, 1 shilling each.

Tuesday (-491,491)

8/5/599, Friday (-491,614)

19/4/583, Sunday (-491,633) Easter Sunday.

4/8/598,: Emperor Wendi ordered his youngest son, Yang Liang, to conquer Korea during the rainy season, with a Chinese army (300,000 men).

8/5/598, Thursday (-491,979)

30/3/598, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

25/12/597, At Christmas, Christianity spread rapidly in Kent, Augustine and his fellow-labourers baptised more than 10,000 Anglo-Saxons.

9/6/597, Thursday (-492,343) Columba, Irish missionary, died in Iona (Inner Hebrides) and was buried by his monks in the abbey he created. He worked successfully towards the conversion of northern Britain.

8/5/597, Wednesday (-492,344)

14/4/597, Sunday (-492,368) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-492,492)

8/5/596, Tuesday (-492,709)

22/4/596, Sunday (-492,725) Easter Sunday.

8/5/595, Sunday (-493,075)

3/4/595, Sunday (-493,110) Easter Sunday.

8/5/594, Saturday (-493,440)

11/4/594, Sunday (-493,467) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-493,493)

8/5/593, Friday (-493,805)

29/3/593, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/592, Thursday (-494,170)

6/4/592, Sunday (-494,202) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-494,494)

8/5/591, Tuesday (-494,536)

15/4/1750, Sunday (-494,559) Easter Sunday.

3/9/590, Gregory the Great was consecrated Pope.

8/5/590, Monday (-494,901)

26/3/590, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

7/2/590, (-) Pope Pelagius II fell victim to the plague that devastated Rome. After a 11-year reign he was succeeded by Gregory I, age 50, as the 64th Pope.

8/5/589, Sunday (-495,266)

10/4/589, Sunday (-495,294) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-495,495)

8/5/588, Saturday (-495,631)

18/4/588, Sunday (-495,651) Easter Sunday.

8/5/587, Thursday (-495,997)

30/3/587, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/586, Wednesday (-496,362)

14/4/586, Sunday (-496,386) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-496,496)

8/5/585, Tuesday (-496,727)

25/3/585, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/584, Monday (-497,092)

2/4/584, Sunday (-497,128) Easter Sunday.

8/5/583, Saturday (-497,458)

18/4/583, Sunday (-497,478) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-497,497)

8/5/582, Friday (-497,823)

29/3/582, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/581, Thursday (-498,188)

6/4/581, Sunday (-498,220) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-498,498)

8/5/580, Wednesday (-498,553)

21/4/580, Sunday (-498,570) Easter Sunday.

8/5/579, Monday (-498,919)

8/4/579, Saturday (-498,949)

2/4/579, Sunday (-498,955) Easter Sunday.

8/5/578, Sunday (-499,284)

10/4/578, Sunday (-499,312) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-499,499)

8/5/577, Saturday (-499,649)

25/4/577, Sunday (-499,662) Easter Sunday.

22/5/576, Friday (-500,000)

8/5/576, Friday (-500,014)

7/4/576, Tuesday (-500,045)

5/4/576, Sunday (-500,047) Easter Sunday

7/4/575, Sunday (-500,411)

Tuesday (-500,500)

7/4/574, Saturday (-500,776)

25/3/574, Sunday (-500,789) Easter Sunday.

9/4/573, Sunday (-501,139) Easter Sunday.

7/4/573, Friday (-501,141)

Tuesday (-501,501)

7/4/572, Thursday (-501,506)

7/4/571, Tuesday (-501,872)

29/3/571, Sunday (-501,881) Easter Sunday.

7/4/570, Monday (-502,237)

6/4/570, Sunday (-502,238) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-502,502)

21/4/569, Sunday (-502,588) Easter Sunday.

7/4/569, Sunday (-502,602)

7/4/568, Saturday (-502,967)

1/4/568. Sunday (-502,973) Easter Sunday. King Albion of the Lombards (King since 565, died 573), a Germanic tribe, assembled an army that included his allies, 20,000 Saxons, in order to cross the Alps and form a settlement in Italy. The Lombards may have been invited to attack Italy by the Byzantine General Narses. Milan was occupied by the Lombards on 4/9/569 and Lombard rule established in northern Italy.

10/4/567, Sunday (-503,330) Easter Sunday.

7/4/567, Thursday (-503,333)

Tuesday (-503,503)

7/4/566, Wednesday (-503,698)

28/3/566, Sunday (-503,708) Easter Sunday.

14/11/565, Byzantine Emperor Justinian I died after a 38-year reign (born 483); succeeded by his nephew, Justin II (died 578).

22/8/565, First recorded sighting of the Loch Ness Monster, by St Columba.

7/4/565, Tuesday (-504,063)

5/4/565, Sunday (-504,065) Easter Sunday.

13/4/564, Sunday (-504,422) Easter Sunday

7/4/564, Monday (-504,428)

Tuesday (-504,504)

7/4/563, Saturday (-504,794)

25/3/563, Sunday (-504,807) Easter Sunday.

9/4/562, Sunday (-505,157) Easter Sunday.

7/4/562, Friday (-505,159)

29/11/561, King Chlothar I ("the Old"), son of Clovis I, died at Compeigne at age 64. The Merovingian Dynasty was continued by his four sons —Charibert I, Guntram, Sigbert I, and Chilperic I. Chlothar I had reunited the realms of his father Clovis but upon Chlothar’s death his lands were again divided amongst his four sons. Charibert ruled the Paris region, Guntram received Burgundy, Sigbert ruled Metz, and Chilperic ruled north of Soissons.

Tuesday (-505,505)

17/4/561, Sunday (-505,514) Easter Sunday.

7/4/561, Thursday (-505,524)

2/3/561, Pope Pelagius I died.

7/4/560, Wednesday (-505,889)

28/3/560, Sunday (-505,899) Easter Sunday.

13/4/559, Sunday (-506,249) Easter Sunday

7/4/559, Monday (-506,255)

Tuesday (-506,506)

7/5/558, In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapsed due to an earthquake. Emperor Justinian I ordered the dome to be rebuilt.

21/4/558, Sunday (-506,606) Easter Sunday.

7/4/558, Sunday (-506,620)

7/4/557, Saturday (-506,985)

1/4/557, Sunday (-506,991) Easter Sunday.

16/4/556, Sunday (-507,341) Easter Sunday.

7/4/556, Friday (-507,350)

Tuesday (-507,507)

7/4/555, Wednesday (-507,716)

28/3/555, Sunday (-507,726) Easter Sunday.

7/4/554, Tuesday (-508,081)

5/4/554, Sunday (-508,083) Easter Sunday.

20/4/553, Sunday (-508,433) Easter Sunday.

7/4/553, Monday (-508,446)

Tuesday (-508,508)

7/4/552, Sunday (-508,811)

31/3/552, Sunday (-508,818) Easter Sunday.

9/4/551, Sunday (-509,175) Easter Sunday.

7/4/551, Friday (-509,177)

Tuesday (-509,509)

24/4/550, Sunday (-509,525) Easter Sunday.

7/4/550, Thursday (-509,542)

7/4/549, Wednesday (-509,907)

4/4/549, Sunday (-509,910) Easter Sunday.

12/4/548, Sunday (-510,267) Easter Sunday.

7/4/548, Tuesday (-510,272)

Tuesday (-510,510)

7/4/547, Sunday (-510,638)

24/3/547, Sunday (-510,652) Easter Sunday.

17/12/546. The Ostrogothic King Totila captured Rome after a years siege. The city had been deserted by all but 500 of its civilian inhabitants.  However the Byzantine commander Belisarius re-occupied the deserted city of Rome in 547 and rebuilt its defences.

8/4/546, Sunday (-511,002) Easter Sunday.

7/4/546, Saturday (-511,003)

16/4/545, Sunday (-511,359) Easter Sunday.

7/4/545, Friday (-511,368)

Tuesday (-511,511)

7/4/544, Thursday (-511,733)

27/3/544, Sunday (-511,744) Easter Sunday.

7/4/543, Tuesday (-512,099)

5/4/543, Sunday (-512,101) Easter Sunday.

20/4/542, Sunday (-512,451) Easter Sunday.

7/4/542, Monday (-512,464)

Tuesday (-512,512)

7/4/541, Sunday (-512,829)

31/3/541, Sunday (-512,836) Easter Sunday.

8/4/540, Sunday (-513,193) Easter Sunday.

7/4/540, Saturday (-513,194)

29/11/539, Antioch was struck by an earthquake.

Tuesday (-513,513)

24/4/539, Sunday (-513,543) Easter Sunday.

7/4/539, Thursday (-513,560)

7/4/538, Wednesday (-513,925)

4/4/538, Sunday (-513,928) Easter Sunday.

27/12/537. Emperor Justinian of Constantinople opened the Church of St Sophia, five years after building started. It was hailed as the finest church in Christendom. It replaced an original church to St Sophia built by Constantine in 330 but burnt down in the rebellion of 532. However this church collapsed  on 7/5/558, severely weakened by an earthquake in December 557. A third St Sophia was built, and completed on 24/12/562. The dome was designed by the mathematician Anthemius of Tralles, who is also said to have invented a device that used steam power to produce artificial earthquakes.

12/4/537, Sunday (-514,285) Easter Sunday.

7/4/537, Tuesday (-514,290)

9/12/536. The Byzantine commander Belisarius, having captured Naples earlier in 536, now took Rome  In 534 Belisarius had defeated the vandals in north Africa.

Tuesday (-514,514)

7/4/536, Monday (-514,655)

24/3/536, Monday (-514,669) (Roman Empire) Procopius, Cassiodirus and other Roman historians recorded that a heavy dust cloud spread across Europe from this day onwards. It was to stay put for 18 months, and in 359 another such cloud stayed in the sky for several months. There were summer frosts and snow showers as temperatures plummeted, and crops failed to ripen because of lack of light and the cold. Widespread food shortages led to the Justinian Plague (541-3), named after the Roman Emperor of the time, which wiped out a third of Europeans. The cause has been linked to a series of huge volcanic eruptions in North America in 535-6, and again in 539.

23/3/536, Sunday (-514,670) Easter Sunday.

8/4/535, Sunday (-515,020) Easter Sunday.

7/4/535, Saturday (-515,021)

2/10/534. Death of Athalaric, King of the Ostrogoths in Italy. Grandson of Theodoric, he was born in 516 and became King in 526; aged ten, his mother Amalasuntha held the Regency.

16/4/534, Sunday (-515,377) Easter Sunday.

7/4/534, Friday (-515,386)

13/9/533, At the Battle of Ad Decimum, near Carthage (Tunisia), Byzantine forces defeated the Vandal army under King Gelimer, and his brother Tzazo.

Tuesday (-515,515)

7/4/533, Thursday (-515,751)

27/3/533, Sunday (-515,762) Easter Sunday.

8/5/532, (-516,085)

7/4/532, Wednesday (-516,116)

13/1/532, Major riot in Constantinople against Emperor Justinian, caused by heavy taxes and corrupt government.

7/4/531, Monday (-516,482)

Tuesday (-516,516)

7/4/530, Sunday (-516,847)

7/4/529, Saturday (-517,212)

Tuesday (-517,517)

7/4/528, Friday (-517,577)

1/8/527, The Byzantine Emperor Justin I died aged 77. He was succeeded by Justinian (Flavius Petrus) who began a 38-year reign, strongly influenced by his 19-year-old wife Theodora, until her death in 545.

7/4/527, Wednesday (-517,943)

30/8/526, Theodoric the Great died

7/4/526, Tuesday (-518,308)

Tuesday (-518,518)

7/4/525, Monday (-518,673)

7/4/524, Sunday (-519,038)

7/4/523, Friday (-519,404)

Tuesday (-519,519)

7/4/522, Thursday (-519,769)

7/12/521, St Columba was born at Gartan, Donegal, Ireland.

7/4/521, Wednesday (-520,134)

7/4/520, Tuesday (-520,499)

Tuesday (-520,520)

7/4/519, Sunday (-520,865)

9/7/518. Death of the Roman Emperor Anastasius I, in Constantinople. Born no later than 430, he became Emperor at the death of Zeno, 491. He reduced taxation but was so prudent financially he gained a reputation for avarice and became unpopular. He fought with Persia, 502 – 505; neither side gaining much by the time peace was made in 506. The Roman Balkan provinces were overrun by Slavs and Bulgars; to protect Constantinople Anastasius built the ‘Anastasian Wall’ in 512. He also had to deal with a rebellion in the European provinces in 514-515, the rebels being assisted by the Huns.

7/4/518, Saturday (-521,230)

Tuesday (-521,521)

7/4/517, Friday (-521,595)

7/4/516, Thursday (-521,960)

7/4/515, Tuesday (-522,326)

Tuesday (-522,522)

7/4/514, Monday (-522,691)

7/4/513, Sunday (-523,056)

7/4/512, Saturday (-523,421)

Tuesday (-523,523)

27/11/511. Clovis, King of the Franks, son of Childeric I, founder of the Merovingian Dynasty, died aged 45 in Paris. His kingdom was divided up amongst his four sons, Theuderic in Reims, Chlodomer in Orleans, Childebert in Paris, and Clothar in Soissons.

Clovis had been a pagan, one of the Franks, who unlike the other Germanic tribes, had not converted to Christianity. But he had married a Burgundian princess, Clotilda, who was Christian. She sought to convert her husband. During the Battle of Tolbiac (Zulpich, Germany), against the Alemanni, Clovis promised to convert if his wife’s God would grant him victory. Although Clovis’ troops were on the verge of defeat, the Alemanni King was killed and his army surrendered. Clovis was then baptised by ‘Saint’ Remigius in Reims Cathedral, perhaps on 25/12/496; although a later baptism date in 488 or 489 is also possible. Clovis failed to take the Burgundian Kingdom to the south-east. However he did defeat the Visigoths in southwest Gaul, in 507. In recognition of this victory, Clovis was granted an honorary consulship by the eastern Roman Emperor, Anastasius. This gave Clovis a status above other western kings, and legitimised his rulership among his Gallic-Roman citizens. When he died in 511, Clovis was sole ruler of three quarters of Gaul.

7/4/511, Thursday (-523,787)

7/4/510, Wednesday (-524,152)

7/4/509, Tuesday (-524,517)

Tuesday (-524,524)

7/4/508, Monday (-524,882)

7/4/507, Saturday (-525, 248)

Tuesday (-525,525)

7/4/506, Friday (-525,613)

7/4/505, Thursday (-525,978)

7/4/504, Wednesday (-526,343)

Tuesday (-526,526)

7/4/503, Monday (-526,709)

7/4/502, Sunday (-527,074)

7/4/501, Saturday (-527,439)

Tuesday (-527,527)

1/7/500, One shilling was the value of a cow in Kent, or one sheep elsewhere in Britain. An Atheling (Prince) was worth 1,500 shillings. An Eorl (Nobleman, or Earl) was worth 300 shillings. A Ceorl (Churl, or Yeoman Farmer) was worth 100 shillings. A Laet, or Agricultural Serf, was worth between 40 and 80 shillings. A slave (on this system) was worthless. The family of a murdered man could be compensated for in cash. The ransom to be paid for lesser offences also varied on these terms; for example slandering am Atheling would cost the offender five times as much as slandering an Eorl.

7/4/500, Friday (-527,804)

7/4/499, Wednesday (-528,170)

Tuesday (-528,528)

7/4/498, Tuesday (-528,535)

7/4/497, Monday (-528,900)

25/12/496, Clovis I was baptized into the Catholic faith at Rheims, by Saint Remigius. The conversion strengthened the bonds between his Gallo-Roman subjects, led by their Catholic bishops.

7/4/496, Sunday (-529,265)

Tuesday (-529,529)

7/4/495, Friday (-529,631)

7/4/494, Thursday (-529,996)

7/4/493, Wednesday (-530,361)

15/3/493, Odoacer was killed by Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths.

Tuesday (-530,530)

26/2/493, Ravenna capitulated to Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths.

7/4/492, Tuesday (-530,726)

3/1/492, Pope Felix III died after a 9-year reign in which he excommunicated Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople, thus dividing the Western Church and Eastern Church (Acacian Schism). He was succeeded by Gelasius I as the 49th Pope.

7/4/491, Sunday (-531,092)

7/4/490, Saturday (-531,457)

Tuesday (-531,531)

30/9/489, Theodoric conquered Verona.

7/4/489, Friday (-531,822)

7/4/488, Thursday (-532,187)

Tuesday (-532,532)

7/4/487, Tuesday (-532,553)

7/4/486, Monday (-532,918)

17/4/485, Wednesday (-533,273) (Mathematics) Proclus, Greek mathematician, died in Athens.

7/4/485, Sunday (-533,283)

Tuesday (-533,533)

2812/484. Alaric II, eighth king of the Visigoths in Spain, succeeded his father Euric or Evaric. His dominions included all of Spain, except for the north-west, and also Aquitaine and much of Provence.

7/4/484, Saturday (-533,648)

7/4/483, Thursday (-534,014)

10/3/483, Pope Simplicius died.

7/4/482, Wednesday (-534,379)

Tuesday (-534,534)

7/4/481, Tuesday (-534,744)

7/4/480, Monday (-535,109)

7/4/479, Saturday (-535,475)

Tuesday (-535,535)

7/4/478, Friday (-535,840)

7/4/477, Thursday (-536,295)

Tuesday (-536,536)

7/4/476, Wednesday (-536,570)

7/4/475, Monday (-536,936)

7/4/474, Sunday (-537,301)

Tuesday (-537,537)

7/4/473, Saturday (-537,666)

7/4/472, Friday (-538,031)

7/4/471, Wednesday (-530,397)

Tuesday (-538,538)

7/4/470, Tuesday (-538,762)

7/4/469, Monday (-539,127)

7/4/468, Sunday (-539,492)

Tuesday (-539,539)

28/2/468, Saint Hilary, Pope, died.

7/4/467, Friday (-539,858)

7/4/466, Thursday (-540,223)

Tuesday (-540,540)

7/4/465, Wednesday (-540,588)

7/4/464, Tuesday (-540,953)

7/4/463, Sunday (-541,319)

Tuesday (-541,541)

7/4/462, Saturday (-541,684)

10/11/461, Pope Leo the Great died.

7/4/461, Friday (-542,049)

17/3/461. Death of Saint Patrick, who pioneered the spread of Christianity in Ireland. He was born near Carlisle and captured by Irish raiders and sold as a slave at the age of 14. After 6 years he escaped and sailed to Gaul, a journey of 3 days in a small boat. Trained as a priest in Gaul and Britain, he had a vision in ca. 430 prompting him to return to Ireland and convert the inhabitants. He founded the Episcopal see of Armagh in ca. 450.

7/4/460, Thursday (-542,414)

Tuesday (-542,542)

7/4/459, Tuesday (-542,780)

7/4/458, Monday (-543,145)

7/4/457, Sunday (-543,510)

Tuesday (-543,543)

4/10/456, The Visigoths under king Theodoric II, acting on orders of Avitus, invaded Spain with an army of Burgundians,  Franks and Goths, They defeated the Suebi; this shattered the power of the Suebi. During the battle Rechiar was captured and later executed.

7/4/456, Saturday (-543,875)

16/6/455. Rome was sacked and plundered by the Vandals, just 45 years after it was conquered by the Visigoths.

7/4/455, Thursday (-544,241)

Tuesday (-544,544)

7/4/454, Wednesday (-544,606)

7/4/453, Tuesday (-544,971)

7/4/452, Monday (-545,336)

8/10/451, The Fourth General Council of the Church opened, at Chalcedon.

Tuesday (-545,545)

20/6/451. Having mounted an invasion of Gaul, Attila and the Huns were defeated in the Battle of the Cataulanian Fields by a combined force of Romans, Visigoths, and other barbarians, all under the command of Aetius.

7/4/451, Saturday (-545,702) Attila's forces invaded Gaul and sacked Metz. The major cities Strasbourg, Worms, Mainz, Trier, Cologne, Reims, Tournai, Cambrai, Amiens and Beauvais were destroyed by the Huns.

28/7/450. Death of Emperor Theodosius II, who fell off his horse, after ruling for 42 years. He left no direct heir.

7/4/450, Friday (+546,067)

7/4/449, Thursday (-546,432)

Tuesday (-546,546)

7/4/448, Wednesday (-546,797)

6/11/447, The Walls of Constantinople were severely damaged by an earthquake, destroying large parts of the wall, including 57 towers. The population was threatened by a plaque. Emperor Theodosius II orders Constantine, praetorian prefect of the East, to supervise the repairs. He employed the city's demoi ("Circus factions") in the work and rebuilt the walls within 60 days.

7/4/447, Monday (-547,163)

7/4/446, Sunday (-547,528)

Tuesday (-547,547)

7/4/445, Saturday (-547,893)

7/4/444, Friday (-548,258)

Tuesday (-548,548)

7/4/443, Wednesday (-548,624)

7/4/442, Tuesday (-548,989)

7/4/441, Monday (-549,354)

Tuesday (-549,549)

25/12/440, The Church officially decreed the birthday of Jesus to be 25 December, the pagan day of celebrating the winter solstice.

7/4/440, Sunday (-549,719)

19/10/439. The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, took Carthage. Gaiseric brought 80,000 people with him across the Straits of Gibraltar from Spain in 429, including 15,000 soldiers; he then marched east along the North African coast, looting the cites there. With the loss of its African territories Rome lost the fertile wheat lands on which the Empire depended for its bread. Local Roman administrators remained and Roman law was maintained, to the benefit of the Vandals, who lived in unaccustomed luxury in the Roman villas. The Vandals were Arians and persecuted the Catholic Christians. Gaiseric began to build a fleet of fast ships to dominate the western Mediterranean.

7/4/439, Friday (-550,085)

7/4/438, Thursday (-550,450)

Tuesday (-550,550)

7/4/437, Wednesday (-550,815)

7/4/436, Tuesday (-551,180)


8/5/432, (-552,610)

28/8/430, St Augustine died in the town of Hippo, then enduring its 3rd month of siege by the Vandals. His writings have had considerable influence on Church doctrine

27/2/425. Emperor Theodosius II founded, in effect, the University of Constantinople. He gathered a group of professors and gave them a monopoly over higher education in the city.

23/10/424, Emperor Theodosius II nominated his cousin Valentinian, aged 5, the imperial title nobilissimus Caesar ("most noble") of the Western Roman Empire.

25/3/421,  Venice was founded at twelve o'clock noon (according to legend) with the dedication of the first church, San Giacomo, at the islet of Rialto (Italy).

30/9/420, ‘Saint’ Jerome, Church leader, died.

12/3/417, Pope Innocent I died.

8/5/413, Honorius signed an edict providing tax relief for the Italian provinces Tuscia, Campania, Picenum, Samnium, Apulia, Lucania, and Calabria, who were plundered by the Visigoths.

23/8/410. The Visigoths under Alaric I sacked Rome after a third siege. Slaves opened the Salarian Gate and Goths looted the city for three days. It was the first time since 390 BC that Rome had fallen to an enemy. This marked the decline of the Roman Empire

13/10/409, The Vandals, led by King Gunderic, crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula. They received land from the Romans, in southern Spain. The Alans occupied lands in Lusitania and the Suebi controlled parts of Gallaecia (modern Portugal).

23/8/408, Flavius Stilicho, soldier, was assassinated.

14/9/407, Saint John Chrysostom died.

31/12/406. The Rhine, for long the frontier of the Roman Empire, froze over in an exceptionally cold winter. A wave of tribes, the Vandals, Sueves, and Alans, moved across and into Gaul.

23/8/406, Radagaisus, King of the Goths, was executed by the Romans. He had attempted an invasion of Italy but was defeated by Stilicho.

6/4/402, Stilicho led the Romans to victory over the Visigoths at the Battle of Pollentia.

26/11/399, Pope Siricius died at Rome after a 15-year reign in which he commanded celibacy for priests, asserted papal authority over the entire Western Church, and threatened to impose sanctions who did not follow his dictates.

3/4/397. Death of ‘Saint’ Ambrose, bishop of Milan. Born a Roman citizen around 337-340, Ambrose was appointed as bishop of Milan in 374 when the previous incumbent, Auxentius, died.

17/1/395. Emperor Theodosius I died and was succeeded by his two sons. The Empire was once again divided; Arcadius, aged 17, husband of Eudoxia (the daughter of Frankish leader Bauto), controlled the east from Constantinople. Meanwhile  Honorius, aged 10, ruled the west from Milan (under the regentship of his Vandal master of troops, Stilichio). The border between the east and west crossed the Libyan Desert and the Balkans. Stilichio’s daughter, Maria, married Honorius in 398.

6/9/394, Eugenius was killed in battle against the barbarian legions of Emperor Theodosius. The Frankish general, Arbogast, escaped into the mountains but  committed suicide two days later.

3/11/392. Emperor Theodosius passed a decree prohibiting all pagan worship in the Byzantine Empire.

28/7/388, Theodosius I, Byzantine Emperor, defeated the Roman Emperor Maximus near Aquileia.

24/4/387, St Augustine of Hippo was baptised, along with his son, Adeodatus, by Ambrose at Milan.

17/12/384,  Pope Siricius succeeded Damasus I as the 38th pope. He took the title Pontifex Maximus, after it was relinquished by late Emperor Gratian.

15/8/383. (Roman Empire) The Byzantine Emperor Theodosius signed an agreement with the Visigoths giving them land and political autonomy within the Empire, as foederati (non-Roman citizen allies of Rome)  under King Alaric I in return for military service. They were allowed to settle south of the Danube. See 375.

19/1/379, The Roman Emperor Theodosius assumed power at Sirmius.

9/8/378. The Romans were defeated by the Visigoths at the Battle of Adrianople, Turkey. In 376 the Visigoths had been allowed to move into Roman territory to escape pressure from the Huns. In 377 the Visigoths revolted against Rome and the Roman Emperor Valens determined to subdue them. He attacked on 9/8/378 when the main body of the Goth’s cavalry was away foraging, but suddenly the Goth’s cavalry re-appeared on the battlefield. Two thirds of Valerian’s army was killed. That battle ushered in the supremacy, in the Roman army, of the cavalry over the legions.

17/11/375, Emperor  Valentian I concluded an enduring peace with the Alamanni in Germany, then marched into Illyrium to repel an invasion of the Quadi and the Sarmatians on the Danube frontier. While negotiating with the Quadi, Valentinian, age 54, became so enraged that he died in a fit of apoplexy at Brigetio (Hungary). Extreme cruelty marked his 11-year reign but he founded schools and provided physicians to serve the poor of Constantinople.

2/5/373. Athanasius, the patriarch who fiercely defended the Nicene Creed against Arianism, died at Alexandria, Egypt. He played an important role in the spread of monasticism.

21/7/365, An earthquake and tsunami devastated Crete and Alexandria and affected Italy, Greece, and Palestine.

26/2/364. Valentinian became Roman Emperor, succeeding Jovian who surrendered the gains of Diocletian to the Persians. On 28/3/364 Valentinian appointed his brother Valens as governor of the eastern Empire. For the first time the division of empire is accompanied by a true division of resources and army between east and west.

26/6/363. (Christian, Roman Empire) Julian the Apostate, Roman Emperor, was killed fighting the Persians. The Emperor Julian was determined to reinstate the old Roman gods and eliminate Christianity. A cousin of Constantius II, he declared himself a pagan in November 361 when Constantius II died, leaving him as sole emperor. On 17/6/362 Julian forbade  Christians from teaching grammar or rhetoric. He was succeeded by the captain of his bodyguard, Flavius Jovianus, who ruled for 7 months as the Emperor Jovian.

25/8/357. Julian, who was made Caesar by his cousin Constantius II on 6/11/355, defeated the Alemmani at Strasbourg and drove them back across the Rhine.

19/2/356. Constantius II, ruler of all of Rome (see 22/5/337), ordered all pagan temples in the Roman Empire to be closed.

13/11/354, Aurelius Augustinus, or St Augustine, was born at Tagaste, a town in Numidia.

25/12/350, The first officially-sanctioned Christmas Day celebrations.

11/1/347, The Roman Emperor, Theodosius the Great, was born.

21/10/346. Under heavy imperial pressure, a split between the eastern and western Churches was patched up at Alexandria, Egypt.

15/2/342, The original Hagia Sophia was dedicated in Constantinople

22/5/337. Constantine, born 27/2/274, died after a baptism on his death bed at his villa near Ancyra in Nicomedia. His sons take the titles of Augustus. Constantine II and Constans shared the west, whilst Constantius II. took control of the eastern Empire. In March 340 Constans kills his brother Constantine II at He was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. On 9/9/337 Constantine’s three Aquileia in northern Italy and becomes sole ruler of the west. However Constans was himself murdered by the military commander Magnentius in 350, and in turn Magnentius was defeated in Gaul by Constantius II, ruler of the eastern Empire, at Mursa in 351.Once again Magnentius was defeated by Constantius II in Gaul in 353, following which Magnentius committed suicide and Constantius II was ruler of both east and west.

25/12/336, The first recorded celebration of ‘Christ’s birth’ on what is now Christmas Day.

17/12/335. The Emperor Constantine’s construction, the Holy Sepulchre, in Jerusalem, opened. ‘Christ’s tomb on Golgotha was discovered in 328’ (?) and Constantine ordered the building of this place of worship here.

8/5/332, -(589,135)

11/5/330. The Emperor Constantine made Byzantium the new capital of the Roman Empire, and renamed it Constantinople.

25/7/325. Major celebrations were held at Nicomedia, Asia Minor, to mark the twentieth year of Constantine as Emperor. Also celebrated was Constantine’s victory over his former ally Licinius, ruler of the eastern half of the Roman Emperor. The rift came when Licinius broke a promise to Constantine to tolerate the Christian religion. Constantine defeated Licinius in 324 and captured Byzantium.  The Council of Nicea closed this day.

20/5/325. The Emperor Constantine, dressed in purple to mark the sacred nature of his power, opened the Council of Nicea. He has summoned bishops from all over the Empire to settle violent controversies raging within the Church, especially over Arianism. Arius, a priest in Alexandria, argued in 318 that Christ was not equal to God; if Christ was the Son of God, said Arius, he had a beginning so could not be eternal and was inferior to his Father. Constantine was acting as peacemaker and favoured equality of Christ with God. In fact the creed was worded so as to be ambiguous enough for most Arians to accept it.

3/7/323, The Battle of Adrianople. Constantine I, Western Roman Emperor, defeated Licinius, the eastern Emperor.

3/12/321. Sunday was made a day of rest throughout the Roman Empire. Under the Edict of Milan, 3/2/313, Christianity was now tolerated in the Empire. Persecution of Christians had begun under Diocletian in 303 and peaked under his successors Galerius and Maximian. Constantine, born in Naissus in what is now Yugoslavia, was son of a Christian mother, Helena. When Constantine (born 274) became Emperor in 306 he followed the cult of Sol Invictis, the Unconquered Sun. However in 312, whilst fighting Maxentius the son of Maximian, he saw a cross of light superimposed on the sun. From then on Constantine identified the sun with the God of the Christians. He ordered his men to fight Maxentius with Christian symbols painted on their shields, and they won a famous victory at the Milvian Bridge just outside Rome, on 28/10/312. Constantine became ruler of the western Roman Empire.

28/10/312, Battle of Milvian Bridge. Maxentius had been declared Emperor in Rome, with the backing of the Senate. However Constantine was marching down from Gaul to claim title as Emperor. Constantine’s army was smaller, and relied on cavalry, performing best on open ground. Maxentius had dismantled the Milvian Bridge over the Tiber to halt Constantine’s advance; Maxentius’ troops had to ford the Tiber to attack Constantine, this move put them in the open, favouring Constantine’s cavalry. Maxentius fought in the name of Mars, the Roman God of War; Constantine saw a flaming cross in the sky and fought in the name of Christianity. Constantine’s cavalry charged, disrupting Maxentius’ ranks; Maxentius was killed and his head paraded through Rome the next day on a spear.

1/5/305. Diocletian becomes the first Roman Emperor to abdicate. He retires to a palace on the Adriatic. There is now a division of responsibility, one emperor for the east and one for the west of the Empire. Diocletian died in 313.

28/11/303. Twenty years after coming to Power, the Emperor Diocletian made his first visit to Rome. There were festivals and games in his honour. After many years of disorder and danger, the Roman Empire is enjoying a period of peace. Diocletian made major administrative and economic reforms. He separated military and administrative departments, and fashioned a formal, unbroken, chain of command from the Emperor right down to the lowliest official in a distant province. His economic reforms were less successful. To tackle inflation he imposed price and wage controls. A wide range of goods were covered, including brandy, meat, fruit, vegetables, bread, leather, carpets, and clothes, in his edicts of 301. Maximum pay rates were also fixed, from labourer to lawyer; punishment for breaching these regulations was exile or even death. However these reforms collapsed under the impact of massive shortages and a rampant black market. Diocletian also simplified the tax system, but this effectively legalised the system of exacting contributions from the peasants in the form of labour and produce. This tied them to the land as serfs.

Diocletian’s price and wage list included the following. For wages, a labourer would get 25 denarii a day. Note that in 33 AD the days wage for a labourer was one denarius. Bakers would be paid 50 d a day, scribes 25 d per 100 lines, and teachers 50d per pupil per  month. Prices would be, 1d for an egg, 24d for a lemon, 30d for a chicken, 250d for a pheasant, 30,000d for a male slave, and 100,000d for a racehorse.

24/3/303, St George was executed in Palestine. He was a Roman soldier from Cappadocia (now, Turkey) who refused to persecute Christians.

4/3/303, St Adrian was martyred.

24/2/303, Emperor Diocletian ordered a massive persecution of the Christians.

3/9/301, The republic of San Marino was established (traditional date).

29/8/284, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Numerius was assassinated. He was succeeded by General Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Jovius, a 39-year-old Illyrian. He began a 21-year despotic rule of the Eastern Roman Empire whilst Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius was to rule the West.

14/9/258, Saint Cyprian (born ca. 200) was martyred.

6/8/258, Pope Sixtus II martyred.

27/2/250, Emperor Constantine was born.

5/2/251, Saint Agatha was martyred.

20/3/235, Maximinius Thrax, aged 62, was proclaimed emperor. He had a Gothic father and an Alan mother. Maximinus a Thracian, was the first foreigner to hold the Roman throne.

18/3/235. The Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander, was killed in a battle against German invaders in Gaul. Born on 1/10/208 at Arca Caesarea, Phoenicia, Alexander was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. In the early 230s he fought against the Persians, returning to Rome in triumph in 233. He improved the Empire economically; luxury and extravagance at the Roman Court were reduced, the standard of the coinage was raised, taxes were lightened, the lot of the soldiers was improved, and literature, science, and art were encouraged,. He instituted loan offices to lend money to the people at a reasonable rate of interest.

28/2/235, Pope Pontianus resigned. He had been Pope from 230, but in 235 was exiled by Emperor Maximinus to Sardinia, and so had to resign the Papacy this day.

8/5/232, (-625,660)

27/6/221. The 19 year old Emperor Elagabalus was assassinated by a member of the Praetorian Guard. Alexander Severus became emperor.

8/6/218, Emperor Macrinus was assassinated near Antioch after he tried to reduce the pay of the Roman soldiers. He was succeeded by Variua Avitus Bassianus, a 14-year-old from Syria, a grandnephew by marriage of the late Septimus Severus. He claimed to be a son of Caracalla, and named himself Heliogabalus, or Elagabalus, from the name of the Syrian Sun King.

8/4/217, Roman Emperor Caracalla was assassinated after a bloody reign. He was succeeded by M Opellius Severus Macrinus, a 53-year-old from \Mauretania, as Emperor Macrinus.

4/2/211. The Emperor Septimus Severus died at York whilst fighting the Caledonian tribes.

28/3/193, The Roman Emperor Pertinax was assassinated.

4/4/188, The Roman emperor Caracalla (211-17) was born at Lyons in Gaul.

17/3/180. Marcus Aurelius died of the plague. He was succeeded by his son Commodus. However Commodus fell prey to insanity due to excessive power. He attempted to rename Rome as Colonia Aurelia Nova Commodiana; also renaming the fleet, wheat, the legions, and the months of the year. On 31/12/192 Commodus, who saw himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, planned to sacrifice the new consuls on 1/1/193; the consul had an athlete called Narcissus strangle Commodus in his bath. His death ended the Antonine dynasty.

7/3/161. Emperor Antoninus died at Lorium and was replaced by Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

21/4/147. Emperor Antoninus celebrated the 900th anniversary of Rome’ s foundation.

10/7/138. Hadrian, who became Emperor of Rome on 8/8/117, died at his villa on the Bay of Naples. See 8/8/117.

8/5/132, (-662,185)

26/4/121, Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor, was born.

8/8/117. The Emperor Trajan died, and was succeeded by Hadrian. See 24/1/76, and 10/7/138. Hadrian abandoned the expansionist policy of Trajan and earlier emperors and sought to stabilise the frontiers of Rome. To achieve defensible frontiers the provinces of Assyria and Mesopotamia are abandoned, although there was as yet no thought of giving up Britain. Instead, Hadrian built a wall from the Solway Firth to the Tyne to keep out the Picts. Work on building this wall began in 122, and was completed in 130.

25/1/98,  Nerva, Emperor of Rome, died.  He was succeeded by his son Trajan, with whom he had ruled jointly for the last three months of his life.

18/9/96, Nerva (35 – 98) became Emperor of Rome.  He purchased large areas of agricultural land in Italy and gave these to the poor.   He also reformed the tax system and streamlined the Roman bureaucracy.  On this day Emperor Domitian was murdered, by assassins in the pay of his wife, Domitilla. See 25/1/98.

23/8/93, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman general renowned for his conquests, died in Rome. In 83 AD he had won a decisive victory against Caledonian tribes at the Battle of Mons Graupius, probably the Killiecrankie Pass. Had he been able to follow up this victory Rome might have conquered the whole of Britain up to the northern end of Scotland. However to Rome, Caledonia (Scotland) and the raids from its unsubdued tribes was a minor issue; the main problem then was the Germanic threat from east of the Rhine and north of the Danube. Agricola was recalled to Rome with Caledonia unconquered.

13/9/81, Roman Emperor Titus died, aged 40, after a 2-year reign. He was succeded by his 29-year old brother, Titus Flavius Domitianus, who ruled until 96 as Emperor Domitian.

25/8/79, Pliny the Elder, naturalist, died, in the eruption of Vesuvius.

24/8/79. (Roman Empire, Earthquake) Vesuvius erupted, destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and killing 2,000 people.

23/6/79, Death of the Roman Emperor Vespasian died, aged 69, after a 10-year reign. He was succeeded by his 38-year-old son, Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus Titus. He ruled as Emperor Titus until 81.

24/1/76. Birth of the Roman Emperor Hadrian. See 8/8/117.

15/4/73, To escape enslavement the male Jewish defenders of Masada, about to be overwhelmed by the Romans, killed the women and children and then committed suicide.

8/9/70. Jerusalem was stormed  by the Romans after a two year siege. This ended a revolt by the Jews that began in 66. Only in Masada did the Jews still hold out for a while.

20/12/69, Aulus Vitellius, former Emperor of Rome, was dragged from his hiding place and assassinated. Vespasian now ruled unchallenged, and held post until 79.

1/7/69, Vespasian was proclaimed Emperor of Rome by the prefect of Egypt; this was supported by the Legate of Syria and the Danubian legions. Vitellus gathered forces to oppose Vespasian’s supporters. Vitellus was defeated by Vespasian in the Second Battle of Bedriacum, late October 69.

19/4/69, Aulus Vitellus sent two legions to the Po Valley where they defeated supporters of Otho in the Battle of Bedriacum, near Cremona. The Roman Emperor Otto then committed suicide. Vitellus now faced a challenge from Titus Flavianus Sabinus Vespasianus, 59, Legate of Judea.

15/1/69, The Roma  Emperor Galba was assassinated by Marcus Salvius Otho, 36, a friend of the late Nero. Eight legions on the Rhine had denied their allegiance to Galba and claimed legate Aulus Vitellus, 54, as Emperor instead. The Senate recognised Otho as Emperor.

9/6/68. Nero committed suicide, having been deserted by the Praetorian Guard and lost favour with the Senate. His death ended the Julio-Claudian line of Emperors that had ruled Rome for 128 years; he was succeeded by Galba, who ruled for less than 6 months before facing challenges to his leadership.

18/7/64. The great fire of Rome took place during the reign of Nero (born 15/12/37, became emperor 13/10/54). He played the lyre and was 50 miles away at his villa in Antium when he heard the news. The fire destroyed 10 of the 14 districts of Rome and burned for 6 days. Nero was blamed for starting the fire, and to divert blame he said the Christians had started it, putting them to death in cruel ways.

13/10/54, Roman emperor Claudius I died, aged 64, possibly after being poisoned by Agrippina, his wife and niece, and was succeeded by Nero, Agrippina’s son by another marriage.

15/9/53, Marcus Ulpius Traianus, the Emperor Trajan, was born near Seville, Spain. He was the first Roman Emperor to be born in the provinces.

24/10/51, Domitian, Emperor of Rome, was born.

25/1/41,  After a night of negotiation, Claudius was accepted as Emperor by the Senate.

24/1/41, Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, was assassinated, aged 28, by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards.

15/12/37, Roman Emperor Nero was born.

18/3/37,  The Roman Senate annulled  Tiberius's will and proclaimed Caligula Roman Emperor.

16/3/37, Emperor Tiberius died.

8/5/32, (-698,710)

28/4/32, The Roman Emperor Otto was born.

18/10/31, Lucius Aelius Sejanus, plotter against Emperor Tiberius, was executed in Rome.

4/10/23, After disastrous floods in China as the Yellow River changed course several times between 2AD and 11 AD, causing famine, starving rebel peasants stormed the Chinese Imperial Palace. Emperor Wang Mang attempted to marshal magical forces in defence, in vain, and he was killed in fighting on 6/10/23.

26/5/17. The Romans won a major victory over Arminius, avenging their defeat of XX 9 in the Teutoberg Forest.

2/1/17, The historian and poet Livy died in Rome.

24/9/15, The Roman Emperor Aulus Vitellius was born.

19/8/14. Death of the Roman Emperor Augustus. He was born in Rome on 23/9/63 BC. He was succeeded by Tiberius.

31/8/12, Birth of Emperor Caligula.

18/11/9, Birth of the Roman Emperor Vespasian.

10/1/9, Wang Mang assumed the title of Emperor of China, replacing the Han Dynasty by the new H’sin Dynasty.

XX 9. Three entire Roman legions under General Quintinius Varus were wiped out by the Germanic tribes under Arminius in the Teutoberg Forest. The Rhine was settled on by the Romans as the boundary of their empire. See 26/5/17.

3/2/6, Chinese Emperor P’ing suddenly died; some suspected Wang Mang of poisoning him. Wang Mang arranged for the youngest of some 50 possible successors, a 1 year old baby, to be the new Emperor; Wang Mang became Acting Emperor.

28/12/1. Herod ordered the slaughter of all the infants in Bethlehem to ensure the death of Jesus Christ, whom he saw as a possible future rival King.

1/7/1, A teacher got paid 60 denarii a day; enough to buy 3kg of pork, or 5 litres of cheap wine.

15/8/1 BCE, Emperor Ai of China died. Wang Mang became Regent once more, at the behest of Wang Mang;s aunt, the Empress Dowager. Wang Mang quickly arranged for his 14 year old daughter to be the Empress of the new Chinese Emperor, P’ing.

27/8/7 BCE, Under the rule of Emperor Ai of China, Wang Mang resigned the regency. Ai disliked Wang Mang, and he was sent to his country estates.

17/4/7 BCE, Emperor Ch’eng of China died, without an heir.

28/11/8 BCE, Wang Mang became Regent of China.

1/8/10 BCE. Roman Emperor Claudius I was born in Lyons.

21/9/19 BCE. The Roman poet Virgil, born 15/10/70 BC, died, after falling ill with sunstroke whilst on a journey to Greece. His tomb in Naples became a shrine.

1/8/19 BCE, Claudius I, Roman Emperor who invaded Britain in 43 AD, was born.

8/9/23 BCE. The first recorded ritual Sumo wrestling bout took place. Each year a priest still officiates for the Ceremony of the Crows at the Kamo shrine, Kyoto, Japan.

1/8/30 BCE,  Octavian Caesar captured Alexandria. This marked the official annexation of Ancient Egypt to the Roman Republic.

2/9/31 BCE. Octavian and his general, Agrippa, defeated Mark Anthony and Cleopatra’s fleet off Actium. Anthony followed Cleopatra to Egypt, to which she had escaped with 60 ships. There, pursued by his enemies and deserted by his troops, Anthony, aged 52, committed suicide in the mistaken belief that Cleopatra had already done likewise.

16/11/42 BCE. Tiberius, the second Emperor of Rome, whose rule was marked by cruelty and debauchery, was born in Rome. He was the son of the High Priest Tiberius Claudius Nero, and of Livia Drusilla, her husband’s cousin.

23/10/42 BCE. Marcus Brutus, whose army was crushed by Anthony and Octavian at the Second Battle of Philippi, committed suicide in Rome by falling on his own sword.

7/12/43 BCE. Cicero (Marcus Tullus), the great Roman orator, was killed by a soldier, Herennius, as he attempted to flee by ship to Macedonia. He had fallen into disfavour  for writing The Philippics, a series of attacks on Mark Anthony. In 44 BC he had been in a powerful position, when Julius Caesar was assassinated, but Cicero has then opposed Caesar’s successor, Octavian.

10/10/43 BCE, The city of Lyons was founded by Lucius Plancus.

20/3/43 BCE, The poet Ovid was born.

15/3/44 BCE. Julius Caesar murdered. He was born on 12/7/100 BC, but not by Caesarean section as often claimed, although his surname does derive from the Latin ‘to cut’. He made major conquests in his lifetime, and put down civil wars in Asia and Spain; he was honoured like a god. But he was slain by his close associates when he began claiming in name power he held in fact, and planning grand projects such as the invasion of Parthia.

15/2/44 BCE, Julius Caesar was appointed dictator for life.

1/1/44 BCE, (Metrology, Roman Empire) Julius Caesar introduced the Julian Calendar. The Julian 365-day calendar was based upon the Egyptian calendar, and replaced an earlier 355-day calendar used by the Romans. The Roman year began in March, and the 5th month, Qunitilis, was renamed July after Julius Caesar himself. Augustus then named the 6th month after himself, too. The Calends was the first day of the month, and in longer months of 312 days the Nones were on the 7th and the Ides on the 15th. In shorter months the Ides and Nones fell on the 5th and 13th days. The Romans also used an 8-day week with the days lettered A to H. For a while this co-existed with the 7-day week, based on the Sun, Moon and 5 visible planets. In 321 AD Emperor Constantine ruled that the 7-day week alone was to be used.

8/4/46 BCE, Julius Caesar defeated Scipio’s Republican army at Thrapsus in Africa.

23/6/47 BCE, Queen Cleopatra gave birth to Caesarion, who was probably the son of Julius Caesar.

9/8/48 BCE. Caesar, having landed at northern Epirus in June, defeated Pompey’s troops and those of his father in law Metellus Scipio at Pharsalus. Pompey fled to Egypt. However on landing in Egypt on 28/9/48 BC, Pompey was murdered on the orders of Ptolemy XII. Caesar’s forces continued to hunt down Pompey’s forces under his sons, finally defeating them in Spain on 15/3/45 BC.

2/8/49 BCE. Caesar, having left Marcus Antonius in charge of Italy and marched to Spain, defeats Pompey’s generals Afranius and Petreius at Lerida north of the Ebro River.

10/1/49 BCE. Caesar crossed the Rubicon, a small river marking the boundary between Gaul and Italy, as he marched on Rome to fight his former ally Pompey. Pompey, fearing Caesar’s large army, fled Italy for Greece along with most of the Senate.

7/1/49. BCE. The Senate said it would declare Caesar a public enemy if he did not disband his army.

3/10/52 BCE, Battle of Alesia: Caesar defeated the Gauls led by Vercingetorix (who surrendered on October 3), breaking the back of the Gallic insurrection. The final pacification of Gaul was completed the following year.

26/8/55 BCE. Julius Caesar landed in Britain. He was attempting to deter the Britons from giving military aid to the Gauls.

29/9/61 BCE, September 29 – Pompey the Great celebrated his third triumph for victories over the pirates and the end of the Mithridatic Wars.

5/1/62 BCE, The forces of the conspirator Catiline were defeated by the loyal Roman armies of Antonius Hybrida led by Gaius Antonius in the Battle of Pistoria.

23/9/63 BCE. Birth of the first Roman Emperor, Gaius Octavius Caesar, adopted son and heir of Julius Caesar.

8/12/65 BCE. Horace, Roman poet, was born in Venusian Apulia.

8/5/69 BCE, (-735,235)

15/10/70 BCE, Virgil, Roman poet, was born.

13/1/86 BCE, Gaius Marius, Roman soldier and politician, died.

12/7/100 BC. Roman Emperor Julius Caesar was born, but not by Caesarean section, though his name does derive from the Latin ‘to cut’.

3/1/106 BCE, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman statesman, was born.

1/1/153 BCE, 1st January became the start of the civil year in Rome, rather than the traditional 15 March; a revolt in Spain had forced the earlier accession of the Roman Consuls.

22/6/168 BCE, The Romans defeated the Macedonians, under Perseus, at Pydna.

8/5/169 BCE, (-771,760)

19/10/202 BCE, Battle of Zama, end of the Second Punic War. The Romans under Scipio defeated a combined force of Carthaginians and Numidians under Hannibal, Carthage capitulated.

2/8/216 BCE. Hannibal defeated the Romans at the Battle of Cannae. The Phoenicians originated in modern day Lebanon but grew rich on trade and expanded throughout the western Mediterranean. Their original city was Sidon in Lebanon, which was a wealthy trading entrepot by 1500 BC. From Sidon came the colony of Tyre, 20 miles further south; Tyre came to eclipse Sidon. From Tyre trading colonies were sent out across the Mediterranean, trading as far as ‘Tarshish’, perhaps southern Spain or even Cornwall; Tarshish had many valuable metal mines. Carthage was the foremost Phoenician colony of Tyre.

Carthage, in Tunisia, was founded around 814 BC. By 480 BC, when the Carthaginian Himilco landed in tin-rich Cornwall, Carthage was a major power. Other Carthaginians sailed around west Africa perhaps as far as Cameroon. There was conflict with Greece and in 535 BC the Carthaginians, helped by their Etruscan allies, drove the Greeks out of Corsica and Sardinia. A dispute for control of Sicily continued. Meanwhile Rome was rising in power. In 246 BC Rome started the first Punic War in an effort to gain Sicily and in 241 BC Rome gained Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia. The Carthaginians moved into Spain and set up Cartagena or New Carthage. Carthage again grew rich and there was further conflict with Rome in 218 BC. Hannibal set off from Cartegana in Spain and marched through Spain Gaul and Italy with nearly 40 elephants, defeating the Romans at Cannae in 216 BC. Hannibal’s army wiped out a Roman force nearly twice its size, killing 70,000 Romans whilst losing only 6,000 of its own men.

However Rome continued to harass Hannibal for the next 13 years, and when Rome invaded Carthage it was abandoned by its allies; Rome occupied Spain and Sicily. Hannibal was defeated by Rome in 202 BC at Zama, south west of Carthage, and Hannibal himself fled, committing suicide in about 183 BC.

Carthage again prospered under peace and once again became a threat to Rome. In 150 BC Rome found an excuse to attack Carthage and besieged it for three years, capturing it in 146 BC. The city was totally destroyed but a century later Julius Caesar established a Roman colony there. In 439 the city was razed by the Vandals as Roman power waned. The Byzantine conquest revived Carthage but in 698 the city fell to the Arabs, who demolished it and used the stone to build Tunis. Some of Carthage’s granite and marble was exported to build cathedrals in Pisa, Genoa, and perhaps even Canterbury.

22/6/217 BCE, Egyptian native hoplites under Ptolemy IV crushed the Seleucid army under Antiochus III at Raphia near Gaza.

24/6/217 BCE, Carthaginian forces, allied with Gauls, under Hannibal defeated the Romans at Lake Trasimene, 10 miles north west of Perusia. Some 16,000 Romans, including their commander Flaminius were killed, the lake turned red with their blood.

17/7/268 BCE, (Greece) Death of Arsinoe II, Queen of Macedonia and Thebes, in Egypt.

8/5/269 BCE, (-808,285)

26/6/285 BCE, Egypt's Ptolemy I Soter abdicated. He was succeeded by his youngest son by his wife Berenice Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who had been co-regent for three years

13/6/323 BCE. Alexander the Great died, of a fever, at Babylon; he was just 32 years old.. His body was taken to Alexandria, but the location of his grave is unknown. His son, born to Alexander’s wife Roxana in August 332 BCE, was killed in 310 BCE by one of the Generals competing for Alexander’s Empire.

17/7/330 BCE, King Darius III was deposed and killed by Bessus, the satrap of Bactria. Bessus assumed the kingship as Artaxerxes IV.

30/1/330 BCE, After gaining the Pass of the Persian Gates, Alexander entered Persepolis. There he ceremonially burnt down the palace of Xerxes I, as a symbol that the Panhellenic war of revenge was at an end.

20/1/330 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated the Persians, led by satrap Ariobarzanes.

1/10/331 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated the Persians under Darius III at the Battle of Gaugamela (Arbela).

20/9/331 BCE. The Macedonian army under Alexander the Great crossed the Tigris River.

7/332 BCE. Alexander the Great sacked Tyre, a trading city in present-day Lebanon.

2/8/338 BCE, Philip of Macedon defeated an Athenian-Theban alliance at the Battle of Chaeronea, so ending the last Greek struggle for independence.

8/5/369 BCE, (-844,810)

18/7/390 BCE. The Romans suffered a major defeat by the Gauls on the banks of the River Allia, a small tributary of the Tiber, about 11 miles north of Rome. The Gauls then withdrew.

15/2/399 BCE, Socrates (born ca. 470 BCE) was sentenced to death for impiety and corruption of youths. He was give the option of fleeing into exile but chose to drink hemlock instead and die.

25/4/404 BCE, Athens capitulated to Spartan forces. The Spartans allowed Athens to retain some autonomy.

16/6/408 BCE, Alcibiades entered Athens in triumph after seven years absence. He was appointed General, woth autocratic powers, and then left for Samos to rejoin his fleet. Meanwhile, however, the Spartan Admiral Lysander arrived in Ephesus and began to build up a huge fleet with assistance from the new Persian satrap, Cyrus.

27/8/413 BCE, A lunar eclipse aroused superstitious fears amongst the Athenians occupying Syracuse and Demosthenes and Nicias decide to remain in the city.

22/5/415 BCE, A bad omen in Athens; the Hermae Statues were found to be mysteriously damaged. Despite this bad omen, Athens starts its plan to conquer Sicily. Whilst away in Sicily, Alcibiades was recalled for trial in Athens; instead he defected to Sparta, and was sentenced to death in absentia.

11/4/421 BCE, The Peace of Nicias temporarily halted the Peloponnesian War. Alcibades, however, then set up an anti-Sparta alliance between Athens and the democracies of Argos, Mantinea and Elis. Sparta then allied with Corinth and Boetia.

8/5/469 BCE, (-881,335)

27/8/479 BCE, Battle of Plataea, Persian General Mardonius routed by the Greeks, Persian advance into Greece halted.

25/9/480 BC. The Greeks beat the Persian navy at the Battle of Salamis. Athens now gained prominence amongst the Greek cities.

11/8/480 BCE, (Greece) Battle of Thermopylae. Persian forces under Xerxes defeated the Spartans. However the heroic Greek defence,at this narrow pass, against a suoerior Persian force, bought time for Athens to be evacuated (it was burnt by the Persians) and for Greek forces to regroup and subsequently fight off the Persians.

28/9/490 BCE. The original Marathon was run by a breathless messenger who ran 24 miles from the scene of the Battle of Marathon to the city of Athens. ‘Rejoice, we conquer’ he gasped, the dropped dead. The Athenians had beaten a huge Persian fleet. Athens then expanded its own fleet and military power.

10/3/515 BCE, Proposed date for the completion of the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem. If this was the end of the ‘Seventy years of desolation’, it would correlate with a Babylonian exile date of 586 BCE.

5/10/539 BCE. Persian soldiers were encamped outside Babylon. Late in the night they invaded Babylon across the partly-dried up bed of the river; the city’s gates had been left open.

27/8/551 BCE, Confucius was born.

7/4/563 BCE, Buddha was born, in the forest of Lumbini, NE India. He was the son of Suddhodana, King of the Shakya tribe. At birth Buddha was named Prince Gautama Siddhartha. His father had been forewarned that his son would forsake material possessions, and so tried to surround his son with every luxury available.

8/5/569 BCE, (-917,860)

8/5/669 BCE, (-954,385)

17/7/709 BCE, An eclipse of the Sun was recorded in China.

19/3/721 BCE, An eclipse of the Sun was recorded by the Babylonians.

21/4/753 BCE. Traditional date for the founding of Rome by the two twins, Romulus and Remus.

8/5/769 BCE, (-990,910)

23/7/776 BCE. The first Olympic Games opened in Olympia. The foot race was won by a cook called Coroibos.

8/5/869 BCE, (-1,207,435)

3/5/1375 BCE, The first total eclipse of the Sun recorded outside China, by the Babylonians.

21/10/2137 BCE. The first recorded total eclipse of the sun, in China..


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